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Sample records for irradiated absorbing materials

  1. Contribution of recoil atoms to irradiation damage in absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, D.; Hablot, O.; Micalet, V.; Bellon, P.; Serruys, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Absorbing materials are used to control the reactivity of nuclear reactors by taking advantage of nuclear reactions (e.g., 10B(n,α) 7Li) where neutrons are absorbed. During such reactions, energetic recoils are produced. As a result, radiation damage in absorbing materials originates both from these nuclear reactions and from elastic collisions between neutrons and atoms. This damage eventually leads to a partial destruction of the materials, and this is the main limitation on their lifetime in nuclear reactors. Using a formalism developed to calculate displacements per atoms (dpa) in a multi atomic target, we have calculated damages in terms of displacements per atom in a (n,α) absorbing material taking into account geometrical effects of 10 boron self shielding and transmutation reactions induced by neutrons inside the absorber. Radiation damage is calculated for boron carbide and hafnium diboride ceramics in a Pressurized Water Reactor environment. It is shown that recoils produced by nuclear reactions account for the main part of the radiation damage created in these ceramics. Damages are calculated as a function of the distance from the center of an absorber pellet. Due to the self-shielding effect, these damage curves exhibit sharp maxima, the position of which changes in time.

  2. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  3. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  4. Destruction and Dechlorination of Aroclor1254 in Real Waste Transformer Oil Using Microwave Irradiation, Microwave Absorbent and Reactive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this research, the decomposition of Aroclor 1254, including 20 kinds of poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, in real waste transformer oil in the presence of PEG1000, NaOH, zero valent iron and H2O by microwave (MW irradiation was studied. Methods: Central composites design (CCD method was carried out for experimental design. The effects of microwave power levels (200- 1000 W, reaction time (30-600 s, polyethylene glycol (PEG (1.5-7.5 g, zero valent iron powder (0.3-1.5 g, NaOH (0.3-1.5 g and H2O (0.4-2 ml were surveyed on the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Results: The results specified that polyethylene glycol and NaOH, as reactants, greatly influenced the decomposition of PCBs. Nevertheless, zero valent iron had no effect, and H2O decreased the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Furthermore, experimental results showed that at the optimum amounts of variables (PEG = 5.34g, NaOH= 1.17g, Fe= 0.6g, H2O= 0.8 ml, microwave power 800 w, 93% of PCBs were decomposed over the reaction duration of 6 min. Therefore, PCBs degradation efficiency without water rose up to 99.99% under the MW at 6 min. Conclusion: The results indicated that MW, PEG and NaOH were important variables on PCBs degradation from real waste transformer oil. It is therefore suggested that microwave radiation with the assistance of PEG and alkali can be introduced as a potential technology for PCBs removal from real waste PCB-contaminated oil.

  5. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  6. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  7. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    125–143 DOI 10.1007/s00158-014-1117-8 RESEARCH PAPER Multiobjective topology optimization of energy absorbing materials Raymond A. Wildman · George A...recent developments. J Multiscale Model 3(4):1–42 Qiao P, Yang M, Bobaru F (2008) Impact mechanics and high-energy absorbing materials: review . J Aerosp...ARL-RP-0533 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials by

  8. Space Compatible Radar Absorbing Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 project shall investigate novel radar absorbing materials (RAM) for use in space or simulated space environments. These materials are lightweight...

  9. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  10. ESR spectroscopy for detecting gamma-irradiated dried vegetables and estimating absorbed doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2000-03-01

    In view of an increasing demand for food irradiation technology, the development of a reliable means of detection for the control of irradiated foods has become necessary. Various vegetable food materials (dried cabbage, carrot, chunggyungchae, garlic, onion, and green onion), which can be legally irradiated in Korea, were subjected to a detection study using ESR spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients ( R2) between absorbed doses (2.5-15 kGy) and their corresponding ESR signals were identified from ESR signals. Pre-established threshold values were successfully applied to the detection of 54 coded unknown samples of dried clean vegetables ( chunggyungchae, Brassica camestris var. chinensis), both non-irradiated and irradiated. The ESR signals of irradiated chunggyungchae decreased over a longer storage time, however, even after 6 months of ambient storage, these signals were still distinguishable from those of non-irradiated samples. The most successful estimates of absorbed dose (5 and 8 kGy) were obtained immediately after irradiation using a quadratic fit with average values of 4.85 and 8.65 kGy being calculated.

  11. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  12. Irradiation Induced Microstructure Evolution in Nanostructured Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Yanzhou; Tan, Pengkang; Zang, Hang; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-02-06

    Nanostructured (NS) materials may have different irradiation resistance from their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. In this review, we focus on the effect of grain boundaries (GBs)/interfaces on irradiation induced microstructure evolution and the irradiation tolerance of NS materials under irradiation. The features of void denuded zones (VDZs) and the unusual behavior of void formation near GBs/interfaces in metals due to the interactions between GBs/interfaces and irradiation-produced point defects are systematically reviewed. Some experimental results and calculation results show that NS materials have enhanced irradiation resistance, due to their extremely small grain sizes and large volume fractions of GBs/interfaces, which could absorb and annihilate the mobile defects produced during irradiation. However, there is also literature reporting reduced irradiation resistance or even amorphization of NS materials at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk counterparts, since the GBs are also characterized by excess energy (compared to that of single crystal materials) which could provide a shift in the total free energy that will lead to the amorphization process. The competition of these two effects leads to the different irradiation tolerance of NS materials. The irradiation-induced grain growth is dominated by irradiation temperature, dose, ion flux, character of GBs/interface and nanoprecipitates, although the decrease of grain sizes under irradiation is also observed in some experiments.

  13. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  14. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  15. Absorbed dose assessment in particle-beam irradiated metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Ivan D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbed dose was estimated after Monte Carlo simulation of proton and ion beam irradiation on metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors. A memristive device comprises two electrodes, each of a nanoscale width, and a double-layer active region disposed between and in electrical contact with electrodes. Following materials were considered for the active region: titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, hafnium dioxide, strontium titanium trioxide and galium nitride. Obtained results show that significant amount of oxygen ion - oxygen and nonmetal ion - nonmetal vacancy pairs is to be generated. The loss of such vacancies from the device is believed to deteriorate the device performance over time. Estimated absorbed dose values in the memristor for different constituting materials are of the same order of magnitude because of the close values of treshold displacement energies for the investigated materials.

  16. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This is an editorial article (preface) for the publication of symposium papers in the Journal of Nuclear materials: These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15–19, 2015.

  17. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  18. Hydrogen heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choong-Nyeon

    2000-12-01

    This study introduces the hydrogen heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing materials and its applicability for practical use. This treatment is somewhat different from normal heat treatment because of the interaction between metal atoms and hydrogen. Since hydrogen can be removed very fast by pumping it out the hydrogen-induced new lattice phase which can not be obtained without hydrogen can be preserved in a meta-stable state. A thermodynamic interpretation of the hydrogen heat treatment established previously was reformulated for graphical and analytical methods and applied to Pd-Pt-H and Pd-Ag-H alloy systems and a fair correlation between the calculation and experimental results was shown. The feasibility of applying the thermodynamic interpretation to intermetallic compounds-hydrogen systems was also discussed.

  19. Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risovany, V. D.; Varlashova, E. E.; Suslov, D. N.

    2000-09-01

    Disprosium titanate is an attractive control rod material for the thermal neutron reactors. Its main advantages are: insignificant swelling, no out-gassing under neutron irradiation, rather high neutron efficiency, a high melting point (˜1870°C), non-interaction with the cladding at temperatures above 1000°C, simple fabrication and easily reprocessed non-radioactive waste. It can be used in control rods as pellets and powder. The disprosium titanate control rods have worked off in the MIR reactor for 17 years, in VVER-1000 - for 4 years without any operating problems. After post-irradiation examinations this type of control rod having high lifetime was recommended for the VVER and RBMK. The paper presents the examination results of absorber element dummies containing dysprosium titanate, irradiated in the SM reactor to the neutron fluence of 3.4×10 22 cm -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and, also, the data on structure, thermal-physical properties of dysprosium titanate, efficiency of dysprosium titanate control rods.

  20. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: gas@cdtn.br, e-mail: pls@cdtn.br, e-mail: fcp@cdtn.br, e-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  1. Development of a new solid-state absorber material for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapna Lilly Cyriac; B Deepika; Bhaskaran Pillai; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to the conventional DSSC systems, where the dye molecules are used as light harvesting material, here a solid-state absorber was used as a sensitizer in conjunction with the dye. The materials like ZnO and Al2O3 : C, which will show optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) upon irradiation were used as extremely thin absorber layers. This novel architecture allows broader spectral absorption, an increase in photocurrent, and hence, an improved efficiency because of the mobility of the trapped electrons in the absorber material after irradiation, to the TiO2 conduction band. Nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using these solid-state absorber materials and after irradiation, a few number of samples were co-sensitized with N719 dye. On comparing both the dye loaded photoanodes (ZnO/TiO2 and Al2O3 : C/TiO2), it can be concluded from the present studies that, the Al2O3 : C is superior to ZnO under photon irradiation. Al2O3 : C is more sensitive to photon irradiation than ZnO and hence there can be more trap centres produced in Al2O3 : C.

  2. Neutron irradiation effects on plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, V.; Federici, G.; Rödig, M.; Snead, L. L.; Wu, C. H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the effects of neutron irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties and bulk tritium retention of armour materials (beryllium, tungsten and carbon). For each material, the main properties affected by neutron irradiation are described and the specific tests of neutron irradiated armour materials under thermal shock and disruption conditions are summarized. Based on current knowledge, the expected thermal and structural performance of neutron irradiated armour materials in the ITER plasma facing components are analysed.

  3. Local Structure Analysis of Materials for Solar Cell Absorber Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Leila Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines solar cell absorber materials that have the potential to replace silicon in solar cells, including several copper-based sulfides and perovskites. Earth-abundant absorbers such as these become even more cost-effective when used in a nanostructured solar cell. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) deposit highly conformal films and hence are important tools for developing extremely thin absorber solar cells with scalability. Thus, the prima...

  4. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  5. Flexor Tenorrhaphy Using Absorbable Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Joo Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonabsorbable sutures are favorable for repairing flexor tendons. However,absorbable sutures have performed favorably in an animal model.Methods Two-strand sutures using the interlocking modified Kessler method with polydioxanoneabsorbable sutures 4-0 were used to repair completely ruptured flexor tendons in 55 fingersfrom 41 consecutive patients. The medical records of average 42 follow up weeks were analyzedretrospectively. The data analyzed using the chi-squared test, and Fisher’s exact test was used forpostoperative complications. The results were compared with those of other studies.Results Among the index, middle, ring, and little fingers were injured in 9, 17, 16, and13 fingers, respectively. The injury levels varied from zone 1 to 5. Of the 55 digits in ourstudy, there were 26 (47% isolated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP injuries and 29 (53%combined FDP and with flexor digitorum superficialis injuries. Pulley repair was also conducted.Concomitant injuries of blood vessels and nerves were found in 17 patients (23 fingers; nerveinjuries occurred in 5 patients (10 fingers. Two patients had ruptures (3.6%, and one patienthad two adhesions (3.6%. Using the original Strickland criteria, all the patients were assessedto be excellent or good. Also, fibrosis and long-term foreign body tissue reactions such as stitchgranuloma were less likely occurred in our study. Compared to the Cullen’s report that usednonabsorbable sutures, there was no significant difference in the rupture or adhesion rates.Conclusions Therefore, this study suggests that appropriate absorbable core sutures can beused safely for flexor tendon repairs.

  6. New Solutions for Energy Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    cristobalite samples ................................................................................. 45 4.2.4 Microscopy...45 4.2.5 Quasistatic Mechanical Testing of α- cristobalite ...NPR materials selected and why they are of interest The inclusions selected for this project are α- cristobalite and samples produced from auxetic

  7. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |Γ| and positions of minimum signal values.

  8. Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-14

    High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

  9. Preparation of A New Type of Stress-absorbed Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-peng; YANG Tao; YUAN Hai-qing

    2004-01-01

    Neoprene latex modified emulsified bitumen and fine aggregate are used to prepare a new type of stress-absorbed material, which has strong ability of anti-reflective cracking on asphalt concrete over layer-constructed upon a semi-rigid type base course or cement concrete pavement block. Experimental results demonstrate the stress-absorbed material have excellent mechanical properties including a low modulus of elasticity, high ultimate tensile stress and strain, and a strong distortion ability. Stress concentration in asphalt over layer originated by temperature changes and traffic loads can be alleviated.

  10. Low cycle fatigue of irradiated LMFBR materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, L D

    1976-01-01

    A review of low cycle fatigue data on irradiated LMFBR materials was conducted and extensive graphical representations of available data are presented. Representative postirradiation tensile properties of annealed 304 and 316 SS are selected and employed in several predictive methods to estimate irradiated material fatigue curves. Experimental fatigue data confirm the use of predictive methods for establishing conservative design curves over the range of service conditions relevant to such CRBRP components as core former, fixed radial shielding, core barrel, lower inlet module and upper internals structures. New experimental data on fatigue curves and creep-fatigue interaction in irradiated 20 percent cold worked (CW) 316 SS and Alloy 718 would support the design of removable radial shielding and upper internals in CRBRP. New experimental information on notched fatigue behavior and cyclic stress-strain curves of all these materials in the irradiated condition could provide significant design data.

  11. SHOCK-ABSORBING MATERIALS. REPORT 4. AGING OF BACKPACKING MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven materials that are currently being considered for use as backpacking around deeply buried protective structures and silos were investigated for...characteristics necessary for a better understanding of a material’s behavior when used as a backpacking were also determined. The materials studied included

  12. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  13. Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

    2012-08-01

    Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures. Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to -80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions. The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use.

  14. [Shaping of electron radiation fields using homogeneous absorbent materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M; Reis, A; Kraft, M

    1990-01-01

    Proof of shielding and forming by absorbers was done in water phantom dosimetrically. Alterations of isodose course were measured in dependence of primary energy, as well as of thickness and density of the absorber materials. Piacryl or aluminium are not suitable for forming of irregular electron fields. They only effect a reduction of therapeutic range. For primary energies of 10.0 less than or equal to MeV less than or equal to E0- less than or equal to 20.0 MeV lead rubber and wood metal are to recommended in a thickness of less than or equal to 10 mm or less than or equal to 8 mm respectively.

  15. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  16. Simulation of shock absorbing materials loaded by drop weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasparek, Eva; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The numerical simulation of transport and storage casks for radioactive waste in accidental scenarios requires adequate material models and input parameters for all relevant structural cask elements, the impact foundation as well as possibly further components involved in the incident. They form the basis for reliable analysis of different loading situations allowing substituting, at least in parts, experimental investigations that are needed in safety reports submitted for nuclear licensing procedures. Hereby, the efficiency of the energy absorbing components, such as cask impact limiters or equivalent structures placed onto or into the foundation of storage buildings, determine to a large extend the performance and thus the design of the casks. The limiters, which are usually made of wood, polyurethane foam (PUF) or damping concrete, are subjected to major plastic deformations, whose distribution and magnitude strongly depend on loading speed, course and temperature. Consequently, it is necessary to establish a systematic data basis and implement this information in advanced numerical material formulations in order to enable finite element simulations to account for all relevant factors. Since the end of 2008, BAM (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung) is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in order to determine such experimental data as well as to adapt and develop qualified material models for shock absorbing materials in the framework of a project called ENREA. (orig.)

  17. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  18. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  19. Study on metal microparticle content of the material transferred with Absorbing Film Assisted Laser Induced Forward Transfer when using silver absorbing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail: tomi@physx.u-szeged.hu; Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Bor, Z. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)

    2006-04-30

    Absorbing Film Assisted Laser Induced Forward Transfer (AFA-LIFT) is a modified LIFT method where a high absorption coefficient thin film coating of a transparent substrate is used to transform the laser energy into kinetic in order to transfer the 'target' material spread on it. This method can be used for the transfer of biomaterials and living cells, which could be damaged by direct irradiation of the laser beam. In previous experiments, {approx}50-100 nm thick metal films have been used as absorbing layer. The transferred material can also contain metal microparticles originating from the absorbing thin film and acting as non-desired impurities in some cases. The aim of our work was to study how the properties (number, size and covered area) of metal particles transferred during the AFA-LIFT process depend on film thickness and the applied fluence. Silver thin films with different thickness (50-400 nm) were used as absorbing layers and real experimental conditions were modeled by a 100 {mu}m thick water layer. The particles transferred without the use of water layer were also studied. The threshold laser fluence for the complete removal of the absorber from the irradiated area was found to strongly increase with increasing film thickness. The deposited micrometer and submicrometer particles were observed with optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Their size ranged from 100 nm to 20 {mu}m and depended on the laser fluence. The increase in fluence resulted in an increasing number of particles of smaller average size.

  20. Irradiation rigs in material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblum, F.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G. [CEA, Research Centers of Saclay and Cadarache (France)

    2011-07-01

    Osiris is a research reactor with a thermal power of 70 MW. It is a light-water reactor, open-core pool type, the principal aim of which is to carry out tests and irradiate structural materials and fuel elements of nuclear power plants under a high flux of neutrons, and to produce radioisotopes. Osiris operates around 200 days a year, in cycles of varying lengths from 3 to 4 weeks. A shutdown of about 10 days between two cycles allows reloading the core with fuel. Mainly 2 types of irradiation device are present: capsules for materials irradiation (CHOUCA and IRMA devices) and fuels irradiation loops (GRIFFONOS and ISABELLE). Although Osiris is still providing experiments of very good quality, it is facing obsolescence due to its ageing. Osiris is planned to be shut down during next decade. Consequently, it has been decided to launch the construction of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) in Cadarache. JHR is a water cooled reactor which provides the necessary flexibility and accessibility to manage several highly instrumented experiments, reproducing different reactor environments (water, gas or liquid metal loops), generating transient regimes (key for safety). The JHR facility includes the reactor building, including core, cooling system and the experimental bunkers connected to the core through pool wall penetrations and the auxiliary building, including pools and hot cells necessary for the experimental irradiation process. JHR core is optimised to produce high fast neutron flux to study structural material ageing and high thermal neutrons flux for fuel experiments. The conception of this first fleet of devices integrates the operational experience accumulated by the existing MTR and specifically the Osiris one

  1. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  2. A model for acoustic absorbent materials derived from coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodology is proposed for obtaining empirical equations describing the sound absorption characteristics of an absorbing material obtained from natural fibers, specifically from coconut. The method, which was previously applied to other materials, requires performing measurements of air-flow resistivity and of acoustic impedance for samples of the material under study. The equations that govern the acoustic behavior of the material are then derived by means of a least-squares fit of the acoustic impedance and of the propagation constant. These results can be useful since they allow the empirically obtained analytical equations to be easily incorporated in prediction and simulation models of acoustic systems for noise control that incorporate the studied materials.En este trabajo se describe el proceso seguido para obtener ecuaciones empíricas del comportamiento acústico de un material absorbente obtenido a partir de fibras naturales, concretamente el coco. El procedimiento, que ha sido ensayado con éxito en otros materiales, implica la realización de medidas de impedancia y resistencia al flujo de muestras del material bajo estudio. Las ecuaciones que gobiernan el comportamiento desde el punto de vista acústico del material se obtienen a partir del ajuste de ecuaciones de comportamiento de la impedancia acústica y la constante de propagación del material. Los resultados son útiles ya que, al disponer de ecuaciones analíticas obtenidas empíricamente, facilitan la incorporación de estos materiales en predicciones mediante métodos numéricos del comportamiento cuando son instalados formando parte de dispositivos para el control del ruido.

  3. Microstructural Characterization of Burnable Absorber Materials Being Evaluated for Application in LEU U-Mo Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. Jue; B. Miller; B. Yao; E. Perez; Y. H. Sohn

    2011-03-01

    The starting microstructure of a fuel plate will impact how it performs during irradiation. As a result, microstructural characterization has been performed on as-fabricated monolithic fuel plates to determine the changes in fuel plate microstructure that may result from changes in fabrication parameters. Particular focus has been given to the fuel plate U-10Mo/Zr and Zr/AA6061 cladding interfaces, since the integrity of these interfaces will play a big role in determining the overall performance of the fuel plate during irradiation. In addition, burnable absorber materials for potential incorporation into monolithic fuel plates have been characterized to identify their as-fabricated microstructures. This information will be important when trying to understand the PIE data from fuel plates with burnable absorbers that are irradiated in future irradiation experiments. This paper will focus on the microstructures observed using optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy for monolithic fuel plates exposed to different fabrication parameters and for as-fabricated burnable absorber materials.

  4. Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsadius, David, E-mail: david.alsadius@oncology.gu.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedelin, Maria [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundstedt, Dan [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Pettersson, Niclas [Department of Radiophysics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men who had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.

  5. Decomposition of the absorbed dose by LET in tissue-equivalent materials within the SHIELD-HIT transport code

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolevsky, N; Buyukcizmeci, N; Ergun, A; Latysheva, L; Ogul, R

    2015-01-01

    The SHIELD-HIT transport code, in several versions, has been used for modeling the interaction of therapeutic beams of light nuclei with tissue-equivalent materials for a long time. All versions of the code include useful option of decomposition of the absorbed dose by the linear energy transfer (LET), but this option has not been described and published so far. In this work the procedure of decomposition of the absorbed dose by LET is described and illustrated by using the decomposition of the Bragg curve in water phantom, irradiated by beams of protons, alpha particles, and of ions lithium, carbon and oxygen.

  6. Absorbing material based on starch having improved absorbent properties and process for the preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, H.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A biodegradable, highly water-absorbing polymer based on starch or derivatives thereof is described, wherein the starch has not been chemically modified or only to a degree of substitution below 0.2, and has a water-absorbing power of at least 10 times its own weight, half of the water absorption be

  7. EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.

  8. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G., E-mail: eggoes@terra.com.b [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I.C. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  9. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  10. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymer-Based Microwave Absorbing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs are paving the way for exciting applications in electromagnetic (EM pollution precaution and national defense security, as they offer an advanced alternative to conventional reflection principles to fundamentally eliminate the EM waves. Conjugated polymer (CP-based composites appear as a promising kind of MAM with the desirable features of low density and high performance. In this review, we introduce the theory of microwave absorption and summarize recent advances in the fabrication of CP-based MAMs, including rational design of the microstructure of pure conjugated polymers and tunable chemical integration with magnetic ferrites, magnetic metals, transition metal oxides, and carbon materials. The key point of enhancing microwave absorption in CP-based MAMs is to regulate their EM properties, improve matching of characteristic impedance, and create diversified loss mechanisms. The examples presented in this review will provide new insights into the design and preparation of CP-based composites that can satisfy the high demands of the oncoming generation of MAMs.

  11. Hydrogen Absorbing Material in Carbonaceous-Metal Hydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mulana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising materials for storing hydrogen in solid state would be included in metal-carbon composites. In order to obtain nanocrystalline metal particles encapsulated by crystalline or amorphous carbon, mechanosynthesis of zirconium-carbonaceous composites and alkali metal-carbonaceous composites was performed. For zirconium-carbonaceous composites, only zirconium-carbon black composite absorbed more hydrogen than expected for a mere mixture with the same composition. The higher hydrogen capacity on the zirconium-carbon black composite would be due to some specific sites on the carbonaceous material created during the milling. Another effect of the composite formation was stabilization of zirconium, that is, the composites did not ignite in air. On alkali metal-carbonaceous composites, carbon black has superior effect in composite formation compared with graphite in which some cooperative effect was only detected on alkali metal-carbon black composite. The effect of the carbonaceous composite formation was resistance to air and anti-sticking characteristics to balls and the wall of the vial during the ball milling.

  12. AGC 2 Irradiated Material Properties Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technologies Graphite Research and Development Program is conducting an extensive graphite irradiation experiment to provide data for licensing of a high temperature reactor (HTR) design. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor designs. , Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphite grades have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for new HTR reactor designs. To support the design and licensing of HTR core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade, with a specific emphasis on data accounting for the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the HTR candidate graphite grades. Further details on the research and development activities and associated rationale required to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the HTR are documented in the graphite technology research and development plan.

  13. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from photon irradiation-an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Perry B; Bahadori, Amir A [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Eckerman, Keith F [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lee, Choonsik [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Nuclear and Radiological/Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    A comprehensive set of photon fluence-to-dose response functions (DRFs) is presented for two radiosensitive skeletal tissues-active and total shallow marrow-within 15 and 32 bone sites, respectively, of the ICRP reference adult male. The functions were developed using fractional skeletal masses and associated electron-absorbed fractions as reported for the UF hybrid adult male phantom, which in turn is based upon micro-CT images of trabecular spongiosa taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The new DRFs expand upon both the original set of seven functions produced in 1985, and a 2007 update calculated under the assumption of secondary electron escape from spongiosa. In this study, it is assumed that photon irradiation of the skeleton will yield charged particle equilibrium across all spongiosa regions at energies exceeding 200 keV. Kerma coefficients for active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone and spongiosa at higher energies are calculated using the DRF algorithm setting the electron-absorbed fraction for self-irradiation to unity. By comparing kerma coefficients and DRF functions, dose enhancement factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient (MEAC) ratios for active marrow to spongiosa were derived. These MEAC ratios compared well with those provided by the NIST Physical Reference Data Library (mean difference of 0.8%), and the dose enhancement factors for active marrow compared favorably with values calculated in the well-known study published by King and Spiers (1985 Br. J. Radiol. 58 345-56) (mean absolute difference of 1.9 percentage points). Additionally, dose enhancement factors for active marrow were shown to correlate well with the shallow marrow volume fraction (R{sup 2} = 0.91). Dose enhancement factors for the total shallow marrow were also calculated for 32 bone sites representing the first such derivation for this target tissue.

  14. Simulation of the welding of irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hua Tay

    1989-07-01

    Helium was uniformly implanted using the ''tritium trick'' technique to levels of 0.18, 2.5, 27, 105 and 256 atomic part per million (appm) for type 316 stainless steel, and 0.3 and 1 appm for Sandvik HT-9 (12 Cr-1MoVW). Both full penetration as well as partial penetration welds were then produced on control and helium-containing materials using the autogenous gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process under full constraint conditions. For full penetration welds, both materials were successfully welded when they contained less than 0.3 appm helium. However, welds of both materials, when containing greater than 1 appm helium, were found to develop cracks during cooling of the weld. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the HAZ cracking was caused by the growth and coalescence of grain boundary (GB) helium bubbles. This cracking occurred as a result of the combination of high temperatures and high shrinkage tensile stresses. The cracking in the fusion zone was found to result from the precipitation of helium along dendrite interfaces. A model based on the kinetics of diffusive cavity growth is presented to explain the observed results. The model proposes a helium bubble growth mechanism which leads to final intergranular rupture in the heat-affected zone. Results of the present study demonstrate that the use of conventional fusion welding techniques to repair materials degraded by exposure to irradiation environments may be difficult if the irradiation results in the generation of helium equal to or greater than 1 appm.

  15. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  16. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  17. A Comparison of Model Calculation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Proton Irradiation. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, N.; Semones, E.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in the amount of time spent EVA that is necessary to complete the construction and subsequent maintenance of ISS, it will become increasingly important for ground support personnel to accurately characterize the radiation exposures incurred by EVA crewmembers. Since exposure measurements cannot be taken within the organs of interest, it is necessary to estimate these exposures by calculation. To validate the methods and tools used to develop these estimates, it is necessary to model experiments performed in a controlled environment. This work is such an effort. A human phantom was outfitted with detector equipment and then placed in American EMU and Orlan-M EVA space suits. The suited phantom was irradiated at the LLUPTF with proton beams of known energies. Absorbed dose measurements were made by the spaceflight operational dosimetrist from JSC at multiple sites in the skin, eye, brain, stomach, and small intestine locations in the phantom. These exposures are then modeled using the BRYNTRN radiation transport code developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, and the CAM (computerized anatomical male) human geometry model of Billings and Yucker. Comparisons of absorbed dose calculations with measurements show excellent agreement. This suggests that there is reason to be confident in the ability of both the transport code and the human body model to estimate proton exposure in ground-based laboratory experiments.

  18. Fractal Model for Acoustic Absorbing of Porous Fibrous Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the changing rules between sound absorbing performance and geometrical parameters of porous fibrous metal materials (PFMMs, this paper presents a fractal acoustic model by incorporating the static flow resistivity based on Biot-Allard model. Static flow resistivity is essential for an accurate assessment of the acoustic performance of the PFMM. However, it is quite difficult to evaluate the static flow resistivity from the microstructure of the PFMM because of a large number of disordered pores. In order to overcome this difficulty, we firstly established a static flow resistivity formula for the PFMM based on fractal theory. Secondly, a fractal acoustic model was derived on the basis of the static flow resistivity formula. The sound absorption coefficients calculated by the presented acoustic model were validated by the values of Biot-Allard model and experimental data. Finally, the variation of the surface acoustic impedance, the complex wave number, and the sound absorption coefficient with the fractal dimensions were discussed. The research results can reveal the relationship between sound absorption and geometrical parameters and provide a basis for improving the sound absorption capability of the PFMMs.

  19. Analysis and evaluation of RF absorbing material in suppressing modes associated with a metallic cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David L.

    Application of absorbing materials within enclosures designed to house high-speed digital electronics has become common practice for suppressing resonances associated with the enclosure geometry. Use of absorbing material is often considered toward the end of the design phase when the product is undergoing electromagnetic compatibility compliance testing, leaving little time for the additional experimentation required to optimize absorber material selection or placement within the device. The engineering principles required for maximizing absorber performance within the enclosure are often disregarded, replaced by a "shotgun" approach where multiple material options are experimented with until a solution is achieved. For this research a frequency domain reverberation chamber technique and one-port time domain quality factor estimation technique are employed to quantify the ability of various absorbing materials to suppress resonances of a physically small, electrically large cavity representative of those that may be used to enclose high-speed circuitry. Using both measurement techniques, assessment of the performance of various absorbing materials was performed as well as an evaluation of the affect absorber position has on overall material performance. It was found that both measurement techniques were effective in quantifying absorber performance within the cavity. For the frequency domain reverberation chamber approach the absorber effectiveness, defined as the difference in insertion loss between the cavity with and without absorbing material, was analyzed for various materials. For the undermoded cavity it was found that absorber effectiveness was positionally dependent. For the overmoded cavity, however, the position of the absorber within the cavity, as long as the total exposed surface area remained constant, did not have a significant impact on the absorber effectiveness. Similar results were also found by comparing the estimated quality factor for

  20. New absorbent material acoustic based on kenaf’s fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Standards in the building are responsible for, companies and individuals, propose new acoustic materials for the sound isolation. This paper presents a new sound-absorbent material, it is based on natural fibres, particularly fibres of kenaf. It also proposes an empirical model for this material, this models depends on the frequency. There are accepted models from the scientific community about mineral wool, glass wool, rock wool, foam or polyester fibre. Several of these models are empirical. They are obtained from the equation adjustments about the acoustic impedance and propagation constant behaviour, depending upon the flow resistivity, fibre’s diameter and density. There are even standards like UNE-EN 12354-6 where these models are accepted under certain limitations like the fundamental basis as in the materials’ acoustics behaviour prediction. From the various tests conducted in the laboratory, empirical equations are proposed for this new acoustic material. In addition, there has been a first approach to validate this model in combination with a micro-structural model, based on the steps taken by Bies-Hansen (1, which allows us to obtain the value of the resistance to flow.

    El carácter marcadamente prestacional de las normativas acústicas en la edificación abre el camino a la propuesta, por parte de empresas y particulares, de nuevos materiales acústicos susceptibles de ser utilizados en el ámbito de la acústica de la edificación. Éste es el caso que nos ocupa en el presente trabajo en el que se presenta un nuevo material acústico absorbente basado en fibras vegetales, concretamente el kenaf. Además se propone un modelo empírico de modelización del comportamiento absorbente de varias composiciones de este material en función de la frecuencia. Existen modelos de diferentes lanas minerales, lanas de roca, lanas de vidrio, espumas o lanas de poliéster. Algunos de estos modelos —llamados empíricos— se

  1. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel–cobalt magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teber, Ahmet, E-mail: aht10003@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Unver, Ibrahim, E-mail: iunver@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Kavas, Huseyin, E-mail: huseyin.kavas@medeniyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul 34000 (Turkey); Aktas, Bekir, E-mail: aktas@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Bansal, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, K{sub u}, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under −20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth). - Graphical abstract: Here, we added the graphical abstract that provides summary the contents of the article in a concise pictorial form. - Highlights: • Flexible lightweight, thin, reconfigurable radar absorbing materials are proposed. • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics are coated with nickel, cobalt magnetic materials. • The coating times affects microwave constitutive parameters and absorption. • Microwave absorption measurements were done via transmission line technique. • Microwave absorption is due to dielectric losses rather than magnetic losses.

  2. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  3. Nano-Textured Fiber Coatings for Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    NANO-TEXTURED FIBER COATINGS FOR ENERGY ABSORBING POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS R. E. Jensen and S. H. McKnight Army Research Laboratory...Textured Fiber Coatings For Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa

    2006-01-15

    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.

  5. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  6. Non-self-absorbing materials for Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraidarov, T.; Levchenko, V.; Grabowska, A.; Borowicz, P.; Reisfeld, R.

    2010-05-01

    The diheptyl-bipyridyl-diol, as a non-self-absorbing fluorescent compound characterized by a large separation between absorption and fluorescence bands, has been incorporated in polyvinyl-butyral film. Steady state luminescence and lifetime were measured. An increase of luminescence intensity by about 34% in the presence of silver nanoparticles was observed. No appreciable changes were found in the corresponding lifetimes. The system is proposed as a potential candidate for increasing the LSC efficiency.

  7. Neutron irradiation effects on superconducting wires and insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Arata [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: nishi-a@nifs.ac.jp; Takeuchi, Takao [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Nishijima, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishijima, Gen; Shikama, Tatsuo [Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koizumi, Norikiyo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    On the progress of the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) or Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) burning plasma devices, the importance of neutron irradiation on superconducting magnet materials increases and the data base is desired to design the next generation devices. To carry out the investigations on the effect of neutron irradiation, neutron irradiation fields are required together with post-irradiation test facilities. In these several years, a collaboration network of neutron irradiation effect on superconducting magnet materials has been constructed. 14 MeV neutron irradiation was carried out at Fusion Neutronics Sources (FNS) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and fission neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 in JAEA. After the irradiation, the Nb{sub 3}Sn, NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Al samples were sent to High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM) in Tohoku University and the superconducting properties were evaluated with 28 T hybrid magnet. Also, the organic insulation materials are considered to be weaker than superconducting materials against neutron irradiation and cyanate ester resin composite was fabricated and tested at the fission reactor. One clear result on Nb{sub 3}Sn was the property change of Nb{sub 3}Sn by 14 MeV neutron irradiation over 13 T. The critical current was increased by 1.4 times around 13 T but the increment of the critical current became almost zero at higher magnetic fields and the critical magnetic field of the irradiated sample showed almost the same as non-irradiated one.

  8. Effect of absorbed dose and storage length on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal strength in irradiated alfalfa seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kind of alfalfa seeds was irradiated by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 6.288 kGy. h-1 in a self-shielded irradiator of 137Cs gamma rays. The EPR spectra, which were measured subsequently between 0.3401and 0.3501 T, showed that there was a direct proportional relationship between the EPR signal strength of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation in the alfalfa seeds and absorbed dose. The first derivative EPR spectra of the alfalfa seeds were very clear and easy to identify. However, the EPR signal strength of the peak-to-peak amplitude decreased rapidly and most of them decayed beyond 50% within 3 days after the seeds were irradiated. It tended to stabilize after half a month since the seeds were irradiated. The differences of the EPR signal strength between the irradiated and unirradiated alfalfa seeds still remained. All seeds were stored at ambient temperature for more than 3months. Therefore, using EPR spectrometry technique to measure free radicals in alfalfa seeds as a means to determine whether the seeds have been irradiated or not is feasible, relatively fast and simple.

  9. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  10. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  11. Optical and THz investigations of mid-IR materials exposed to alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Sporea, Adelina; Vâţã, Ion

    2017-01-01

    The paper is the first comprehensive study on alpha particle irradiation effects on four mid-IR materials: CaF2, BaF2, Al2O3 (sapphire) and ZnSe. The measurements of the optical spectral transmittance, spectral diffuse reflectance, radioluminescent emission, terahertz (THz) spectral response, transmittance, absorbance, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant and THz imaging are used as complementary investigations to evaluate these effects. The simulations were run to estimate: (i) the penetration depth, (ii) the scattering of alpha particle beam, (iii) the amount of material affected by this interaction, and (iv) the number of vacancies produced by the radiation exposure for each type of material. The simulation results are compared to the off-line measurement outcomes. The delay and spectral composition change of the reflected THz signal highlight the modification induced in the tested materials by the irradiation process. PMID:28067289

  12. Optical and THz investigations of mid-IR materials exposed to alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Sporea, Adelina; Vâţã, Ion

    2017-01-01

    The paper is the first comprehensive study on alpha particle irradiation effects on four mid-IR materials: CaF2, BaF2, Al2O3 (sapphire) and ZnSe. The measurements of the optical spectral transmittance, spectral diffuse reflectance, radioluminescent emission, terahertz (THz) spectral response, transmittance, absorbance, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant and THz imaging are used as complementary investigations to evaluate these effects. The simulations were run to estimate: (i) the penetration depth, (ii) the scattering of alpha particle beam, (iii) the amount of material affected by this interaction, and (iv) the number of vacancies produced by the radiation exposure for each type of material. The simulation results are compared to the off-line measurement outcomes. The delay and spectral composition change of the reflected THz signal highlight the modification induced in the tested materials by the irradiation process.

  13. Laser irradiation of carbon-tungsten materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, A.; Avotina, L.; Marin, A.; Lungu, C. P.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Demitri, N.; Ursescu, D.; Porosnicu, C.; Osiceanu, P.; Kizane, G.; Grigoriu, C.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon-tungsten layers deposited on graphite by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) were directly irradiated with a femtosecond terawatt laser. The morphological and structural changes produced in the irradiated area by different numbers of pulses were systematically explored, both along the spots and in their depths. Although micro-Raman and Synchrotron-x-ray diffraction investigations have shown no carbide formation, they have shown the unexpected presence of embedded nano-diamonds in the areas irradiated with high fluencies. Scanning electron microscopy images show a cumulative effect of the laser pulses on the morphology through the ablation process. The micro-Raman spatial mapping signalled an increased percentage of sp3 carbon bonding in the areas irradiated with laser fluencies around the ablation threshold. In-depth x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations suggested a weak cumulative effect on the percentage increase of the sp2-sp3 transitions with the number of laser pulses just for nanometric layer thicknesses.

  14. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  15. Metal Hydrides as hot carrier cell absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Wen, Xiaoming; Shrestha, Santosh; Conibeer, Gavin; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2016-09-01

    The hot Carrier Solar Cell (HCSC) allows the photon-induced hot carriers (the carriers with energy larger than the band gap) to be collected before they completely thermalise. The absorber of the HCSC should have a large phononic band gap to supress Klemens Decay, which results in a slow carrier cooling speed. In fact, a large phononic band gap likely exists in a binary compound whose constituent elements have a large mass ratio between each other. Binary hydrides with their overwhelming mass ratio of the constituent elements are important absorber candidates. Study on different types of binary hydrides as potential absorber candidates is presented in this paper. Many binary transition metal hydrides have reported theoretical or experimental phonon dispersion charts which show large phononic band gaps. Among these hydrides, the titanium hydride (TiHX) is outstanding because of its low cost, easy fabrication process and is relatively inert to air and water. A TiHX thin film is fabricated by directly hydrogenating an evaporated titanium thin film. Characterisation shows good crystal quality and the hydrogenation process is believed to be successful. Ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is used to study the electron cooling time of TiHX. The result is very noisy due to the low absorption and transmission of the sample. The evolution of the TA curves has been explained by band to band transition using the calculated band structure of TiH2. Though not reliable due to the high noise, decay time fitting at 700nm and 600nm shows a considerably slow carrier cooling speed of the sample.

  16. Measurement and Simulation of Thermal Conductivity of Hafnium-Aluminum Thermal Neutron Absorber Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William H.

    2016-09-01

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) material composed of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) intermetallic particles in an aluminum matrix has been identified as a promising material for fast flux irradiation testing applications. This material can filter thermal neutrons while simultaneously providing high rates of conductive cooling for experiment capsules. The purpose of this work is to investigate effects of Hf-Al material composition and neutron irradiation on thermophysical properties, which were measured before and after irradiation. When performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the irradiated specimens, a large exotherm corresponding to material annealment was observed. Therefore, a test procedure was developed to perform DSC and laser flash analysis (LFA) to obtain the specific heat and thermal diffusivity of pre- and post-annealment specimens. This paper presents the thermal properties for three states of the MMC material: (1) unirradiated, (2) as-irradiated, and (3) irradiated and annealed. Microstructure-property relationships were obtained for the thermal conductivity. These relationships are useful for designing components from this material to operate in irradiation environments. The ability of this material to effectively conduct heat as a function of temperature, volume fraction Al3Hf, radiation damage, and annealing is assessed using the MOOSE suite of computational tools.

  17. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  18. Study on Absorbing Materials%吸波材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of stealth technique, absorbing materials becomes the key materials of stealth technique for modem weapon. This paper mainly introduced the concept of absorbing materials, absorbing mechanism and classification, the application prospect of absorbing materials is also elaborated.%随着隐身技术的快速发展,波吸收材料成为现代武器隐身技术的关键材料之一.本文主要介绍了吸波材料的概念,吸波原理和分类,并阐述了吸波材料的发展趋势及应用前景.

  19. Polymers and paper as packaging materials of irradiated food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimalli, M.; Ragni, P.; Righini, G.; Capitani, D.

    2000-03-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on synthetic polymers and paper used as packaging materials for irradiated food have been studied by NMR. Polystyrene, polybutadiene and some copolymers were studied before and after the γ-irradiation treatment and in the presence or absence of antioxidants and stabilisers. In the absence of additives, the effect of γ-irradiation on polystyrene is negligible even irradiating at high doses. In turn, the role of antioxidants and stabilisers is crucial in polybutadiene and butadiene-containing copolymers. Wood pulp paper was also studied by NMR. Preliminary measurements on γ-irradiated wood pulp sheets show a shortening in the T2 relaxation time component due to the bound water, i.e. some of the bound water is lost.

  20. Response functions for computing absorbed dose to skeletal tissues from neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Eckerman, Keith F, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-11-07

    Spongiosa in the adult human skeleton consists of three tissues-active marrow (AM), inactive marrow (IM) and trabecularized mineral bone (TB). AM is considered to be the target tissue for assessment of both long-term leukemia risk and acute marrow toxicity following radiation exposure. The total shallow marrow (TM{sub 50}), defined as all tissues lying within the first 50 {mu}m of the bone surfaces, is considered to be the radiation target tissue of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. For irradiation by sources external to the body, kerma to homogeneous spongiosa has been used as a surrogate for absorbed dose to both of these tissues, as direct dose calculations are not possible using computational phantoms with homogenized spongiosa. Recent micro-CT imaging of a 40 year old male cadaver has allowed for the accurate modeling of the fine microscopic structure of spongiosa in many regions of the adult skeleton (Hough et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309-46). This microstructure, along with associated masses and tissue compositions, was used to compute specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for protons originating in axial and appendicular bone sites (Jokisch et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 6857-72). These proton SAFs, bone masses, tissue compositions and proton production cross sections, were subsequently used to construct neutron dose-response functions (DRFs) for both AM and TM{sub 50} targets in each bone of the reference adult male. Kerma conditions were assumed for other resultant charged particles. For comparison, AM, TM{sub 50} and spongiosa kerma coefficients were also calculated. At low incident neutron energies, AM kerma coefficients for neutrons correlate well with values of the AM DRF, while total marrow (TM) kerma coefficients correlate well with values of the TM{sub 50} DRF. At high incident neutron energies, all kerma coefficients and DRFs tend to converge as charged-particle equilibrium is established across the bone site. In the range of

  1. Plastic film materials for dosimetry of very large absorbed doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Abdel-Rahim, F.

    1985-01-01

    of the polyhalostyrenes have essentially rate-independent and moderately temperature-dependent responses to such large doses of ionizing radiation. While radiation-induced optical absorption in the ultraviolet for polystyrene is unstable following irradiation, thus leading to an intrinsic low-intensity rate dependence......Most plastic films have limited response ranges for dosimetry because of radiation-induced brittleness, degradation, or saturation of the signal used for analysis (e.g. spectrophotometry) at high doses. There are, however, a few types of thin plastic films showing linearity of response even up...... to doses as high as 2 × 106 Gy (200 Mrad) without severe loss of mechanical properties. Among many candidate film types tested, those showing such resistance to radiation damage and continued response at such high doses are polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, dyed polyvinylchloride...

  2. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  3. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  4. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pacheco, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  5. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel L. Alboteanu; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Sonia Degeratu

    2015-01-01

    Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is repr...

  6. Regulation mechanism of EM parameters in natural ferrite and its application in microwave absorbing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yongchun; WANG; Shijie; FENG; Junming; LI; Chunlai; OUYANG; Ziyuan; LIU; Jianzhong; LI; Xiaobiao

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) parameters (ε', ε″,μ', μ″ ) of several M2+Fe2O4 and Fe2O3 type natural ferrites with different geological occurrences are measured in this paper. The measurement results show that EM parameters of a magmatic-occurring natural ferrite is very different from other types occurring from sedimentary-metamorphic iron deposit, hydrothermal vein iron deposit, outer contact of magmatic iron deposit. It has potential to be used as magnetic absorbent in microwave absorbing materials. After mineral separation and concentration, this magmatic-occurring natural ferrite was processed into type A ferrite absorbent. Type A natural ferrite absorbent is a kind of magnetic material with low dielectric constants, high magnetic conductivity and high EM loss. Its EM parameters areε' = 58.60, ε″ = 10.0, μ' = 1.2-1.5, μ″ = 1.0-1.2, respectively. In order to illuminate the regulation mechanism of EM parameters, we studied the chemical and mineral composition of type A ferrite absorbent. There is high concentration of natural impurities, which regulate the EM parameters of type A ferrite greatly. For comparison, the other types of natural ferrite, single-phase magnetite and two-phase iron minerals (ilmenite and magnetite), have few impurity. Thus regulation mechanism of EM parameters was absent in these ferrites. As a result, the regulation of EM parameters is advantageous to develop type A natural ferrite as excellent absorbent, lowers the reflectivity coefficients and enhances the absorbing efficiency of MAM made from it. Furthermore, the impurities in type A natural ferrite and its effects on EM parameters are very difficult to simulate in the synthesize ferrite. The carbonyl-iron powder is another kind of absorbent that is used extensively in MAM. To compare the absorbing properties of these two absorbent, type A natural ferrite and carbonyl-iron powder were mixed with rubber and processed into microwave absorbing sheets with the same procedures and

  7. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  8. Method of Synthesizing a Novel Absorbent Titanosilicate Material (UPRM-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo (Inventor); Primera-Pedrozo, Jose N (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A titanium silicate variant named UPRM-5 was prepared using tetraethylammonium hydroxide as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Successful detemplation was achieved via ion exchange with NH4Cl. Effective functionalization was obtained after ion exchanging the detemplated material using SrCl2 and BaCl2. Adsorption of CO2 at 25 deg C in Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials activated at different temperatures. For low partial pressures, the observed CO2 adsorption capacities increased as follows: NH4-UPRM-5 less than Sr-UPRM-5 less than Ba-UPRM-5. Both the Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials exhibited outstanding selectivity for CO2 over CH4, N2 and O2.

  9. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  10. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy; Estimativa de dose absorvida pelo paciente relacionada a anatomia irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Flavio Augusto Penna; Soares, Amanda Anastacio; Kahl, Gabrielly Gomes, E-mail: prof.flavio@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda-a-soares@hotmail.com, E-mail: gabriellygkahl@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Eduacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector.

  11. Influence of microstructure on properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.G., E-mail: ilem58@mail.ru [Kuznetsk Institute of Information and Management Technologies, 57a Mayakovsky Street, Kuznetsk, Penza Region 442540 (Russian Federation); Menshova, S.B.; Klimov, A.N.; Vergazov, R.M. [Kuznetsk Institute of Information and Management Technologies, 57a Mayakovsky Street, Kuznetsk, Penza Region 442540 (Russian Federation); Bibikov, S.B. [N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP), 4, Kosygin Street, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, M.V. [Moscow Aviation Institute (National research University), Volokolamkoye shosse, 4, 125871 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    In this work there have been carried out studies in the radiophysical characteristics of the samples of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials, obtained by the ceramic method under different technological conditions. There has been established the influence of microstructure on the electromagnetic losses of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials. The results indicate that the coarse-grained structure leads to an increase of radio-absorbing capacity at frequencies below 30 MHz. It can be explained by the resonance of domain boundaries. - Highlights: • Addition of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 1 mass% leads to increasing grain sizes of Ni-Zn ferrites. • Coarse-grained structure is achieved adding ferrite particles of a large fraction. • Coarse-grained structure leads to increasing absorbing capacity at low frequencies. • It can be explained by the resonance of domain boundaries.

  12. A New CMC-AA Resin/Inorganic-gel Super Absorbent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A super absorbent material was prepared with the super absorbent resin ( SAR ) and inorganicgel.The SAR of the carboxymethyl cellulose grafting acrylic acid ( CMC-AA ) was copolymer synthesized using the method of inverse-phase suspension polymerization. The influences of the monomer concentration, neutralization degree, the initiator, dispersion agent, cross-linking agent, reaction and drying temperature on the grafting copolymer properties were examined.Meanwhlie, its properties was investigated and the model for absorption mechanism of this absorbent composite was proposed.

  13. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-01

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  14. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, H., E-mail: hiroshi.matsumura@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Toyoda, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801 (Japan); Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka-fu, 590-0494 (Japan); Iwase, H. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801 (Japan); Oishi, K. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo, 135-8530 (Japan); Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  15. Microwave Absorbent Packaging Material from Composites Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave absorbent packaging materials currently tend to biomaterial. Chitosan is a dielectric biomaterial with polycationic properties. The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics of microwave absorbing packaging material made from composite chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. The ability of the packaging material to absorb microwave was determined by reflection loss measurement. Formed packaging prototype resembles as a thin transparent yellowish plastic with thickness (0.11-0.22 mm and the tensile strength (106.33±2.82-143.00±2.59 kPa. SEM analysis showed homogenous structure characterized by interaction between chitosan and PVA. Optimum absorption value was obtained from chitosan concentration of 1%, with average value of reflection loss was (-31.9289±4.0094 dB.Keywords: chitosan, material packaging, microwave, reflection loss

  16. Microwave Absorbent Packaging Material from Composites Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave absorbent packaging materials currently tend to biomaterial. Chitosan is a dielectric biomaterial with polycationic properties. The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics of microwave absorbing packaging material made from composite chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. The ability of the packaging material to absorb microwave was determined by reflection loss measurement. Formed packaging prototype resembles as a thin transparent yellowish plastic with thickness (0.11-0.22 mm and the tensile strength (106.33±2.82-143.00±2.59 kPa. SEM analysis showed homogenous structure characterized by interaction between chitosan and PVA. Optimum absorption value was obtained from chitosan concentration of 1%, with average value of reflection loss was (-31.9289±4.0094 dB.Keywords: chitosan, material packaging, microwave, reflection loss

  17. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  18. Irradiation damage studies of high power accelerator materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: simos@bnl.gov; Kirk, H.G.; Thieberger, P.; Ludewig, H.; Conor, J.O.; Mausner, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Trung, P.-T. [SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); McDonald, K.T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoshimura, K. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Bennett, J.R.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-30

    High-performance production targets and other critical accelerator components intercepting intense, energetic proton beams are essential as the accelerator community envisions the next generation, multi-MW accelerators. Materials that have served the nuclear sector well may not be suitable to play such a role which demands that the material comprising the beam-intercepting element must, in addition to the long exposure which leads to accumulated irradiation damage, also endure short exposure that manifests itself as thermo-mechanical shock. The ability of materials to resist irradiation-induced degradation of its properties that control shock and fatigue is of primary interest. The need for such materials that extend beyond resistance to the neutron-driven irradiation damage of reactor components has led to an extensive search and experimentation with new alloys and composites. These new high-performance materials, which appear to possess the right combination of mechanical and physical properties, are explored through a multi-phased experimental study at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This study, which brings together the interest in accelerator targets of different facilities around the world, seeks to simulate conditions of both short and long exposure to proton beams to assess the survivability potential of these new alloys and composite materials. While thermo-mechanical shock effects have been studied in the early stages of this comprehensive effort, it is irradiation damage that is currently the focus of the study and results to-date are presented in this paper along with the status and objectives of on-going studies. Of special interest are results depicting damage reversal through post-irradiation annealing in some of the materials. High fluences of 200 and/or 117 MeV protons provided by the BNL Linac beam that serves the Isotope Production Facility were used to assess irradiation damage in these new composites and alloys.

  19. Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Majid [Isfahan Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRT), Reactor and Accelerators Research and Development School, Atomic Energy Organization (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_jalali@entc.org.ir; Mohammadi, Ali [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Km. 6, Ravand Road, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The compounds Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CdCl{sub 2} and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the {gamma} rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds.

  20. Dielectric microwave absorbing material processed by impregnation of carbon fiber fabric with polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the adequate combination of components and experimental conditions may produce materials with specific requirements. This study presents the effect of carbon fiber fabric impregnation with polyaniline conducting polymer aiming at the radar absorbing material processing. The experiments consider the sample preparation with one and two impregnations. The prepared samples were evaluated by reflectivity measurements, in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The correlation of the results shows that the quantity of impregnated material influences the performance of the processed microwave absorber. This study shows that the proposed experimental route provides flexible absorbers with absorption values of the incident radiation close to 87%.

  1. Neutronic analysis of absorbing materials for the control rod system in reactor ALLEGRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajko, Frantisek; Secansky, Michal; Chrebet, Tomas; Zajac, Radoslav; Darilek, Petr [VUJE, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-09-15

    Experimental reactor ALLEGRO is a gas cooled fast reactor in the design stage. The current design of its reactivity control system is based on control rods filled with boron carbide as the absorber. Because of disadvantages connected to high boron enrichment a possibility of using other absorbent materials was explored to lower the boron enrichment and increase the worth of the control rods. The results of neutronic Monte-Carlo analyses in a computational supercell are presented in this paper. Three absorbent materials most suitable for a use in reactor ALLEGRO (B{sub 4}C, EuB{sub 6} and ReB{sub 2}) have been analysed also in a full core model. A possible benefit of a neutron trap concept is explored as well but materials with satisfactory neutronic properties proved to be not suitable for expected high temperatures in the reactor.

  2. Absorber Materials for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred; Sadleir, Jack; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Porter, F. Scott; Smith, Stephen; Saab, Tarek; Sadleir, Jac,

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) can provide high spatial and energy resolution necessary for x-ray astronomy. High quantum efficiency and uniformity of response can be achieved with a suitable absorber material, in which absorber x-ray stopping power, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are relevant parameters. Here we compare these parameters for bismuth and gold. We have fabricated electroplated gold, electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, and evaporated gold/evaporated bismuth 8x8 absorber arrays and find that a correlation exists between the residual resistance ratio (RRR) and thin film microstructure. This finding indicates that we can tailor absorber material conductivity via microstructure alteration, so as to permit absorber thermalization on timescales suitable for high energy resolution x-ray microcalorimetry. We show that by incorporating absorbers possessing large grain size, including electroplated gold and electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, into our current Mo/Au TES, devices with tunable heat capacity and energy resolution of 2.3 eV (gold) and 2.1 eV (gold/bismuth) FWHM at 6 keV have been fabricated.

  3. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the in......The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique...

  4. Potential application of a homogeneous and anisotropic slab as an angle insensitive absorbing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a flat and incident angle independence absorbing material is proposed and numerically verified in the optical spectrum. A homogeneous and anisotropic dielectric slab as a non-reflecting layer is first reviewed, and a feasible realization strategy of the slab is then given by using layered isotropic materials. When the loss components of the constitutive materials are not zero, the slab will work as an angle insensitive absorbing layer, and the absorption rate augments with increase of the losses. As the numerical verifications, the field distributions of a metallic cylinder and a triangular metallic object individually covered by the designed absorbing layer are demonstrated. The simulation results show that the designed absorbing layer can efficiently absorb the incident waves with the property of incident angle independence at the operation frequency. This homogeneous slab can be used in one and two dimensional situations for the realization of an invisibility cloak, a carpet cloak and even a skin cloak, if it is used to conformally cover target objects.

  5. Modelling irradiation effects in fusion materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victoria, M.; Dudarev, S.; Boutard, J.L.;

    2007-01-01

    We review the current status of the European fusion materials modelling programme. We describe recent findings and outline potential areas for future development. Large-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the structure of the point defects in α-Fe, and highlight the crucial...

  6. Understanding and predicting the behaviour of silver base neutron absorbers under irradiations; Comprehension et prediction du comportement sous irradiation neutronique d`alliages absorbants a base d`argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, C

    1998-12-31

    The effect of neutron irradiation induced transmutations on the swelling of AgInCd (AIC) alloys used as neutron absorber in the control rods of Pressurized Water Reactors has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Effective atomic volumes have been determined in synthetic AgCdInSn alloys with various compositions and containing fcc and hc phases, representative of irradiated AIC (Sn is a transmutation product). Swelling is shown to result first from the transmutation of Ag into Cd and of In into Sn, both with larger effective volume than the mother atom, and second from grain boundaries precipitation of s still less dense hc phase when solid solubility of transmuted products is exceeded. For both fcc and hc phases, we have determined profiles at the temperatures in the vicinity of the operating temperature. Unusual characteristics of second phase growth at grain boundaries induced by transmutations are identified on a simple binary alloy model: kinetics is controlled by irradiation temperature which scales diffusivities and flux which scales transmutation rates, as well as by the grain size in the underlying matrix. To address the AgInCdSn alloys, a novel technique is proposed to model diffusion in multicomponent alloys. It is based on a linearization of a simple atomistic model. With a single set of parameters, for each phase, our model well reproduces our interdiffusion measurements in quaternary alloys as well as existing interdiffusion experiments in binary alloys. Finally this diffusion model implemented with a moving interface algorithm is used to model the growth of the second phase induced by transmutation in the AIC under irradiation. (authors) 74 refs.

  7. Acoustic behavior of a fibrous bulk material. [Kevlar 29 sound absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1979-01-01

    A semiempirical model is presented describing the acoustic behavior of Kevlar 29, a bulk absorbing material. The model is based on an approximate solution to the one-dimensional equations representing conservation of fluctuating mass, momentum and energy. By treating the material as a momentum sink, theoretical expressions of the material complex propagation constants and characteristic impedance were derived in terms of a single constant. Evaluating the constant at a single frequency for a particular specimen, excellent agreement between prediction and measurement was achieved for a large range of sound frequencies and material porosities and thicknesses. Results show that Kevlar 29 absorbs sound efficiently even at low frequencies. This is explained in terms of a frequency dependent material phase speed.

  8. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A' aisah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi 43000 Kajang Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Pauzi [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  9. Estimation of the RF Characteristics of Absorbing Materials in Broad RF Frequency Ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Fandos, R

    2008-01-01

    Absorbing materials are very often used in RF applications. Their electromagnetic characteristics (relative permittivity εr, loss tangent tan δ and conductivity σ) are needed in order to obtain a high-quality design of the absorbing pieces in the frequency range of interest. Unfortunately, suppliers often do not provide these quantities. A simple technique to determine them, based on the RF measurement of the disturbance created by the insertion of a piece of absorber in a waveguide, is presented in this note. Results for samples of two different materials, silicon carbide and aluminum nitride are presented. While the former has a negligible conductivity at the working frequencies, the conductivity of the latter has to be taken into account in order to obtain a meaningful estimation of εr and tan δ. The equations of Kramers & Kronig have been applied to the data as a cross check, confirming the results.

  10. Absorbent Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A superabsorbent fabric developed by Johnson Space Center and described in Tech Briefs was adapted by Honeywell and fabricated into special containment devices used on Navy "smart" torpedos. The superabsorbent fabric can sequester up to 400 times its own weight in water and protects the torpedo electronic controls from possible short circuiting by deepwater hull seepage.

  11. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  12. Producing of Impedance Tube for Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Some Sound Absorber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.

  13. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  14. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Brian B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whites, Kieth W [SDSMT; Radway, Matthew J [CU-BOULDER

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega

  15. Segmented fuel irradiation program: investigation on advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H. [NUPEC (Japan); Goto, K. [KEPCO, Osaka (Japan); Sabate, R. [A.N. Asco - C.N. Vandellos, Barcelona (Spain); Abeta, S.; Baba, T. [MHI, Nishi-Ku, Yokohama (Japan); Matias, E. de; Alonso, J. [ENUSA, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The Segmented Fuel Irradiation Program, started in 1991, is a collaboration between the Japanese organisations Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) representing other Japanese utilities, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI); and the Spanish Organisations Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A. (ENDESA) representing A.N. Vandellos 2, and Empresa Nacional Uranio, S.A. (ENUSA); with the collaboration of Westinghouse. The objective of the Program is to make substantial contribution to the development of advanced cladding and fuel materials for better performance at high burn-up and under operational power transients. For this Program, segmented fuel rods were selected as the most appropriate vehicle to accomplish the aforementioned objective. Thus, a large number of fuel and cladding combinations are provided while minimising the total amount of new material, at the same time, facilitating an eventual irradiation extension in a test reactor. The Program consists of three major phases: phase I: design, licensing, fabrication and characterisation of the assemblies carrying the segmented rods (1991 - 1994); phase II: base irradiation of the assemblies at Vandellos 2 NPP, and on-site examination at the end of four cycles (1994-1999). Phase III: ramp testing at the Studsvik facilities and hot cell PIE (1996-2001). The main fuel design features whose effects on fuel behaviour are being analysed are: alloy composition (MDA and ZIRLO vs. Zircaloy-4); tubing texture; pellet grain size. The Program is progressing satisfactorily as planned. The base irradiation is completed in the first quarter of 1999, and so far, tests and inspections already carried out are providing useful information on the behaviour of the new materials. Also, the Program is delivering a well characterized fuel material, irradiated in a commercial reactor, which can be further used in other fuel behaviour experiments. The paper presents the main

  16. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  17. Oriented free-standing ammonium vanadium oxide nanobelt membranes: highly selective absorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Yu, Li; Tian, Qiwei; Wu, Jianghong; Sun, Yangang; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing

    2010-12-27

    Highly selective, absorbent, free-standing, paper-like membranes made of ammonium vanadium oxide (NH(4)V(4)O(14)) nanobelts have been engineered by taking advantage of the nanoscaled self-assembly of architectures that display a mesh structure with an average periodic pore size of about 5 to 10 nm. The NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelts are synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal process, and exhibit the same orientation and assemble into bundles, each about 40 to 80 nm in width, 3 to 5 nm in thickness, and up to several millimeters in length. Importantly, the as-obtained NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelt membranes can highly selectively absorb a variety of organic solvents, covering both polar and non-polar solvents, for example, the absorbent capacity of glycol is 28 times as high as the initial weight of the membrane, and it can even separate organic solvents with similar polarities and absorb solid contaminants in organic solvents. These highly selective, absorbent membrane materials can be an ideal candidate for the separation and removal of pollution in industrial and environmental applications.

  18. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yian; Wang, Jintao; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall, large lumen, low density and hydrophobic-oleophilic properties. As a type of renewable natural plant fiber, kapok fiber is abundant, biocompatible and biodegradable, and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields. Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber, this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments, kapok fiber-based composite materials, and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils, metal ions, dyes, and sound, with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material, one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  19. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: A mini review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yian Zheng; Jintao Wang; Yongfeng Zhu; Aiqin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra),and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall,large lumen,low density and hydrophobicoleophilic properties.As a type of renewable natural plant fiber,kapok fiber is abundant,biocompatible and biodegradable,and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields.Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber,this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments,kapok fiber-based composite materials,and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils,metal ions,dyes,and sound,with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material,one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  20. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartsell, Brian [Fermilab; Campbell, Michael [Fermilab; Fitton, Michael [RAL, Didcot; Hurh, Patrick [Fermilab; Ishida, Taku [KEK, Tsukuba; Nakadaira, Takeshi [KEK, Tsukuba

    2015-06-01

    A compact fatigue testing machine that can be easily inserted into a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue performance differences between new and irradiated material. Hot cell use has been carefully considered by limiting the size and weight of the machine, simplifying sample loading and test setup for operation via master-slave manipulator, and utilizing an efficient design to minimize maintenance. Funded from a US-Japan collaborative effort, the machine has been specifically designed to help characterize titanium material specimens. These specimens are flat cantilevered beams for initial studies, possibly utilizing samples irradiated at other sources of beam. The option to test spherically shaped samples cut from the T2K vacuum window is also available. The machine is able to test a sample to $10^7$ cycles in under a week, with options to count cycles and sense material failure. The design of this machine will be presented along with current status.

  1. Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with fluoridated gels containing photo absorbers in the prevention of enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lgs; Joao-Souza, S H; Bezerra, Sjc; Borges, A B; Aranha, Acc; Scaramucci, T

    2017-05-12

    This study evaluated the combined effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation and fluoridated gels containing photo absorbers against enamel erosion. Enamel specimens from bovine teeth were polished, eroded (10 min, with 1% citric acid, pH = 2.6), and randomly allocated into the experimental groups (n = 8), according to the different surface treatments: fluoridated gels (F: 9047 ppm F and F + Sn: 9047 ppm F and 3000 ppm Sn), with or without photo absorbers (E: erythrosine and MB: methylene blue), and associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation (in contact; 0.5 W; 50 mJ; ~41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s; pulse duration of 120 μs). A placebo gel (PLA) associated or not with laser was used as control. All gels had pH = 4.5 and were applied for 2 min. Laser irradiation was performed during gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 0.3% citric acid (pH = 2.6), 4×/day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in μm). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Means (SD) of SL for the groups were the following (different superscript letters imply significant difference among groups): PLA (21.02 ± 1.28)(a), PLA + laser (19.20 ± 0.96)(ab), laser (17.47 ± 1.50)(b), F + Sn + E + laser (13.69 ± 0.62)(c), F + E + laser (13.52 ± 1.16)(c), F (13.10 ± 1.08)(c), F + laser (11.94 ± 1.44)(cd), F + Sn + MB + laser (11.90 ± 4.02)(cd), F + MB + laser (11.42 ± 1.42)(cd), F + Sn (11.12 ± 1.20)(cd), and F + Sn + laser (10.35 ± 0.89)(d). In conclusion, all fluoridated gels and the Nd:YAG laser irradiation reduced erosion development, but the combination of treatments did not promote further protection. The addition of photo absorbers to the fluoridated gels did not influence the anti-erosive effect of the combination of laser plus fluoridated gels.

  2. Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; Łojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

  3. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries.

  4. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Baier, G.; Landfester, K.; Frazier, L.; Gefeller, H.; Wunderlich, U.; Gross, I.; Rühl, E.; Knorr, F.

    2014-11-01

    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination.

  5. Middle ear packing materials: comparison between absorbable hemostatic gelatine sponge and sugarcane biopolymer sponge in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Lopes Bunzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several biomaterials can be used in ear surgery to pack the middle ear or support the graft. The absorbable gelatin sponge is the most widely used, but it may produce fibrosis and impair ventilation of the middle ear. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study aimed to investigate the inflammatory effects of the sugarcane biopolymer sponge (BP in the rat middle ear compared with absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective experimental study design. Thirty adult female Wistar rats were allocated to receive the BP sponge into the right ear and AGS into the left ear. Animals were randomly killed at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Qualitative histological assessments were performed to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the tympanic bullae. RESULTS: The BP sponge caused inflammation more intense and persistent than AGS. The BP was not absorbed during the experiment. Fibrosis was observed only in the ears with AGS. There were thickening of the mucosa and neoangiogenesis in the group of AGS. CONCLUSION: Despite inflammation, the BP sponge produced less fibrosis and neoangiogenesis compared to AGS. The sponge BP appeared to be a non-absorbable biomaterial in the middle ear.

  6. Summary of the CERN Workshop on Materials for Collimators and Beam Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R; Bertarelli, A; Ferrari, A; Weterings, W; Mokhov, N V

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of the workshop was on collimators and beam absorbers for (mainly) High Energy Hadron Accelerators, with the energy stored in the beams far above damage limit. The objective was to better understand the technological limits imposed by mechanisms related to beam impact on materials. The idea to organise this workshop came up during the High Intensity High Brightness Hadron Beams, ICFA-HB2006 in Japan [1]. The workshop was organised 3-5 September 2007 at CERN, with about 60 participants, including 20 from outside CERN. About 30 presentations were given [2]. The event was driven by the LHC challenge, with more than 360 MJoule stored in each proton beam. The entire beam or its fraction will interact with LHC collimators and beam absorbers, and with the LHC beam dump blocks. Collimators and beam absorbers are also of the interest for other labs and accelerators: - CERN: for the CNGS target, for SPS beam absorbers (extraction protection) and collimators for protecting the transfer line between SPS an...

  7. Optical and electrical phenomena in dielectric materials under irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Plaksin, O A; Stepanov, P A; Demenkov, P V; Chernov, V M; Krutskikh, A O

    2002-01-01

    Optical and acoustic properties of the materials based on Al sub 2 O sub 3 , SiO sub 2 and BN under 8 MeV proton irradiation (<10 sup 4 Gy/s) have been measured. Electric charge partitioning has been shown to result in charging the microscopic regions in the bulk of the dielectrics under irradiation, which is due to different mobility of free electrons and holes (sapphire), concentration inhomogeneity in the system of charge carrier traps (alumina), or thermodynamic instability of the homogeneous distribution of the filled traps (silica glasses). Prevalent charge carrier recombination in the grain boundaries causes re-crystallization of pyrolytic boron nitride under irradiation, which shows up as simultaneous decrease of the intensity of radiation-induced luminescence (RIL) of the centres in the grain boundaries and the BN. The local charging results in optical inhomogeneity of the silica glasses which is sustained by the optical loss spectra of the irradiated glasses, features of kinetics of bleaching, RI...

  8. 新型吸波材料研究进展%Research Progress on Novel Wave-Absorbing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志岗; 乔小晶; 任庆国; 李旺昌

    2013-01-01

    以铁氧体复合吸波材料为例,概述了吸波材料发展趋势;介绍了两种新型隐身材料(碳纳米管复合吸波材料和左手材料)的发展现状,并对我国吸波材料的发展提出一些建议.%This paper summarizes the current situation of the development of wave-absorbing materials.And the novel wave-absorbing materials are laid a strong emphasis,which requires light,thin,broad-band and strong materials,such as nano-materials and the left-handed materials.Moreover,the developing trend on novel wave-absorbing materials is prospected.Further more,some suggestions have been provided for the development of the novel wave-absorbing materials in the future.

  9. Super water-absorbing new material from chitosan, EDTA and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Abathodharanan; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2015-12-10

    A new, super water-absorbing, material is synthesized by the reaction between chitosan, EDTA and urea and named as CHEDUR. CHEDUR is probably formed through the crosslinking of chitosan molecules (CH) with the EDTA-urea (EDUR) adduct that is formed during the reaction. CHEDUR as well as the other products formed in control reactions are characterized extensively. CHEDUR exhibits a very high water uptake capacity when compared with chitosan, chitosan-EDTA adduct, as well as a commercial diaper material. A systematic study was done to find the optimum composition as well as reaction conditions for maximum water absorbing capacity. CHEDUR can play a vital role in applications that demand the rapid absorption and slow release of water such as agriculture, as a three in one new material for the slow release of urea, water and other metal ions that can be attached through the EDTA component. The other potential advantage of CHEDUR is that it can be expected to degrade in soil based on its chitosan backbone. The new material with rapid and high water uptake could also find potential applications as biodegradable active ingredient of the diaper material.

  10. Enhancing the Performance of the Microwave Absorbing Materials by Using Dielectric Resonator Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar H. Al-Zoubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for enhancing the performance of microwave absorbing materials in terms of weight, thickness, and bandwidth. The introduced technique is based on fabricating the microwave absorbing (MA material in a structure comprised of an array of circular cylinder dielectric resonators (CDR backed by a perfect electric conductor (PEC ground plane. Numerical electromagnetic methods are employed to study the properties of the proposed MA array structures, where 3D full wave simulation using finite-element method is implemented. The obtained results show that the performance of the MA-CDR arrays significantly outperforms that of a flat layer composed of the same material and having equivalent thickness. A flat layer of MA material with thickness of 5 mm backed by perfect electric conductor (PEC shows as low as -50 dB reflection loss (RL peak and ~3 GHz 10-dB bandwidth, whereas an MA-CDR array, composed of the same MA material, of height of 4 mm can achieve as low as ~−50 dB RL peak and ~12 GHz 10-dB RL bandwidth.

  11. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  12. Evaluation of polypropylene and poly (butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) nonwoven material as oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Xiao, Changfa; Xu, Naiku

    2013-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and poly(butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PBMA-co-HEMA) nonwoven materials as oil absorbents have been fabricated for the first time via melt blown method. As-prepared nonwovens were investigated in terms of mass per unit area, density, air permeability, contact angle, and morphology observations for fiber diameter distribution and single fiber surface by a field emission scanning electron microscope. The nonwovens are demonstrated as fast and efficient absorbents for various kinds of oils with oil absorbency up to seven to ten times their own weight. The nonwovens show excellent water repulsion but superoleophilic properties. The measured contact angles for water and toluene are more than 127° and ca. 0°, respectively. The addition of PBMA-co-HEMA makes the nonwoven surface more hydrophobic while conserving superoleophilicity. Compared with PP nonwoven, broad diameter distribution of the blend nonwoven is attributed to poor melt fluidity of PBMA-co-HEMA. In terms of single fiber, coarse surface and the presence of point-like convexities lead to the fibers being more readily wetted by oil. More interesting, oil-water separation and oil recovery can be easily carried out by filter and absorption-desorption process, the recovered materials contained hardly any oil droplet and could be reused for next cycles.

  13. Study of Solid-Liquid Ratio of Fly Ash Geopolymer as Water Absorbent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Prasetya Fandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer has been synthesized from fly ash to be applicated as water absorbent material. This research conducted to determine the ability of geopolymer to abrsop water by variation of solid – liquid ratio at optimum molarity of NaOH; 3 M. In this research, the synthesis of geopolymer was conducted at the variation of solid-liquid ratio; 60:40, 65:35, 70:30, and 75:25. Result of the treatment were characterized by XRD and SEM to compare the geopolymer structure. Water absorption capacity was measured by immersing the geopolymer specimens in water for 24 hours. Based on the result, solid – liquid ratio with maximum water absorbed was 70:30 with 13,04 wt%.

  14. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  15. Target and structural materials under dual-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, E.; Wanderka, N.; Wollenberger, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is planned to have a beam power of 5 MW (3.75 mA of 1.334 GeV protons). This is by a factor 30 higher than the available most powerful spallation source ISIS at Rutherford-Appleton Lab. (RAL) in Great-Britain. This causes a damage rate of approx. 10 dpa (displacements per atom) per month in target materials (W or Ta) or structural materials. The problem of radiation damage by high energy protons in different alloys has been recently reviewed. At HMI, simulation irradiation using heavy ions and helium or hydrogen ions at the dual-beam facility are being out. Here, we report on some preliminary results obtained on tantalum as target material and on ferritic/martensitic steels (HT9 type steels or comparable steels), which are proposed to be used as structural materials. Goal of these investigations is to correlate the results with those obtained at spallation irradiated specimens and to investigate the unexplored field of simultaneous production of damage, helium and hydrogen at high levels. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  16. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  17. Predicted sound absorption coefficients of absorber materials lined in a chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was aimed to measurement of sound absorption coefficient of mineral wool and determination of their absorption ability. Materials and Methods: Mineral wool was used to find noise absorption coefficient. Random and normal sound absorption coefficient values were predicted. Then, the measures of transmission loss calculated as an overall value, for applied absorbent material and bare sheet metal. Results: The measured values of noise with one octave band frequency demonstrated an attenuation of 5.5-7 dB for these frequencies. The absorption coefficients of materials showed that mineral wool had more normal sound coefficients than its random sound absorption coefficient values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that predicted normal sound absorption coefficients of used mineral wool materials were near to the areas of standard line. It seems that the amount or thickness of absorbent lining was a main reason of noise reduction in low band frequencies. Mineral wool has a higher density and can provide better acoustical and insulating results than fiberglass. Besides, mineral wool doesn′t lose its insulating value when wet and has an outstanding resistance to fire.

  18. 核壳吸波材料的研究进展∗%Progress in core-shell absorbing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞梁; 王建江; 许宝才; 李志广; 蔡旭东

    2015-01-01

    As a new core-shell composite absorbing material,as compared with a single type of absorbing mate-rial in the structure,properties and applications of absorbing has obvious advantages,the paper summarizes the basic types of core-shell absorbing materials,preparation methods and proposed a new method for self-reactive quenching + surface modification method.Pointed out that the core-shell absorbing material absorbing material is expected to meet the new"thin,light,wide,strong"requirements,and core-shell absorbing materials re-search proposed future prospects.%核壳吸波材料作为一种新型复合吸波材料,与单一类型的吸波材料相比在结构、吸波性能和应用上有着明显优势,本文总结了核壳吸波材料的基本类型、制备方法及提出了一种新的制备方法-自反应淬熄+表面改性法。指出核壳吸波材料有望满足新型吸波材料“薄、轻、宽、强”的要求,并对今后核壳吸波材料的研究提出展望。

  19. SANS response of VVER440-type weld material after neutron irradiation, post-irradiation annealing and reirradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbricht, Andreas; Bergner, Frank; Boehmert, Juergen; Valo, Matti; Mathon, Marie-Helene; Heinemann, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract It is well accepted that the reirradiation behaviour of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel after annealing can be different from the original irradiation behaviour. We present the first small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of neutron irradiated, annealed and reirradiated VVER440-type RPV weld material. The SANS results are analysed both in terms of the size distribution of irradiation-induced defect/solute atom clusters and in terms of the ratio of total and nuclea...

  20. Status of Neutron Irradiation of Non-Nuclear Materials at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Kang, Young Hwan; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Kim, Chan-Joong; Park, Sang-Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The irradiation facilities have been mostly utilized for the KAERI nuclear research projects relevant to a commercial nuclear power reactor such as the ageing management and safety evaluation of the components. Based on the accumulated experience, HANARO has recently supported national R and D projects relevant to new nuclear systems including the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), research reactors, and future nuclear systems. As neutron irradiation affects the structure of a material, radiation induced modification of materials has become a perspective method for the purposeful changes in material properties. Some irradiation tests of electro-magnetic materials were also performed at HANARO for scientific research of universities and the demand for neutron irradiation of the materials is increasing rapidly. Another research reactor that will specialize in radio-isotope and neutron transmutation doping (NTD) Si production and the demonstration of reactor design is under construction in Korea. Therefore, HANARO will specialize more on irradiation research. Based on its accumulated irradiation experience, HANARO has recently started new support of R and D relevant to the irradiation of electro-magnetic materials. In this paper, the status of utilization of the HANARO irradiation facilities for non-nuclear materials and the possibility of researches on new electro-magnetic materials using neutron irradiation are surveyed to encourage the utilization of HANARO. HANARO irradiation facilities have been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users. Although most irradiation tests have been related to national R and D relevant to nuclear power, demand for neutron irradiation of electro-magnetic materials is rapidly increasing at HANARO. Another research reactor, the KIJANG research reactor (KJRR), is under construction in Korea. New irradiation facilities including Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) facilities for power

  1. Concept of Staged Approach for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, M; Takeuchi, H

    2000-01-01

    The intense neutron source for development of fusion materials planned by international collaboration makes a new step to clarify the technical issues for realizing the 40 MeV, 250 mA deuteron beam facility. The baseline concept employs two identical 125 mA linac modules whose beams are combined at the flowing lithium target. Recent work for reducing the cost loading concerns the staged deployment of the full irradiation capability in three steps. The Japanese activity about the design and development study about IFMIF accelerator in this year is presented and the schedule of next several years is overviewed.

  2. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  3. Does the composition of urine change when collected from disposable diapers and other absorbent materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Bishop, Amber M; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2010-11-01

    The free and conjugated urinary species of non-persistent environmental chemicals or their breakdown products are valid human exposure biomarkers. For convenience, disposable diapers and other absorbent materials are widely used to collect urine specimens from infants and young toddlers. However, the extent to which the different urinary species of the target analytes and other components are recovered after the urine is extracted from these absorbent materials is unknown. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the extraction recovery from disposable diapers, cotton pads, and gauzes of the free versus glucuronidated urinary species of three example chemicals: bisphenol A, triclosan, and 4-methylumbelliferone. Although the glucuronides were almost fully recovered, the free species were not. Our results suggest that, in addition to other sampling considerations, the binding affinity and extraction recovery of the target biomarkers to the material used to collect the urine should be considered. Alternative collection approaches that do not require such an extraction (e.g., urine bags routinely used in hospitals) may be worth exploring. Despite its shortcomings, having urinary concentrations for biomonitoring considerably strengthens the exposure assessment, particularly for infants and young toddlers, and the benefits of including biomonitoring data outweigh their potential limitations.

  4. Experimental Evaluation Of A Single-basin Solar Still Using Different Absorbing Materials: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R.TELTUMBADE,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Single-basin solar stills can be used for water desalination. Probably, the are considered the best solution for water production in remote,arid to semi-arid, small communities, where fresh water isunavailable.however,the amount of distilled water produced per unit area is somewhat low which makes the single-basin solar still unacceptable in some instances. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using different absorbing materials in a solar still, and thuds enhance the productivity of water. Experimental result show that the productivity of distilled water was enhance for some matereals.

  5. 吸音材料的发展现状与趋势%Development Status-quo of Absorbing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 刘亚

    2013-01-01

      本文综述了吸音材料的原理及其分类,主要分析了多孔吸音材料的发展与现状,并重点介绍了非织造吸音材料的的吸音优势、影响因素以及研究进展。%The mechanism and classification of sound-absorbing materials were introduced in this paper. Based on presentation of the advantages, influencing factors and development status-quo of sound-absorbing materials, especially nonwoven sound-absorbing material, the authors gave some suggestions on developing high-performance sound-absorbing materials.

  6. Scientists Identify New Quaternary Materials for Solar Cell Absorbers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Research provides insight for exploring use of earth-abundant quaternary semiconductors for large-scale solar cell applications. For large-scale solar electricity generation, it is critical to find new material that is Earth abundant and easily manufactured. Previous experimental studies suggest that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} could be a strong candidate absorber materials for large-scale thin-film solar cells due to its optimal bandgap, high adsorption coefficient, and ease of synthesis. However, due to the complicated nature of the quaternary compound, it is unclear whether other quaternary compounds have physical properties suitable for solar cell application. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Fudan University, and University College London have performed systematic searches of quaternary semiconductors using a sequential cation mutation method in which the material properties of the quaternary compounds can be derived and understood through the evolution from the binary, to ternary, and to quaternary compounds. The searches revealed that in addition to Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} are also suitable quaternary materials for solar cell absorbers. Through the extensive study of defect and alloy properties of these materials, the researchers propose that to maximize solar cell performance, growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal and the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} alloy will be beneficial in improving solar cell performance.

  7. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

  8. The Effect of Reflector with Sound-Absorbing Material on Supersonic Jet Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.-H. KWEON; M. TSUCHIDA; Y. MIYAZATO; T. AOKI; H.-D. KIM; T. SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental work to investigate the effect of a reflector on supersonic jet noise radiated from a convergent-divergent nozzle with a design Mach number 2.0. In the present study, a metal reflector and reflectors made of three different sound-absorbing materials (grass wool and polyurethane foam) were employed,and the reflector size was varied. Acoustic measurement is carried out to obtain the acoustic characteristics such as frequency, amplitude of screech tone and overall sound pressure level (OASPL). A high-quality schlieren optical system is used to visualize the detailed structure of supersonic jet. The results obtained show that the acoustic characteristics of supersonic jet noise are strongly dependent upon the jet pressure ratio and the reflector size. It is also found that the reflector with sound-absorbing material reduces the screech tone amplitude by about 5-13dB and the overall sound pressure levels by about 2-5dB, compared with those of the metal reflector.

  9. Thin absorber EUV photomask based on mixed Ni and TaN material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Derrick; Bagge, Patrick; Khaw, Ian; Sun, Lei; Wood, Obert; Chen, Yulu; Kim, Ryoung-han; Qi, Zhengqing John; Shi, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Lithographic patterning at the 7 and 5 nm nodes will likely require EUV (λ=13.5 nm) lithography for many of the critical levels. All optical elements in an EUV scanner are reflective which requires the EUV photomask to be illuminated at an angle to its normal. Current scanners have an incidence of 6 degree, but future designs will be properties of the Ni-Ta nano-composite material. Finite integral method and effective medium theory-based transfer matrix method have been independently developed to analyze the performance of the nano-composite absorption layer. We show that inserting 15% volume fraction Ni nanoparticles into 40-nm of TaN absorber material can reduce the reflection below 2% over the EUV range. Numerical simulations confirm that the reduced reflectivity is due to the increased absorption of Ni, while scattering only contributes to approximately 0.2% of the reduction in reflectivity.

  10. The results and analysis of irradiation experiments conducted on reactor vessel plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Carter, R.G.; Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper documents the extensive amount of experimental work on radiation damage to reactor vessel materials carried out by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) and others in support of a licensing effort to restart the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor pressure vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.19% and 0.63% were heat treated to produce different microstructures. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4%) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures, 500 F (260 C) and 550 F (288 C), to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The results of this irradiation testing and additional data from a DOE/Sandia National Laboratories irradiation study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent, but varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences, and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response. A mixed effect of microstructure/heat treatment on the materials` irradiation response was noted. Phosphorus potentially played a role in the irradiation response of the low nickel material irradiated at 500 F (288 C) but did not show prominence in the irradiations for the same material conducted at 500 F (260 C).

  11. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Crespo, M.; Baselga, J.; Pozuelo, J.

    2016-05-01

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme of hydrogenated derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (HDGEBA) and m-xylylenediamine; X-ray diffractograms of pristine CNT

  12. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  13. Shock-Absorbing Materials. Report 2. Cellular Concrete as a Backpacking Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of low-density cellular concrete, having an oven-try unit weight of 50 pcf or less, as a backpacking material for deeply buried protective...difficulty during prototype use of cellular concrete as a backpacking , such as lift heights, cold joints, temperature problems, and water-saturation problems, are also explored. (Author)

  14. Materials characterization of irradiated spectralon from the NIF target chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Robert; Frieders, Gene; Jensen, Wayne; Pearson, Mark; Datte, Phil

    2015-08-01

    The Near Backscatter Imager (NBI) participates in nearly every kind of experiment conducted at NIF and measures backscatter, the result of the interaction between incident laser light and plasma waves at a target. Large Spectralon plates, on the order of a hundreds of mm per side, are used as Lambertian scatter components for the NBI diagnostics. The plates were deployed in 2009 and replaced in April of 2014. All NBI assemblies suffered reflectivity degradation, and some of these changes were spatially localized defects observed after irradiation to a cumulative combined neutron and Υ dose of 0.038 Gy. The growth of a defect was correlated to the combined cumulative neutron and Υ radiation dose from NIF fusion shots. Spectralon plates that were irradiated to cumulative combined neutron and Υ dose of 0.74 Gy were characterized for materials and mechanical changes with the following techniques: RBS, FTIR, XPS, SEM, EDX and tensile tests. These tests indicate that the bulk Spectralon did not measurably degrade but there are discolorations that affect the reflectivity. Surface analysis indicates that the surface CF2 species re-forms to make various organic and CFx species.

  15. Behavior of nuclear materials irradiated with a dual ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Lionel; Velişa, Gihan; Debelle, Aurélien; Miro, Sandrine; Garrido, Frédérico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Synergistic effects of nuclear (Sn) and electronic (Se) energy losses are investigated by comparing the damage accumulated in selected oxide (c-ZrO2, MgO, Gd2Ti2O7) and carbide (SiC) single crystals irradiated with single and dual low and high energy ion beams. Channeling results show that the Sn/Se synergy induces a strong decrease of the damage in MgO and SiC (where amorphization is prevented) and almost no effects in c-ZrO2 and Gd2Ti2O7. Raman and TEM results confirm this statement. The healing of defects generated by nuclear collisions in MgO and SiC is due to the electronic excitation produced in the wake of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative Sn/Se effects may preserve the integrity of nuclear materials.

  16. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Absorbent Nanoscale Material Based on Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Carlos H; Arango, Carlos A

    2016-04-21

    Although hydrogels have been widely investigated for their use in materials science, nanotechnology, and novel pharmaceuticals, mechanistic details explaining their water-absorbent features are not well understood. We performed an all-atom molecular dynamics study of the structural transformation of chitosan nanohydrogels due to water absorption. We analyzed the conformation of dry, nanoscaled chitosan, the structural modifications that emerge during the process of water inclusion, and the dynamics of this biopolymer in the presence of nature's solvent. Two sets of nanoscaled, single-chained chitosan models were simulated: one to study the swelling dependence upon the degree of self-cross-linking and other to observe the response with respect to the degree of protonation. We verified that nanohydrogels keep their ability to absorb water and grow, regardless of their degree of cross-linking. Noteworthy, we found that the swelling behavior of nanoscaled chitosan is pH-dependent, and it is considerably more limited than that of larger scale hydrogels. Thus, our study suggests that properties of nanohydrogels are significantly different from those of larger hydrogels. These findings might be important in the design of novel controlled-release and targeted drug-delivery systems based on chitosan.

  17. RF structure design of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxing; He, Yuan; Xu, Xianbo; Zhang, Zhouli; Wang, Fengfeng; Dou, Weiping; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Tieshan

    2017-10-01

    The radio frequency structure design of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the front end of China Material Irradiation Facility (CMIF), which is an accelerator based neutron irradiation facility for fusion reactor material qualification, has been completed. The RFQ is specified to accelerate 10 mA continuous deuteron beams from the energies of 20 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u within the vane length of 5250 mm. The working frequency of the RFQ is selected to 162.5 MHz and the inter-vane voltage is set to 65 kV. Four-vane cavity type is selected and the cavity structure is designed drawing on the experience of China Initiative Accelerator Driven System (CIADS) Injector II RFQ. In order to reduce the azimuthal asymmetry of the field caused from errors in fabrication and assembly, a frequency separation between the working mode and its nearest dipole mode is reached to 17.66 MHz by utilizing 20 pairs of π-mode stabilizing loops (PISLs) distributed along the longitudinal direction with equal intervals. For the purpose of tuning, 100 slug tuners were introduced to compensate the errors caused by machining and assembly. In order to obtain a homogeneous electrical field distribution along cavity, vane cutbacks are introduced and output endplate is modified. Multi-physics study of the cavity with radio frequency power and water cooling is performed to obtain the water temperature tuning coefficients. Through comparing to the worldwide CW RFQs, it is indicated that the power density of the designed structure is moderate for operation under continuous wave (CW) mode.

  18. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  19. FABRICATION OF GD CONTAINING DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL SHEET FOR NEUTRON ABSORBING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG CHOI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A duplex stainless steel sheet with 1 wt.% gadolinium was fabricated for a neutron absorbing material with high strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and low cost as well as high neutron absorption capability. The microstructure of the as-cast specimen has typical duplex phases including 31% ferrite and 69% austenite. Main alloy elements like chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, and gadolinium (Gd are relatively uniformly distributed in the matrix. Gadolinium rich precipitates were present in the grains and at the grain boundaries. The solution treatment at 1070 °C for 50 minutes followed by the hot-rolling above 950 °C after keeping the sheet at 1200 °C for 1.5 hours are important points of the optimum condition to produce a 6 mm-thick plate without cracking.

  20. Radar absorbing materials based on titanium thin film obtained by sputtering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Lilian Soethe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium thin films with nanometer thicknesses were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using the triode magnetron sputtering technique. It was observed that the titanium thin film-polymeric substrate set attenuates the energy of the incident electromagnetic wave in the frequency range of 8 to 12 GHz. This result allows to consider this set as a radar absorbing material, which may be employed in automobile, telecommunication, aerospace, medical, and electroelectronic areas. Results of the reflectivity show that the attenuation depends on the thin film thickness, as a determining factor. Thin films with 25 to 100 nm thickness values show attenuation of the electromagnetic wave energy from around 20 to 50%. Analyses by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry provided information about the thickness of the thin films studied. Hall effect analyses contributed to better understand the influence of the thin film thickness on the electron mobility and consequently on absorption properties.

  1. The hybrid of SnO2 nanoparticle and polypyrrole aerogel: an excellent electromagnetic wave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Dai, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Wanchun; Wu, Fan; Xie, Aming

    2016-07-01

    As a kind of costless and lightweight material, SnO2 nanoparticles@polypyrrole hybrid aerogels have been synthesized and displayed electromagnetic wave absorbing (EWA) performance. Only with 10 wt% of nano-SnO2 filler loading in wax, effective EWA bandwidth of the hybrid aerogel can reach 7.28 GHz which is the widest lightweight EWA material among the reported absorbents. Through the regulation of sample thicknesses, effective EWA at lower frequencies can also be achieved. It was demonstrated that this aerogel can be used as an effective lightweight broadband EWA material.

  2. Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric and photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Ilya; West, D Vincent; Torres, Maria; Gou, Gaoyang; Stein, David M; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Guannan; Gallo, Eric M; Akbashev, Andrew R; Davies, Peter K; Spanier, Jonathan E; Rappe, Andrew M

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a candidate class of materials for use in photovoltaic devices, and for the coupling of light absorption with other functional properties. In these materials, the strong inversion symmetry breaking that is due to spontaneous electric polarization promotes the desirable separation of photo-excited carriers and allows voltages higher than the bandgap, which may enable efficiencies beyond the maximum possible in a conventional p-n junction solar cell. Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as sol-gel thin-film deposition and sputtering. Recent work has shown how a decrease in ferroelectric layer thickness and judicious engineering of domain structures and ferroelectric-electrode interfaces can greatly increase the current harvested from ferroelectric absorber materials, increasing the power conversion efficiency from about 10(-4) to about 0.5 per cent. Further improvements in photovoltaic efficiency have been inhibited by the wide bandgaps (2.7-4 electronvolts) of ferroelectric oxides, which allow the use of only 8-20 per cent of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost and non-toxic elements using conventional solid-state methods: [KNbO3]1 - x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 - δ]x (KBNNO). These oxides exhibit both ferroelectricity and a wide variation of direct bandgaps in the range 1.1-3.8 electronvolts. In particular, the x = 0.1 composition is polar at room temperature, has a direct bandgap of 1.39 electronvolts and has a photocurrent density approximately 50 times larger than that of the classic ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 material. The ability of KBNNO to absorb three to six times more solar energy than the current ferroelectric materials suggests a route to viable ferroelectric semiconductor-based cells for solar energy conversion and

  3. [A new embolic material: super absorbent polymer (SAP) microsphere and its embolic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Y; Hori, S; Minamitani, K; Hashimoto, T; Yoshimura, H; Nomura, N; Ishida, T; Fukuda, H; Tomoda, K; Nakamura, H

    1996-01-01

    SAP-Microsphere (sodium acrylic acid-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has the ability to absorb fluids within a few minutes and increase its diameter. Its diameter can also be calibrated. The diameters in ionic contrast material and human serum are 2.1 and 3.5 times larger, respectively, than the original size. It can pass through a microcatheter with an ionic contrast material, and swells at the occluding point into the desired size. It can be recognized under fluoroscopy due to its absorption of contrast material. A total of 10 rabbit kidney embolizations were done followed by resection in 1-14 weeks. Recanalization was absent in all cases. No adhesion to the perirenal tissue was found. Limited reactive change in endothelial cells was found at one week. No changes in the smooth muscle layer were found at any time during the study. Limited infiltration of neutrophil cells was found in perivascular tissue within a period of one week. SAP-Microspheres maintained their spherical shape during a 14-week period. Extensive fibrosis and calcification were found after 4 weeks. SAP-Microspheres are promising as an embolic agent to obtain satisfactory results of embolization therapy.

  4. Osiris, an irradiation reactor for material and nuclear fuel testing; Osiris, reacteur d'irradiation pour materiaux et combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubiere, S.; Durande-Ayme, P. [CEA Saclay, Div. Nucleaire Energie, Dept. Reacteurs et Nucleaire Service, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since 1966 the Osiris reactor located at Saclay has been participating in French and international irradiation programs for research and development in the field of nuclear fuel and materials. Today the French atomic commission (Cea) pursues irradiation programs in support of existing reactors, mainly PWR, strengthening its own knowledge and the one of its clients on fuel and material behaviour under irradiation, pertaining to plant life-time issues and high burn-up. For instance important programs have been performed on pressure vessel steel aging, pellet-clad interaction, internal component aging and mox fuel qualification. With the arising of the Generation 4 research and development programs, the Osiris reactor has developed capacities to undertake material and fuel irradiation under high temperature conditions. Routine irradiations such as the doping of silicon or the production of radio-nuclides for medical or imaging purposes are made on a daily basis. The specificities of the Osiris reactor are presented in the first part of this paper while the second part focuses on the experimental devices available in Osiris to perform irradiation in light water reactor conditions and in high temperature reactor conditions and on their associated programs.

  5. Irradiation of Polyimide and Neutron Poison Materials by Using a HANARO Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Shin, Y. T.; Kim, B. G.; Seo, C. G.; Kim, Y. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A material capsule system has been developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr).This capsule system has been actively utilized for the various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) and reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys of parts of nuclear fuel assembly. Recently, irradiation tests of neutron poison materials and Polyimide were requested by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) and Hanyang University, respectively. As a candidate material of control rod of AP1000 reactor, Ag and Ag-In-Cd alloys were requested to be irradiated in HANARO by WEC. Polyimide has been studied as a shielding material against thermal and fast neutrons. The irradiation of these new materials which might affect the safety of a reactor was carried out for the first time in HANARO. As a preliminary test, small amount of these materials were determined to be inserted in a KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel) irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. Due to the new materials, the irradiation test of the 07M-13N capsule was examined and approved by the 'HANARO Safety Review Committee'. The 07M-13N capsule was safely irradiated for 95.19 days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 230{approx}420 .deg. C. The specimens of these new materials were irradiated up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 1.13x1021(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV) and the dpa of the irradiated specimens were evaluated as 1.87.

  6. 2D Homologous Perovskites as Light-Absorbing Materials for Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-06-24

    We report on the fabrication and properties of the semiconducting 2D (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)(n-1)Pb(n)I(3n+1) (n = 1, 2, 3, and 4) perovskite thin films. The band gaps of the series decrease with increasing n values, from 2.24 eV (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1) to 1.52 eV CH3NH3PbI3 (n = ∞). The compounds exhibit strong light absorption in the visible region, accompanied by strong photoluminescence at room temperature, rendering them promising light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. Moreover, we find that thin films of the semi-2D perovskites display an ultrahigh surface coverage as a result of the unusual film self-assembly that orients the [Pb(n)I(3n+1)](-) layers perpendicular to the substrates. We have successfully implemented this 2D perovskite family in solid-state solar cells, and obtained an initial power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, featuring an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 929 mV and a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 9.42 mA/cm(2) from the n = 3 compound. This result is even more encouraging considering that the device retains its performance after long exposure to a high-humidity environment. Overall, the homologous 2D halide perovskites define a promising class of stable and efficient light-absorbing materials for solid-state photovoltaics and other applications.

  7. New ion beam materials laboratory for materials modification and irradiation effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: Zhangy1@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Crespillo, M.L.; Xue, H.; Jin, K.; Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Fontana, C.L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Graham, J.T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Weber, W.J., E-mail: wjweber@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion–solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  8. New Ion Beam Materials Laboratory for Materials Modification and Irradiation Effects Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Crespillo, Miguel L [University of Tennessee (UT); Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jin, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Chien-Hung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fontana, Cristiano L [ORNL; Graham, Dr. Joseph T. [The University of Tennessee; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  9. Morphological and photophysical characterisation of novel absorber materials for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Hannah; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Meister, Michael; Howard, Ian H.; Laquai, Frederic [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Janietz, Silvia [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this contribution new tailor-made fluorene based terpolymers are investigated as absorber materials in organic solar cells. These terpolymers contain different contents of dialkyl-substituted diphenyl-benzopyrazine or diphenyl-thienopyrazine and triphenylamine units and possess bandgaps between 1.3 and 1.8 eV. Power conversion efficiencies up to 3% with open circuit voltages close to 1 V are obtained in blends with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) even without prior thermal treatment. The morphology of the blends is investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and correlated with the results obtained from I-V-measurements under simulated sunlight. Photophysical experiments such as steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are employed to understand the effect of variation of the polymer structure on exciton dissociation and charge recombination. Using a combination of these methods the understanding of the structure-property-relationship of these materials is extended towards the molecular scale and the impact of molecular structure and processing conditions on charge generation, transport and recombination processes can be elucidated.

  10. The influence of basic composition and microstructures on the properties of Ni-Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. G.; Menshova, S. B.; Klimov, A. N.; Vergazov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    This work deals with the research into the electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials obtained by the ceramic method under different technological conditions. There has been ascertained the influence of basic composition and microstructures on the level of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Ni-Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials. The results indicate that increasing the surplus Fe2O3 up to 51.0 mol% leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. It can be explained by increase of the permeability and permittivity of a ferrite.

  11. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  12. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  13. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950`s are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  14. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  15. Coupling Hollow Fe3O4-Fe Nanoparticles with Graphene Sheets for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Zhu, Chunling; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2016-02-17

    We developed a strategy for coupling hollow Fe3O4-Fe nanoparticles with graphene sheets for high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbing material. The hollow Fe3O4-Fe nanoparticles with average diameter and shell thickness of 20 and 8 nm, respectively, were uniformly anchored on the graphene sheets without obvious aggregation. The minimal reflection loss RL values of the composite could reach -30 dB at the absorber thickness ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 mm, greatly superior to the solid Fe3O4-Fe/G composite and most magnetic EM wave absorbing materials recently reported. Moreover, the addition amount of the composite into paraffin matrix was only 18 wt %.

  16. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-12-14

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows for

  17. Disk emission and absorption lines in LMXB. Note on the physical conditions of an absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    We show that the continuum X-ray spectrum of 4U 1630-472 with iron absorption lines can be satisfactorily modeled by the spectrum from an accretion disk atmosphere. We performed full radiative transfer calculations using our code ATM21 to model the emission from an accretion disk surface that is seen at different viewing angles. Computed models are then fitted to the high-resolution X-ray spectra of 4U 1630-472 obtained by {\\it Suzaku} satellite. Absorption lines of highly ionized iron originating in a hot accretion-disk atmospheres are important part of the observed line profile, and can be an alternative or complementary explanation to the wind model usually favored for this type of sources. Next, assuming that absorption lines originate from the wind illuminated by X-ray central source in LMXBs, we can put constrains on the wind location only if we know the volume density number of the absorbing material. There are a few derivations of the distance to the wind in X-ray binaries. We show here, that the dens...

  18. Evaluation of the acoustic and non-acoustic properties of sound absorbing materials using a three-microphone impedance tube

    CERN Document Server

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine; Panneton, Raymond; 10.1016/j.apacoust.2010.01.007

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward application of an indirect method based on a three-microphone impedance tube setup to determine the non-acoustic properties of a sound absorbing porous material. First, a three-microphone impedance tube technique is used to measure some acoustic properties of the material (i.e., sound absorption coefficient, sound transmission loss, effective density and effective bulk modulus) regarded here as an equivalent fluid. Second, an indirect characterization allows one to extract its non-acoustic properties (i.e., static airflow resistivity, tortuosity, viscous and thermal characteristic lengths) from the measured effective properties and the material open porosity. The procedure is applied to four different sound absorbing materials and results of the characterization are compared with existing direct and inverse methods. Predictions of the acoustic behavior using an equivalent fluid model and the found non-acoustic properties are in good agreement with impedance tube measureme...

  19. Hydrogen permeability technique in situ reactor irradiation for ITER structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.; Chikhray, E.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.K. [National Univ. of Kazakhastan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Cherepnin, Y.S.; Kenzhin, E.A.; Basov, A.A.; Kolodeshnikov, A.A. [National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Krasnoarmeyskaya (Kazakhstan)

    1995-10-01

    This work develops the technique of hydrogen diffusion parameters measurements in metal materials during the process of reactor irradiation. The possibility of irradiation stimulated hydrogen diffusion for 08Cr18Ni10Ti was obtained. Constants of diffusion, permeation and solution while the process of irradiation were measured as a result of the work. Formally calculated activation energies of diffusion and permeation were obtained to decrease while the solution heat was increasing. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Ion irradiation testing of Improved Accident Tolerant Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tesmer, Joseph R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    This report summarizes the results of ion irradiations conducted on two FeCrAl alloys (named as ORNL A&B) for improving the accident tolerance of LWR nuclear fuel cladding. After irradiation with 1.5 MeV protons to ~0.5 to ~1 dpa and 300°C nanoindentations were performed on the cross-sections along the ion range. An increase in hardness was observed in both alloys. Microstructural analysis shows radiation induced defects.

  1. Electromagnetic behavior of radar absorbing materials based on Ca hexaferrite modified with Co-Ti ions and doped with La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Aparecida da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM are compounds that absorb incidental electromagnetic radiation in tuned frequencies and dissipate it as heat. Its preparation involves the adequate processing of polymeric matrices filled with compounds that act as radar absorbing centers in the microwave range. This work shows the electromagnetic evaluation of RAM based on CoTi and La doped Ca hexaferrite. Vibrating Sample Magnetization analyses show that ion substitution promoted low values for the parameters of saturation magnetization (123.65 Am2/kg and coercive field (0.07 T indicating ferrite softening. RAM samples obtained using different hexaferrite concentrations (40-80 per cent, w/w show variations in complex permeability and permittivity parameters and also in the performance of incidental radiation attenuation. Microwave attenuation values between 40 and 98 per cent were obtained.

  2. Validation of the shear punch-tensile correlation technique using irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G. [Loughborough Univ., Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Toloczko, M.B. [Washington State Univ., WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    It was recently demonstrated that tensile data could be successfully related to shear punch data obtained on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) discs for a variety of irradiated alloys exhibiting yield strengths that ranged from 100 to 800 MPa. This implies that the shear punch test might be a viable alternative for obtaining tensile properties using a TEM disk, which is much smaller than even the smallest miniature tensile specimens, especially when irradiated specimens are not available or when they are too radioactive to handle easily. The majority of the earlier tensile-shear punch correlation work was done using a wide variety of unirradiated materials. The current work extends this correlation effort to irradiated materials and demonstrates that the same relationships that related shear punch tests remain valid for irradiated materials. Shear punch tests were performed on two sets of specimens. In the first group, three simple alloys from the {sup 59}Ni isotopic doping series in the solution annealed and cold worked conditions were irradiated at temperatures ranging from 365 to 495 C in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The corresponding tensile data already existed for tensile specimens fabricated from the same raw materials and irradiated side-by-side with the disks. In the second group, three variants of 316 stainless steel were irradiated in FFTF at 5 temperatures between 400 and 730 C to doses ranging from 12.5 to 88 dpa. The specimens were in the form of both TEM and miniature tensile specimens and were irradiated side-by-side.

  3. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials. Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the first preliminary irradiation test: 97M-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kimio; Sozawa, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Suzuki, Yoshio [Nuclear Engineering, Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Saito, Tamotsu; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the first capsule, designated 97M-13A, to fast neutron fluences of 1.2-1.8x10{sup 24} m{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) at temperatures of 573, 673 and 843 K. In the PIE, measurements were made on (1) dimensional changes, (2) thermal expansions, (3) X-ray parameters and (4) {gamma}-ray spectra. The results for the carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composites were similar to those in existing literatures. The temperature monitor effect was observed both for SiC fiber- and particle-reinforced SiC composites as in the case of monolithic SiC. Namely, the curve of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these specimens showed a rapid drop above a temperature around the irradiation temperature +100 K in the first ramp (ramp rate: 10 K/min), while in the second ramp the CTE curves were almost the same as those of un-irradiated SiC specimens. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  5. A computational model for heterogeneous heating during pulsed laser irradiation of polymers doped with light-absorbing microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Doping of polymers with light-absorbing microparticles to increase their optical properties is a commonly used pre-treatment technique in laser processing of polymers. The presence of these particles plays an important role during laser heating of the polymer that influences its surface...... characteristics. This work presents a study based on a computational model of laser heating of polymer doped with light-absorbing microparticles accounting for the heterogeneous nature of heating. The work aims at gaining a fundamental insight into the nature of the heating process and to understand the role...... of microparticles. The results suggest that apart from the laser intensity and pulse duration, the properties of the microparticles including their size and distribution also play an important role during the laser heating of polymers....

  6. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  7. The Cyogenic Evaluation of Irradiated Composite Materials for Use in Composite Pressure Vessels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. (HEI) proposes to continue the characterization of the cryogenic evaluation of irradiated composite materials for use in composite...

  8. Materials irradiation facilities at the high-power Swiss proton accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Werner; Dai, Yong; Glasbrenner, Heike; Aebersold, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    Within the Swiss proton accelerator complex at the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), several irradiation facilities are operated for investigation of materials behavior under high-dose irradiation conditions as well as for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In LiSoR (liquid solid reaction), a liquid metal loop connected to the 72 MeV proton accelerator Injector 1, steel samples are irradiated while being in contact with flowing lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) at elevated temperatures and under tensile stress. In the spallation neutron source SINQ, the STIP program (SINQ Target Irradiation Program) allows materials irradiation under realistic spallation conditions, i.e. in a mixed spectrum of 570 MeV protons and spallation neutrons. Hundreds of samples, mainly austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels such as 316L, T91 or F82H, were irradiated to doses up to 20 dpa as part of STIP. These also included steel samples in contact with liquid Hg and liquid LBE. MEGAPIE (MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment), a liquid metal target employing LBE, operated in SINQ during the second half of 2006, can be taken as a materials irradiation facility on its own. Adjacent to the target position, SINQ houses a neutron irradiation rabbit system serving activation analysis and isotope production.

  9. Irradiation characteristics examination technology development of irradiated nuclear material and high burn-up fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Y. S.; Oh, Y. W. [and others

    2002-12-01

    The research and development for the first year of the project are performed through specialization of researchers, information from aborad and international cooperation, securement of advanced nuclear technology, development and installation of test equipment, application of external man-power, establishment of advanced test techniques, and certified test method. 1. Absolute efficiency measurement examination technology development of gamma scanning system 2. Sample preparation technology development of SEM and EPMA for micro-structural observation and chemical composition analysis 3. Irradiated high burn-up nuclear fuel transportation and test for PWR 4. Development of hot cell examination techniques and equipment 5. Acquirement of KOLAS system. In addition to the project, the following activities are carried out as follows; - PIE of Hanaro fuel(KH99H-001) - PIE of U-Mo advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of Hi-MET advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of DUPIC project - Hot cell examination of Hanaro irradiated capsule - Leaching test of PWR fuels - Surveillance test of PWR vessels - Mechanical test of CANDU pressure tubes.

  10. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff <0.95 or Keff <0.98 or Keff < 1.0 depending on the design specification for the service...

  11. Evolution of the nanostructure of VVER-1000 RPV materials under neutron irradiation and post irradiation annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Chernobaeva, A. A.; Shtrombakh, Y. I.; Russell, K. F.; Nanstad, R. K.; Erak, D. Y.; Zabusov, O. O.

    2009-04-01

    A high nickel VVER-1000 (15Kh2NMFAA) base metal (1.34 wt% Ni, 0.47% Mn, 0.29% Si and 0.05% Cu), and a high nickel (12Kh2N2MAA) weld metal (1.77 wt% Ni, 0.74% Mn, 0.26% Si and 0.07% Cu) have been characterized by atom probe tomography to determine the changes in the microstructure during neutron irradiation to high fluences. The base metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 14.9 × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV), and the weld metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 11.5 × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV). High number densities of ˜2-nm-diameter Ni-, Si- and Mn-enriched nanoclusters were found in the neutron irradiated base and weld metals. No significant copper enrichment was associated with these nanoclusters and no copper-enriched precipitates were observed. The number densities of these nanoclusters correlate with the shifts in the ΔT 41 J ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These nanoclusters were present after a post irradiation anneal of 2 h at 450 °C, but had dissolved into the matrix after 24 h at 450 °C. Phosphorus, nickel, silicon and to a lesser extent manganese were found to be segregated to the dislocations.

  12. Collaborative investigations of in-service irradiated material from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suzuki, M.; Kohsaka, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel that has been irradiated during normal service. Just such an evaluation is currently being conducted on material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The research is being jointly performed at the Tokai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  13. An investigation of neutron irradiation test on superplastic zirconia-ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Taiju; Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Hayashi, Kimio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Motohashi, Yoshinobu [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    A neutron irradiation test on superplastic ceramic materials at high temperature has been proposed as an innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). For the effective execution of the test, we reviewed the superplastic deformation mechanism of ceramic materials and discussed neutron irradiation effects on the superplastic deformation process of stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (TZP), which is a representative superplastic ceramic material. As a result, we pointed out that the decrease in the activation energy for superplastic deformation is expected by the radiation-enhanced diffusion. We selected a fast neutron fluence of 5x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and an irradiation temperature of about 600degC as test conditions for the first irradiation test on TZP and decided to perform a preliminary irradiation test by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Moreover, we estimated the radioactivity of irradiated TZP and indicated that it is in the order of 10{sup 10} Bq/g (about 0.3 Ci/g) immediately after irradiation to a thermal neutron fluence of 3x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and that it decays to about 1/100 in a year. (author)

  14. Studies of material properties under irradiation at BNL Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    CERN Document Server

    Simos, N; Ludewig, H; Mokhov, N; Hurh, P; Misek, J

    2012-01-01

    Effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been under study using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV Linac. The primary objectives of the study that includes a wide array of materials and alloys ranging between low and high-Z are to (a) observe changes in physio-mechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identify possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain material seize to maintain integrity, (c) study the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) correlate radiation damage effects of different species such as energetic protons and neutrons on materials by utilizing reactor and particle accelerator experience data. These objectives are specifically being addressed in the latest material irradiation study linked to the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). Observations on irradiation effects on m...

  15. Synthesis of Novel UV Absorbers Bisindolylmethanes and Investigation of Their Applications on Cotton-Based Textile Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Nil Ergindemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modified textiles, especially UV-protective, antibacterial and antimicrobial ones, have become the focus of great interest. In this study, several new UV absorbers, bis(indolylmethane derivatives, were synthesized and grafted onto polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA. Their application properties on cotton-based textile materials were determined; the UV protection factor values of the modified fabrics were measured (UPF; and the antibacterial features of the fabrics were tested.

  16. Space environmental durability of spacecrafts materials using ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Lee, I. T.; Ok, J. G. [Seoul Nat. Univ., Seoil (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Simulation of space proton effects by ion beam irradiation : due to diverse energy spectrums and fluxes of space protons are distributed in space according to the altitude and location in orbits, hard to simulate simply on the ground. JPL-1991 solar proton event is chosen to simulate the specific proton model. Cyclotrons for radiological treatments are utilized as main facility which can accelerate protons with MeV energy and possible to simulate the fluxes. Specimens are prepared with ITO aluminized polyimide Kapton and VDA Mylar. Mechanical, chemical changes analyses, and visual analysis of crystalline change : for assessment of mechanical properties of irradiated specimens, 50N micro tensile system is used for the ultimate tensile strength and elongation. Additional ESPI equipment can measure the elongation rate, yield strength, and elastic modulus. XPS is used for strength change from the molecular binding energy in crystal. SEM is also used for morphological visula analysis.

  17. A Study on Hybrid Absorbing Material with Multilayer Metallic Wire Grids%多层金属栅网混合结构吸波特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彦明; 唐守柱; 何丙发

    2013-01-01

    文中采用传输矩阵理论和二端口级联网络分析了多层金属栅网混合结构的吸波特性,通过将多层金属栅网与多层介质阻抗匹配,在介质厚度不变的情况下,明显提高了混合结构的吸收峰值;同时,通过调整每层金属栅网的半径、间距,可调整混合结构吸收峰值位置,给出了典型混合结构的仿真计算结果.结果表明,混合结构吸收峰值可提高6 dB以上,在保证吸收效果的前提下,调整了吸收峰值的位置,可根据要求用于设计不同频段的吸波材料.%Absorbing properties of hybrid material with multilayer metallic wire grids is studied in this paper, with the transfer matrix method and two ports transmission formula of microwave simulation technology. Utilizing the impedance matching between multilayer metallic wire grids and multilayer absorbing material , we can improve maximum absorbing of the hybrid absorbing material, under the thichness of the multilayer absorbing material is invariant. And we can adjust the location of maximum absorbing with adjusting the radious and space of multilayer metallic wire grids. Some typical optimization simulation results are given. The results show that the designed maximum absorbing of the hybrid absorbing material with multilayer metallic wire grids can improve over 6 dB,And adjusted the location of maximum absorbing under keeping the good absorbing properties of hybrid material. The techniques can design different frequency absorbing material with design requirements.

  18. Optical property of SmAlO3 applied as 1.06μm laser absorbing material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怡青; 韩朋德; 张乐; 王丽熙; 张其土

    2013-01-01

    SmAlO3 powders were successfully synthesized through the citrate sol-gel combustion method. The phase evolution of the prepared powders were characterized using thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was applied to examine the purity of the powders. The re-flective properties of SmAlO3 with changing temperatures were investigated by ultraviolet-visible near-infrared spectrophotometer (UVPC) specular reflection spectrum. The results displayed that pure SmAlO3 phase with preferable reflectivity at 1.06μm could be obtained at 900 ºC for 2 h. Furthermore, the reflectivity of SmAlO3 at various temperatures from-40 to 500 ºC transformed within ±0.1%, and all maintained below 1%at 1.06μm. The absorbance of SmAlO3 in the resin solution was 2.134 and the moral absorption coefficient was about 384.8 in the work. The study indicated that SmAlO3 powders may be a promising kind of heat resistant absorb-ing material for 1.06μm laser defense, which could be further applied to laser absorbing coatings with a wide range of temperatures.

  19. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  20. Development of Multiscale Materials Modeling Techniques and Coarse- Graining Strategies for Predicting Materials Degradation in Extreme Irradiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Exposure of metallic structural materials to irradiation environments results in significant microstructural evolution, property changes and performance degradation, which limits the extended operation of current generation light water reactors and restricts the design of advanced fission and fusion reactors [1-8]. This effect of irradiation on materials microstructure and properties is a classic example of an inherently multiscale phenomenon, as schematically illustrated in Figure 1a. Pertinent processes range from the atomic nucleus to structural component length scales, spanning more than 15 orders of magnitude. Time scales bridge more than 22 orders of magnitude, with the shortest being less than a femtosecond [1,8]. Further, the mix of radiation-induced features formed and the corresponding property degradation depend on a wide range of material and irradiation variables. This emphasizes the importance of closely integrating models with high-resolution experimental characterization of the evolving radiation- damaged microstructure, including measurements performed in-situ during irradiation. In this article, we review some recent successes through the use of closely coordinated modeling and experimental studies of the defect cluster evolution in irradiated body-centered cubic materials, followed by a discussion of outstanding challenges still to be addressed, which are necessary for the development of comprehensive models of radiation effects in structural materials.

  1. Neutron-irradiation creep of silicon carbide materials beyond the initial transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Ozawa, Kazumi; Shimoda, Kazuya; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.

    2016-09-01

    Irradiation creep beyond the transient regime was investigated for various silicon carbide (SiC) materials. The materials examined included polycrystalline or monocrystalline high-purity SiC, nanopowder sintered SiC, highly crystalline and near-stoichiometric SiC fibers (including Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno SA3, isotopically-controlled Sylramic and Sylramic-iBN fibers), and a Tyranno SA3 fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite fabricated through a nano-infiltration transient eutectic phase process. Neutron irradiation experiments for bend stress relaxation tests were conducted at irradiation temperatures ranging from 430 to 1180 °C up to 30 dpa with initial bend stresses of up to ∼1 GPa for the fibers and ∼300 MPa for the other materials. Initial bend stress in the specimens continued to decrease from 1 to 30 dpa. Analysis revealed that (1) the stress exponent of irradiation creep above 1 dpa is approximately unity, (2) the stress normalized creep rate is ∼1 × 10-7 [dpa-1 MPa-1] at 430-750 °C for the range of 1-30 dpa for most polycrystalline SiC materials, and (3) the effects on irradiation creep of initial microstructures-such as grain boundary, crystal orientation, and secondary phases-increase with increasing irradiation temperature.

  2. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.; Hartman, Katy; Brandt, Riley E.; Polizzotti, Alex; Yang, Chuanxi; Moriarty, Tom; Gradečak, Silvija; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lower process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.

  3. Recommended method for measurement of absorbency of superabsorbent polymers in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro

    2015-01-01

    —laser diffraction particle size analysis, and it allows an easy and reliable measurement of the absorbency of superabsorbent polymers. It is shown in detail how both the definition of the exposure liquid and the definition of the system of SAP particles can be selected so that absorbency can be experimentally...... of superabsorbent polymers in cementitious environments is well determined. It is vital that a generalized agreement over which method should be utilized with this regard is obtained, so large-scale industrial applications can be developed with sufficient quality and safeguards. There ought to be a standard method...... so that the properties of concrete with superabsorbent polymers can be better controlled in practice. In this paper, a technique that can be potentially used as a standard method is developed. The method is based on a measurement technique validated through an international standard procedure...

  4. Characterization of charge carrier lateral conduction in irradiated dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Belhaj, M.; Molinie, P.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2011-11-01

    A characterization method for surface charging analysis on insulators submitted to electron irradiation has been developed. This method, based on the use of two Kelvin probes (KPs), provides details on the transit time motion for injection of both holes and electrons. It can also be used to assess the isotropy of lateral electrical conduction on the sample. The feasibility of this method was tested on fluorinated ethylene propylene (Teflon® FEP) samples. It was found that central electron injection induces rapid surface charge spreading, in contrast to injection of holes. An electrical anisotropic behaviour of the sample was also detected.

  5. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  6. QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF ABSORBED DOSE OF IRRADIATED DRIED FRUIT BY ESR SPECTROSCOPY METHOD%ESR法定量检测干果类辐照食品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟明; 哈益明; 赵永富; 张彦立

    2011-01-01

    以葵花籽、核桃、开心果和榛子为试验材料,研究在0、1.0、3.0、5.0和10.0kGy剂量范围内4种样品辐照剂量与信号强度的关系以及相关性.结果表明:4种样品在辐照前后ESR波谱有明显区别,其信号强度与辐照剂量均呈正相关.辐照后样品的ESR强度和谱形都发生变化,应用ESR法能够鉴定4种食品是否经过辐照.其中核桃和开心果的ESR谱线中心信号左右两侧出现的2个对称小峰证明了纤维素自由基的存在.研究得出核桃的最低检出剂量接近1kGy,其余3种样品的检出剂量更低.本研究证明,应用ESR法能够定量检测干果类食品的吸收剂量.%Sunflower seeds, walnuts, pistachios, and hazelnuts were used as experimental materials which were irradiated at 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10. 0kGy, respectively. The relationships and correlations between ESR signal intensity and irradiation dosages were studied. The results showed that ESR spectra of irradiated samples were obviously different from that of CK, and the ESR signal intensity was positively related with the irradiation dose. After irradiation, the ESR intensity and spectrum shapes all changed, and all four samples were clearly identified irradiated or unirradiated. The appearances of the two weak satellite lines which situated left and right to the intense singlet line in walnuts and pistachios proved the existence of cellulose radical. The detection dose limit of irradiated walnut was 1 kGy, and the detection limits of the other three samples were lower than 1 kGy. In conclusion, the ESR method could be used to irradiated.

  7. Development of IASCC Test Facility for Neutron-irradiated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Kim, D. J.; Hwang, S. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    From literature review and benchmark studies on recent technologies for IASCC evaluation of highly irradiated stainless steels, the requirements to establish IASCC test facility were drawn. According to the requirements, IASCC test facility for assessment of life time and integrity of RVIs in Korean PWRs will be designed in detail and constructed in hot cells of KAERI. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) has been regarded as the main cause for intergranular cracking incidents in reactor vessel internals (RVIs) in light water reactors (LWRs). IASCC was reported in a fuel rod in the 1960s, a control rod in the 1970s, and a baffle former bolt in recent years. For a proactive management of IASCC of these components, a lot of work has been performed in boiling water reactors (BWRs). From these works, IASCC mechanism and its relation to radiation-induced segregation (RIS), neutron fluence, and applied stress were proposed to describe IASCC behavior of RVIs in BWRs. However, the IASCC mechanism of RVIs in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is not fully understood yet as compared with that in BWRs owing to a lack of reliable data. Recently, worldwide efforts have been made to investigate the IASCC susceptibility of RVIs in PWRs.

  8. Fine structure behaviour of VVER-1000 RPV materials under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, B. A.; Kuleshova, E. A.; Shtrombakh, Ya. I.; Erak, D. Yu.; Chernobaeva, A. A.; Zabusov, O. O.

    2009-06-01

    Changes in the fine structure and mechanical properties of the base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM) of VVER-1000 pressure vessels during accumulation of neutron dose in the range of fluences ˜(3.2-15) × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV) at 290 °C are studied using methods of transmission electron microscopy, fractographic analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. A correlation was found between the changes of mechanical properties and the micro- and nano-structures of the studied steels. Accumulation of neutron dose considerably raises the strength characteristics and transition temperature of VVER-1000 pressure vessel steels. The rate of changes in the mechanical properties of the weld metal is significantly higher than that of the base metal. The slower growth of strength characteristics and transition temperature shift of the base metal under irradiation as compared with the weld metal is due to the slower growth of the density of radiation defects and radiation-induced precipitates. The level of intergranular embrittlement under irradiation in the weld metal is not higher then in the base metal in spite of the higher content of nickel.

  9. A Dual-beam Implanter for Research of Material Irradiation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Bing; CUI; Bao-qun; MA; Ying-jun; MA; Rui-gang; CHEN; Li-hua; HUANG; Qing-hua; MA; Xie

    2015-01-01

    With the development of reactor technology,the researches on the effect of material irradiation are becoming more and more interesting and expanding.To understand and model the aging caused by atomic displacements,helium and hydrogen production,material scientists and reactor

  10. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  11. Comparison Study of the Use of Absorbable and Nonabsorbable Materials as Internal Splints after Closed Reduction for Nasal Bone Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ryul Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The authors sought to compare the use of the nonabsorbable polyvinyl alcohol sponge (PVA, Merocel and absorbable synthetic polyurethane foam (SPF, Nasopore Forte plus as intranasal splints after closed reduction of fractured nasal bones during the hospitalization period. Methods The medical records of 111 patients who underwent closed reduction for nasal bone fracture at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. PVA (group A or SPF (group B was packed as an internal splint after closed reduction. The efficacy of the materials was compared and statistically analyzed. Results PVA was used in 82 patients, and SPF was used in 29 patients. The patients in group B complained significantly more of nasal pain on the first day after operation than the patients in group A. Headaches on the operation day were significantly more painful in group B than in group A. Bleeding on the fourth postoperative day was significantly reduced in group B as compared to group A. The patients in group B exhibited significantly more intensive nasal obstruction on the operation day and the following day than the patients in group A. However, on the third and fourth postoperative days, the nasal obstruction in group B was less than that in group A. The pain and bleeding related to the packing material was significantly reduced in group B as compared to group A. Conclusions The use of SPF as an absorbable packing material is a reasonable substitute for the traditional nonabsorbable material.

  12. Thermoluminescence of photostimulable materials after X irradiation below room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S.; Iwasa, H.; Kurobori, T.; Inabe, K

    2002-07-01

    Thermoluminescence glow peaks in the temperature range 100 to 400 K are investigated for BaFX (X=Cl, Br) crystals after X irradiation at 100 K. A prominent glow peak of BaFCl around 210 K is found to be composed of a few recombination roots, that is, the peak corresponds to the recombination of hole trapped centers such as an O{sup -} center and a dissociated Cl{sub 2}{sup -} center with the F (F{sup -}) center and the O{sup 2-}-F(Cl{sup -}) pair defect. Another small glow peak around 270 K is likely to occur from thermal dissociation of the O{sup 2-}-F(Cl{sup -}) pair defect. Main glow peak of BaFBr:O{sup 2-} at 170 K may be attributed to a recombination of an O{sup -} center with the F(Br{sup -}) center. (author)

  13. Characterization of gamma irradiated plasticized carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/gum arabic (GA) polymer blends as absorbents for dyestuffs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayeda M Ibrahim; Issa M Mousaa; Mervat S Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Polymer blends based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and gum arabic (GA) were prepared by solution casting method. Glycerol was added to the polymer blend solution as a plasticizer with different ratios (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). Then, the plasticized blends were exposed to gamma irradiation at different doses (5, 10 and 20 kGy). The physical properties of the plasticized polymer blends were investigated in terms of gel fraction (%) and swelling percent (%). Thermal properties were investigated by TGA. Also, the structure of the plasticized polymer blends was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope was investigated in order to examine the compatibility between two polymers in the blend and also between polymer blend and plasticizer. The prepared plasticized polymer blends were used as an adsorbent for different dyestuffs. The sorption of dyestuffs by the plasticized polymer blend was determined by a method based on spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the plasticized polymer blend has a high affinity for basic, acid, reactive and direct dyes. The obtained results showed that using glycerol as plasticizer improved the swellability of polymer blend and also the dye uptake (%).

  14. Mechanical-property changes of polymeric and composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Morena, J. [Ace Inc., Stuart, FL (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The mechanical properties of polymeric and composite materials are known to be sensitive to ionizing radiation. Most of the existing data, however, is the result of near-room-temperature irradiations, most commonly with {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation. For use of these materials in applications such as for magnetic fusion magnets, where operation will be at cryogenic temperatures in sometimes severe radiation fields, knowledge of the materials` radiation response to low-temperature irradiations is required. This paper reports the results of mechanical-property-change measurements made at 4.2K on a number of potential magnet materials following 200-MeV-proton irradiation at temperatures below 20K. Standard three-point bend tests were performed at 4.2K for short-beam shear determinations in the laminate materials and for shear strength in the remainder of the specimens. Specimens were warmed to room temperature for one week prior to the mechanical testing in order to emulate the expected the expected mechanical state of the material assuming room-temperature cycling in the expected magnet applications. Data are presented in the form of yield stresses before and after irradiations with percentages of change. There were five specimens per test dose for each material. Data are presented for exposures ranging from nominally 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} rad. Results of the mechanical tests range from complete delamination and distortion of the specimens at 10{sup 9} rad to an increase in the yield stress of 63% after 10{sup 9} rad. The latter specimen did, however, evidence significant embrittlement. The phenomenon of irradiation-induced strengthening due to enhanced cross linking in undercured polymers was observed in some cases.

  15. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Small Copper Wire Insulation due to Multiple-Sided Irradiations by 0.4 MeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    1979-01-01

    When scanned electron beams are used to crosslink polymeric insulation of wire and cable, an important goal is to achieve optimum uniformity of absorbed dose distributions. Accurate measurements of dose distributions in a plastic dosimeter simulating a typical insulating material (polyethylene....... and insulation thicknesses between 0.4 and 0.8 mm. The plastic dosimeter simulating polyethylene insulations was a thin radiochromic polyvinyl butyral film wrapped several times around the copper wire, such that when unwrapped and analyzed optically on a scanning microspectrophotometer, high-resolution radial...

  16. Light-absorbing secondary organic material formed by glyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shapiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Light-absorbing and high-molecular-weight secondary organic products were observed to result from the reaction of glyoxal in mildly acidic (pH=4 aqueous inorganic salt solutions mimicking aqueous tropospheric aerosol particles. High-molecular-weight (500–600 amu products were observed when ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 or sodium chloride (NaCl was present in the aqueous phase. The products formed in (NH42SO4 or ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 solutions absorb light at UV and visible wavelengths. Substantial absorption at 300–400 nm develops within two hours, and absorption between 400–600 nm develops within days. Pendant drop tensiometry measurements show that the products are not surface-active. The experimental results along with ab initio predictions of the UV/Vis absorption of potential products suggest a mechanism involving the participation of the ammonium ion. If similar products are formed in atmospheric aerosol particles, they could change the optical properties of the seed aerosol over its lifetime.

  17. Microscopic investigations on various silicon materials irradiated with different particles with the DLTS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnke, M.

    2001-02-01

    During irradiation of crystalline silicon with high energy particles silicon atoms are displaced out of their lattice sites and the primary defects silicon interstitials and vacancies from defects with the impurities oxygen and carbon. The radiation induced defects change the macroscopic parameters of silicon detectors, the leakage current and the full depletion voltage. The item of this thesis is to study the microscopic properties of radiation induced defects with the DLTS method and to understand the change of the macroscopic parameters of silicon detectors after particle irradiation. Various silicon materials were irradiated with low and high energy protons, high energy pions, neutrons and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-photons to investigate the dependence of the introduction rates of the radiation induced defects on particle and material type. The varied parameters of the silicon material are the shallow doping concentration phosphorous and the concentrations of the impurities oxygen and carbon. (orig.)

  18. Experimental facilities for investigation of structural material properties for fusion reactor under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Sidorenkov, A.V.; Zyryanov, A.P.; Barsanov, V.I.; Shushlebin, V.V. (Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russia)); Rybin, V.V.; Vinokurov, V.F.; Odintsov, N.B. (Central Scientific and Research Inst. of Structural Materials, St. Petersburg (Russia)); Zykanov, V.A.; Shamardin, V.K.; Kazakov, V.A. (Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russia))

    1992-09-01

    The study of sturctural and breeding materials for fusion reactors covers a wide range of investigations including the effect of different operating factors; irradiation is the main factor. This paper presents basic reactor characteristics, the types of investigations on structural and breeding materials carried out at these reactors, and the reactor irradiation conditions. The design of equipment used for parameter control during the irradiations is also discussed. CM-2 and BOR-60 reactors are primarily used to irradiate structural materials for the blanket, first wall and divertor at temperatures of 80 and 350deg C and fluences up to 5x10[sup 22] n/cm[sup 2]. The IVV-2 reactor is used to investigate breeding blanket materials and to study the problems of hydrogen/tritium permeability and recovery from Li-Pb eutectic and through 0.4C-16Cr-11Ni-3Mo-Ti steel. In addition, there are facilities for carrying out irradiation experiments at cryogenic temperatures as well as in different media. (orig.).

  19. High Strain Rate Characterization of Shock Absorbing Materials for Landmine Protection Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McArthur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling of footwear to protect against anti-personnel landmines requires dynamic material properties in the appropriate strain rate regime to accurately simulate material response. Several materials (foamed metals, honeycombs and polymers are used in existing protective boots, however published data at high strain rates is limited.

  20. Laser Processing of High-Tech Materials at High Irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-13

    CHARGED PARTICLES (Electrons, Ions, Plasma) * "PHOTONS LASER IMPULSE VAPOR SPALLATION CRATER SHOCK WAVE THERMAL WAVE Fig. I - Interaction of a high...metals. 2ŗ𔃾 Shaping includes drilling , cutting, bending, laser assisted machining (turning and milling) and direct laser machining. Joining includes...induces a tensile stress which can be sufficient to exceed the material’s strength. This dynamic fracture of material is called spallation . Although

  1. Prognosis and Diagnostics of Water-absorbing Capacity of Polydisperse Materials by pH-metry Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonnikova, Ksenia Vladimirovna; Ikonnikova, Liubov Fedorovna; Koltunova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    The work focuses on the solution of the problem concerning the diagnostics and prognosis of water-absorbing capacity of polydisperse materials. The relation of water absorption and acid-base properties of the surface is considered. The advantages of the research of acid-base properties of the surface by the pH-metry method are illustrated. The algorithm of the processing and interpretation of pH metric results to diagnose water absorption of powdery substances is suggested. The diagnostics is...

  2. Femtosecond Laser Irradiation of Plasmonic Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrix: Implications for Photothermal and Photochemical Material Alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A. Smirnov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the opportunities provided by the plasmonic nanoparticles inserted into the bulk of a transparent medium to modify the material by laser light irradiation. This study is provoked by the advent of photo-induced nano-composites consisting of a typical polymer matrix and metal nanoparticles located in the light-irradiated domains of the initially homogeneous material. The subsequent irradiation of these domains by femtosecond laser pulses promotes a further alteration of the material properties. We separately consider two different mechanisms of material alteration. First, we analyze a photochemical reaction initiated by the two-photon absorption of light near the plasmonic nanoparticle within the matrix. We show that the spatial distribution of the products of such a reaction changes the symmetry of the material, resulting in the appearance of anisotropy in the initially isotropic material or even in the loss of the center of symmetry. Second, we analyze the efficiency of a thermally-activated chemical reaction at the surface of a plasmonic particle and the distribution of the product of such a reaction just near the metal nanoparticle irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  3. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  4. Distribution of products in polymer materials induced by ion-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hama, Yoshimasa; Hamanaka, Ken-ichi; Matsumoto, Hideya

    1997-03-01

    The depth profile of double bond formed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) sheet by ion beams irradiation was observed by a micro FT-IR spectrometer in order to investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependency on radiation effects to polymer materials. The distribution of double bond formation in LDPE by irradiation of light ions as H+ was found to be same with the dose distribution calculated from TRIM code, and the yield was also same with that by gamma-rays irradiation, which means that the LET dependency is very small. However, the distribution of double bond to depth was much different from the calculated depth-dose in heavy ions irradiation as Ar and Kr. Then, the dose evaluation was difficult from the TRIM code calculation for heavy ions. (author)

  5. [The potential of tone audiometry for the determination of the sound-absorbing properties of various materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkin, V N; Sheshegov, P M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to experimentally estimate the potential of the tone audiometry technique for the determination of the sound-absorbing properties of various material. The study included 15 subjects at the age from 19 to 32 years. Their audiological examination was followed by the placement of the 5×7 cm spacer plate from the study material beneath the bone vibrator telephone to determine the bone sound-conduction threshold; no air-marking was undertaken. The sound absorption by the study materials of interest was determined in each octave-band from 250 to 8000 Hz from the difference between the starting audiogram and the audiogram of the material of interest. The study was carried out in three stages: (1) evaluation of sound absorption of each of the five materials, (2) measurement of the same parameter in the combinations of 2--4 layers for increasing sound absorption, and (3) fixation of the bone conduction telephone by the operator's hand (the head-mounted harness was used for the same purpose at stages 1 and 2). The experiments demonstrated that the study of bone sound conduction by means of tone audiometry allows to estimate the sound absorption of various materials. This technique may be applied for the development of a subjective method for the measurement of sound absorption in order to evaluate the acoustic effectiveness of materials that can be used to construct individual protective anti-noise devices.

  6. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  7. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  8. Effect of High-energy Proton Beam Irradiation on the Behaviour of Graphite Collimator Materials for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A; Chugunov, O; Latushkin, S; Prichodko, K; Semenov, E; Unezhev, V; Assmann, R; Aberle, O; Bertarelli, A; Schmidt, R; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2010-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the physical-mechanical property changes of graphite collimator materials for LHC (CERN) irradiated at the cyclotron of RRC-KI by protons with energies up to 30 MeV are presented here. The numerical calculations of radiation damage accumulation in the collimator materials under proton beam irradiation in the energy interval from 20 MeV up to 35 MeV and up to irradiation doses of 1019 proton/cm2 have been made, to derive the irradiation conditions at the RRC KI cyclotron. Comparative investigations of physical-mechanical properties of irradiated and non irradiated graphite collimator materials were performed, including analysis of the degradation of main physical properties of these materials (coefficient of thermal conductivity, changes of electrical resistivity, thermal expansion coefficient, changes of density, changes of mechanical properties of these materials: strength analysis, elastic modulus changes, stress to rupture, yield stress, ultimate tensile stress...

  9. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  10. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  11. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  12. Particle characteristics of different materials after ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Joerg; Schelle, Florian; Kowalczyk, Philip; Frentzen, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The exposition of nanoparticles caused by laser application in dental health care is an open discussion. Based on the fact that nanoparticles can penetrate through the mucosa, the knowledge about particle characteristics after irradiation with an USPL is of high importance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particle characteristics, especially the size of the ablated debris after USPL irradiation. The irradiation was carried out with an USP Nd:YVO4 laser with a center wavelength of 1064 nm. Based on the pulse duration of 8 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz the laser emits an average power of 9 W. The materials investigated were dental tissues and dental restorative materials (composite and amalgam), ceramic and different metals (gold and aluminium). The samples were irradiated with a power density in the order of 300 GW/cm2 at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm. The debris was collected on an object plate. SEM pictures were used for analysis of the ablation debris. Depending on the irradiated material, we observed different kinds of structures: vitreous, flocculent, and pellet-like. The mean particle sizes were 10 x 10 up to 30 x 30 μm2. In addition, a cluster of ablated matter (nanometer range) distributed over the whole irradiated area was found. With increasing distances the cluster structure reduced from multi-layer to mono-layer clusters. Particle sizes in the micrometer and nanometer range were found after irradiation with an USPL. The nanoparticles create a cluster structure which is influenced by increasing distances.

  13. Accelerated 54{degree}C irradiated test of Shippingport neutron shield tank and HFIR vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Charpy V-notch specimens (ASTM Type A) and 5.74-mm diameter tension test specimens of the Shippingport Reactor Neutron Shield Tank (NST) (outer wall material) were irradiated together with Charpy V-notch specimens of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNI), High,, Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel (shell material), to 5.07 {times} 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation was performed in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), a test reactor, at a controlled temperature of 54{degrees}C (130{degrees}F) selected to approximate the prior service temperatures of the cited reactor structures. Radiation-induced elevations in the Charpy 41-J transition temperature and the ambient temperature yield strength were small and independent of specimen test orientation (ASTM LT vs. TL). The observations are consistent with prior findings for the two materials (A 212-B plate) and other like materials irradiated at low temperature (< 200{degrees}C) to low fluence. The high radiation embrittlement sensitivity observed in HFIR vessel surveillance program tests was not found in the present accelerated irradiation test. Response to 288{degrees}C-168 h postirradiation annealing was explored for the NST material. Notch ductility recovery was found independent of specimen test orientation but dependent on the temperature within the transition region at which the specimens were tested.

  14. Accelerated 54[degree]C irradiated test of Shippingport neutron shield tank and HFIR vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. (Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)); Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Charpy V-notch specimens (ASTM Type A) and 5.74-mm diameter tension test specimens of the Shippingport Reactor Neutron Shield Tank (NST) (outer wall material) were irradiated together with Charpy V-notch specimens of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNI), High,, Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel (shell material), to 5.07 [times] 10[sup 17] n/cm[sup 2], E > 1 MeV. The irradiation was performed in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), a test reactor, at a controlled temperature of 54[degrees]C (130[degrees]F) selected to approximate the prior service temperatures of the cited reactor structures. Radiation-induced elevations in the Charpy 41-J transition temperature and the ambient temperature yield strength were small and independent of specimen test orientation (ASTM LT vs. TL). The observations are consistent with prior findings for the two materials (A 212-B plate) and other like materials irradiated at low temperature (< 200[degrees]C) to low fluence. The high radiation embrittlement sensitivity observed in HFIR vessel surveillance program tests was not found in the present accelerated irradiation test. Response to 288[degrees]C-168 h postirradiation annealing was explored for the NST material. Notch ductility recovery was found independent of specimen test orientation but dependent on the temperature within the transition region at which the specimens were tested.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing in Microbial Forensic Analysis of Gamma-Irradiated Microbial Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomall, Stacey M; Ait Ichou, Mohamed; Krepps, Michael D; Johnsky, Lauren A; Karavis, Mark A; Hubbard, Kyle S; Insalaco, Joseph M; Betters, Janet L; Redmond, Brady W; Rivers, Bryan A; Liem, Alvin T; Hill, Jessica M; Fochler, Edward T; Roth, Pierce A; Rosenzweig, C Nicole; Skowronski, Evan W; Gibbons, Henry S

    2015-11-13

    Effective microbial forensic analysis of materials used in a potential biological attack requires robust methods of morphological and genetic characterization of the attack materials in order to enable the attribution of the materials to potential sources and to exclude other potential sources. The genetic homogeneity and potential intersample variability of many of the category A to C bioterrorism agents offer a particular challenge to the generation of attributive signatures, potentially requiring whole-genome or proteomic approaches to be utilized. Currently, irradiation of mail is standard practice at several government facilities judged to be at particularly high risk. Thus, initial forensic signatures would need to be recovered from inactivated (nonviable) material. In the study described in this report, we determined the effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on forensic markers of bacterial biothreat agent surrogate organisms with a particular emphasis on the suitability of genomic DNA (gDNA) recovered from such sources as a template for whole-genome analysis. While irradiation of spores and vegetative cells affected the retention of Gram and spore stains and sheared gDNA into small fragments, we found that irradiated material could be utilized to generate accurate whole-genome sequence data on the Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing platforms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of a New Two—Photon—absorbed Material DMAEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延云兴; 于晓强; 王东; 赵显; 方奇; 蒋民华

    2003-01-01

    Trans-4-(N’,N’-dimethyl amino)-4-(N’,N’-dimethyl amino) stilbene(DMAEAS) has been synthesized and characterized by 1HNMR spectra,IR spectra,and elemental analyses.Its Linear absorption,Single-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon induced fluorescence are experimentally studied.This new dye has a great two-photon absorption(TPA)cross-section ofσ2=1.16×10-46cm4·s/photon at 532 nm by using an open aperture Z-scan system.When pumped with 800 nm laser irradiation,DMAEAS shows a strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence of 440 nm.

  17. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops` as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems.

  18. The influence of basic composition and microstructures on the properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.G., E-mail: ilem58@mail.ru; Menshova, S.B.; Klimov, A.N.; Vergazov, R.M.

    2015-11-01

    This work deals with the research into the electromagnetic properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials obtained by the ceramic method under different technological conditions. There has been ascertained the influence of basic composition and microstructures on the level of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials. The results indicate that increasing the surplus Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 51.0 mol% leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. It can be explained by increase of the permeability and permittivity of a ferrite. - Highlights: • Increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 51.0 mol% leads to increasing permeability of a ferrite. • It also leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. • It is more effective to introduce Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the second stage of the crushing.

  19. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  20. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.

  1. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus E. Kesim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm infrared absorber.

  2. Nano-cluster stability following neutron irradiation in MA957 oxide dispersion strengthened material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribis, J., E-mail: joel.ribis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DMN, SRMA, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    ODS steels are promising materials for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors since their fine distribution of nano-clusters confers excellent mechanical properties. However, the nano-feature stability needs to be assessed under neutron irradiation. Before irradiation, the characterizations show that nano-particles are finely distributed within the ferritic matrix and are identified to have a pyrochlore type structure. After irradiation of the MA957 alloy in the Phenix French reactor at 412 °C up to 50 dpa and 430 °C up to 75 dpa, transmission electron microscopy characterization reveals a very slight density fall but no distinguishable difference in nano-features size before and after irradiation. In addition, after both irradiations, the nano-oxides are still (Y, Ti, O) compounds with orientation relationship with the matrix. A multislice simulation of high resolution images suggests that nano-particles still have a fcc pyrochlore type structure after irradiation. A possible change of lattice parameter seems to be highlighted, possibly due to disordering by cascade effect.

  3. Flux dependence of cluster formation in neutron-irradiated weld material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Hein, H.; Kammel, M.

    2008-03-01

    The effect of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is an unresolved issue. Small-angle neutron scattering was measured for a neutron-irradiated RPV weld material containing 0.22 wt% impurity Cu. The experiment was focused on the influence of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters at fixed fluence. The aim was to separate and tentatively interpret the effect of flux on the characteristics of the cluster size distribution. We have observed a pronounced effect of neutron flux on cluster size, whereas the total volume fraction of irradiation-induced clusters is insensitive to the level of flux. The result is compatible with a rate theory model according to which the range of applied fluxes covers the transition from a flux-independent regime at lower fluxes to a regime of decelerating cluster growth. The results are confronted with measured irradiation-induced changes of mechanical properties. Despite the observed flux effect on cluster size, both yield stress increase and transition temperature shift turned out to be independent of flux. This is in agreement with the volume fraction of irradiation-induced clusters being insensitive to the level of flux.

  4. Nano-cluster stability following neutron irradiation in MA957 oxide dispersion strengthened material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, J.; Lozano-Perez, S.

    2014-01-01

    ODS steels are promising materials for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors since their fine distribution of nano-clusters confers excellent mechanical properties. However, the nano-feature stability needs to be assessed under neutron irradiation. Before irradiation, the characterizations show that nano-particles are finely distributed within the ferritic matrix and are identified to have a pyrochlore type structure. After irradiation of the MA957 alloy in the Phenix French reactor at 412 °C up to 50 dpa and 430 °C up to 75 dpa, transmission electron microscopy characterization reveals a very slight density fall but no distinguishable difference in nano-features size before and after irradiation. In addition, after both irradiations, the nano-oxides are still (Y, Ti, O) compounds with orientation relationship with the matrix. A multislice simulation of high resolution images suggests that nano-particles still have a fcc pyrochlore type structure after irradiation. A possible change of lattice parameter seems to be highlighted, possibly due to disordering by cascade effect.

  5. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-03-04

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weight ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream.

  6. Effect of Nanostructure Changes on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Proton Irradiated Nuclear Energy Structural Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Lunika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless alloys are used extensively as structural materials in the internal components of light water reactor (LWR pressure vessels because of their relatively high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC is main degradation process that affects LWR internal components exposed to radiation. The existing data on proton irradiated austenitic alloys were reviewed to evaluate the effects of key parameters such as material composition, irradiation dose on IASCC susceptibility of these materials in LWR environments. The significance of deformation nanostructure and stacking fault energy (SFE changes in the material on IASCC susceptibility is also discussed. Results show that the IASCC susceptibility of the alloys increases with increasing irradiation dose and decreasing stacking fault energy. IASCC tends to initiate at locations where slip dislocation channels intersect grain boundaries. Localized deformation in the form of grain boundary sliding due to the interaction of slip channels and grain boundaries is likely the primary cause of the observed cracking initiation. It may play a key role in the underlying mechanism of IASCC in light water reactor core components.

  7. 21 CFR 179.45 - Packaging materials for use during the irradiation of prepackaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods § 179.45 Packaging... chapter. (c) Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350 of this chapter. The ethylene... exceed 1 pct by weight of the polymer. Triethylene glycol as described in § 178.3740(b) of this chapter...

  8. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Souzawa, Shizuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and {gamma}-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  9. Nuclear data needs for neutron spectrum tailoring at International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a proposal of D-Li intense neutron source to cover all aspects of the fusion materials development in the framework of IEA collaboration. The new activity has been started to qualifying the important technical issues called Key Element technology Phase since 2000. Although the neutron spectrum can be adjusted by changing the incident beam energy, it is favorable to be carried out many irradiation tasks at the same time under the unique beam condition. For designing the tailored neutron spectrum, neutron nuclear data for the moderator-reflector materials up to 50 MeV are required. The data for estimating the induced radioactivity is also required to keep the radiation level low enough at maintenance time. The candidate materials and the required accuracy of nuclear data are summarized. (author)

  10. Microstructural evolution of CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750 under in situ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Judge, Colin; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    Work on Inconel®Inconel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.1 X-750 spacers removed from CANDU®CANDU® is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited standing for ''CANada Deuterium Uranium''.2 reactors has shown that they become embrittled and there is development of many small cavities within the metal matrix and along grain boundaries. In order to emulate the neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes, heavy ion irradiations (1 MeV Kr2+ ions) were performed while observing the damage evolution using an intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM) operating at 200 kV. The irradiations were carried out at various temperatures 60-400 °C. The principal strengthening phase, γ‧, was disordered at low doses (˜0.06 dpa) during the irradiation. M23C6 carbides were found to be stable up to 5.4 dpa. Lattice defects consisted mostly of stacking fault tetrahedras (SFTs), 1/2 perfect loops and small 1/3 faulted Frank loops. The ratio of SFT number density to loop number density for each irradiation condition was found to be neither temperature nor dose dependent. Under the operation of the ion beam the SFT production was very rapid, with no evidence for further growth once formed, indicating that they probably formed as a result of cascade collapse in a single cascade. The number density of the defects was found to saturate at low dose (˜0.68 dpa). No cavities were observed regardless of the irradiation temperature between 60 °C and 400 °C for doses up to 5.4 dpa. In contrast, cavities have been observed after neutron irradiation in the same material at similar doses and temperatures indicating that helium, produce during neutron irradiation, may be essential for the nucleation and growth of cavities.

  11. Irradiation creep analysis base on rate theory in iron based cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyeong-Geun; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Irradiation degradation mechanism of zirconium are well developed including growth, hardening, and creep. However, in the same times, irradiation behaviour of iron based materials was not systemically organised and mechanism is not well established when it is compared with zirconium based alloy. Therefore in this paper, our research goal is development the prediction model of irradiation behaviour of iron based cladding materials in SFR condition. In order to calculate irradiation creep, point defect, cluster number density, and radius was calculated. From point defect concentration, it could be recognized that steady state behavior of defect flux. However irradiation creep behavior show exponent tendency because cluster number density is not saturated. The radius of each type of sink was calculated using defect concentration and cluster number density. In the engineering point of view, radius is most important parameter because it can be compared with experimental result. In order to confirm mobile cluster effect on dislocation loop number density, cluster behavior will be more specifically demonstrated by grouping method in next research step.

  12. Demonstration of passive saturable absorber by utilizing MWCNT-ABS filament as starting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikafly, S. N. F.; Ahmad, F.; Ibrahim, M. H.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    This work demonstrated a stable passively Q-switched laser with the employment MWCNTs dispersed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin (MWCNTs-ABS) based filament as passive saturable absorber. The simple fabrication process of the SA is further explained, started from the process of extruding the filament through a 3D printer nozzle at 210 °C to reduce the diameter from 1.75 mm to 200 μm. It is then weighed to about 25 mg and mixed with 1 ml acetone before sonicated for 5 minutes to dissolve the ABS. The resultant MWCNTs-acetone suspension is dropped on a glass slide to be characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is also drop-casted on the end of a fiber ferrule to be integrated in the laser cavity. The proposed work revealed that the laser oscillated at about 1558 nm with threshold input pump power of 22.54 mW and maximum input pump power of 108.8 mW. The increase in pump power resulted in the increase in repetition rate where the pulse train increases from 8.96 kHz to 39.34 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 33.58 μs to 5.14 μs. The generated pulsed laser yields a maximum of 1.01 mW and 5.53 nJ of peak power and pulse energy respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB indicates that the generated pulse is stable.

  13. Performance study of solar stills with various absorbing materials and a sensible heat storage medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the productivity of the solar stills is enhanced by placing different wick materials on the inner walls of the basin. The experiments are conducted with three different wick materials, namely cotton cloth, jute cloth, and sponges. The wick materials are painted with black to increase the absorptivity. The productivity of the still with cotton cloth, jute cloth, and sponges are 38.56%, 31.37%, and 24.50%, respectively, more than the conventional still. The stills are also tested with wicks and pebbles and compared with the conventional still. The productivity of the still with cotton cloth with pebbles, jute cloth with pebbles and sponge with pebbles are 55.66%, 43.68%, and 33.33%, respectively, more than the conventional still.

  14. Hydrogen Absorbing Materials for Use as Radiation Shielding During Extended Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Minimizing radiation exposure from the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment during extended space missions is particularly crucial to crew health and safety. Here, an ideal candidate for shielding would be pure solid or liquid hydrogen, a material that effectively fragments heavy ions into ones of lower mass and energy that are more easily attenuated. Unfortunately, utilizing pure hydrogen is not presently feasible. It is, however, known that the hydrogen content of other materials (for example, metal hydrides, palladium alloys, and organic compounds) can exceed that of pure solid hydrogen and thus merit consideration as shielding candidates. This presentation will discuss an ongoing effort to develop novel shielding from such materials in concert with a coordinated testing/evaluation and modeling effort.

  15. Effects of oxygen ion irradiation on PMN-PT ferroelectric materials for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggilla, Padmaja; Batra, A. K.; Powell, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is an important and high performance piezoelectric and pyroelectric relaxor material having wide range of applications in infrared sensor devices. Present work studies the fabrication and dielectric characteristics of PMN-PT in the bulk form. The PMN-PT bulk material was prepared in sol-gel method and subsequently irradiated with heavy ion oxygen. The materials were analyzed and determined that the relaxorferroelectric material indicated changes in its dielectric constant and pyroelectric coefficient after irradiation. Due to the radiation fluent of 1×1016 ions/cm2, the dielectric constant of the material increased uniformly, while its pyroelectric coefficient showed a sharp increased to the value of 5×10-9 μC/cm2 °C with increase in temperature. Its dielectric constants showed increase in values of 527 μC/cm2 °C at 50°C, 635 μC/cm2 °C at 60°C and 748 μC/cm2 °C at 70°C. Properties such as the material impedance, admittance and modulus were investigated for changes in properties which became evident after irradiation.

  16. On the Prediction of the Nonlinear Absorption in Reverse Saturable Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A.; Day, Paul N.; Kennel, Joshua C.

    2001-03-01

    In our continuing efforts to design materials that exhibit reverse saturable absorption (RSA), we systematically examine the ability of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method using local, nonlocal, and hybrid functionals, to predict the experimental nonlinear absorption for a variety of organic and organometallic molecular systems, including a number of free-base porphyrins, phthalocyanine and their metal complexes. The ground and triplet-triplet excitation energies, as well as the oscillator strengths are calculated, indicating good agreement with experiment. We conclude that the TDDFT approach with a hybrid functional provides good estimates for the nonlinear absorption of RSA materials.

  17. Sound Absorbing Property of Porous Material by Using Polyester Fiber Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Naoya; Kimura, Teruo

    Polyester waste generated from a water jet loom in the weaving process is one of the typical industrial fiber wastes. The development of a recycling system for such fiber wastes has been strongly expected so far. In this study, the recyclability of polyester wastes as a sound absorption material was discussed. As a result, it was cleared that the sound absorption material can be obtained by heated compression molding combined with a PLA binder and fiber wastes, and higher sound absorption properties are obtainable if the defiberization of the waste is increased.

  18. Modelling of Grain Growth Kinetics in Porous Ceramic Materials under Normal and Irradiation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail S. Veshchunov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of porosity on grain growth is both the most frequent and technologically important situation encountered in ceramic materials. Generally this effect occurs during sintering, however, for nuclear fuels it also becomes very important under reactor irradiation conditions. In these cases pores and gas bubbles attached to the grain boundaries migrate along with the boundaries, in some circumstances giving a boundary migration controlled by the movement, coalescence and/or sintering of these particles. New mechanisms of intergranular bubble and pore migration which control the mobility of the grain boundary under normal and irradiation conditions are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wiffen, F.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Fusion Energy

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  20. Characterization of Terahertz Bi-Material Sensors with Integrated Metamaterial Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    detectors. The use of bi-material sensors has shown many advantages, which make it a potential solution for THz imaging. B. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF BI...Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy to study the crystalline structure of a drug: A case study of the polymorphs of ranitidine hydrochloride,” J

  1. Synthesis of Novel Heterocyclic Imine Type UV Absorbers for Application on Cotton Based Textile Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Ocal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel Schiff bases with the potential to exhibit biologically active and UV absorption properties were synthesized. Their application on cotton based textile materials was performed and the UV protection factor (UPF values and the antibacterial features of the treated fabrics were measured.

  2. Reduced-graphene-oxide-and-strontium-titanate-based double-layered composite: an efficient microwave-absorbing material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUKANTA DAS; S K SAHU; RAMESH ORAON; P C ROUTRAY; H BASKEY; G C NAYAK

    2017-04-01

    Microwave-absorbing materials based on reduced graphene oxide (r-GO)/ strontium titanate were prepared by embedding in epoxy matrix. R-GO and strontium titanate were synthesized and characterized before composite fabrication. Microstructures of the constituent elements were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microwave absorption capabilities of the composite absorbers were investigated using a Vector Network Analyser in the range 8–12 GHz. A maximum reflection loss of $−$7.5 and $−$16.4 dB was obtained at 9.3 and 12.08 GHz, respectively, for 2% (w/w) r-GO-loaded epoxy composites. A maximum attenuation of $−$12.8 dB at 9.3 GHz was obtained for the strontium titanate/epoxy composite. However, double-layer composite with r-GO/strontium titanate/epoxy composition showed the maximum reflection loss of $−$15.1 dB at 9.47 GHz and $−$9.65 dB at 12.3 GHz. All the results are discussed in terms of complex permeability and permittivity. The study revealed that intrinsic conductivity and polarization of the r-GO particles and dielectric polarization of the strontium titanate within epoxy matrix contribute to the microwave absorption.

  3. Charged particle and laser irradiation of selected materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, W.E.

    1996-11-01

    The main topics of the present thesis are the processes governing electronic sputtering of insulators and laser ablation of metals and insulators. The sputtering yield for electron bombardment of solid deuterium was investigated using quartz crystal microbalances as the measuring technique. The sputtering yield was measured with varying electron energy and deuterium film thickness. Laser ablation measurements of silver and nickel were carried out using a Nd:YAG laser. The effect of various experimental parameters such as background gas pressure (Ar, N{sub 2}), position of quartz crystals with respect to target position and the optimal number of laser shots for carrying out the experiments were investigated. The deposition rate was measured with varying laser wavelength and laser fluence. The angular distribution of the ablated material was measured for silver as well. A theoretical model based on the thermal properties of laser interaction with metals was applied in the initial phase of ablation. For the non-thermal processes governing laser interaction with the ablated plasma plume, a model developed by Phipps and Dreyfus was used to interpret the results. Laser ablation measurements of water-ice were carried using a Nitrogen laser. Attempts were made to measure the deposition rate for various the laser wavelengths and energies. (au) 8 tabs., 49 ills., 77 refs.

  4. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  5. Growth and instability of charged dislocation loops under irradiation in ceramic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Kinoshita, C; Klaptsov, A V

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the physical mechanisms of the growth and stability of charged dislocation loops in ceramic materials with very strong different mass of atoms (stabilized cubic zirconia) under different energies and types of irradiation conditions: 100-1000 keV electrons, 100 keV He sup + and 300 keV O sup + ions. The anomalous formation of extended defect clusters (charged dislocation loops) has been observed by TEM under electron irradiation subsequent to ion irradiation. It is demonstrated that very strong strain field (contrast) near charged dislocation loops is formed. The dislocation loops grow up to a critical size and after then become unstable. The instability of the charged dislocation loop leads to the multiplication of dislocation loops and the formation of dislocation network near the charged dislocation loops. A theoretical model is suggested for the explanation of the growth and stability of the charged dislocation loop, taking the charge state of point defects. The calculated distribution...

  6. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, S.E.D.A. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Aziz, N.H. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Attia, E.S.A. [Egyptian Starch and Glucose Manufacturing Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-12-31

    Spices from Egyptian local markets were irradiated with different recommended doses (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy). The spices tested included dried leaves of marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and powdered hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The study included the isolation and identification of micro-organisms in spices following their irradiation, as well as gas chromatographic (GLC) chemical analysis for the presence and structure of volatile oils, pungent and pigment materials. The results showed that hot pepper was contaminated more (9.2x10{sup 5}/g) than marjoram (4.2x10{sup 3}/g) and ginger (14.3x10{sup 3}/g) with respect to total aerobic bacterial content. The total contents of moulds were 4.8x10{sup 3}/g, 5.7x10{sup 3}/g and 19x10{sup 3}/g in the same spices, respectively, but the pathogenic moulds and bacterial strains differed according to the type of spice. Irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of mirco-organisms, whereas 5 kGy was less effective. With the GLC method chosen 18 and 50 compounds could be detected in the extracts of marjoram and ginger, respectively; {gamma}-terpinen and zingiberen being the major compounds in marjoram and ginger, respectively. A noticeable reduction was observed in the amount of terpenes present in irradiated marjoram; they were converted to monoterpensalcohols. Ginger was more sensitive to irradiation, especially at high doses, but moderate changes were detected at low doses (5 and 10 kGy). A slight, but significant effect on the capsaicin (pungent compound) in hot pepper was observed following irradiation, whereas no changes in total pigments resulted at any dose. These results prove that 10 kGy is a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the microorganisms in spices, causing only slight changes in the flavouring materials. (orig.)

  7. Irradiation-induced structural changes in surveillance material of VVER 440-type weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Denner, V.; Böhmert, J.; Mathon, M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation-induced microstructural changes in surveillance materials of the VVER 440-type weld metal Sv-10KhMFT were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Due to the high fluence, a strong effect was found in the SANS experiment. No significant effect of the irradiation is detected by SAXS. The reason for this discrepancy is the different scattering contrast of irradiation-induced defects for neutrons and X-rays. An analysis of the SAXS shows that the scattering intensity is mainly caused by vanadium-containing (VC) precipitates and grain boundaries. Both types of scattering defects are hardly changed by irradiation. Neutron irradiation rather produces additional scattering defects of a few nanometers in size. Assuming these defects are clusters containing copper and other foreign atoms with a composition according to results of atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations, both the high SANS and the low SAXS effect can be explained.

  8. 吸波材料反射率的现场测量方法%The Measurement Method for Absorbing Material Relfectivity on the Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金涛; 马永光; 尚柱冈

    2014-01-01

    通过对微波暗室中安装在墙壁上的吸波材料反射率的现场测量方法的研究,采用矢量网络分析仪对吸波材料反射率进行现场测量时,利用时域门技术来减小暗室现场对吸波材料反射率测量的影响,通过比较标准金属板和吸波材料的测量值得到吸波材料的反射率。%This paper is about the study on the spot measurement method reflectivity of absorbing material installed on the wall of microwave chamber. The vector network analyzer which is to measure the absorbing material reflectivity on the spot is adopted. The time-domain gate technology is used to reduce the influence of the microwave chamber to absorbing material. Through comparing the measuring value of the standard metal plate and absorbing material, the reflectivity of the absorbing material is obtained.

  9. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-08-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications.

  10. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  11. Quantum storage of polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, Christoph; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Storage of quantum information encoded into true single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, complicated by the fact that many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present and demonstrate a simple scheme that allows compensating for these polarization effects. The scheme is demonstrated using a solid-state quantum memory implemented with an ensemble of rare-earth ions doped into a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y_{2}SiO_{5}) crystal. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric downconversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.5 \\pm 0.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  12. Spallation occurrence from polyamide materials irradiated by thermal plasma with water absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Nakagawa, T.; Shinsei, N.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper first describes the effect of water absorption in polyamide material irradiated by thermal plasmas on the occurrence of spallation phenomena. The interaction between polyamide materials and arc plasmas occurs particularly in the low voltage circuit breaker and aerospace fields. Spallation phenomena are those in which polymer particles are ejected from polymer bulk materials irradiated by high heat flux. To confirm the effect of water absorption into the polyamide material on spallation phenomena, polyamide specimens with and without water absorption were irradiated by Ar inductively coupled thermal plasma. The results show that the polyamide specimen with water absorption ejected spallation particles, whereas the polyamide specimen without water absorption were only slightly ejected, indicating that water absorption promotes the occurrence of spallation. The cooling effects of the spallation polyamide 66 (PA66) particles ablation were also estimated in hot air to assess the arc quenching ability from the spallation particle inclusion. This estimation showed that 10 and more PA66 particles inclusion might decrease the air temperature by 3000 K effectively, which can be useful to enhance arc quenching in circuit breakers working in air.

  13. Tunable microwave absorbing nano-material for X-band applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Imran, E-mail: khanphysics@yahoo.com [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Naseem, Shahzad [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, M.A. [Department of Physics, BUITEMS, Quetta (Pakistan); Niaz, Shanawer [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha (Pakistan); Rana, M.U. [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-01

    The effect of rare earth elements substitution in Sr{sub 1.96}RE{sub 0.04}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 27.80}Mn{sub 0.2}O{sub 46} (RE=Ce, Gd, Nd, La and Sm) X-type hexagonal ferrites prepared by using sol gel autocombustion method was studied. The XRD and FTIR analysis show the single phase of the prepared material. The lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with the additives. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54–100 nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.672–1.01 µm for all the samples. The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity (526.06 G) among all the samples which could be a good material for longitudinal recording media. The results also indicate that the Gd-substituted sample has maximum reflection loss of −25.2 dB at 11.878 GHz, can exhibit the best microwave absorption properties among all the substituted samples. Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites. The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data. - Highlights: • A series of X-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by sol–gel method. • The XRD analysis showed that the X-type hexagonal structure. • The c/a ratio of these samples falls in the range of X-type hexagonal ferrites. • FTIR spectra confirms single hexagonal phase. • The magnetic properties vary with the substitution of rare earth elements. • The Gd-doped sample exhibits maximum absorption properties and coercivity.

  14. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  15. Transfer matrix method applied to the parallel assembly of sound absorbing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdière, Kévin; Panneton, Raymond; Elkoun, Saïd; Dupont, Thomas; Leclaire, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The transfer matrix method (TMM) is used conventionally to predict the acoustic properties of laterally infinite homogeneous layers assembled in series to form a multilayer. In this work, a parallel assembly process of transfer matrices is used to model heterogeneous materials such as patchworks, acoustic mosaics, or a collection of acoustic elements in parallel. In this method, it is assumed that each parallel element can be modeled by a 2 × 2 transfer matrix, and no diffusion exists between elements. The resulting transfer matrix of the parallel assembly is also a 2 × 2 matrix that can be assembled in series with the classical TMM. The method is validated by comparison with finite element (FE) simulations and acoustical tube measurements on different parallel/series configurations at normal and oblique incidence. The comparisons are in terms of sound absorption coefficient and transmission loss on experimental and simulated data and published data, notably published data on a parallel array of resonators. From these comparisons, the limitations of the method are discussed. Finally, applications to three-dimensional geometries are studied, where the geometries are discretized as in a FE concept. Compared to FE simulations, the extended TMM yields similar results with a trivial computation time.

  16. Thermal analysis of an irradiation capsule for high-temperature materials to be used in future nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kim, Sung Ryul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Neutron Application Technology

    2016-05-15

    The requirement of irradiation of materials at high temperature are gradually increasing with the development of Gen-IV (Generation-IV) reactors, which will be operated at high temperatures and under a high neutron flux. To overcome the restrictions for the high temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule was designed and fabricated. Through the irradiation test, the structural integrity and safety of the capsule during irradiation at high temperature were confirmed.

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) compound for absorber material in solar-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheraj, Vipul; Patel, K. K.; Patel, S. J.; Shah, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The development of thin-film semiconductor compounds, such as Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), has caused remarkable progress in the field of thin-film photovoltaics. However, the scarcity and the increasing prices of indium impose the hunt for alternative materials. The Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) is one of the promising emerging materials with Kesterite-type crystal structure and favourable material properties like high absorption co-efficient and direct band-gap. Moreover, all the constituent elements of CZTS are non-toxic and aplenty on the earth-crust, making it a potential candidate for the thin-film photovoltaics. Here we report the synthesis of CZTS powder from its constituent elements, viz. copper, zinc, tin and sulphur, in an evacuated Quartz ampoule at 1030 K temperature. The sulphur content in the raw mixture in the ampoule was varied and optimised in order to attain the desired atomic stoichiometry of the compound. The synthesised powder was characterised by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-Ray (EDAX) and UV-Visible Absorption Spectra. The XRD Patterns of the synthesised compound show the preferred orientation of (112), (220) and (312) planes, confirming the Kesterite structure of CZTS. The chemical composition of the powder was analysed by EDAX and shows good atomic stoichiometry of the constituent elements in the CZTS compound. The UV-Vis absorption spectra confirm the direct band-gap of about 1.45 eV, which is quite close to the optimum value for the semiconductor material as an absorber in solar-cells.

  18. STUDY STRUCTURE OF THREE-COMPONENT POLYMERIC MATERIAL UNDER INFLUENCE OF γ-IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Tarasyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymer material (РА/РЕ/Eva with a width of 55 μm was studied. Sterilization was carried out on the unit GU–200 at doses from 3 to 18 kGy in the Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation, Rosatom, Moscow, Russia. The structure of the polymermaterial samples was studied by IR spectroscopy before and after irradiation in a range of 400–5000 сm–1. According to the results of the analysis of the IR spectrum structure, the changes in the structure were insignificant upon irradiation at doses up to 6 kGy. Upon irradiation at doses from 9 kGy and higher, an increase in quantity of ester groups (2340 сm–1 and insignificant increase in other functional groups were observed, which can suggest a simultaneous process of intra-molecular cross-linking with the intermediatestage of cross-linking occurring with formation of vinylene groups. This causes destruction of a polymer material and radiation oxidation. These disorders can lead to changes in physico-mechanical and barrier parameters of a polymer material, which can be notably reflected in the shelf life of agricultural products.

  19. Irradiation of gelatin. Important applications for the development of new materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, N. L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05008-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Gelatin is obtained from a naturally occurring protein, collagen, by chemical and thermal hydrolysis. As a protein, gelatin is biodegradable. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because the dehydrated gelatin is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Gelatin melts to a liquid when heated and solidifies when cooled again. Together with water, it forms a semi-solid colloid gel. If gelatin is placed in contact with cold water, some of the material dissolves, their solubility being determined by their manufacturing method. Ionizing radiation acting on aqueous biological systems produces labile intermediates. Macromolecular free radicals may be diffusion ally mobile in homogenous solutions but relatively immobile in gelled systems. In this paper, different works, some of them performed in our laboratory, are firstly described showing gelatin irradiation in diverse systems. We have already studied the mechanical properties of gelatin composites prepared with a natural fiber, plasticizer and treated by electron beam irradiation. Departing from that, the range of novel applications for gelatin composites like gelatin nanoparticles as biodegradable s and low cell toxic alternative carrier delivery systems are outlined. The potential and the possibilities of using gelatin irradiation for important applications for the development of new materials for medical and food industry are presented. (Author)

  20. Simulated Irradiation of Samples in HFIR for use as Possible Test Materials in the MPEX (Material Plasma Exposure Experiment) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) facility will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. The project presented in this paper involved performing assessments of the induced radioactivity and resulting radiation fields of a variety of potential fusion reactor materials. The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR; generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. These state-of-the-art simulation methods were used in addressing the challenge of the MPEX project to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  1. A review of irradiation effects on LWR core internal materials - IASCC susceptibility and crack growth rates of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, O. K.; Rao, A. S.

    2011-02-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels because of their relatively high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to neutron irradiation for extended periods changes the microstructure (radiation hardening) and microchemistry (radiation-induced segregation) of these steels, and degrades their fracture properties. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is another degradation process that affects LWR internal components exposed to neutron radiation. The existing data on irradiated austenitic SSs were reviewed to evaluate the effects of key parameters such as material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on IASCC susceptibility and crack growth rates of these materials in LWR environments. The significance of microstructural and microchemistry changes in the material on IASCC susceptibility is also discussed. The results are used to determine (a) the threshold fluence for IASCC and (b) the disposition curves for cyclic and IASCC growth rates for irradiated SSs in LWR environments.

  2. Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lucon, Enrico [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 1011 n/cm2/s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 1019 n/cm2 and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 1013 n/cm2/s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 1013 n/cm2/s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 1019n/cm2. The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT0, for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, T0, 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT0, were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.

  3. Characterization of rich in calcium materials using X-ray selective absorbers; Caracterizacion de materiales ricos en calcio utilizando absorbedores selectivos de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guereca, G.; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    For Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence Technique (FRX), the analysis of materials rich in one or two elements may present some difficulties due to high counting rates and saturation effects in X-ray detectors. In this case, it is possible to use selective absorbers in order to reduce the intensity of the major elements with low attenuation for the X-rays of other elements of the material. Using selective absorbers, the detection limits and the sensitivity are increased. For rich Ca materials (shells, bone, teeth and stucco, for instance), the high intensity of Ca X-rays interferes with the detection of lighter and heavier elements. Cl, Ar and Ag compounds are good candidates for Ca selective absorbers, but only Ag and Ar may have a practical absorber thickness. A selective absorber for Ca X-rays using a combination of thin Ag films and a flux of Ar and He was tested at the external beam setup of the Tandem Pelletron Accelerator for PIXE measurements. The improvement on elements detection on bone and colored stucco is shown. (Author) 8 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  5. High temperature nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus measurement in a neutron-irradiated fuel cladding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kese, K.; Olsson, P. A. T.; Alvarez Holston, A.-M.; Broitman, E.

    2017-04-01

    Nanoindentation, in combination with scanning probe microscopy, has been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus in the hydride and matrix of a high burn-up neutron-irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladding material in the temperature range 25-300 °C. The matrix hardness was found to decrease only slightly with increasing temperature while the hydride hardness was essentially constant within the temperature range. Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature for both the hydride and the matrix of the high burn-up fuel cladding material. The hydride Young's modulus and hardness were higher than those of the matrix in the temperature range.

  6. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  7. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  8. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method ("rinse-wipe-rinse") for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants.

  9. Enantiomeric analysis of beta-pinene and limonene by direct coupling of reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography using absorbents as packing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, Maria Luisa; Herraiz, Marta

    2007-11-01

    A method based on the use of absorbents as packing materials inside the interface of the online coupling between RPLC and GC is proposed for the enantiomeric analysis of beta-pinene and limonene in essential oils. For that purpose, a comparison of the RSD, detection limit and recovery provided by two absorbents and one adsorbent is included in this study. The results found in this work proved the validity of absorbents as packing materials in online RPLC-GC to determine minor compounds in complex matrices. In particular, PDMS seemed to be specially useful to analyse nonpolar compounds, such as beta-pinene and limonene, since it provided higher sensitivity for this kind of compounds. The developed method was applied to the evaluation of the natural and non-natural character of commercial essential oils by means of the determination of the enantiomeric composition of beta-pinene and limonene.

  10. The effect of neutron irradiation on oxygen aggregation processes in Si material treated under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londos, Charalampos A.; Andrianakis, Andreas [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Misiuk, Andrzej [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    Silicon is the dominant material in electronic industry. Its use for various applications requires processing stages, important among them those involving thermal treatments. Such treatments in Si trigger the mechanisms of oxygen aggregation resulting in the formation of oxygen precipitates which have important influence on the quality of the material. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of thermal treatments, with or without the application of high hydrostatic pressure, on the development of oxygen precipitates. We have particularly studied the effect of neutron irradiation on the formation of the various oxygen agglomerates in the course of the above treatments. To this end, Si samples initially irradiated by neutrons were subjected to high temperature or/and high temperature-high pressure treatments at 1000 and 1130 C. Afterwards, infrared (IR) measurements were undertaken to study various precipitate morphologies, in particular those giving rise to an IR band around 1080 cm{sup -1} related to octahedral-shaped precipitates and an IR band at 1225 cm{sup -1} attributed to platelet-shaped precipitates. The obtained results were found to be consistent with reports cited in the literature. It was confirmed that the application of pressure during treatments as well as the irradiation with neutrons before these treatments enhance substantially the oxygen aggregation process. Comparisons of the results between treatments at 1000 and 1130 C are presented and discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  12. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  13. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka; Mihaljevic, Branka; Razem, D. E-mail: razem@rudjer.irb.hr

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D{sub first{sub 90%}{sub red}}. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  14. Application of Kelvin Probe to Studies of Fusion Reactor Materials under Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guangnan; K. Yamaguchi; T. Terai; M. Yamawaki

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the work function (WF) changes in metallic and ceramic materials to be potentially used in future fusion reactors have been examined by means of Kelvin probe (KP),under He ion irradiation in high energy (MeV) and / or low energy (500 eV) ranges. The results of polycrystalline Ni samples indicate that the 1 MeV beam only induces decrease in the WF within the experimental fluence range; whereas the irradiation of 500 eV beam results in decrease in the WF firstly, then increase till saturation. A dual layer surface model is employed to explain the observed phenomena, together with computer simulation results by SRIM code. Charges buildup on the surface of lithium ceramics has been found to greatly influence the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively using a model concerning an induction electric field due to external field and free charges on the ceramic surface.

  15. Dependence of microwave absorption properties on ferrite volume fraction in MnZn ferrite/rubber radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Adriana M., E-mail: adrianaamg@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel C., E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Dantas, Christine C., E-mail: christineccd@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We report the analysis of measurements of the complex magnetic permeability ({mu}{sub r}) and dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}) spectra of a rubber radar absorbing material (RAM) with various MnZn ferrite volume fractions. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out in a vector network analyzer. Optimum conditions for the maximum microwave absorption were determined by substituting the complex permeability and permittivity in the impedance matching equation. Both the MnZn ferrite content and the RAM thickness effects on the microwave absorption properties, in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, were evaluated. The results show that the complex permeability and permittivity spectra of the RAM increase directly with the ferrite volume fraction. Reflection loss calculations by the impedance matching degree (reflection coefficient) show the dependence of this parameter on both thickness and composition of RAM. - Highlights: > Permeability and permittivity spectra of a MnZn ferrite RAM (2-18 GHz) are given. > Higher MnZn volume fraction favors increase of RAM/'s permeability and permittivity. > Minimum RL as a function of frequency, thickness and MnZn volume fraction given. > Higher thicknesses imply better absorption; optimum band shifts to lower frequencies. > For higher volume fractions, smaller thickness might offer better absorption (>10 GHz).

  16. Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina

    2012-08-17

    Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip.

  17. Design and Demonstration of a Material-Plasma Exposure Target Station for Neutron Irradiated Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Juergen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, A. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, Gary L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burgess, Thomas W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellis, Ronald James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans, James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lessard, Timothy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ohriner, Evan Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perkins, Dale E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Fusion energy is the most promising energy source for the future, and one of the most important problems to be solved progressing to a commercial fusion reactor is the identification of plasma-facing materials compatible with the extreme conditions in the fusion reactor environment. The development of plasma–material interaction (PMI) science and the technology of plasma-facing components are key elements in the development of the next step fusion device in the United States, the so-called Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). All of these PMI issues and the uncertain impact of the 14-MeV neutron irradiation have been identified in numerous expert panel reports to the fusion community. The 2007 Greenwald report classifies reactor plasma-facing materials (PFCs) and materials as the only Tier 1 issues, requiring a “. . . major extrapolation from the current state of knowledge, need for qualitative improvements and substantial development for both the short and long term.” The Greenwald report goes on to list 19 gaps in understanding and performance related to the plasma–material interface for the technology facilities needed for DEMO-oriented R&D and DEMO itself. Of the 15 major gaps, six (G7, G9, G10, G12, G13) can possibly be addressed with ORNL’s proposal of an advanced Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment. Establishing this mid-scale plasma materials test facility at ORNL is a key element in ORNL’s strategy to secure a leadership role for decades of fusion R&D. That is to say, our end goal is to bring the “signature facility” FNSF home to ORNL. This project is related to the pre-conceptual design of an innovative target station for a future Material–Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). The target station will be designed to expose candidate fusion reactor plasma-facing materials and components (PFMs and PFCs) to conditions anticipated in fusion reactors, where PFCs will be exposed to dense high-temperature hydrogen plasmas providing steady

  18. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  19. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  20. Capabilities of computer materials science and irradiation experiments for irradiation materials database and design methodology development (based on discussions at the {sup I}EA symposium on fusion reactor materials development)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsukawa, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kaburaki, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Wiffen, F.W.; Stoller, R. [ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., AK TN (United States); Sharafat, S. [UCLA, Los Angeles, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., AK CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation by high-energy fusion neutrons of the first wall of a DEMO blanket introduces transmutation produced helium atoms and displacement damage in the structural material to levels of greater than 1000 appm and 100 displacement per atom during typical service lifetimes, respectively. To simulate high levels of helium atoms in materials, doping techniques using species with large helium producing cross sections are often used in fission reactor irradiation experiments. However, the capability of these techniques is rather limited due to the geometric accumulation of dopants and helium along grain boundaries. In recent years, significant progress in modeling and simulation studies on these irradiation effects using large-scale computational techniques has been achieved. However, further improvements in accuracy and reliability of modeling results are needed prior to application of these results to structural design analyses and licensing. Therefore, the community is anticipating the construction of an intense neutron source, such as the d-Li stripping reaction neutron source of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). At the recent 'IEA Symposium on Fusion Reactor Materials Development' held Tokyo, Japan 2006, accomplishments of modeling and simulation studies, results of fission neutron and ion irradiation experiments, and a gap between the knowledge of these activities and design methodology of fusion reactor components were presented and discussed. One of the major conclusions of the meeting was that 'IFMIF is an essential facility in the pursuit of a low-risk path to the rapid development of commercially-viable fusion energy (DEMO). To facilitate highly productive IFMIF and supporting efforts (theory, modeling, and computer materials science), it is also important to enhance the activities of materials development, by continuing irradiation experiments in fission reactors and at other

  1. 电磁波吸收建筑材料的应用研究进展%Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解帅; 冀志江; 杨洋; 王静

    2016-01-01

    Application of electromagnetic wave (EMW)absorbing building materials is an effective method to improve the electromagnetic environment of architectural space.And the EMW absorbing material has been a hot area of research in recent years,as the electromagnetic radiation pollution increasing seriously.The recent advances and re-search methods of EMW absorbing building materials are reviewed in this paper.The materials are summarized as two major categories:filling absorbing agent and structure design,and then the shortcoming of current studies and approa-ches for further researchers are suggested after the review.Design of the ideal absorbing building materials with the characteristics of low density,thin matching thickness,broad bandwidth and strong microwave wave absorption,is the main direction,and the mechanism of wave absorption should be researched in depth.%应用电磁波吸收建筑材料是改善建筑空间电磁环境的有效方法。随着电磁辐射污染日益严重,吸波建材已逐渐成为研究热点。综述了近几年吸波建材的研究方法与研究现状,将吸波建材归纳为吸波剂填充型和结构设计型两大类,并分别进行评述,提出了现有研究中存在的一些问题以及进一步的研究方向。“轻、薄、宽、强”仍然是吸波建材的发展方向,同时电磁波损耗机理还有待进一步研究。

  2. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics – Part 1: Surface tension depression and light-absorbing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The light-absorbing products form on the order of minutes, and solution composition continues to change over several days. The results suggest an aldol condensation pathway involving the participation of the ammonium ion. Aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal, with and without inorganic salts, exhibit surface tension depression. Methylglyoxal uptake could potentially change the optical properties, climate effects, and heterogeneous chemistry of the seed aerosol over its lifetime.

  3. Taking into account absorbed doses in tooth enamel due to internal irradiation of human body by radioactive cesium isotopes at analysis EPR dosimetry data: Calculation by Monte-Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysheva, N. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Ivannikov-Alexander@yandex.ru; Tikunov, D.; Orlenko, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    By Monte-Carlo simulation of ionizing particles transport, for a realistic mathematical phantom of a man supplemented by a dental region, absorbed doses in teeth enamel and whole body doses are calculated for cases of internal irradiation by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs isotopes incorporated in the human body resulted from staying in radioactive contaminated territory. It is shown that dose in enamel constitutes (40{+-}4)% and (59{+-}6)% of whole body dose resulted from the decay of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs isotopes, respectively. The results of calculations may be used for conversion of absorbed dose in enamel obtained by the tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy method to whole body dose for dosimetric investigation of population of territories contaminated by the radioactive cesium, which is specific for the Chernobyl accident.

  4. Research Progress on Structural Design of Polymer Matrix Microwave Absorbing Materials%聚合物基吸波材料结构设计研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段磊; 温变英

    2014-01-01

    The distribution characteristics and types of present absorbents in polymer matrix were introduced. Comparing with the structure of single layer polymer matrix microwave absorbing materials,the design principle of pyramidal, double layer and multi layer of polymer matrix microwave absorbing materials was emphasized. The structure feature and research progress on pyramidal and layer structure of polymer matrix microwave absorbing materials were reviewed, and future development trends was also presented.%介绍了目前吸收剂在聚合物基体中的分布特点和类型,通过与单层聚合物基吸波材料的结构对比,重点阐述了聚合物基吸波材料角锥、双层、多层结构的设计原理。同时对聚合物基吸波材料的角锥和层状结构特征与研究进展进行了综述,并对其发展方向提出了展望。

  5. Corrosion of copper-based materials in irradiated moist air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-06-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of oxygen-free copper (CDA-102), 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA-715), and 7% aluminum bronze (CDA-613) in an irradiated moist air environment was investigated. Experiments were performed in both dry and 40% RH (@90{degree}C) air at temperatures of 90 and 150{degree}C. Initial corrosion rates were determined based on a combination of weight gain and weight loss measurements. Corrosion products observed were identified. These experiments support efforts by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate possible metallic barrier materials for nuclear waste containers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Report on the program of 4 K irradiation of insulating materials for the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindel, A.

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to serve as an aid to material selection. The results reported herein are the product of a careful investigation and can be used with confidence in their validity. The selection of materials based on this data, however, is not the responsibility of the author. This report will not approve or disapprove any specific material for use in the Super Collider. The author of this report does not assume any design responsibility or responsibility for material selection for any application. It is, therefore, very important that those with design responsibility use this report wisely. For this reason, the following informational guide to the material selection process has been provided. There are several issues to take into account when evaluating a material for radiation resistance. It is very important that the design criteria and operating loads for the application be known. For many applications the actual loading, and therefore required properties, are unknown. Certain materials have empirically been used successfully in a similar application and those materials have often been selected on that basis. Both percent degradation and the magnitude of the actual properties after irradiation need to be considered. Consider the scenario where two materials are being compared that both have acceptable properties after exposure to 10{sup 9} rads. It is preferable to choose the material with less degradation because degradation tends to be a threshold phenomena with properties declining rapidly with dose after a certain threshold dose. The properties of the initially strong material, therefore, will be extremely sensitive to dose in that dose range and slight magnet-to-magnet differences in dose may, depending on the application, lead to performance variations.

  7. Electron beam irradiation to the allogeneic, xenogenic and synthetic bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Jeong, Hyun Oh [School of Dentistry Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-07-01

    For the development of the biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bone were irradiated by electron beam to change the basic components and structures. For the efficient electron beam irradiating condition of these allogenic, xenogenic and artificial bone substitutes, the optimal electron beam energy and their individual dose were established, to maximize the bony regeneration capacity. Commercial products of four allogenic bones, such as Accell (ISOTIS OrthogBiologics Co., USA), Allotis (Korea Bone Bank Co., Korea), Oragraft (LifeNet Co., USA), and Orthoblast (Integra Orthobiologics Inc., USA), six xenogenic bones, such as BBP (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-oss (Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland), Indu-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), OCS-B (Nibec Co., Korea), and OCS-H (Nibec Co., Korea), and six synthetic bones, such as BMP (Couellmedi Co., Korea), BoneMedik (Meta Biomed Co., Korea), Bone plus (Megagen Co., Korea), MBCP (Biomatlante Co., France), Osteon (Genoss Co., Korea), and Osteogen (Impladent LTD., USA), were used. We used 1.0 and 2.0 MeV superconduction accelerator, and/or microtrone with different individual 60, 120 kGy irradiation dose. Different dose irradiated specimens were divided 6 portions each, so total 360 groups were prepared. 4 portions were analyzed each by elementary analysis using FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Microscopy) and another 2 portions were grafted to the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rat, following histologic, immunohistochemical analysis and TEM study were processed at the 8th and 16th weeks, in vivo. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)

  8. Microstructure of Radiation Damage in the Uranium Film and its Backing Materials Irradiated with 136 MeV Xenon-136(+26)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Supriyadi

    Microstructure changes in uranium and uranium/metal alloys due to radiation damage are of great interest in nuclear science and engineering. Titanium has attracted attention because of its similarity to Zr. It has been proposed for use in the second generation of fusion reactors due to its resistance to radiation-induced swelling. Aluminum can be regarded as a standard absorbing material or backing material for irradiation targets. Initial study of thin aluminum films irradiation by 252Cf fission fragments and alpha particles from source has been conducted in the Radiation Center, Oregon State University. Initial study of thin aluminum films irradiation by 252Cf fission fragments and alpha particles from source has been conducted in the Radiation Center, Oregon State University. Aluminum can be regarded as a standard absorbing material or backing material for irradiation targets. The AFM investigation of microstructure damages of thin aluminum surfaces revealed that the voids, dislocation loops and dislocation lines, formed in the thin aluminum films after bombardment by 252Cf fission fragments and alpha particles, depends on the irradiation dose. The void swelling and diameter and depth of voids increase linearly with the fluence of particles and dose; however, the areal density of voids decreased when formation of dislocation loops began. Study of deposition of uranium on titanium backing material by molecular plating and characterization of produced U/Ti film has been performed. The U/Ti film has smooth and uniform surfaces but the composition of the deposits is complex and does not include water molecules which probably involve the presence of U (VI). A possible structure for the deposits has been suggested. X-ray diffraction pattern of U/Ti films showed that The U/Ti film has an amorphous structure. Uranium films (0.500 mg/cm2) and stack of titanium foils (thickness 0.904 mg/cm2) were used to study the microstructural damage of the uranium film and its backing

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the Department of Energy`s proposal for the irradiation of lead test assemblies containing tritium-producing burnable absorber rods in commercial light-water reactors. Project Number 697

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The NRC staff has reviewed a report, submitted by DOE to determine whether the use of a commercial light-water reactor (CLWR) to irradiate a limited number of tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) in lead test assemblies (LTAs) raises generic issues involving an unreviewed safety question. The staff has prepared this safety evaluation to address the acceptability of these LTAs in accordance with the provision of 10 CFR 50.59 without NRC licensing action. As summarized in Section 10 of this safety evaluation, the staff has identified issues that require NRC review. The staff has also identified a number of areas in which an individual licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs will have to supplement the information in the DOE report before the staff can determine whether the proposed irradiation is acceptable at a particular facility. The staff concludes that a licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs in a CLWR will have to submit an application for amendment to its facility operating license before inserting the LTAs into the reactor.

  10. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Department of Fussion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yutani, Toshiaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m{sup 2}) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm{sup 3}) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  12. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  13. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  14. The application of absorbable internal fixation materials in maxillofacial surgery%可吸收内固定材料在颌面外科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华维; 刘强; 潘虹海

    2015-01-01

    目的:手术切开复位内固定术是目前颌面部骨折最常用的手术治疗方法,近年来随着高分子材料科学的发展,可吸收内固定材料的机械强度、生物相容性等均得到了很大提高,并显示出其优点,开始逐渐在临床广泛应用。该文就应用于颌面外科的可吸收内固定材料的分类、降解吸收、临床应用以及优缺点等方面进行综述。%Open reduction and rigid internal fixation surgery is one of the most commonly used methods of surgical treatment for max -illofacial fractures .With the development of polymer material science in recent years ,absorbable internal fixation materials have greatly improved in term of mechanical strength , biocompatibility , etc.Showing advantages , absorbable internal fixation materials have been gradually applied in clinic .This paper reviews absorbable internal fixation materials applied in the maxillofacial surgery regarding their cranial classification ,degradation of absorption ,clinical applications as well as advantages and disadvantages .

  15. Understanding and simulating the material behavior during multi-particle irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Anamul H.; Toulemonde, M.; Jegou, C.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bouffard, S.; Peuget, S.

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have suggested that the irradiation behavior and damage processes occurring during sequential and simultaneous particle irradiations can significantly differ. Currently, there is no definite answer as to why and when such differences are seen. Additionally, the conventional multi-particle irradiation facilities cannot correctly reproduce the complex irradiation scenarios experienced in a number of environments like space and nuclear reactors. Therefore, a better understanding of multi-particle irradiation problems and possible alternatives are needed. This study shows ionization induced thermal spike and defect recovery during sequential and simultaneous ion irradiation of amorphous silica. The simultaneous irradiation scenario is shown to be equivalent to multiple small sequential irradiation scenarios containing latent damage formation and recovery mechanisms. The results highlight the absence of any new damage mechanism and time-space correlation between various damage events during simultaneous irradiation of amorphous silica. This offers a new and convenient way to simulate and understand complex multi-particle irradiation problems.

  16. A Perfect Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design for an absorbing metamaterial with near unity absorbance in terahertz region is presented. The absorber's unit cell structure consists of two metamaterial resonators that couple to electric and magnetic fields separately. The structure allows us to maximize absorption by varying dielectric material and thickness and, hence the effective electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability.

  17. He-irradiation effects on glass-ceramics for joining of SiC-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzelino, L., E-mail: laura.gozzelino@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Casalegno, V. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Ghigo, G. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Moskalewicz, T.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A. [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30059 Krakow (Poland); Ferraris, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    CaO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CA) and SiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAY) glass-ceramics are promising candidates for SiC/SiC indirect joints. In view of their use in locations where high radiation level is expected (i.e. fusion plants) it is important to investigate how radiation-induced damage can modify the material microstructure. To this aim, pellets of both types were irradiated with 5.5 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} ions at an average temperature of 75 °C up to a fluence of almost 2.3·10{sup 18} cm{sup −2}. This produces a displacement defect density that increases with depth and reaches a value of about 40 displacements per atom in the ion implantation region, where the He-gas reaches a concentration of several thousands of atomic parts per million. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed no change in the microstructure and in the morphology of the pellet surface. Moreover, a transmission electron microscopy investigation on cross-section lamellas revealed the occurrence of structural defects and agglomerates of He-bubbles in the implantation region for the CA sample and a more homogeneous He-bubble distribution in the SAY pellet, even outside the implantation layer. In addition, no amorphization was found in both samples, even in correspondence to the He implantation zone. The radiation damage induced only occasional micro-cracks, mainly located at grain boundaries (CA) or within the grains (SAY). - Highlights: • Glass–ceramics for SiC-based material joining were irradiated with 5.5 MeV He. • Irradiation-induced dpa and He-ion implantation simulate damage expected in nuclear plants. • Irradiation-induced morphological and structural changes were investigated. • No amorphization was found even in correspondence to the He implantation zone. • He-bubbles concentration was evaluated by TEM analysis.

  18. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; Stan, Marius

    2017-04-14

    Complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field (PF) method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the PF method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiated nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that 1) FP models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; 2) The PF method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate 2-D and 3-D microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and 3) The FP method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the PF method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical and material properties of goat bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, M.J.; Butler, D.L.; Grood, E.S.; Bylski-Austrow, D.I.; Levy, M.S.; Noyes, F.R. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical properties of the composite bone-patellar tendon-bone unit (CU) and the tendon midsubstance (TM) were studied. Frozen specimens were exposed to either 2 or 3 Mrad of gamma irradiation. Paired frozen specimens served as intraanimal controls. Treatment effects on the CU were assessed using four mechanical parameters. Effects on the TM were assessed using four material parameters measured using an optical surface-strain analysis system. The maximum force and strain energy to maximum force of the composite unit were significantly reduced 27% and 40%, respectively, after 3 Mrad of irradiation (p less than .05). Mechanical properties of the CU were not significantly altered, however, following 2 Mrad of irradiation. Based on individual paired contrasts between treatment and control, significant differences were also found in the material properties of the tendon midsubstance. The maximum stress, maximum strain, and strain energy density to maximum stress were significantly reduced following 3 Mrad, but not 2 Mrad, of irradiation. The results provide important time zero material property data, which will be useful for later anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction studies using irradiated allograft patellar tendons in the goat model and other animal models as well.

  20. Design of high temperature irradiation materials inspection cells. (Spent fuel inspection cells) in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroichi; Ueta, Shouhei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tobita, Tsutomu [Nuclear Engineering Company, Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes design requirements and design results for shields, ventilation system and fuel handling devices for the high temperature irradiation materials inspection cells (spent fuel inspection cells). These cells are small cells to carry out few post-irradiation examinations of spent fuels, specimen, etc., which are irradiated in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, since the cells should be built in limited space in the HTTR reactor building, the cells are designed considering relationship between the cells and the reactor building to utilize the limited space effectively. The cells consist of three partitioned hot cells with wall for neutron and gamma-ray shields, ventilation system including filtering units and fuel handling devices. The post-irradiation examinations of the fuels and materials are planed by using the cells and the Hot Laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor to establish the technology basis on high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In future, irradiation tests and post-irradiation examinations will be carried out with the cells to upgrade present HTGR technologies and to make the innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering. (author)

  1. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  2. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marjolaine; Neti, Prasad V S V; Kemp, Francis W; Azzam, Edouard I; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Howell, Roger W

    2015-11-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays.

  3. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H

    2006-01-15

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals.

  4. Determination of strain and damage profiles in irradiated materials: Application to cubic zirconia irradiated at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channagiri, J. [Science des Procédés Céramiques et Traitements de Surface, CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Boulle, A., E-mail: alexandre.boulle@unilim.fr [Science des Procédés Céramiques et Traitements de Surface, CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Debelle, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et Sciences de la Matière, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    A methodology is presented that allows to retrieve strain and damage profiles in irradiated single crystals. The approach makes use of high-resolution X-ray diffraction θ–2θ scans coupled with numerical simulations of the diffraction profiles. The potential of the method is illustrated with cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals, irradiated with 4 MeV Au{sup 2+} ions at different temperatures (25, 500 and 800 °C). The simulations reveal that upon increasing ion fluence, the width of the damaged region increases and both the strain and damage levels inside this region increase. The damage build-up occurs according to a two-step mechanism: in the first step, the damage increases slowly up to a critical fluence, above which the second step takes place and is characterized by dramatic increase of the damage. The transition fluence is shifted towards lower values at higher temperatures.

  5. Gas-Cooled Reactor Programs annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1973. [HTGR fuel reprocessing, fuel fabrication, fuel irradiation, core materials, and fission product distribution; GCFR fuel irradiation and steam generator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Coobs, J.H.; Lotts, A.L.

    1976-04-01

    Progress is summarized in studies relating to HTGR fuel reprocessing, refabrication, and recycle; HTGR fuel materials development and performance testing; HTGR PCRV development; HTGR materials investigations; HTGR fuel chemistry; HTGR safety studies; and GCFR irradiation experiments and steam generator modeling.

  6. Research Progress in Cellulose-based Absorbent Material%纤维素系吸水材料的研究现状及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂林; 沈葵忠; 房桂干; 邓拥军; 李萍; 金莉; 别士霞

    2012-01-01

    This review addressed recent progress in cellulose-based absorbent materials preparation and application Firstly, absorbent material produced directly from native cellulose (including bacterial cellulose) via cellulose dissolution are introduced. Secondly, cellulose highly absorbing polymer based on its derivatives which were obtained by physical as well as chemical cross-linking strategies was discussed. Thirdly, composite prepared by using cellulose in conjunction with other polymers through blending, formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, and interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) technology was addressed . Finally, cellulose-inorganic hybrid hydrogel prepared by embedding inorganic nano-partieles in cellulose matrices was described. In addition,the prospect of cellulosic absorbent materials and some problems still needed to be solved were summarized.%本文回顾了近年来纤维素系吸水材料的制备方法及其应用,具体介绍了纤维素系吸水材料的几种主要制备方法:一是直接对天然纤维素进行处理来制备;第二是利用纤维素衍生物通过物理或化学交联的方法制备;第三是将纤维素与其他聚合物进行反应形成复合树脂或聚电解质配合物,还可以采用互穿聚合网络技术进行处理;另外将无机纳米粒子嵌入纤维素矩阵中也可以制备纤维素-无机混合凝胶树脂。最后还对纤维素系高吸水材料的发展前景以及仍需解决的问题进行了总结。

  7. Effects of ATR-2 Irradiation to High Fluence on Nine RPV Surveillance Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanstad, Randy K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odette, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Almirall, Nathan [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Robertson, Janet [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Server, W. L. [ATI Consulting, Pinehurst, NC (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Wells, Peter [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. The available embrittlement predictive models and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables and issues, particularly considering extension of operation to 80y.

  8. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, Raphael, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Cara, Philippe; Duglué, Daniel; Gex, Dominique [Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H{sup +} and D{sup +} 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  9. Investigating the irradiation behavior of nuclear materials: the contribution of the JANNUS platform; Etude du comportement sous irradiation des materiaux nucleaires: apport de la plateforme JANNUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y. [Departement des materiaux pour le nucleaire, Direction de l' energie nucleaire, CEA Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    The JANNUS platform (Joint Accelerators for Nano-sciences and Nuclear Simulation) comprises two experimental facilities, one located at Saclay, the other nearby at Orsay. The Saclay facility brings together 3 electrostatic particle accelerators: a single-ended, 3-MV Pelletron-accelerator (EPIMETHEE), a tandem 2-MV Pelletron (JAPET), and a single-ended 2.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator (YVETTE), set up around a common experiment chamber. The Orsay facility features a mixed-mode 2-MV accelerator (ARAMIS), and a 190-kV ion implanter (IRMA), both being coupled to a 200-kV transmission electron microscope. This setup allows the evolution of the sample's microstructure to be observed in situ, while it is undergoing irradiation, in single- or dual-beam configuration. A typical irradiation experiment, in triple-beam configuration, matches the conditions required, e.g., by applications in the area of fusion. The multicharged heavy-ion beam delivered by EPIMETHEE serves to simulate the atomic displacements caused, within the material, by neutrons. YVETTE provides helium ({sup 4}He), and JAPET hydrogen ({sup 1}H), as yielded by nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and (n, p). This characterization - whether structural, chemical, or mechanical - may be carried out during irradiation (in situ), or immediately subsequent to it (ex situ). Materials science can now avail itself of an altogether comprehensive panoply of physicochemical analysis techniques, e.g. electron microscopy, atom-probe tomography, X-ray diffraction and absorption... 2 examples illustrate the contribution made by the JANNUS platform to our understanding of the irradiation behavior of nuclear materials. The first example concerns hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC), the second one an ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) ferritic-martensitic alloy. (A.C.)

  10. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities.

  11. Development of sterilization and storage processes of Xeno-skins by gamma irradiation for the Industrialization as dressing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Hum; Sung, Nak Yun; Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Jeong Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Allografts have been increased in concerns as treatment methods to be use in replacement and reconstruction procedures of tissue. The major concern about tissue and bone transplantation is the risk of transferring bacteria, viruses from recipient to the donors, especially from different species. To avoid these risks, tissue and bone banks use many different sterilization methods such as a deep-frozenness, freeze-drying ethylene oxide-sterilization and gamma-irradiation. Among these methods, gamma-irradiation has been widely used to sterilize the tissue for allograft and xenograft safety. Gamma irradiation could be an effective method for sterilization of soft tissue for the development of xenografts. Also, this study suggests the potential of development as tissue graft with the improved mechanical property of the structural stability and protection of tissue materials by antioxidant on porcine skin irradiated for sterilization and storage process

  12. Effect of damage rate on the kinetics of void nucleation and growth by phase field modeling for materials under irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuejian; Zhao, Jiejiang; Huang, Hao; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2016-11-01

    The void formation and growth in materials under irradiations is studied by a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled with the explicit nucleation algorithm. Through the numerical simulations, the stages of incubation, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the irradiation induced voids are clearly observed with a faster kinetics for stronger damage rate. There seems to exist a critical damage rate g˙vc at which the kinetics speeds up significantly. For smaller damage rates, very few voids can be nucleated. But the nucleated voids can grow rather large with its average radius growing as Rv ∝t1/d. For stronger irradiations, much more voids could be nucleated, but they cannot grow very large before coarsening. The growth follows a much faster kinetics as Rv ∝t2/d. The critical damage rate g˙vc should be determined by the competition of the rate of diffusion and the rate of vacancy production due to irradiations.

  13. Analytical study of pulsed laser irradiation on some materials used for photovoltaic cells on satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf M. Abd El-Hameed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns on the study of laser-powered solar panels used for space applications. A mathematical model representing the laser effects on semiconductors has been developed. The temperature behavior and heat flow on the surface and through a slab has been studied after exposed to nano-second pulsed laser. The model is applied on two different types of common active semiconductor materials that used for photovoltaic cells fabrication as silicon (Si, and gallium arsenide (GaAs. These materials are used for receivers’ manufacture for laser beamed power in space. Various values of time are estimated to clarify the heat flow through the material sample and generated under the effects of pulsed laser irradiation. These effects are theoretically studied in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. Moreover, the obtained results are carried out to optimize conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells and may be helpful to give more explanation for layout of the light-electricity space systems.

  14. Comparison of Material Behavior of Matrix Graphite for HTGR Fuel Elements upon Irradiation: A literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The fuel elements for the HTGRs (i.e., spherical fuel element in pebble-bed type core design and fuel compact in prismatic core design) consists of coated fuel particles dispersed and bonded in a closely packed array within a carbonaceous matrix. This matrix is generally made by mixing fully graphitized natural and needle- or pitchcoke originated powders admixed with a binder material (pitch or phenolic resin), The resulting resinated graphite powder mixture, when compacted, may influence a number of material properties as well as its behavior under neutron irradiation during reactor operation. In the fabrication routes of these two different fuel element forms, different consolidation methods are employed; a quasi-isostatic pressing method is generally adopted to make pebbles while fuel compacts are fabricated by uni-axial pressing mode. The result showed that the hardness values obtained from the two directions showed an anisotropic behavior: The values obtained from the perpendicular section showed much higher micro hardness (176.6±10.5MPa in average) than from the parallel section ((125.6±MPa in average). This anisotropic behavior was concluded to be related to the microstructure of the matrix graphite. This may imply that the uni-axial pressing method to make compacts influence the microstructure of the matrix and hence the material properties of the matrix graphite.

  15. Recent Experiments At Ndcx-II: Irradiation Of Materials Using Short, Intense Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, P A; Persaud, A; Feinberg, E; Ludewigt, B; Silverman, M; Sulyman, A; Waldron, W L; Schenkel, T; Barnard, J J; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I D; Stepanov, A; Treffert, F; Zimmer, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the performance of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) accelerator at Berkeley Lab, and summarize recent studies of material properties created with nanosecond and millimeter-scale ion beam pulses. The scientific topics being explored include the dynamics of ion induced damage in materials, materials synthesis far from equilibrium, warm dense matter and intense beam-plasma physics. We summarize the improved accelerator performance, diagnostics and results of beam-induced irradiation of thin samples of, e.g., tin and silicon. Bunches with over 3x10^10 ions, 1- mm radius, and 2-30 ns FWHM duration have been created. To achieve these short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV He+ ion beam is neutralized in a drift compression section which removes the space charge defocusing effect during final compression and focusing. Quantitative comparison of detailed particle-in-cell simulations with the experiment play an important role in optimizing acc...

  16. Analytical study of pulsed laser irradiation on some materials used for photovoltaic cells on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.

    2015-12-01

    The present research concerns on the study of laser-powered solar panels used for space applications. A mathematical model representing the laser effects on semiconductors has been developed. The temperature behavior and heat flow on the surface and through a slab has been studied after exposed to nano-second pulsed laser. The model is applied on two different types of common active semiconductor materials that used for photovoltaic cells fabrication as silicon (Si), and gallium arsenide (GaAs). These materials are used for receivers' manufacture for laser beamed power in space. Various values of time are estimated to clarify the heat flow through the material sample and generated under the effects of pulsed laser irradiation. These effects are theoretically studied in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. Moreover, the obtained results are carried out to optimize conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells and may be helpful to give more explanation for layout of the light-electricity space systems.

  17. 粘土/聚合物复合吸水材料的研究进展%Research Progress of Clay/Polymer Composite Absorbent Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林晖; 张丽丽; 丁马太; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    The influence of clay minerals on modification mechanism, modification methods of super-absorbent polymer was reviewed. The main types of current existed clay/polymer composite absorbent materials were introduced in the paper. The analysis showed that the main problem of the composite materials was very difficult to coordinate the relation among three factors, such as absorbent ability, gel strength and salt-resistance. The research direction in future is to compose it with natural resources to develop the eco-friendly products and apply them to remove high toxic dyes and harmful heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater.%综述了粘土矿物对于高吸水性聚合物的改性机理、改性方法的影响,介绍了目前粘土/聚合物复合吸水材料的主要种类。分析指出,吸水能力、凝胶强度与耐盐性三者乏阊难以统筹兼顾是这类复合材料当前存在的主要问题,将其与天然资源复合开发环境友好型产品,并用于废水中高毒染料和有害金属离子的去除是其今后的发展方向。

  18. Cellulose-silver nanoparticle hybrid materials to control spoilage-related microflora in absorbent pads located in trays of fresh-cut melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Avelina; Picouet, Pierre; Lloret, Elsa

    2010-08-15

    The antimicrobial activity of newly developed cellulose-silver nanoparticle hybrid materials was investigated during storage of minimally processed "Piel de Sapo" melon. Silver nanoparticles were produced after in-situ reduction by physical methods of 1% silver nitrate adsorbed on cellulose fibres; they accounted between 5 and 35 nm diameter, and were not aggregated. Fresh-cut melon pieces were stored for 10 days at 4 degrees C under natural modified atmosphere packaging, in presence or absence of silver loaded absorbent pads. The evolution of headspace gas composition, quality parameters, and the antimicrobial activity against spoilage-related microorganisms were investigated. The cellulose-silver nanoparticle hybrid materials released silver ions after melon juice impregnated the pad. The released silver ions were particularly useful to control the population of spoilage-related microorganisms in cellulose based absorbent pads in contact with vegetable matrices, showing a low chelating effect against silver ions; the lag phases of the microorganisms were considerably incremented and microbial loads in the pads remained in average approx. 3 log(10) CFU/g below the control during the investigated storage period. Furthermore, the presence of silver loaded absorbent pads retarded the senescence of the melon cuts, presenting remarkably lower yeast counts, lower degrees Brix values, and a juicier appearance after 10 days of storage.

  19. 活性炭纤维材料吸声性能分析%Analysis of sound absorbing properties of activated carbon fiber materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岳; 蒋高明; 季涛; 高强; 刘其霞

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the sound absorbing properties of activated carbon fiber, viscose-based activated carbon fiber felts with different specifications were prepared under the same conditions. And the sound absorbing properties of viscose-based activated carbon fiber felts were measured by transfer function method in the 250 - 1 600 Hz middle and low frequencies acoustic range using an impedance tube. The effects of such parameters as specific surface area, thickness, surface density and depth of cavity on the sound absorbing properties were analyzed. The results showed that porous materials like activated carbon fiber felt have better sound absorbing properties, and their sound absorbing capacity in middle frequency-is better than that in low frequency; moreover, as specific surface area, thickness, surface density and depth of cavity increase, sound absorbing properties improve, but the average sound absorbing coefficients show an increase by different margins.%为研究活性炭纤维的吸声性能,在同一工艺条件下制备了不同规格粘胶基活性炭纤维毡,用传递函数法在250~1 600 Hz中低频率声波范围内采用阻抗管对活性炭纤维材料的吸声性能进行测试,分析材料比表面积、厚度、面密度、空腔厚度等参数对吸声性能的影响.结果表明:活性炭纤维毡多孔材料具有较好的吸声性能,其对声波中频段的吸声好于低频段,随材料的比表面积、厚度、面密度、空腔厚度的增加,其吸声性能越好,但平均吸声系数增幅不同.

  20. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.

  1. 多层微波吸收材料的遗传算法设计%Design of multilayer microwave absorbing material based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹枫; 张敏; 曾国勋; 吴子秋

    2013-01-01

    利用遗传算法(GA)编写多涂层优化设计程序,该程序可以调用矢量网络分析仪测量的电磁参数,根据吸波材料的电磁参数对0.5~6.0 GHz范围内不同材料的涂层厚度进行优化设计;讨论了不同的目标函数和厚度优化方法对优化结果的影响,提出多常数权重法建立目标函数.结果表明:此方法可以简单地从材料电磁参数的数据库中,按照设定的要求计算得到最优的电磁波吸收涂层;利用提出的多常数权重法建立的目标函数可以更好的设计宽频带高吸收的电磁波吸收涂层.%An optimum designing program of multilayer absorbing material is compiled based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). The program transfers the electromagnetic parameters which measured by vector network analyzer, and can process thickness optimum design of different absorbing materials in the range of 0.5-6.0 GHz. The results show that the best absorbing layers can be easily gained from the electromagnetic parameter database by computing with this program according to the requirement. The multi-constant weight method is very helpful to design the microwave absorbing layers of broad-frequency and high absorption.

  2. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  3. 纤维素基高吸水材料研究进展%Research progress in cellulose-based super absorbent material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东卓; 祝宝东; 王鉴; 张帅; 潘宇亭; 何乾坤

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent material is a new type of functional polymer material with important application value. This article reviews the pretreatment,the graft modification and the compound modification of natural cellulose in recent years,and also introduces fungi cellulose. Pretreatment methods are emphasized,including alkalization,etherification,ionic liquids dispose and organic solvent dispose,the graft modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives,and the preparation of super absorbent material by cellulose/silicate complex,cellulose/metal nanoparticles complex and cellulose/highpolymer complex. The cellulose-based super absorbent materials have a wide applied perspective in agriculture,pharmacy and environmental protection.%纤维素基高吸水材料是一种新型的功能高分子材料,具有重要的应用价值。本文综述了近年来天然纤维素的预处理、接枝改性和复合改性,并介绍了菌类纤维素,主要阐述了碱化、醚化、离子液体和有机溶剂对纤维素的预处理,纤维素、纤维素衍生物接枝改性以及纤维素与硅酸盐矿物,金属纳米粒子和高聚物复合制备高吸水材料,指出纤维素基高吸水材料在农业、制药、环保等领域应用前景广阔。

  4. The Investigation on the Potential of Coconut Shell Powder Composite in Term of Carbon Composition, Surface Porosity and Dielectric Properties as a Microwave Absorbing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Been Seok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes are renewable resources that are potentially useful as microwave absorbing materials. This paper presents the investigation on the carbon composition, surface porosity of the raw coconut shell powder particles and the dielectric properties of coconut shell powder with epoxy resin matrix composites. From CHNS elemental analysis, it was found that the carbon composition of coconut shell powder is 46.700%. Presences of macropores (≈ 2μm were detected in the SEM analysis of the coconut shell powder particles. Measurement on dielectric properties of the coconut shell powder composites was performed by using open-ended coaxial probe method over microwave frequency range of 1-8 GHz. The overall dielectric constant (εr’ and dielectric loss factor (εr” of the composite with ratio 50:50 were 3.56 and 0.26, ranging from 3.35-3.76 and 0.21-0.30 respectively; whereas for composite ratio 40:60, the overall dielectric constant (εr’ and dielectric loss factor (εr” were 2.97 and 0.21, ranging from 2.74-3.17 and 0.16-0.27 respectively. The electrical conductivity calculated based on measured εr” was 0.067 and 0.054 for composite ratio 50:50 and 40:60 respectively. The dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of the coconut shell powder composites were influenced by the greater presence of high dielectric material (coconut shell powder. This experimental investigation on the potential of the coconut shell powder with epoxy resin composites indicates that the ability of the composite to absorb and convert microwave signals is dependent on the carbonaceous materials of the composite. This result offers a great opportunity to diversify the use of coconut shell powder as microwave absorbing material.

  5. Multiband terahertz metamaterial absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Chao; Qu Shao-Bo; Pei Zhi-Bin; Xu Zhuo; Liu Jia; Gu Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a multiband metamaterial (MM) absorber in the terahertz region. Theoretical and simulated results show that the absorber has four distinct and strong absorption points at 1.69, 2.76, 3.41 and that the impedance of MM could be tuned to match approximately the impedance of the free space to minimise the reflectance at absorption frequencies and large power loss exists at absorption frequencies. The distribution of the power loss indicates that the absorber is an excellent electromagnetic wave collector: the wave is first trapped and reinforced in certain specific locations and then consumed. This multiband absorber has applications in the detection of explosives and materials characterisation.

  6. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  7. Effect of LED-LCU light irradiance distribution on mechanical properties of resin based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhães Filho, T.R.; Weig, K.M. [Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua São Paulo 28, CEP 24020-150 Niterói (Brazil); Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, M.F. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Werneck, M.M. [Engenharia Elétrica (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68504, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barthem, R.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa Neto, C.A., E-mail: celio@metalmat.ufrj.br [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the light power distribution along the tip end of the light guide of three LED-LCUs (Light Curing Units) and to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of a polymer based dental composite. Firstly, the light power distribution over the whole area of LED-LCU light guide surface was analyzed by three methods: visual projection observation, spectral measurement and optical spectral analysis (OSA). The light power distribution and the total irradiance were different for the three LEDs used, but the wavelength was within the camphorquinone absorption spectrum. The use of a blank sheet was quite on hand to make a qualitative analysis of a beam, and it is costless. Secondly, specimens of a hybrid composite with approximately 8 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and polymerized by 20 s exposition time to each LED-LCU. Thirdly, the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (HV) were measured throughout the irradiated area by instrumented micro-indentation test (IIT), allowing to correlate localized power and mechanical properties. Both E and HV showed to be very sensitive to local power and wavelength dependent, but they followed the beam power profile. It was also shown that the mechanical properties could be directly correlated to the curing process. Very steep differences in mechanical properties over very short distances may impair the material performance, since residual stresses can easily be built over it. - Highlights: • A resin based composite (RBC) was polymerized by three different Light Emitting Diodes. • Each LED had its beam profile visually, wavelength and power analyzed. • The effective polymerization power (EPP) varied from 28% to 52% of the total beam power. • Wavelength seems to be as relevant as power in the light curing process. • Mechanical properties depend on the simultaneous effect of wavelength and power.

  8. Leaf-like nanotips synthesized on femtosecond laser-irradiated dielectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh, E-mail: a.kiani@unb.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Patel, Nikunj B.; Tan, Bo [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2015-02-21

    Nanotips are the key nanostructures for the improvement of field emission, flat panel displays, force microscopy, and biosensor applications. We propose a single-step, rapid synthesis method to generate nanotips using femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz frequency with a background flow of nitrogen gas at ambient conditions. Two different types of leaf-like nanotips can be grown on the target surface: randomly oriented multiple tips growing from a single large droplet and single tips growing from small droplets. In this report, we explain the mechanism accountable for the formation of such nanotips using known concepts of laser breakdown of dielectric materials, plasma plume generation, plasma interactions with incoming laser pulses and surrounding gas, as well as known thermal properties of target material. Nitrogen gas plays an interesting role for the resultant structural changes on the target surface and thus it is given special attention in our discussion. Our unique fabrication technique has enabled us to produce tips with nanoscale apexes with a stem and length ranging from few hundred nanometers to few micrometers.

  9. Irradiation study of different silicon materials for the CMS tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Erfle, Joachim; Hansen, Wolfgang; Garutti, Erika

    Around 2022, an upgrade of the LHC collider complex is planned to significantly increase the luminosity (the High Luminosity LHC, HL-LHC). This means that the experiments have to cope with a higher number of collisions per bunch crossing and survive in a radiation environment much harsher than that at the present LHC. Especially the tracking detectors have to be improved for the HL-LHC. The increased number of tracks requires an increase of the number of readout channels while the higher radiation makes new sensor materials necessary. Within CMS, a measurement campaign was initiated to study the performance of different silicon materials in a corresponding radiation environment. To simulate the expected radiation the samples were irradiated with neutrons and with protons with two different energies. Radiation damage can be divided in two categories. First, ionizing energy loss in the surface isolation layers of the sensor leads to a change of the concentration of charged states in the sensor surface and there...

  10. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  11. The relation between optical instabilities and absorbed material in photoluminescence with [0001] InGaN single quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsumi, T; Kawakami, Y; Micheletto, R

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we aim to elucidate the physical mechanism of the so called optical memory effect and blinking phenomenon observed in InGaN single quantum wells (SQW). We have found that the optical response of both memory effect and blinking phenomenon, is affected by different excitation wavelengths and by the change of gas adsorption on the crystal surface. A model that reproduce dynamics of the coverage of absorbed gas molecules on the sample surface is given and compared with experimental data with evident match.

  12. [Effect of low-power laser irradiation on the structure and properties of protein molecules under non-specific energy absorbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romodanova, E O; Diubko, T S; Morozova, T F; Roshal', O D; Distanov, V B; Hurkalenko, Iu O

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the helium-neon laser emission on HSA was investigated at present work by means of the fluorescent probe MNBIS (4-morpholino-7-oxy-7-H-benzo-[de]-benzo-[4,5]-imidazo-[2,1-a]- izoquinolin-5-sulfonic acid) sensitive to protein conformational changes using. Fluorescence spectra parameters of the probe and kinetics of probe interaction with protein molecules were analyzed. Possible mechanisms of the helium-neon laser irradiation on water-protein solution structure are discussed.

  13. Radiation damage and recovery of medium heavy and light inorganic crystalline, glass and glass ceramics materials after irradiation with 150 MeV protons and 1.2 MeV gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, K.T.; Dormenev, V.; Novotny, R.W.; Zaunick, H.G. [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Borisevich, A.; Korjik, M.; Kozlov, D. [INP BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.; Voitovich, A. [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus); Kavatsyuk, M. [KVI-CART, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Further concepts of the detectors at HEP experiments will require using cheap, capable for a mass production and radiation hard materials, especially for application at collider experiments. A set of samples with volume 1-2 cm{sup 3} of the middle light and light materials: crystalline BaF{sub 2}, Y{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Ce, Y{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Pr, Lu{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Ce, LiF and newly developed glass and glass ceramics DSB:Ce and DSL:Ce were irradiated with gamma-quanta with absorbed dose 100 Gy and 150 MeV protons up to fluence 5 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. Here we report results of the comparison of the optical transmission damage and recovery after different types of irradiation. A significant acceleration of the induced absorption recovery is observed at the DSB:Ce samples illuminated with visible and IR light. This effect is similar to one observed by us in PWO. It indicates that radiation induced absorption in DSB: Ce scintillation material can be retained at the acceptable level by stimulation with light at the conditions of a strong irradiation environment of the collider experiments.

  14. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  15. Laboratory Investigations of the Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sanford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Much of Pluto's surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature (approximately 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto's atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-alpha UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low temperature N2(-), CH4(-), and CO(-)containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near- IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with

  16. Microwave Absorbing Properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 (z = 0 – 3 Materials in XBand Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Edi Gunanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 (z = 0,1,2, and 3 were successfully synthesized by solid state reaction through a mechanical milling method. Stoichiometric quantities of analytical-grade MnCO3, BaCO3, Fe2O3, and SrCO3 precursors with purity greater than 99% were mixed. It was found that the best phase composition, having an absorber with high performance, was Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19. Refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 was single-phase and had a hexagonal structure (P63/mmc. Mechanical milling of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 powders produced particles with a mean size of ~850 nm. SEM images revealed the morphology of the particles as being aggregates of fine grains. The magnetic properties of the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 particles showed a low coercivity and a high remanent magnetization. The Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 has certain microwave absorber properties in the frequency range of 8-14 GHz, with an absorbing peak value of ‑8 dB and -10 dB at frequencies of 8.5 and 12.5 GHz, respectively. The study concludes that the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 that was successfully synthesized is a good candidate for use as an electromagnetic absorber material.

  17. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  18. Neutron absorbing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masayuki

    1998-12-04

    The neutron absorbing alloy of the present invention comprises Ti or an alloy thereof as a mother material, to which from 2 to 40% by weight of Hf and Gd within a range of from 4 to 50% by weight in total are added respectively. Ti is excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability, and produces no noxious intermetallic compound with Hf and Gd. In addition, since the alloy can incorporate a great quantity of Hf and Gd, a neutron absorbing material having excellent neutron absorbing performance than usual and excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability can be manufactured conveniently and economically not by a special manufacturing method. (T.M.)

  19. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of absorbed dose and radiolysis yields enhancement from a gold nanoparticle under MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: tranngochoang@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Karamitros, M. [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre-Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ivanchenko, V.N. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Guatelli, S.; McKinnon, S. [Centre For Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia); Illawarra Health and Medical Research, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Okada, S. [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Organization, KEK, Tsukuba City (Japan); Bordage, M.C. [INSERM, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Univ. Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/IN2P3/CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Shin, J.I. [Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75, Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.B. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 323, Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Barberet, Ph. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Tran, T.T. [VNUHCM-University of Science (Viet Nam); Brown, J.M.C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been reported as a possible radio-sensitizer agent in radiation therapy due to their ability to increase energy deposition and subsequent direct damage to cells and DNA within their local vicinity. Moreover, this increase in energy deposition also results in an increase of the radiochemical yields. In this work we present, for the first time, an in silico investigation, based on the general purpose Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4, into energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle 50 nm in diameter via proton irradiation. Simulations were preformed for incident proton energies ranging from 2 to 170 MeV, which are of interest for clinical proton therapy.

  20. Effects of Low Energy and High Flux Helium/Hydrogen Plasma Irradiation on Tungsten as Plasma Facing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Minyou

    2005-01-01

    The High-Z material tungsten (W) has been considered as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). In ITER, the divertor is expected to operate under high particle fluxes (> 1023 m-2s-1) from the plasma as well as from intrinsic impurities with a very low energy (< 200 eV). During the past dacade, the effects of plasma irradiation on tungsten have been studied extensively as functions of the ion energy,fluence and surface temperature in the burning plasma conditions. In this paper, recent results concerning blister and bubble formations on the tungsten surface under low energy (< 100 eV) and high flux (> 1021 m-2s-1) He/H plasma irradiation are reviewed to gain a better understanding of the performance of tungsten as a plasma facing material under the burning plasma conditions.

  1. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  2. Comparison of chemical composition of materials used in dental restorations 08 years after the irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio; Santos, Adimir dos, E-mail: mfmaio@ipen.b, E-mail: asantos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marcosrf@salesiano-ata.b [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on the materials commonly used in dental restorations (amalgam, composite resin and Compomer), to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, observed when the teeth are restored within the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to the beam of radiation from a source of cobalt-therapy, and analyzed by a X-ray fluorescence technique, by comparing the chemical composition of samples before and after irradiation. Gamma spectrometry was performed with detector of NaI and HPGe in the same samples. Then, the samples were kept in an appropriate place and after 08 years is repeated the same analysis. With these tests, it was possible to verify small changes in the composition of bodies of evidence due to the interaction 08 years after exposure to gamma radiation beams, simulating a patient who develops deleterious effects of radiation after the end radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Far-Infrared Irradiation Generated by Ceramic Material on Murine Melanoma Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of specific wavelengths, so-called “far-infrared radiation” produced from ceramic material (cFIR, on whole organisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of cFIR on murine melanoma cells (B16-F10 at body temperature. cFIR irradiation treatment for 48 h resulted in an 11.8% decrease in the proliferation of melanoma cells relative to the control. Meanwhile, incubation of cells with cFIR for 48 h significantly resulted in 56.9% and 15.7% decreases in the intracellular heat shock protein (HSP70 and intracellular nitric oxide (iNO contents, respectively. Furthermore, cFIR treatment induced 6.4% and 12.3% increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species stained by 5-(and 6-carboxyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123, respectively. Since malignant melanomas are known to have high HSP70 expression and iNO activity, the suppressive effects of cFIR on HSP70 and NO may warrant future interest in antitumor applications.

  4. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H. [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Fusion Neutron Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  5. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J. [comp.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities.

  6. Gamma irradiation effects on cyanate ester/epoxy insulation materials for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingwen [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhixiong, E-mail: zxwu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Chuanjun [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Laifeng, E-mail: laifengli@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Irradiation resistance of glass fiber reinforced cyanate ester/epoxy composite was investigated. • The cyanate ester/epoxy resin system has a low viscosity and long pot life. • The T{sub g} of the matrix resin decreased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. • The ILSS of GFRP composite increased slightly when exposed to 10 MGy of gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Cyanate ester/epoxy resin was used as a cryogenic-grade polymer matrix and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite was manufactured. The processing properties of matrix resin in terms of the isothermal viscosity at 45 °C were investigated. The specimens were exposed with gamma irradiation of 1 MGy, 5 MGy and 10 MGy, respectively. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermal properties and structure of cyanate ester/epoxy matrix was investigated. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composites before and after irradiation were investigated at room temperature, 77 K and 4.2 K. Results showed that cyanate ester/epoxy system had a low viscosity and a long pot life at 45 °C. The glass transition temperature of the matrix resin decreased with the increasing irradiation dose. Moreover, the ILSS of GFRP composite slightly increases after irradiation and toughening mechanism was also discussed.

  7. Investigation of solar cells fabricated on low-cost silicon sheet materials using 1 MeV electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, A. H.; Hyland, S. L.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of high energy electron irradiation is investigated as a controlled means to study in more detail the junction depletion layer processes of solar cells made on various low-cost silicon sheet materials. Results show that solar cells made on Czochralski grown silicon exhibit enhancement of spectral response in the shorter wavelength region when irradiated with high energy electrons. The base region damage can be reduced by subsequent annealing at 450 C which restores the degraded longer wavelength response, although the shorter wavelength enhancement persists. The second diode component of the cell dark forward bias current is also reduced by electron irradiation, while thermal annealing at 450 C without electron irradiation can also produce these same effects. Electron irradiation produces small changes in the shorter wavelength spectral responses and junction improvements in solar cells made on WEB, EFG, and HEM silicon. It is concluded that these beneficial effects on cell characteristics are due to the reduction of oxygen associated deep level recombination centers in the N(+) diffused layer and in the junction.

  8. Investigation of solar cells fabricated on low-cost silicon sheet materials using 1 MeV electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, A. H.; Hyland, S. L.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of high energy electron irradiation is investigated as a controlled means to study in more detail the junction depletion layer processes of solar cells made on various low-cost silicon sheet materials. Results show that solar cells made on Czochralski grown silicon exhibit enhancement of spectral response in the shorter wavelength region when irradiated with high energy electrons. The base region damage can be reduced by subsequent annealing at 450 C which restores the degraded longer wavelength response, although the shorter wavelength enhancement persists. The second diode component of the cell dark forward bias current is also reduced by electron irradiation, while thermal annealing at 450 C without electron irradiation can also produce these same effects. Electron irradiation produces small changes in the shorter wavelength spectral responses and junction improvements in solar cells made on WEB, EFG, and HEM silicon. It is concluded that these beneficial effects on cell characteristics are due to the reduction of oxygen associated deep level recombination centers in the N(+) diffused layer and in the junction.

  9. Irradiation programme HFR phase 1b. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (2.4 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm HFR Phase 1b. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 2,4 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Lautensack, S.; Romer, O.

    2004-04-01

    The irradiation project HFR phase 1b was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. It represents the continuation of the former High-Flux-Reactor irradiation programmes which are documented in detail in former FZK-reports. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still not finally solved. After evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the 2.4 dpa irradiated specimens, the low activation 7-10%-Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys showed outstandingly better characteristics compared to the modified commercial 10-11%-Cr-NiMoVNb steels. The emphasis of the phase 1b project is now on the investigation of low activating OPTIFER-alloys, which exhibit in contrast to the previously irradiated OPTIFER-steels a clearly reduced boron content in order to reduce the irradiation embrittlement. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the phase 1b programme (irradiation dose 2.4 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the MANITU- and HFR phase 1a- irradiation programmes. Herein, the OPTIFER-V steel, which is nearly identical to the industrial heat EUROFER97 (which became available after the irradiation), supplied the best results. (orig.)

  10. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study; Estudo comparativo morfologico da acao do laser de Nd:YAG em dentina cariada de dentes deciduos in vitro, condicionados com diamino fluoreto de prata a 12% e carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Andrea de Avillez

    2001-07-01

    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  11. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials of the first irradiation phase (0.8 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen der ersten Bestrahlungsphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    1995-09-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the first phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.8 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed. Among all examined alloys (MANET-I, MANET-II, K-heat, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den unbestrahlten miniaturisierten Referenzproben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen teilweise bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse aus den instrumentierten Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen der ersten Phase des MANITU-Programms (Bestrahlungsdosis 0,8 dpa, Bestrahlungstemperaturen 250, 300, 350, 400 und 450 C) analysiert und bewertet. Von den untersuchten Legierungen (MANET-I, MANET-II, Kastencharge, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791

  12. Development of indigenous insulation material for superconducting magnets and study of its characteristics under influence of intense neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Tanna, V. L.; Rao, C. V. S.; Abhangi, Mitul; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Sundaravel; Varatharajan, S.; Sivakumar, S.; Sasi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    Epoxy based glass fiber reinforced composites are the main insulation system for the superconducting magnets of fusion machines. 14MeV neutrons are generated during the DT fusion process, however the energy spectra and flux gets modified to a great extent when they reach the superconducting magnets. Mechanical properties of the GFRP insulation material is reported to degrade up to 30%. As a part of R & D activity, a joint collaboration with IGCAR, Kalpakkam has been established. The indigenous insulation material is subjected to fast neutron fluence of 1014 - 1019 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV) in FBTR and KAMINI Reactor, India. TRIM software has been used to simulate similar kind of damage produced by neutrons by ion irradiation with 5 MeV Al ions and 3 MeV protons. Fluence of the ions was adjusted to get the same dpa. We present the test experiment of neutron irradiation of the composite material (E-glass, S-glass fiber boron free and DGEBA epoxy). The test results of tensile, inter laminar shear and electrical breakdown strength as per ASTM standards, assessment of micro-structure surface degradation before and after irradiation will be presented. MCNP simulations are carried out for neutron flux, dose and damages produced in the insulation material.

  13. Evaluating structural and microstructural changes of PDMS –SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials after sterilization by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lancastre, Joana [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Vaz Fernandes, M. Helena [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Ferreira, Luís [Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, IST, University of Lisbon, E.N 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M., E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering/CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    PDMS–SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials obtained by sol–gel process have been extensively studied over the past years due to its promising biomedical applications namely as bone substitutes, catheters, and drug delivery devices. Regardless of the intended biomedical application, all these materials should go through a sterilization process before interfacing with a living structure. However, it is unclear whether they undergo structural and microstructural changes when subjected to sterilization by gamma irradiation. This paper addresses this issue by showing that a sol–gel processed biomaterial based on the PDMS–CaO–SiO{sub 2} hybrid system suffers only small structural changes when submitted to a radiation dose of 25 kGy, the dose usually recommended to achieve a Sterility Assurance Level of 10{sup −6} when the natural contamination level and microorganism types cannot be calculated. The characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si–{"1H} CP-MAS, thermal analysis (DTG), and SEM. - Highlights: • Hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2} materials were subjected to sterilization by γ-irradiation. • Materials suffer only small structural changes when irradiated. • Characterization was assessed by FT-IR, {sup 29}Si-{"1H} CP-MAS, DTG and SEM.

  14. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials of the second irradiation phase (0.8 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen der zweiten Bestrahlungsphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    2000-09-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. After the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens irradiated up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the MANITU programme, better mechanical properties of the 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys were obvious. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the second phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.8 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the irradiation up to 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the project. Among the examined alloys (OPTIMAR, OPTIFER-IV, GA3X) the GA3X steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.) [German] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den unbestrahlten miniaturisierten Referenzproben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen teilweise bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Nach Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den in der ersten Phase des MANITU-Programms mit 0

  15. High Intensity Beam Test of Low Z Materials for the Upgrade of SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Collimators and LHC Injection Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Maciariello, Fausto; Butcher, Mark; Calviani, Marco; Folch, Ramon; Kain, Verena; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Lechner, Anton; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Steele, Genevieve; Uythoven, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) and High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, the collimators in the SPS-to LHC transfer lines will undergo important modifications. The changes to these collimators will allow them to cope with beam brightness and intensity levels much increased with respect to their original design parameters: nominal and ultimate LHC. The necessity for replacement of the current materials will need to be confirmed by a test in the High Radiation to Materials (HRM) facility at CERN. This test will involve low Z materials (such as Graphite and 3-D Carbon/Carbon composite), and will recreate the worst case scenario those materials could see when directly impacted by High luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or Batch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beams. Thermo-structural simulations used for the material studies and research, the experiment preparation phase, the experiment itself, pre irradiation analysis (including ultrasound and metrology tests on the target materials), the resul...

  16. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  17. Chemical and physical changes of packaging materials for food by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Yamada, Takashi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Film and sheet of polyethylene and polystyrene added with BHT, Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 as antioxidant were treated by gamma-ray irradiation. The change of additive residues, monomer and decomposition products of additives, the tensile strength and change of tone and odor were studied. Polystyrene was the most stable for irradiation. Polypropylene products and large amount of decomposition products indicated very decrease of tensile strength. Polyethylene was more stable than polypropylene, but yellowing was very large. Acetic acid, propion acid, 2-butanone and 2, 4-penyanedione in the decomposition products were controlled by adding antioxidants. Their irradiated decompositions, DTBBQ and 2, 4-DP, were observed. Decreasing of the tensile strength of polypropylene was improved by addition of Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168. The antioxidants were decreased by irradiation, especially BHC and Irgafos 168. (S.Y.)

  18. Experimental and Computer Simulation Study of Radioactivity of Materials Irradiated by Intermediate Energy Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Y E; Batyaev, V F; Karpikhin, E I; Zhivun, V M; Mulambetov, R D; Mashnik, S G; Prael, R E; Wilson, W B; Titarenko, Yu. E.

    1999-01-01

    The results of measurements and computer simulations of radioactivities and dose rates as functions of decay time are presented for Pb-nat and Bi-209 irradiated by 1.5-GeV protons, Co-59, Cu-63, and Cu-65 irradiated by 0.13- and 1.2-GeV protons, and Th-232 and U-nat irradiated by 0.1- and 0.8-GeV protons. The activities and dose rates are measured by direct high-precision gamma spectrometry. The irradiations were made using external beams extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. Simulations made using the LCS and CINDER'90 code systems are compared with measurements.

  19. Development of low moisture absorbing and heat resistant optical material. Tei kyushitsu tainetsusei kogaku zairyo jushi wo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, T. (Nippon Zeon Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Optical disc is moving to the higher rotation for increasing its transfer speed; for avoiding the increase of birefringence caused by the distortion stress of a material with less photoelasticity is required. Although the conventional photo-electromagnetic disc has a laminated structure of two layers, single disc plate is indispensable for an onerlight technique by a magnetic modulation system. This single disc plate is desired also due to its high rotation arte, compactization and reduction of weight. ZEONEX is an adequate material due to its low birefringence, low density and less deformation by moiture. This adds the possibility of application to optical lens, optical cards and the optical fibers. Its low dielectric constant and high electric insulation open such applications as an electric use (high frequency circuit substrate or insulation material), medical use, transparent films and heat-resistant containers. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study on the Effects of Liquid Thermal Media on the Irradiation Capsule of High-Temperature Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Soon Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation tests of materials at HANARO have usually been conducted using a standard capsule at temperatures of about 300°C for irradiation of materials used at PWR. Thus, the standard capsule uses aluminum as the specimen holder, which acts to dissipate the thermal energy. Future nuclear systems such as a VHTR and SFR require the irradiation tests at a relatively high temperature. As an alternative to aluminum which has been used as the thermal media in a standard material capsule, the characteristics of liquid metals such as NaK and LBE are reviewed. The temperatures of the capsule are affected by the variation of parameters such as the gap and wall thickness of the container. In particular, the external gap is most important in determining the temperature of the specimen. LBE raises the temperature of the specimen higher than NaK at the same configuration of the capsule. Thus, LBE can lessen the gap of the parts and reduce the vibration for a stable long-term test in reactor.

  1. Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10−2 to 104 Gy (1 to 106 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10−2 to 1010 Gy/s (1 to 1012 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testin...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  3. Absorbency of the superabsorbent polymer synthesized by microwave irradiation with AMPS/AM/AA%微波辐射三元共聚高吸水树脂吸液性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 徐继红

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the salt-resistance of superabsorbent polymer, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfuric acid (AMPS) was added in the chemical synthesis of acrylic resin. Poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid/acryl amide/acrylic acid) superabsorbent resin was synthesized by microwave irradiation, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTER). The effects of the microwave power, the con centration of inorganic salt solution, the ion valence, the temperature, pH to absorption properties of resin were discussed. The results showed that the absorbency decreased sharply with increasing of ionic strength and solution concentration .The absorbency was related to the valence state, and the order was NaCl > CaCl2> FeCl3. The ab sorbency of the polymer was equal when the salt-solution was in the same one-position ion concentration. The salt-resistance of the polymer could be improved when added the negative monomer. The absorbency of the polymer which was in the inorganic salt solution was slowly increased at first and then gradually decreased when the temperature rose. The absorbency of the polymer was decreased when the polymer was in the distilled water. The absorbency of the polymer was increased at first and then decreased when pH of the buffer solution rose.%利用微波辐射聚合的优点,在丙烯酸类树脂的合成中引入2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)提高产品的耐盐性.采用微波辐射方法合成了2-丙烯酰胺基-2-甲基丙磺酸(AMPS)/丙烯酰胺(AM)/丙烯酸(AA)耐盐性高吸水树脂,并用红外光谱进行了表征分析;探讨了微波功率、无机盐溶液的浓度、离子价态、温度、pH等因素对树脂吸液性能的影响.结果表明,树脂的吸水倍率随着盐溶液浓度增加显著下降,吸水倍率与阳离子的价态有关,其大小顺序为NaCl> CaCl2> FeCl3.同浓度的一价阳离子盐溶液,树脂的吸水能力相当.引入阴离子单体提高了树脂的耐

  4. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rochau, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub v}) notch ductility and tensile properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 C (550 F) irradiated (I), 288 C (550 F) irradiated + 454 C (850 F) - 168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 C (550 F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub v} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub v} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub v} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity were exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  5. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  6. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  7. Compilation of radiation damage test data cable insulating materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, H; CERN. Geneva

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes radiation damage test data on commercially available organic cable insulation and jacket materials: ethylene- propylene rubber, Hypalon, neoprene rubber, polyethylene, polyurethane, polyvinylchloride, silicone rubber, etc. The materials have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to integrated absorbed doses from 5*10/sup 5/ to 5*10/sup 6/ Gy. Mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness, have been tested on irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The results are presented in the form of tables and graphs, to show the effect of the absorbed dose on the measured properties. (13 refs).

  8. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L

    1998-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  9. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination; Determinacion de dosis absorbida en cristalino y glandula tiroides con protocolos de irradiacion aplicados en equipos de ortopantomografia para panoramica dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M. [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica, Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  10. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  11. Experimental study on the adhesion, migration and three-dimensional growth of Schwann cells on absorbable biological materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光林; 林卫; 杨志明; 裴福兴; 刘雷

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the adhesion, migration and three-dimentional growth of Schwann cells on PLA (polylactic acid) nonspinning fibre cloth and polyglycolic/polylactic acid (PLGA) fibres.Methods: Schwann cells/ECM gel solution and PLA nonspinning fibre cloth and PLGA fibres pretreated by collagen, polylysine and ECM were co-cultured. Then the migration and three-dimensional growth of Schwann cells on the fibres were observed under phase contrast microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope.Conclusions: ECM gel can facilitate the adhesion, growth and migration of Schwann cells on the seteroframe. It is a good integrating material for tissue engineering bioartificial nerve.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF PROCESSES ON TREATMENT OF PLASMA COATINGS MADE OF MATERIALS BASED ON MULTIFUNCTIONAL OXIDE CERAMICS WITH LASER IRRADIATION IMPULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented paper is to optimize technological parameters of hardening high-energy processing used for sprayed coatings made of materials based on oxide ceramics with inclusions of solid lubricant. The paper presents results of the investigations on influence of power density and total number of laser irradiation impulses in a spot treatment on thickness of treated coating layers made of materials based on oxide ceramics. The considered wear-resistant coatings require increased cohesive and adhesive strength. Therefore, the total number of impulses should ensure melting and sealing of the coatings along the whole thickness that will fully contribute to obtain hardened nano-crystalline and amorphous structures.The work is based on complex metallography, X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic investigations on modified structural elements of composite coatings being treated with highly concentrated energy sources. The following main processes of hardened plasma coating formations have been revealed in the paper: com paction of sprayed materials due to thermal and shock-wave impacts of laser irradiation impulses. In this case material porosity is decreasing, cohesive and adhesive strength of coatings is increasing, grain structure is crushed, amorphous and nano-crystalline phases of higher strength are formed all these facts are evidenced by an increase in average micro-hardness of deposited compositions. Duration of thermal laser irradiation impulse impact on the material is sufficient to activate chemical processes in the boundaries of main phases of the composite coating. This leads to formation of finely dispersed (including nanoparticle size compounds that strengthen boundaries of the main phases and the coating as a whole. This is confirmed by the results of an X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. Progress in high-energy ball milling for the preparation of absorbing materials%吸波材料的高能球磨工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锰刚; 谌静; 谢国治; 陈文俊; 李艳; 张泽敖; 王嘉波; 沈杨; 孙康; 周倜

    2016-01-01

    High-energy ball milling method has become a important way to prepare various absorbing materials, because of simple control, environmental production, low cost and high efficiency. This paper summarizes the recent research progress of high-energy ball milling process in absorbing materials,indicating that high-energy ball milling process in absorbing materials, especially in flaky absorbing materials with shape anisotropy, which has very broad application prospects. Then we look forward to the development prospects of high-energy ball milling process in absorbing materials.%高能球磨法由于其便于控制、生产环保、成本低、效率高等优点成为制备吸波材料的一种重要方法。总结了近期高能球磨工艺在吸波材料领域的应用研究进展,表明高能球磨工艺在吸波领域,尤其是在制备具有形状各向异性的片状吸波材料领域,具有十分广阔的应用前景,展望了高能球磨工艺在未来吸波材料领域的发展前景。

  14. Reactor Materials Program electrochemical potential measurements by ORNL with unirradiated and irradiated stainless steel specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, E.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Effect of irradiation of stainless steel on electrochemical potential (ECP) was investigated by measurements in dilute HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions, conditions simulating reactor moderator. The electrodes were made from unirradiated/irradiated, unsensitized/sensitized specimens from R-reactor piping. Results were inconclusive because of budgetary restrictions. The dose rate may have been too small to produce a significant radiolytic effect. Neither the earlier CERT corrosion susceptibility tests nor the present ECP measurements showed a pronounced effect of irradiation on susceptibility of the stainless steel to IGSCC; this is confirmed by the absence in the stainless steel of the SRS reactor tanks (except for the C Reactor tank knuckle area).

  15. Scoping of material response under DEMO neutron irradiation: comparison with fission and influence of nuclear library selection

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, M R

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of material activation inventories will be a key input to virtually all aspects of the operation, safety and environmental assessment of future fusion nuclear plants. Additionally, the neutron-induced transmutation (change) of material composition (inventory) with time, and the creation and evolution of configurational damage from atomic displacements, require precise quantification because they can lead to significant changes in material properties, and thus influence reactor-component lifetime. A comprehensive scoping study has been performed to quantify the activation, transmutation (depletion and build-up) and immediate damage response under neutron irradiation for all naturally occurring elements from hydrogen to bismuth. The resulting database provides a global picture of the response of a material, covering the majority of nuclear technological space, but focussing specifically on typical conditions expected for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). Results from fusion are compared aga...

  16. Optimal Sound Absorbing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Fu, Caixing; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Causal nature of the acoustic response, for any materials or structures, dictates an inequality that relates the absorption spectrum of the sample to its thickness. We present a general recipe for constructing sound-absorbing structures that can attain near-equality for the causal relation with very high absorption performance; such structures are denoted optimal. Our strategy involves using carefully designed acoustic metamaterials as backing to a thin layer of conventional sound absorbing material, e.g., acoustic sponge. By using this design approach, we have realized a 12 cm-thick structure that exhibits broadband, near-perfect flat absorption spectrum starting at around 400 Hz. From the causal relation, the calculated minimum sample thickness is 11.5 cm for the observed absorption spectrum. We present the theory that underlies such absorption performance, involving the evanescent waves and their interaction with a dissipative medium, and show the excellent agreement with the experiment.

  17. Irradiation behavior of a submerged arc welding material with different copper content; Bestrahlungsverhalten einer UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit unterschiedlichen Kupfergehalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, R. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Bartsch, R. [Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim GmbH (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Che report presents results of an irradiation program on specimens of submerged arc weldings with copper contents of 0.14% up to 0.42% and a fluence up to 2.2E19 cm{sup -2} (E>1MeV). Unirradiated and irradiated tensile- Charpy-, K{sub lc}- and Pellini-specimens were tested of material with a copper content of 0.22%. On the other materials Charpy tests and tensile tests were performed. The irradiation of the specimens took place in the KWO - ``RPV, a PWR with low flux and in the VAK - RPV, a small BWR with high flux. - The irradiation induced embrittlemnt shows a copper dependence up to about 30%. The specimens with a copper content higher than 0.30% show no further embrittlement. Irradiation in different reactors with different flux (factor > 33) shows the same state of embrittlement. Determination of a K{sub lc}, T-curve with irradiated specimens is possible. The conservative of the RT{sub NDT} - concept could be confirmed by the results of Charpy-V, drop weight- and K{sub lc}-test results. [Deutsch] Zur zusaetzlichen Absicherung des KWO-RDB wurde Ende 1979 eine UP-Versuchsschweissnaht mit vergleichbarer chemischer Zusammensetzung und vergleibaren mechanisch-technologischen Werkstoffen im unbestrahlten Ausgangszustand wie die RDB Core-Rundnaht hergestellt. Teile der Naht wurden durch Verkupfern der Schweissdraehte auf unterschiedliche Gehalte von Cu=0,14% bis 0,42% eingestellt. Aus dieser Schweissverbindung wurden Proben im VAK und KWO-RDB bestrahlt. Im Rahmen der Aktivitaeten zur Absicherung des KWO-RDBs erfolgte 1995 die Pruefung der bestrahlten Proben. Die mechanisch technologischen Werkstoffwerte vor und nach Bestrahlung werden gegenuebergestellt und praesentiert. Mit dem Ergebnis wurde ein weiterer Nachweis fuer die Konservativitaet des RT{sub NDT}-Konzeptes erbracht. Es wurde nachgewiesen, dass fuer den untersuchten Bereich kein Dose-Rate Effekt bzw. Bestrahlungszeiteinfluss existiert. Fuer UP-Schweissungen mit den vorliegenden Fertigungsparametern und bei

  18. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  19. Effect of irradiation temperature in PWR RPV materials and its inclusion in semi-mechanistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debarberis, L. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Acosta, B. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: beatriz.acosta-iborra@jrc.nl; Zeman, A. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sevini, F. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros, A. [Tecnatom, Avd. Montes de Oca 1, San Sebasitan de los Reyes, E-28709 Madrid (Spain); Kryukov, A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gillemot, F. [AEKI Atomic Research Institute, Konkoly Thege M. ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Brumovsky, M. [NRI, Nuclear Research Institute, Husinec, Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2005-09-15

    The irradiation temperature is a very important parameter in radiation damage kinetics. In this article the challenge of including temperature into a general semi-mechanistic model for radiation embrittlement is presented. In this manner the model allows data obtained at different temperatures, both in surveillance programmes and in research reactors, to be understood.

  20. Degradation mechanism of silicone glues under UV irradiation and options for designing materials with increased stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Semprimoschnig, C.; Mooney, C.; Rohr, T.; Eck, E.R.H. van; Verkuijlen, M.H.W.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of silicone glues used, for example, in the assembly of solar modules for use in space, has been investigated and possible mechanisms which lead to colouration and possible embrittlement are analysed. Both effects are connected to the generation of radicals upon exposure to UV irradi

  1. Impacts of damage production and accumulation on materials performance in irradiation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    the damage accumulation, irradiation hardening and the loss of ductility. The recently developed production bias model together with one-dimensional glide of interstitial clusters produced in the cascades has been shown to describe the damage accumulation at temperatures above stage V for pure metals...

  2. Mechanical properties for irradiated face-centred cubic nanocrystalline metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X. Z.; Song, D. K.; Chu, H. J.; Xue, J. M.; Duan, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a self-consistent plasticity theory is proposed to model the mechanical behaviours of irradiated face-centred cubic nanocrystalline metals. At the grain level, a tensorial crystal model with both irradiation and grain size effects is applied for the grain interior (GI), whereas both grain boundary (GB) sliding with irradiation effect and GB diffusion are considered in modelling the behaviours of GBs. The elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent method with considering grain size distribution is developed to transit the microscopic behaviour of individual grains to the macroscopic properties of nanocrystals (NCs). The proposed theory is applied to model the mechanical properties of irradiated NC copper, and the feasibility and efficiency have been validated by comparing with experimental data. Numerical results show that: (i) irradiation-induced defects can lead to irradiation hardening in the GIs, but the hardening effect decreases with the grain size due to the increasing absorption of defects by GBs. Meanwhile, the absorbed defects would make the GBs softer than the unirradiated case. (ii) There exists a critical grain size for irradiated NC metals, which separates the grain size into the irradiation hardening dominant region (above the critical size) and irradiation softening dominant region (below the critical size). (iii) The distribution of grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical behaviours of both irradiated and unirradiated NCs. The proposed model can offer a valid theoretical foundation to study the irradiation effect on NC materials. PMID:27547091

  3. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salafranca, Jesús, E-mail: fjsl@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Clemente, Isabel, E-mail: isabelclemente1984@gmail.com [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isella, Francesca, E-mail: Francesca.Isella@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bosetti, Osvaldo, E-mail: Osvaldo.Bosetti@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy)

    2015-06-09

    Highlights: • 13 different food-use multilayers unirradiated and gamma-irradiated were studied. • 60–80 compounds/sample were identified by SPME–GC–MS even after 8-month storage. • Volatile profile of air- and N{sub 2}-filled bags greatly differed after irradiation. • Principal component analysis classified the samples into 4 groups. • Migration from irradiated materials to vapor phase was much lower than EU limits. - Abstract: The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60–80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  4. FT-IR spectroscopy assessment of aesthetic dental materials irradiated with low-dose therapeutic ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. D.; Almeida, S. M.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Byscolo, F. N.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose therapeutic ionizing radiation on different aesthetic dental materials. Forty five specimens ( n = 45) of three different aesthetic restorative materials were prepared and randomly divided into five groups: G1 (control group); G2, G3, G4, G5 experimental groups irradiated respectively with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 Gy of gamma radiation by the 60Co teletherapy machine. Chemical analyses were performed using a FT-IR Nicolet 520 spectrophotometer with reflectance diffuse technique. Even a minimal exposition at ionizing radiation in therapeutic doses can provide chemical changes on light-cured composite resins. The three studied restorative materials showed changes after exposure at gamma radiation, however the increase of the radiation dose did not contribute to an increase in this effect.

  5. Characterization of deactivated catalytic cracking catalyst and evaluation as absorbent material; Caracterizacao de catalisador de craqueamento catalitico desativado e avaliacao como material adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valt, R.B.G.; Kaminari, N.M.S.; Cordeiro, B.; Ponte, M.J.J.S.; Ponte, H.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    One of the main uses of catalysts in the petroleum industry is in step catalytic cracking, which after use and regeneration cycles generates large quantities of waste material. In this research the deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process, in order to assess the change of its structure and possible adsorptive capacity. Analyses of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area measurement were performed. The analysis showed no structural change due to the process employed and that electrokinetic remediation has recovered 42% of adsorption capacity of the material, by removing about 89% of heavy metals adhered initially in the catalyst surface. (author)

  6. A nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon material formed by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiao; Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Rong, Ximing; Zhuang, Jun, E-mail: junzhuang@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Ning; Liang, Cong; Sun, Haibin; Zhao, Li, E-mail: lizhao@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, Guojin [Spectrophotometry Laboratory, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2014-03-03

    A supersaturation of nitrogen atoms is found in the surface layer of microstructured silicon after femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation in NF{sub 3}. The average nitrogen concentration in the uppermost 50 nm is about 0.5 ± 0.2 at. %, several orders of magnitude higher than the solid solubility of nitrogen atoms in silicon. The nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon shows high crystallinity in the doped layer, which is due to the repairing effect of nitrogen on defects in silicon lattices. Nitrogen atoms and vacancies can be combined into thermal stable complexes after fs laser irradiation, which makes the nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon exhibit good thermal stability of optical properties.

  7. Influence of Different Moderator Materials on Characteristics of Neutron Fluxes Generated under Irradiation of Lead Target with Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Petrochenkov, S A; Golovatyuk, V M; Krivopustov, M I; Bamblevski, V P; Westmeier, W; Odoj, R; Brandt, R; Robotham, H; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z\\geq 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (\\varnothing 8 cm\\times 20 cm or \\varnothing 8cm\\times 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared in the present work. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin.

  8. Irradiation programme MANITU: results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (2,4 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 2,4 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    2001-05-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European long-term fusion materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. After the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens irradiated up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the MANITU programme, better mechanical properties of the 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys were obvious. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the second phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 2.4 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the irradiation up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the project. Among the examined alloys (MANET-I/II, K-Heat, OPTIFER-Ia/II, F82H, ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.)

  9. Particle size effect on microwave absorbing of La0.67Ba0.33Mn0.94Ti0.06O3 powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of ultrasonic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptari, Sitti Ahmiatri; Manaf, Azwar; Kurniawan, Budhy

    2016-03-01

    Doped manganites have attracted substantial interest due to their unique chemical and physics properties, which makes it possible to be used for microwave absorbing materials. In this paper we report synthesizes and characterization of La0.67Ba0.33Mn0.94Ti0.06O3 powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of a high power ultrasonic treatment. After solid state reaction, the presence of single phase was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Refinement results showed that samples are single phase with monoclinic structure. It was found that powder materials derived from mechanical alloying results in large variation in the particle size. A significant improvement was obtained upon subjecting the mechanically milled powder materials to an ultrasonication treatment for a relatively short period of time. As determined by particle size analyzer (PSA), the mean particle size gradually decreased from the original size of 5.02 µm to 0.36 µm. Magnetic properties were characterized by VSM, and hysteresis loops results showed that samples are soft magnetic. It was found that when the mean particle size decreases, saturation was increases and coersitivity was decreases. Microwave absorption properties were investigated in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz using vector network analyzer. An optimal reflection loss of 24.44 dB is reached at 11.4 GHz.

  10. Comparison of irradiated 15Kh2MFA material mechanical properties using conventional testing methods and innovative approach of small punch testing (SPT) and automated ball indentation (ABIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, R.; Petelova, P.; Eliasova, I.; Kytka, M.; Culek, M.

    2017-02-01

    Article describes two innovative testing methods – Small Punch Testing (SPT) and Automated Ball Indentation Test (ABIT) – which are based on the determination and evaluation of material properties from miniaturized testing specimens. These methods are very promising due to minimum material needed for testing and also in case of testing highly irradiated materials of components that are not included in standard surveillance programs. The test results were obtained for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base material 15Ch2MFA in both states - initial unirradiated and irradiated. Subsequently results were compared with standard tensile tests to prove applicability of these testing methods for the evaluation of degradation of irradiated structural materials of nuclear power plants.

  11. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  12. Universal metamaterial absorbe

    CERN Document Server

    Smaali, Rafik; Moreau, Antoine; Taliercio, Thierry; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a design for an universal absorber, characterized by a resonance frequency that can be tuned from visible to microwave frequencies independently of the choice of the metal and the dielectrics involved. An almost resonant perfect absorption up to 99.8 % is demonstrated at resonance for all polarization states of light and for a very wide angular aperture. These properties originate from a magnetic Fabry-Perot mode that is confined in a dielectric spacer of $\\lambda/100$ thickness by a metamaterial layer and a mirror. An extraordinary large funneling through nano-slits explains how light can be trapped in the structure. Simple scaling laws can be used as a recipe to design ultra-thin perfect absorbers whatever the materials and the desired resonance wavelength, making our design truly universal.

  13. A Hierarchical Upscaling Method for Predicting Strength of Materials under Thermal, Radiation and Mechanical loading - Irradiation Strengthening Mechanisms in Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-07-01

    Stainless steels based on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys are the most popular structural materials used in reactors. High energy particle irradiation of in this kind of polycrystalline structural materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predictive capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next-generation reactors. Irradiation hardening is related to structural information crossing different length scale, such as composition, dislocation, crystal orientation distribution and so on. To predict the effective hardening, the influence factors along different length scales should be considered. A multiscale approach was implemented in this work to predict irradiation hardening of iron based structural materials. Three length scales are involved in this multiscale model: nanometer, micrometer and millimeter. In the microscale, molecular dynamics (MD) was utilized to predict on the edge dislocation mobility in body centered cubic (bcc) Fe and its Ni and Cr alloys. On the mesoscale, dislocation dynamics (DD) models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture. The effects of defect density and texture were investigated. Simulated evolution of yield strength with irradiation agrees well with the experimental data of irradiation strengthening of stainless steel 304L, 316L and T91. This multiscale model we developed in this project can provide a guidance tool in performance evaluation of structural materials for next-generation nuclear reactors. Combining with other tools developed in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, the models developed will have more impact in improving the reliability of current reactors and affordability of new

  14. Irradiation effects on reactor structural materials. Quarterly progress report, May--July 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1965-08-01

    This document contains reports of the following laboratories: Argonne, Battelle, Brookhaven, General Atomic Division, Materials Research Lab., Naval Research Lab., Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation, ORNL, Pacific Northwest Lab., and Phillips Petroleum Co. (DLC)

  15. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  16. Swift heavy ion irradiated spinel ferrite: A cheap radiation resistant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satalkar, M. [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Kane, S.N., E-mail: kane_sn@yahoo.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Kulriya, P.K. [Inter-University Acclerator Centre, P.O. Box No. 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Effect of (80 MeV) {sup 16}O 6{sup +} ion irradiation on the structural properties and cation distribution of the as-burnt samples (i.e. the samples are without any thermal/sintering treatment) with the following compositions: MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion technique have been studied through in-situ and ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Well characterized single phase MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were irradiated at fluence 1 × 10{sup 11}, 1 × 10{sup 12}, 1 × 10{sup 13} and 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} to see the effect of the electronic energy loss induced changes in the structural properties and in cation distribution monitored through ex-situ XRD. ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were irradiated with ion fluence values ranging between 1 × 10{sup 11} − 2 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} to observe the effect of in-situ XRD on structural properties and cation distribution. Results very clearly depict the redistribution of cations in the samples, which show noticeable changes in: ionic radii of A-site (r{sub A}) and B-site (r{sub B}), experimental and theoretical lattice parameter (a{sub exp.,}a{sub th.}), unit cell volume (V), Scherrer’s Grain diameter (D), oxygen positional parameter (u), tetrahedral and octahedral bond length (R{sub A}, R{sub B}), shared tetrahedral and octahedral edge (d{sub AE,}d{sub BE}) and bond angles (θ{sub 1}, θ{sub 2}, θ{sub 3}, θ{sub 4}, θ{sub 5}). Results are interpreted in terms of irradiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters.

  17. 基于Smith圆图的吸波材料阻抗匹配设计%Impedance matching design of radar absorbing material based on Smith circle diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 刘祥萱

    2013-01-01

    采用Smith圆图对尖晶石镍铁氧体的输入阻抗进行表征,并根据传输线理论计算不同涂层厚度下尖晶石镍铁氧体的反射率。结果表明,Smith圆图中输入阻抗越接近点(α=1,β=0),阻抗匹配性越好,反射率也越小。这为基于Smith圆图的吸波材料阻抗匹配设计应用奠定了基础。%The input impedance of spinel nickel ferrite was characterized by Smith circle diagram,and the reflectivity of spinel nickel ferrite with different coating thicknesses was calculated by transmission line theory. The results show that the closer the input impedance in the Smith circle diagram is to the point(α=1,β=0),the better the impedance matching is,and the smaller the reflectance is,which lays the foundation for application of Smith circle diagram in impedance matching design of absorbing materials.

  18. Measurements of the energy spectrum of electrons emanating from solid materials irradiated by a picosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, C. A., E-mail: carlosds@umich.edu; Kuranz, C. C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Rasmus, A. M.; Wan, W. C.; Joglekar, A. S.; McKelvey, A.; Zhao, Z.; Klein, S. R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Artep, Inc., Ellicott City, Mary land 21042 (United States); Williams, G. J.; Park, J.; Chen, H.; Kemp, G. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); MacDonald, M. J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse, Inc., Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Jarrott, L. C.; Peebles, J. [University of California, San Diego, Energy Research Center, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we present the results of experiments observing the properties of the electron stream generated laterally when a laser irradiates a metal. We find that the directionality of the electrons is dependent upon their energies, with the higher-energy tail of the spectrum (∼1 MeV and higher) being more narrowly focused. This behavior is likely due to the coupling of the electrons to the electric field of the laser. The experiments are performed by using the Titan laser to irradiate a metal wire, creating the electron stream of interest. These electrons propagate to nearby spectator wires of differing metals, causing them to fluoresce at their characteristic K-shell energies. This fluorescence is recorded by a crystal spectrometer. By varying the distances between the wires, we are able to probe the divergence of the electron stream, while by varying the medium through which the electrons propagate (and hence the energy-dependence of electron attenuation), we are able to probe the energy spectrum of the stream.

  19. Theory of microslit absorbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAA Dah-You

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that narrow slit may be used as acoustical element. The exact formulae of the acoustical impedance of a narrow slit and its low-frequency approximation are available. The theory of slit is extended and a simple and practical formula is derived for the single slit. It is found that the resistance-to-reactance ratio of the slit increases to larger than one when the slit width is decreased to submillimeter range, and a panel with extremely narrow slits plus a back cavity will make an absorber with good absorption in a wide frequency range,without any porous or fibrous material. A complete theory of the microslit absorber (MSA) is, thus, presented and its absorption characteristics discussed. It is found that the MSA has essentially the same formulae as the microperforate absorber (MPA), except that the numerical coefficient of the resistance is smaller and the end correction for the mass reactance is larger for the MSA, resulting a performance inferior to that of MPA, ordinarily. Measures are proposed to compensate for these.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing in Microbial Forensic Analysis of Gamma-Irradiated Microbial Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Broomall, Stacey M.; Ait Ichou, Mohamed; Krepps, Michael D.; Johnsky, Lauren A.; Mark A Karavis; Kyle S Hubbard; Insalaco, Joseph M.; Betters, Janet L.; Redmond, Brady W.; Rivers, Bryan A.; Liem, Alvin T.; Hill, Jessica M.; Fochler, Edward T.; Roth, Pierce A.; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Effective microbial forensic analysis of materials used in a potential biological attack requires robust methods of morphological and genetic characterization of the attack materials in order to enable the attribution of the materials to potential sources and to exclude other potential sources. The genetic homogeneity and potential intersample variability of many of the category A to C bioterrorism agents offer a particular challenge to the generation of attributive signatures, potentially re...

  1. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  2. Study of the auto-irradiation effects in apatites structure materials; Etude des effets d'auto-irradiation dans des materiaux a structure apatitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulet, St

    2000-11-15

    The incorporation of an actinide in a material puts it to the action of an alpha particle, of some MeV always followed by the recoil of the residual nucleus. This last ones, with an energy of about a hundred of keV produces the greatest part of the irradiation damages. The study of the natural analogues has allowed to identify the fluoro-apatites which have a high amount of phosphates groups, as potential actinides conditioning matrices. Former works, simulating the alpha decay in the monocrystalline phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite have revealed an exfoliation phenomenon and an annealing of the defects which are formed by the recoil nuclei by the helium ions. This work has shown that the exfoliation can not be produced on polycrystalline apatitic materials (phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite and fluoro-apatite with one silicate) probably on account of the removal of helium outside the grains and by the diffusion of helium inside the grain boundaries. On the other hand, these helium removal ways decrease the chemical resistance of the fluoro-apatite. In the same way, the dissolution velocity of the apatite is strongly increased above the damage threshold corresponding to the percolation of the isolated defects and especially in the case of total amorphization. Concerning the effect of the recoil and annealing nuclei by the alpha particles, an original study method including the use of a transmission electron microscope coupled with a ions implanter has been carried out. This device has allowed to make irradiations simulating the alpha decay and to follow in situ the evolution of polycrystalline samples disorder. It has been shown that for all the solid solution of phospho-silicated fluoro-apatites, the amorphization is produced directly in series. In the same way, on account of this technique, the efficiency of the annealing by alpha has been measured on different apatite compositions. The main result shows that the efficiency of the annealing by alpha in the fluoro

  3. Study of free radicals in gamma irradiated cellulose of cultural heritage materials using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasko; Rodrigues, Orlando, Jr.; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Santos, Paulo de Souza; Vasquez, Pablo A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Main subject of this article was to study room temperature stable radicals in Co-60 gamma irradiated contemporary paper using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer (EPR). XRD was used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology of book paper. SEM images presented regions with cellulose fibers and regions with particles agglomeration on the cellulose fibers. Those agglomerations were rich in calcium, observed by EDS. XRD analysis confirmed presence of calcium carbonate diffraction peaks. The main objective of this study was to propose a method using conventional kinetics chemical reactions for the observed radical formed by ionizing radiation. Therefore, further analyses were made to study the half-life and the kinetics of the free radical created. This method can be suitably applied to study radicals on cultural heritage objects.

  4. Eye/Sensor Protection against Laser Irradiation Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    Recent developments in organic nonlinear optical materials for application to eye and sensor protection are reviewed. This compendium includes a...noteworthy organic third-order nonlinear optical materials is included as an appendix. Lasers are playing an important and increasing role in modern

  5. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  6. 吸波材料与微波暗室问题的数学建模%Mathematical Modeling of Absorbing Materials and Microwave Dark Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘能渊; 胡爱杰; 汤振立

    2012-01-01

    power of dead zone get from signal source. This paper adopts dead zone extension method and construes the microwave dark room as a black box. Firstly, this paper establishes a cosine radiator spot radiation source to a bounded plane radiation model. Secondly, with this model, calculate the sum of all spot radiation sources to each dead zone virtual image radiation power, and establish the microwave dark room reflection model. The experiment indicate that flat absorbing materi-als(vertical reflectivity is 0.5) can not satisfy the seeker simulation requirement, meanwhile, the wedge absorbing material(vertical reflectivity is 0.05) can satisfy the seeker simulation requirement.

  7. Study on sound absorption properties of nonwoven sound-absorbing material in highway sound barrier%高速公路声屏障用非织造吸声材料的吸声性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱薇薇; 张瑜; 高强; 李伟岸; 许君海

    2013-01-01

      The most effective measure to solve the noise problem of the traffic network is to set the sound barrier . Comparing other sound barrier materials, nonwoven material has its unique advantages .The sound-absorbing performance of polyester needle-punched nonwoven sound-absorbing materials on middle and low frequency of 250 ~2 000 Hz was studied and composition and cross-sectional of fiber, material thickness and process on effect to material sound-absorbing properties were analyzed .The result was that the materials made of hollow fiber and fine denier fiber have better sound-absorbing effect, the thickness of material effect sound-absorbing properties obviously , and hot melt calendar and surface treatment have proper active effect on the sound-absorbing property.%  目前解决交通路网噪声问题的最有效措施是设置道路声屏障。在众多声屏障吸声材料中,非织造材料有其特有的优点。研究了涤纶针刺非织造吸声材料在250~2000 Hz中低声频范围内的吸声性能,分析了纤维的组成和横截面、材料厚度以及加工工艺等因素对材料吸声性能的影响。结果表明:在所制备的吸声材料中,由细旦纤维和中空纤维制成的材料具有较好的吸声效果,材料的厚度对吸声性能的影响比较明显,热熔加固和表面处理对材料的吸声性能也有一定的积极作用。

  8. International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source term simulation and neutronics analyses of the high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Heinzel, V; Moellendorff, U V

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the new results of the development work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe on the neutronics of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). An important step forward has been done in the simulation of neutron production of the deuteron-lithium source using the Li(d,xn) reaction cross sections from evaluated data files. The developed Monte Carlo routine and d-Li reaction data newly evaluated at INPE Obninsk have been verified against available experimental data on the differential neutron yield from deuteron-bombarded thick lithium targets. With the modified neutron source three-dimensional distributions of neutron and photon fluxes, displacement and gas production rates and nuclear heating inside the high flux test module (HFTM) were calculated. In order to estimate the uncertainty resulting from the evaluated data, two independent libraries, recently released by INPE and LANL, have been used in the transport calculations. The proposal to use a reflector around ...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta, E-mail: stoica.anicuta@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zaharescu, Traian [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper reports the obtaining of composite materials between PVA and BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite films were {gamma}-irradiated at doses up to 50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films have a good resistance, being suitable as food packaging materials. - Abstract: Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different {gamma} radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with {sup 137}Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during {gamma} irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for {gamma} irradiated products.

  10. Reacción tisular a materiales de sutura no absorbibles en piel de equinos Tissue reaction to nonabsorbable suture materials in horse skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Maldonado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó clínica e histológicamente el grado de reacción tisular frente a cuatro materiales de sutura no absorbibles (lino, nylon, caprolactam polimerizado y polipropileno, implantados en la piel de 8 equinos. Se determinó clínicamente el edema provocado y la ausencia o presencia de exudado a los 5 y 10 días de haber sido implantados los materiales de sutura, además al 10º día se realizó una biopsia para determinar histológicamente el grado de reacción tisular. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el lino causó un mayor edema al día 5, mientras que al día 10 el nylon y caprolactam provocaron un menor de edema. Con respecto a la presencia o ausencia de exudado, al día 5 la sutura de nylon fue la única que no presentó exudado en ninguno de los 8 ejemplares, sin embargo, al día 10, salvo un ejemplar que presentó exudado en todos los materiales, el nylon, caprolactam y polipropileno no presentaron exudado. En cuanto a la evaluación histológica tanto el nylon como el caprolactam mostraron menor grado de reacción tisular. En conclusión, el lino resultó tener el mayor grado de reacción tisular durante el presente estudio, y el nylon si bien es similar al caprolactam y polipropileno respecto a la reacción tisular, causó una menor cantidad de equinos con presencia de exudado que los otros materiales utilizados.The degree of tissue reaction of 4 nonabsorbable suture materials (linen, nylon, polymerized caprolactum and polypropylene implanted into health skin of 8 horses was clinically and histologically evaluated. Cutaneous oedema and absence or presence of the exudation were clinically evaluated 5 and 10 days following suture material implantation. Biopsies were taken to histologically evaluate tissue reaction at 10 days. The results obtained showed that linen caused more oedema by the 5th day, whereas the nylon and caprolactum had less oedema on the 10th day. With respect to the presence or absence of exudation, nylon was

  11. Nanostructured composite material graphite/TiO2 and its antibacterial activity under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dědková, Kateřina; Lang, Jaroslav; Matějová, Kateřina; Peikertová, Pavlína; Holešinský, Jan; Vodárek, Vlastimil; Kukutschová, Jana

    2015-08-01

    The paper addresses laboratory preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites. Composites graphite/TiO2 with various ratio of TiO2 nanoparticles (30wt.%, and 50wt.%) to graphite were prepared using a thermal hydrolysis of titanylsulfate in the presence of graphite particles, and subsequently dried at 80°C. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy served as phase-analytical methods distinguishing anatase and rutile phases in the prepared composites. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for characterization of morphology of the prepared samples. A developed modification of the standard microdilution test was used for in vitro evaluation of daylight induced antibacterial activity, using four common human pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antibacterial activity of the graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites could be based mainly on photocatalytic reaction with subsequent potential interaction of reactive oxygen species with bacterial cells. During the antibacterial activity experiments, the graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited antibacterial activity, where differences in the onset of activity and activity against bacterial strains were observed. The highest antibacterial activity evaluated as minimum inhibitory concentration was observed against P. aeruginosa after 180min of irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of Energy Deposited in Plastic Tubing and Copper-Wire Insulation by Electron Beam Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Miller, Arne; Pejtersen, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scanned electron beam treatment is used to improve the physical properties of certain polymers, such as shrinkable plastic tubing and insulated wire and cable. Tubing or wires are passed at high speed under the beam scanner, and the material is irradiated to absorbed doses of several Mrad...... as uniformly as possible, usually by means of a multipass arrangement. In the present study, using irradiation by a scanned 0.4 MeV electron beam, measurements were made of high-resolution distributions of absorbed dose in polyethylene tubing and copper wire coated with polyethylene, nylon, or polyvinyl...... chloride insulation. Radiochromic dye films equivalent to the insulating materials were used as accurate dosimeters having a response independent of dose rate. Irradiations were in various geometries, wire and plastic thicknesses, positions along the beam scan, and with different backing materials near...

  13. Experimental results on the irradiation of nuclear fusion relevant materials at the dense plasma focus ‘Bora’ device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Gribkov, V. A.; Niemela, J.; Tuniz, C.; Zanolli, C.; Chernyshova, M.; Demina, E. V.; Latyshev, S. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Talab, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Samples of materials counted as perspective ones for use in the first-wall and construction elements in nuclear fusion reactors (FRs) with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement (W, Ti, Al, low-activated ferritic steel ‘Eurofer’ and some alloys) were irradiated in the dense plasma focus (DPF) device ‘Bora’ having a bank energy of ⩽5 kJ. The device generates hot dense (T ˜ 1 keV, n ˜ 1019 cm-3) deuterium plasma, powerful plasma streams (v ˜ 3 × 107 cm s-1) and fast (E ˜ 0.1 … 1.0 MeV) deuterons of power flux densities q up to 1010 and 1012 W cm-2 correspondingly. ‘Damage factor’ F = q × τ0.5 ensures an opportunity to simulate radiation loads (predictable for both reactors types) by the plasma/ion streams, which have the same nature and namely those parameters as expected in the FR modules. Before and after irradiation we provided investigations of our samples by means of a number of analytical techniques. Among them we used optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand character and parameters of damageability of the surface layers of the samples. Atomic force microscopy was applied to measure roughness of the surface after irradiation. These characteristics are quite important for understanding mechanisms and values of dust production in FR that may relate to tritium retention and emergency situations in FR facilities. We also applied two new techniques. For the surface we elaborated the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single photon detection with high spectroscopic and angular resolutions. For bulk damageability investigations we applied an x-ray microCT system where x-rays were produced by a Hamamatsu microfocus source (150 kV, 500 µA, 5 µm minimum focal spot size). The detector was a Hamamatsu CMOS flat panel coupled to a fibre optic plate under the GOS scintillator. The reconstruction of three-dimensional data was run with Cobra 7.4 and DIGIX CT software while VG Studio Max 2.1, and Amira 5.3 were used for

  14. Iron sand - ZnO based materials of natural origin for dye decolorization under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salprima Yudha, S.; Angasa, Eka; Fitriani, Dyah; Falahudin, Aswin

    2017-03-01

    A mixed iron sand - ZnO materials was prepared by heating a mixture of natural iron sand and ZnO at 900 °C for 5 hours. XRD study of the sample revealed that, in the mixed iron sand - ZnO present some minor peaks that similar with XRD pattern of γ-Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4. Observation of the sample using SEM, showed a compact morpholgy and almost homogenenous in particles size. In purpose to evaluate the ability of this materials for textile dying wastewater treatment, a study on rhodamine B decolorization was carried out as a reperesentative.

  15. Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhamra, Gurcharn S

    2009-02-01

    The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.

  16. Absorbed dose to water reference dosimetry using solid phantoms in the context of absorbed-dose protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, Jan; Olivares, Marina; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin

    2005-09-01

    For reasons of phantom material reproducibility, the absorbed dose protocols of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (TG-51) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (TRS-398) have made the use of liquid water as a phantom material for reference dosimetry mandatory. In this work we provide a formal framework for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water but irradiated in solid phantoms. Such a framework is useful when there is a desire to put dose measurements using solid phantoms on an absolute basis. Putting solid phantom measurements on an absolute basis has distinct advantages in verification measurements and quality assurance. We introduce a phantom dose conversion factor that converts a measurement made in a solid phantom and analyzed using an absorbed dose calibration protocol into absorbed dose to water under reference conditions. We provide techniques to measure and calculate the dose transfer from solid phantom to water. For an Exradin A12 ionization chamber, we measured and calculated the phantom dose conversion factor for six Solid Water phantoms and for a single Lucite phantom for photon energies between 60Co and 18 MV photons. For Solid Water of certified grade, the difference between measured and calculated factors varied between 0.0% and 0.7% with the average dose conversion factor being low by 0.4% compared with the calculation whereas for Lucite, the agreement was within 0.2% for the one phantom examined. The composition of commercial plastic phantoms and their homogeneity may not always be reproducible and consistent with assumed composition. By comparing measured and calculated phantom conversion factors, our work provides methods to verify the consistency of a given plastic for the purpose of clinical reference dosimetry.

  17. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  18. 低浓度磁性纤维对吸波结构隐身材料电性能影响研究%Electrical Properties Inlfuence Study of Low Concentrations Magnetic Fiber for Absorbing Structure Stealth Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄全军; 龚荣洲

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the electrical property of absorbing structure stealth materials is closely related to its internal absorbing component , the study found that magnetic ifber shape anisotropy and good electromagnetic properties, absorbing structure combined with stealth materials can be realized with a certain stealth materials absorbing structure and mechanical properties of absorbing capability.Radar absorbing material performance mainly depends on the characteristics of the loss of radar wave absorber. We ifrst took advantage of ripe simulation software, CST, to simulate the interaction between radar wave and magnetic conductive ifber, as a result, we found that the scattering effect is more obvious with the increase of the frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave. What is more, using equivalent circuit model to analyze, we have derived mathematical formula of electromagnetic parameters which is about low concentration of magnetic ifber-iflled composite materials. While completing the inlfuence of ifber parameters on the electrical properties of the material, it is gained the inlfuence of magnetic ifber parameters, that is ifber cable degrees (diameter, aspect ratio) will ifrst affect the polarization factor, Thus affecting the effective permittivity; When the polarization factor of a small to a certain extent, The equivalent dielectric constant flattening; In a word, what ultimately affect the absorbing performance of composite absorbing materials is the degree of ifber cable, the electrical conductivity and concentration.%吸波结构隐身材料电性能提升与其内部的吸波成分关系密切,研究发现,磁性纤维具有形状各向异性及良好电磁性能,与吸波结构隐身材料结合可形成具有一定吸波能力及力学性能的吸波结构隐身材料。雷达吸波材料性能主要依赖于其中的雷达波吸收剂损耗特性。首先利用成熟的CST仿真软件针对磁性纤维与雷达波相互作用开展了仿真研

  19. Design of microwave absorbing asphalt mixture pavement material%吸波沥青混合料路面材料设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁斌; 刘銮成; 李敬才

    2012-01-01

    Directing against low microwave absorbing property of limestone aggregate asphalt mixture,asphalt mixture absorbing microwave with 3∶ 7 and limestone aggregate was prepared.The mixture was heated with a microwave oven for 60 s and the surface temperature was measured.The results indicate that the asphalt mixture absorbing microwave had higher temperature enhancement efficiency.%针对普通石灰岩集料沥青混合料吸波效率低等问题,按照铁矿石集料与普通石灰岩集料体积比3∶7,配制吸波沥青混合料,利用微波炉并加热60 s后,测试混合料表面温度差别,结果表明,吸波沥青混合料具有明显的升温效率高的特点。

  20. Study on Properties of the Super Absorbent Polymers as Cool Storage Material%高分子吸水树脂作为蓄冷材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立品; 周孟颖; 张奋奋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we research phase change temperature, phase enthalpy of super absorbent polymers with different water absorbent rate, and the cool releasing time by using its as cool storage material under 35℃, which is compared on iced. The results show that phase change temperature and phase enthalpy that is nearer to ice with the increment of water absorbency of the super absorbent polymers with different water absorbent rate are similitude with ice, In addition, in the same temperature environment, the cool releasing time of the super absorbent polymers is one hour longer than that of ice, which has the good advantages in cold storage field.%本文研究了不同吸水倍率的高分子吸水树脂的相变温度、相变潜热及作为蓄冷材料在35℃环境下的相变时间,并与冰做了对比。结果显示:吸收不同倍率水的高分子树脂。相变温度和相变潜热基本与水相似,随着吸水倍率的增加,相变潜热越接近于水的潜热;在相同条件下放置于隔冷袋中的高分子吸水树脂.在35℃高温环境中,可以维持20℃以下低温5h,比冰多了将近1h,克服了渗漏的缺点,在蓄冷领域表现出了明显的优势。

  1. Radiation damage of LSO crystals under γ- and 24 GeV protons irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, E.; Barysevich, A.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Koschan, M.; Lucchini, M.; Mechinski, V.; Melcher, C. L.; Voitovich, A.

    2013-09-01

    Irradiation damage of undoped and low Ce doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate has been investigated. Crystals were irradiated with both a 60Co γ-quanta source with an absorbed dose of 2000 Gy and, at CERN PS, a high-rate 24 GeV proton beam with a fluence of ˜3.6×1013 p/cm2. Both irradiations produced a similar set of induced absorption bands. However, a shift of the fundamental absorption spectrum cutoff appears after proton irradiation, but not in the case of the γ-irradiation. The observed shift of the band edge in the transmission spectrum following proton irradiation in lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals indicates that this phenomenon is a general property of heavy crystalline materials. A possible proton-induced transmission damage mechanism is discussed.

  2. Requirements for investigating the temperature-dependent fracture behavior of irradiated materials by indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacksteder, Irène, E-mail: irene.sacksteder@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hostettler, Simon [Synton-MDP Inc., Nidau (Switzerland); Charbonneau, Grégoire; Albinski, Bartlomiej; Schneider, Hans-Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A custom-made indenter is designed for indentations at high temperature. • The instrumented indentation technique at high temperature will be used to investigate temperature dependent fracture mechanisms in structural materials. • A finite-element based model has been validated with a view to predict crack initiation and propagation in Eurofer97 and tungsten-like materials. -- Abstract: The instrumented indentation technique is an interesting testing tool to examine temperature-dependent fracture mechanisms. It is planned to be used to generate cracks at defined temperatures in hard and brittle metallic materials. The present study describes the properties needed for the use of a new type of indenter operating at high temperature. The indenter was designed to meet mechanical and thermal requirements and other constraints relating to the operation of functional units of the indentation instrument. Additionally, a finite element model has been built with a view to predict indentation induced cracks in Eurofer97 and tungsten. The model has been validated both with the theory of Hertz and experimentally by comparison with indentation curves.

  3. [Study of mobile Raman spectroscopy for rapid evaluation of deteriorating of art materials under UV irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-yun; Ye, Fei; Wu, Lai-ming; Yuan, Sheng-wei; Zhang, Wei-bing; Du, Yi-ping

    2010-09-01

    Identification and characterization of materials used in cultural heritage and conservation can provide important information for dating, authentication and deteriorating situation in general. How to extract useful information from these materials in-situ is one of the main concerns. Application of mobile Raman spectroscopy for this purpose has great attentions for scientists and conservators. The present paper aims to investigate the mobile Raman spectroscopy in studying the effect of UV light on the deterioration of silk, seal ink and Chinese traditional colorants such as kermes, vermillion and zhubiao, which is commonly appeared on painted works of art, and the silk sample is also often used as an consolidant for repairing destroyed textile objects. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on the samples before and after ultraviolet radiation with 360 nm wavelength and 0.68 W x m(-2) intensity. The result revealed obvious effects of ultraviolet radiation on the materials simulated in this research. The original kind of seal ink has been clearly identified. The changes in spectra of all samples with and without UV radiation were further distinguished and studied. The result will assist for scientists and conservators to determine the safe treatments and suitable environmental condition for storage, display and transport. The result will also help for studying mechanism of deterioration of museum objects influenced by environmental factors. The mobile Raman spectroscopy showed a suitable and convenient means for in-situ non-destructive detection and study of deterioration in practical conditions.

  4. 超吸水纤维非织造材料导湿因素探讨%Study on Factors of Wet Permeability of Non-woven Materials of Super Absorbent Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛彧; 丁志荣; 初丽辉

    2012-01-01

    文章为了研究水滴在超吸水纤维非织造材料中的扩散情况,搭建了动态导湿测试装置,结合图像处理技术对工艺参数不同的几种样品进行了对比和研究。%A dynamic test device of wet permeability was set up in order to characterize the diffusion of liquid in non-woven materials of super absorbent fiber. Several non-woven materials of super absorbent fiber which had different process parameters were contrasted and discussed by the use of image processing technology.

  5. Calculation of absorbed doses in sphere volumes around the Mammosite using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX; Calculo de dosis absorbida en volumenes esfericos alrededor del Mammosite utilizando el codigo de simulacion Monte Carlo MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the changes observed in the absorbed doses in mammary gland tissue when irradiated with a equipment of high dose rate known as Mammosite and introducing material resources contrary to the tissue that constitutes the mammary gland. The modeling study is performed with the code MCNPX, 2005 version, the equipment and the mammary gland and calculating the absorbed doses in tissue when introduced small volumes of air or calcium in the system. (Author)

  6. 磁场热处理对磁性吸波材料微波吸收特性的影响%Effect of magnetic heat treatment on microwave absorbing properties of magnetic absorbing material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培豪; 潘顺康; 王磊; 周怀营; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    The Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88 and Nd11.76TeFe77.36Cr5B5.88 powders were prepared by the high-energy ball milling and following heat treatment. By the aid of X-ray diffraction and vector network analysis, the effects of the magnetic heat treatment on the powder structure and microwave absorbing properties were researched. The results show that applying magnetic field in the heat treatment process can promote the growth of ferromagnetic phase and non-ferromagnetic phase grain in Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88 powder, the minimum reflectivity of Nd117.76 fEB5.88 powder drops from the ordinary heat-treated -14 dB to -24.3 dB. The minimum reflectivity of Nd11.76 76Fe77.367736Cr5B5.8spowder drops from the ordinary heat-treated -30.5 dB to -48 dB. The magnetic heat treatment of Ndn.76Fes2.36B5.ss and Ndn.76Fe77.36Cr5B5.8g powder will narrow the microwave absorbing bandwidth, and in the microwave loss process, the magnetic loss will increase, while the dielectric loss will decrease.%采用高能球磨及热处理方法制备Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88和Nd11.76Fe77.36Cr5B5.88粉体,借助X射线衍射仪和矢量网络分析研究磁场热处理对粉体组织结构和微波吸收特性的影响.结果发现:在热处理过程中,加入磁场可以促进Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88粉体各铁磁性相和非铁磁性相的晶粒长大,使Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88粉体反射率的最小值从普通热处理粉体的-14 dB降低到-24.3 dB,Nd11.76Fe7736Cr5B5.88粉体的反射率最小值从普通热处理粉体的-30.5 dB降低到-48 dB;磁场热处理使Nd11.76Fe82.36B5.88和Nd11.76Fe77.36Cr5B5.88粉体的吸波带变窄,且在微波损耗过程中,磁损耗作用增大,而介电损耗作用减弱.

  7. Calculated irradiation response of materials using fission reactor (HFIR, ORR, and EBR-II) neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-08-01

    In order to plan radiation damage experiments in fission reactors keyed toward fusion reactor applications, it is necessary to have available for these facilities displacement per atom (dpa) and gas production rates for many potential materials. This report supplies such data for the elemental constituents of alloys of interest to the United States fusion reactor alloy development program. The calculations are presented for positions of interest in the HFIR, ORR, and EBR-II reactors. DPA and gas production rates in alloys of interest can be synthesized from these results.

  8. FAFNIR: Strategy and risk reduction in accelerator driven neutron sources for fusion materials irradiation data

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E; Caballero, A; Davenne, T; Findlay, D; Letchford, A; Thomason, J; Marrow, J; Roberts, S; Seryi, A; Connolly, B; Mummery, P; Owen, H

    2014-01-01

    The need to populate the fusion materials engineering data base has long been recognized, the IFMIF facility being the present proposed neutron source for this purpose. Re-evaluation of the regulatory approach for the EU proposed DEMO device shows that the specification of the neutron source can be reduced with respect to IFMIF, allowing lower risk technology solutions to be considered. The justification for this approach is presented and a description of a proposed facility, FAFNIR, is presented with more detailed discussion of the accelerator and target designs.

  9. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  10. Optical transmittance investigation of 1-keV ion-irradiated sapphire crystals as potential VUV to NIR window materials of fusion reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Iwano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the optical transmittances of ion-irradiated sapphire crystals as potential vacuum ultraviolet (VUV to near-infrared (NIR window materials of fusion reactors. Under potential conditions in fusion reactors, sapphire crystals are irradiated with hydrogen (H, deuterium (D, and helium (He ions with 1-keV energy and ∼ 1020-m-2 s-1 flux. Ion irradiation decreases the transmittances from 140 to 260 nm but hardly affects the transmittances from 300 to 1500 nm. H-ion and D-ion irradiation causes optical absorptions near 210 and 260 nm associated with an F-center and an F+-center, respectively. These F-type centers are classified as Schottky defects that can be removed through annealing above 1000 K. In contrast, He-ion irradiation does not cause optical absorptions above 200 nm because He-ions cannot be incorporated in the crystal lattice due to the large ionic radius of He-ions. Moreover, the significant decrease in transmittance of the ion-irradiated sapphire crystals from 140 to 180 nm is related to the light scattering on the crystal surface. Similar to diamond polishing, ion irradiation modifies the crystal surface thereby affecting the optical properties especially at shorter wavelengths. Although the transmittances in the VUV wavelengths decrease after ion irradiation, the transmittances can be improved through annealing above 1000 K. With an optical transmittance in the VUV region that can recover through simple annealing and with a high transparency from the ultraviolet (UV to the NIR region, sapphire crystals can therefore be used as good optical windows inside modern fusion power reactors in terms of light particle loadings of hydrogen isotopes and helium.

  11. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  12. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  13. Composite absorbing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Sala, P R

    1998-01-01

    The multiple scattering interferences due to the addition of several contiguous potential units are used to construct composite absorbing potentials that absorb at an arbitrary set of incident momenta or for a broad momentum interval.

  14. Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh-Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh-Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.

  15. Linear oscillation of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material under ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Fumiya; Ando, Keita, E-mail: kando@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Acoustically forced oscillation of spherical gas bubbles in a viscoelastic material is studied through comparisons between experiments and linear theory. An experimental setup has been designed to visualize bubble dynamics in gelatin gels using a high-speed camera. A spherical gas bubble is created by focusing an infrared laser pulse into (gas-supersaturated) gelatin gels. The bubble radius (up to 150 μm) under mechanical equilibrium is controlled by gradual mass transfer of gases across the bubble interface. The linearized bubble dynamics are studied from the observation of spherical bubble oscillation driven by low-intensity, planar ultrasound driven at 28 kHz. It follows from the experiment for an isolated bubble that the frequency response in its volumetric oscillation was shifted to the high frequency side and its peak was suppressed as the gelatin concentration increases. The measurement is fitted to the linearized Rayleigh–Plesset equation coupled with the Voigt constitutive equation that models the behavior of linear viscoelastic solids; the fitting yields good agreement by tuning unknown values of the viscosity and rigidity, indicating that more complex phenomena including shear thinning, stress relaxation, and retardation do not play an important role for the small-amplitude oscillations. Moreover, the cases for bubble-bubble and bubble-wall systems are studied. The observed interaction effect on the linearized dynamics can be explained as well by a set of the Rayleigh–Plesset equations coupled through acoustic radiation among these systems. This suggests that this experimental setup can be applied to validate the model of bubble dynamics with more complex configuration such as a cloud of bubbles in viscoelastic materials.

  16. The ALICE absorbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m.

  17. Mechanical-property changes of structural composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation: Implications for use in SSC magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morena, J. [Ace, Inc., Stuart, FL (US); Snead, C.L. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Czajkowski, C.; Skaritka, J. [SSC Lab., Dallas, TX (US)

    1993-07-01

    Longterm physical, mechanical, electrical, and other properties of advanced composites, plastics, and other polymer materials are greatly affected by high-energy proton, neutron, electron, and gamma radiation. The effects of high-energy particles on materials is a critical design parameter to consider when choosing polymeric structural, nonstructural, and elastomeric matrix resin systems. Polymer materials used for filled resins, laminates, seals, gaskets, coatings, insulation and other nonmetallic components must be chosen carefully, and reference data viewed with caution. Most reference data collected in the high-energy physics community to date reflects material property degradation using other than proton irradiations. In most instances, the data were collected for room-temperature irradiations, not 4.2 K or other cryogenic temperatures, and at doses less than 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} Rad. Energetic proton (and the accompanying spallation-product particles) provide good simulation fidelity to the expected radiation fields predicted for the cold-mass regions of the SSC magnets, especially the corrector magnets. The authors present here results for some structural composite materials which were part of a larger irradiation-characterization of polymeric materials for SSC applications.

  18. EPDM基吸油树脂型相变储能材料的制备与性能%Preparation and Property of Oil-absorbing Resin Based on EPDM as Phase Change Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓明

    2012-01-01

    The oil-absorbing resin based on EPDM rubber was used as a carrier for adsorption of phase change material such as paraffin to prepare solid-solid phase change materials (PCM). Suspension polymerization was adopted to develop a high oil-absorbing resin of EPDM series. SEM was used to observe the morphology before and after absorbing paraffin oil; DSC was employed to measure the phase change temperature and enthalpy after adsorbing phase change material paraffin. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of paraffin on oil-absorbing resin could up to 4.9 g/g, and the phase transition enthalpy was 124. 5 J/g. It can be considered as promising PCMs.%以三元乙丙橡胶( EPDM)基吸油树脂作为载体,通过吸附石蜡作为相变物质,制备了高分子固-固相变 储能材料.采用悬浮聚合法,探讨了EPDM基高吸油树脂的合成工艺对树脂吸附石蜡性能的影响;用扫描电子显微镜观察了吸油树脂吸附石蜡前后的微观形态变化;利用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测定了吸附相变材料后,吸油树脂的相变温度和相变焓.结果表明:EPDM基吸油树脂对石蜡的最大吸附量可达4.9 g/g,其相变焓为124.5 J/g,具有较高的应用潜力.

  19. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship......Minorsky's well-known empirical formula, which relates the absorbed energy to the destroyed material volume, has been widely used in analyses of high energy collision and grounding accidents for nearly 40 years. The advantage of the method is its apparent simplcity. Obviously, its drawback...

  20. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by dislocation loop formation and growth, microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, radiation-induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, and in some cases, void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiationinduced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses beyond 200 dpa). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. Predictive modeling relies on an understanding of the physical processes and also on the development of microstructure and microchemical models to describe their evolution under

  1. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azimi; M.A Karimi Torshizi; A Allameh; H. Ahari

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control...

  2. 蜂窝夹芯吸波材料电磁特性研究进展%Research development on electromagnetic properties of honeycomb sandwich wave-absorbing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常霞; 袁昊; 高正平

    2013-01-01

    Due to light weight, high strength and stiffness, good absorbing capacity and other advantages, the absorbing materials with honeycomb sandwich structure are widely used in the military. Foreign research on this field is mature, but relevant literatures are rare for confidentiality. Most domestic researches pay more attenation to mechanic performance of the structure than electromagnetism. This paper introduces honeycomb sandwich absorbing material from different research methods at home and abroad.%由于蜂窝夹芯结构吸波材料具有重量轻、强度和刚度大、吸波性能好等多个优点,在军事应用上受到广泛的关注。国外在此方面研究较成熟,但出于保密,能查到的相关文献很少。而国内对蜂窝夹芯结构多是从力学角度去研究,从电磁学角度研究相对较少。从不同研究方法的角度介绍了目前国内外蜂窝夹芯吸波材料电磁特性方面的研究进展。

  3. Giant enhancement of material damage associated to electronic excitation during ion irradiation: The case of LiNbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM), CSIC, 28760 Tres Cantos (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (CELLS), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Rueda, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The structural damage induced by ion irradiation on dielectric materials and associated device degradation has been, so far, explained on the basis of collisional processes mostly ignoring the electronic excitation. Recent work, focused on lithium niobate, offers conclusive evidence that at high ion energy and moderate mass (A{>=}15) electronic excitation may induce a giant enhancement over the damage rate due to nuclear collisions. As a consequence the material becomes amorphized at irradiation fluences far below those required for nuclear collisions alone. These results are expected to have a deep impact on many technologies including storage of radioactive waste, radiation-resistant materials for fusion reactors, lifetime of components and devices in space missions, nano-patterning in electronics and photonics, and possibly heavy-ion therapy in medicine. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Influence of model parameters on a simulation of x-ray irradiated materials: example of XTANT code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Nikita; Lipp, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution an analysis of influence of model parameters on the results of simulations of material properties under free-electron laser irradiation is presented. It is based on the in-house hybrid code XTANT (X-ray-induced Thermal And Nonthermal Transition; N. Medvedev et. al, Phys. Rev. B 91 (2015) 054113), which combines tight binding molecular dynamics for atoms with Monte Carlo treatment of high-energy electrons and core-holes, and Boltzmann collision integrals for nonadiabatic (electron-phonon) coupling. Different parameterizations of transferable tight binding method for silicon are analyzed, namely basis sets sp3 and sp3s*. The sp3 parameterization seems to provide a better agreement of the silicon damage threshold with experimental data. Further, the influence of different schemes of molecular dynamics periodic boundaries simulation is compared: constant volume vs Parrinello-Rahman constant pressure. Constant-volume scheme gives a better agreement with experimental transient properties, as could be expected. Parameters entering the calculations of optical properties are analyzed, showing virtually no effect on the outcome beyond trivial broadening of the peaks of the optical coefficients.

  5. Optimization of the irradiation conditions of some control components and materials for the nuclear power plants and the radiation stability of certain types of plastic lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešek, M.; Reřichová, M.; Třebicky, V.; Chvojka, M.

    Fail-safe operation of various safeguard devices, operational and auxiliary equipments and control components, e.g. servomotors other engines and various appliances, is required for a safe operation of nuclear power plants. Non-metal materials, control components, motors and other appliances have to be tested and their properties evaluated after γ-irradiation with doses corresponding to the assumed long term radiation commitment and also to the irradiation caused by an eventual accident. The radiation stability of greases used in devices exposed to high doses of the ionizing radiation presents a rather serious and important problem. The results of some tests and the evaluation of the properties of irradiated plastic lubricants are described.

  6. Dose distribution, using homogeneous material before the reload of the JS-6500 irradiator; Distribucion de dosis, empleando material homogeneo antes de la recarga del irradiador JS-6500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco A, H

    1991-10-15

    The objective of this report is to determine the dose distribution inside the aluminum containers used for the industrial irradiation, as well as to locate the positions of maximum and minimum doses, before the reloading of the JS-6500 Irradiator. (Author)

  7. Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.

    2007-07-03

    A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

  8. Effects of aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste part I: Distribution of Sr, Cs, and Tc onto 18 absorbers from an irradiated, organic-containing leachate simulant for Hanford Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions. In this investigation, we measured the effect of some aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the sorption of strontium, cesium, and technetium onto 18 absorbers that offer high sorption of strontium from organic-free solutions. For our test solution we used a leachate from a simulated slurry for Hanford Tank 101-SY that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and then was gamma-irradiated to 34 Mrads. We measured distribution coefficients (Kds) for each element/absorber combination for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. To facilitate comparisons, we include Kd values for these same element/absorber combinations from three organic-free simulant solutions. The Kd values for strontium sorption from the simulant that contained the degraded organics usually decreased by large factors, whereas the Kd values for cesium and technetium sorption were relatively unaffected.

  9. Design and construction of an irradiation apparatus with controlled atmosphere and temperature for radiation damage evaluation of nuclear materials in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucki, Georgi; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Castanheira, Myrthes; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: glucki@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    A material irradiation apparatus CIMAT (Capsula de Irradiacao de Materiais) with controlled temperature and atmosphere is described. The device was specifically designed to perform experiments inside the core of the IEA-R1 swimming pool reactor and allows fast neutron (E=1 MeV) irradiations of multiple miniature metallic samples at temperature between 100 deg C and 500 deg C, in Argon or Helium atmosphere to inhibit corrosion. The aim of CIMAT is to make a comparative assessment of Radiation Embrittlement (RE) on the AS 508 cl.3 steel, of different origins (ELETROMETAL-Brazil and VITCOVICE-Chekia) used in Pressure Vessels (PV) of PWR, for fluence of 10 exp 19 nvt at 300 C, by means of mechanical post irradiation evaluation. Previous characterization of non-irradiated samples of these materials is presented. In situ electrical and magnetic measurements, at high temperatures, are foreseen to be made with this apparatus. Extensive temperature stability and leak-tightness tests performed in the reactor swimming pool have proven the CIMAT to be intrinsically safe and operational. (author)

  10. Calorimetry study of microwave absorption of some solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun Lin; Ma, Shao Jian; Su, Xiu Juan; Chen, Yan Qing; Liang, Yu Shi

    2013-01-01

    In practice, the dielectric constant of a material varies the applied frequency the material composition, particle size, purity, temperature, physical state (solid or liquid), and moisture content. All of these parameters might change during processing, therefore, it is difficult to predict how well a material will absorb microwave energy in a given process. When the temperature is measured by a digital thermometer, it could not accurately reflect the true temperature of the bulk materials, especially for mixed materials. Thus, in this paper we measured the microwave absorption characteristics of different materials by calorimetry. The microwave power levels, irradiation times, and masses of the materials were varied. It was difficult to predict the microwave energy absorption characteristics of reagent-grade inorganic compounds based on their color, metallic cation, or water stoichiometry. CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4, and MnSO4 x H2O (Taishan) strongly absorbed microwave energy. Most of the remaining inorganic compounds were poor absorbers, with silica hardly absorbing any microwave energy. Carbon-based materials had significantly different microwave absorption characteristics. Activated carbon and coke were especially sensitive to microwaves, but different types of coal were poor absorbers. The jamesonite concentrate absorbed microwave energy strongly, while the zinc concentrate was a poor absorber.

  11. Effects of neutron irradiation on glass ceramics as pressure-less joining materials for SiC based components for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M., E-mail: monica.ferraris@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Casalegno, V.; Rizzo, S.; Salvo, M. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Van Staveren, T.O. [NRG (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group) Petten (Netherlands); Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    This paper reports on the microstructure and properties of two glass-ceramics based on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO (SAMg) and SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAY), which have been designed to be used as pressure-less low activation joining materials for SiC/SiC and SiC based components for nuclear applications. Glass-ceramic pellets (SAY and SAMg) were irradiated for approximately 1 year in the reactor core of the LVR-15 research reactor at Nuclear Research Institute Rez, Czech Republic, at about 50 Degree-Sign C, 6.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV, about 1 dpa in steel); SiC/SiC composites joined by SAY were irradiated about 1 year at High Flux Reactor (HFR), Petten, The Netherlands, 550 Degree-Sign C, 9-11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV, about 1.4-1.8 dpa in C), 600 Degree-Sign C, 16-22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV, about 2.6-3.3 dpa in C) and 820 Degree-Sign C 31-32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2}(E > 1 MeV, about 5 dpa in C). Optical microscopy with image analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray microanalysis (EDS) were used to investigate the glass-ceramics morphology and composition, showing a remarkable similarity before and after neutron irradiation for both glass-ceramics. Comparison of bending strength for irradiated and non-irradiated SAY joined SiC/SiC indicate that the mechanical strength is unaffected by irradiation at these conditions.

  12. Study on absorption performance of new wave-absorbering material nano-compound-α-Fe%新型吸波剂纳米复合α-Fe的吸波性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓莲; 谭新常; 李正南

    2014-01-01

    探讨了利用天然马脾铁蛋白制备的核壳型纳米复合粉末的成分及组织结构、纳米复合α-Fe含量对电磁参数及电磁损耗的影响,以及以纳米复合α-Fe作为吸波剂的吸收性能。结果表明:利用天然马脾铁蛋白可以制备粒径均一的核壳型纳米复合α-Fe ,一次粒径小于12 nm ;随着复合α-Fe含量的增加,介电常数ε′和ε″基本上单调增加,同时有助于磁导率μ′和μ″的提高;电磁损耗单调增加,损耗中以电损耗为主,磁损耗次之。用纳米复合α-Fe作为吸波剂,可以在厘米波范围内取得较理想的吸收效果,是一种新型的、耐腐蚀性能好的纳米吸波材料。%The composition and structure of the core shell structured nano-composites are analyzed by using natural horse spleen ferritin as materials . The impact of nano-composition α-Fe on the electromagnetic parameters and the electromagnetic loss ,the absorbability of nano-composites-α-Fe as wave-absorber is studied as well .The results show that using natural horse spleen ferritin can prepare the core shell structured nano-composites-α-Fe with equidimensional particle-size and the linear particle-size is less than 12 nm .Theε′andε″raise monotonously and at the same time contribute to the rise of μ′and μ″with the increase of compound-α-Fe . The electromagnetic loss is also raised monotonously with the increase of compound-α-Fe ,with the electric loss as the main loss and the magnetic loss as the second loss .Utilization of the nano-composites-α-Fe as wave-absorber can obtain an ideal absorbent effect within the range of centimeter wave .From all these results ,it is concluded that the nano-composites-α-Fe is a new nano-absorbing material having good performances with good corrosion resistance .

  13. Analysis of nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in Fe-base materials by means of small angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, G.

    2008-12-15

    Thermonuclear fusion of light atoms is considered since decades as an unlimited, safe and reliable source of energy that could eventually replace classical sources based on fossil fuel or nuclear fuel. Fusion reactor technology and materials studies are important parts of the fusion energy development program. For the time being, the most promising materials for structural applications in the future fusion power reactors are the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels for which the greatest technology maturity has been achieved, i.e., qualified fabrication routes, welding technology and a general industrial experience are almost available. The most important issues concerning the future use of RAFM steels in fusion power reactors are derived from their irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons that are the product, together with 3.5 MeV helium ions, of the envisaged fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. Indeed, exposure of metallic materials to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons will result in the formation of severe displacement damage (about 20-30 dpa per year) and high amounts of helium, which are at the origin of significant changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials, such as hardening and embrittlement effects. This PhD Thesis work was aimed at investigating how far the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique could be used for detecting and characterizing nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in RAFM steels. Indeed, the resolution limit of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is about 1 nm in weak beam TEM imaging, and it is usually thought that a large number of irradiation-induced effects have a size below 1 nm in RAFM steels and that these very small defects actually contribute to the irradiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of RAFM steels occurring at irradiation temperatures below about 400 °C. The aim of this work was achieved by combining SANS experiments on unirradiated and irradiated specimens

  14. Vapor diffusion synthesis of rugby-shaped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites as absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shenli [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiao, Qingze [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, Zhuhai 519085 (China); Hu, Ju; Li, Jingjing [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Yun, E-mail: zhaoyun@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Hansheng; Wu, Qin [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-05-05

    Graphical abstract: CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene composites were prepared using a vapor diffusion method followed by calcination. As-synthesized rugby-like CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were distributed on the graphene sheet. PVP played a key role for the formation of rugby-shaped morphology of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. A minimum reflection loss of −39.0 dB was observed at 10.9 GHz for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene composites with a thickness of 2 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth was 4.7 GHz. The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene composites exhibited better microwave absorbing performance than that of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles/graphene composites prepared without PVP. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene hybrids were synthesized using a vapor diffusion method. • PVP played a key role for the formation of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene composites showed excellent microwave absorbing property. - Abstract: Rugby-shaped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites were synthesized using a vapor diffusion method in combination with calcination. The morphologies and structures of the products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic and electromagnetic parameters were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer, respectively. Results show that rugby-shaped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles are distributed on graphene sheets. A minimum reflection loss (RL) of −39.0 dB is observed at 10.9 GHz for the sample with a thickness of 2.0 mm, and the effective absorption frequency (RL < −10 dB) ranges from 9.6 to 14.3 GHz, indicating the excellent microwave absorption performance of the products. The absorbing performance of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} rugbies/graphene composites is better than that of the Co

  15. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (0.2 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,2 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Kunisch, W.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    1997-04-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens of MANITU (0.8 dpa) a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.2 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed. Among all examined alloys (MANET-I, MANET-II, K-heat, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten miniaturisierten Proben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse aus den instrumentierten Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen des MANITU-Programms (Bestrahlungsdosis 0,2 dpa, Bestrahlungstemperaturen 250, 300, 350, 400 und 450 C) analysiert und bewertet. Von den untersuchten Legierungen (MANET-I, MANET-II, Kastencharge, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) zeigt der ORNL-Stahl das beste Versproedungsverhalten nach

  16. Report on the evaluation of the tritium producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the design and fabrication requirements for a tritium-producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly and evaluates the safety issues associated with tritium-producing burnable absorber rod irradiation on the operation of a commercial light water reactor. The report provides an evaluation of the tritium-producing burnable absorber rod design and concludes that irradiation can be performed within U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations applicable to a commercial pressurized light water reactor.

  17. Absorbing Outflows in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program was a comprehensive multiwavelength study of absorption phenomena in active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include a variety of associated absorption systems: X-ray warm absorbers, X-ray cold absorbers. UV absorbers with high ionization lines, MgII absorbers, red quasars and BALQSOs. The aim is to determine the physical conditions in the absorbing outflows, study their inter-relations and their role in AGN. We designed several observing programs to achieve this goal: X-ray spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, FLAY spectroscopy and X-ray imaging. We were very successful towards achieving the goal over the five year period as shown through following observing programs and papers. Copies of a few papers are attached with this report.

  18. Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds for coronary revascularization: Lessons learnt from ABSORB III, ABSORB China, and ABSORB Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, Bill D; King, Spencer B; Samady, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers and biocorrodible metals are the latest developments in biodegradable materials used in interventional cardiology for the mechanical treatment of coronary atherosclerosis. Poly-L-lactic acid is the most frequently used bioresorbable polymer and initial evidence of feasibility, efficacy and clinical safety following deployment of polymer-based platforms was gained after completion of the first-in-man longitudinal ABSORB registries, Cohorts A and B and ABSORB Extend. In these studies, the biologic interaction of the first-generation Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) (Abbott Vascular, SC, Calif., US) with the underlying vascular tissue was evaluated in vivo with multiple imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), virtual histology-IVUS, IVUS-palpography, optical coherence tomography as well as ex vivo with coronary computed tomography. Efficacy measures following this in vivo multi-imaging assessment as well as clinical safety were comparable with current generation drug-eluting stents (DES) (Abbott Vascular, SC, Calif., US) in non-complex lesions over a 3-year follow-up. Furthermore, novel properties of functional and anatomic restoration of the vessel wall during the late phases of resorption and vascular healing were observed transforming the field of mechanical treatment of atherosclerosis from delivering only acute revascularization to additionally enable late repair and subsequent restoration of a more physiologic underlying vascular tissue. Despite the sufficient evidence and the subsequent Conformité Européenne mark approval of the first fully biodegradable scaffold (Absorb BVS) in 2012 for revascularizing non-complex lesions, the paucity of randomized comparisons of fully bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) with metallic DES in a "real-world" clinical setting raised controversies among the interventional community for the merit of these technologies. Only recently, results from international large

  19. Crosslinking of polyamide-6 initiated by proton beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubská, Mária; Szöllös, Ondrej; Janigová, Ivica; Jomová, Klaudia; Chodák, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Initiation of crosslinking of polyamide-6 (PA6) by proton beam irradiation was investigated for a virgin material as well as for PA6 containing up to 5 wt% of triallyl cyanurate (TAC) as a crosslinking coagent. The gel point was found to be 144 and 40 kGy for virgin PA6 and for PA6 with 1 wt% of TAC, while for higher TAC content gel content was determined to be around zero absorbed dose. The ratio between crosslinking and scission of macroradicals formed by irradiation was found to be around 0.65 regardless on presence or absence of TAC and its concentration. The more detailed discussion on chemical processes as well as on final structure formation after irradiation is based on data from differential scanning calorimetry, detecting a decrease of both lamellar thickness and crystalline portion, but an increase of glass transition temperature.

  20. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate; Bestrahlungsinduzierte Modifikation der Materialparameter in Magnesiumdotiertem Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with {sup 3}He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10{sup -3}, which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 {mu}m could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  1. Effect of low-level laser therapy irradiation and Bio-Oss graft material on the osteogenesis process in rabbit calvarium defects: a double blind experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Rokn, Amir Reza; Kalhori, Katayoun A M; Khorsand, Afshin; Pournabi, Alireza; Pinheiro, A L B; Fekrazad, Reza

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation and Bio-Oss graft material on the osteogenesis process in the rabbit calvarium defects. Twelve white male New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Four 8-mm diameter identical defects were prepared on each rabbit's calvarium. One site was left as an untreated control (C), the second site was filled with Bio-Oss (B), the third site was treated with laser irradiation (L), and the fourth site treated with Bio-Oss and laser irradiation (B + L). In the laser group, a diode laser (wavelength 810 nm, output power 300 mW, irradiation mode CW, energy density 4 J/cm2) was applied immediately after surgery and then one other day for the next 20 days. After 4 and 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and histological and histomorphometric examinations were performed and the data were subjected to Friedman and repeated measurements ANOVA tests. Significant differences were not found regarding inflammation severity, foreign body reactions, and vitality of newly formed bone on 4th and 8th week after operation. The mean amount of new bone was 15.83 and 18.5% in the controls on the 4th and 8th week; 27.66 and 25.16% in the laser-irradiated group; 35.0 and 41.83% in Bio-Oss and 41.83 and 47.0% in the laser + Bio-Oss treated specimens with significant statistical differences (p <0.05). Application of LLLT in combination with Bio-Oss® can promote bone healing. Therefore, LLLT may be clinically beneficial in promoting bone formation in skeletal defects.

  2. Dependence of the saturation behaviour of the metastable defect creation on a-Si:H material properties measured by keV electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, A.; Schröder, B.

    1991-08-01

    The electronic stability of a-Si:H films deposited by different methods and a wide range of preparation parameters has been investigated by keV-electron irradiation. Employing an electron dose of about 70 J/cm2 a metastable defect density near its saturation level was created. The defect density of the initial and the irradiated state has been determined by CPM and PDS. It was found that the saturation level of the creation of metastable defects ΔNsat is independent on the previous (stable) defect density No within the experimental inaccuracy. Meanwhile an evident increase of ΔNsat with the hydrogen content CH-fraction bonded at inner surfaces, and the optical gap was observed. Obviously, there exists a dependence of ΔNsat on the preparation temperature. The saturation behaviour of the films does not always correlate with that of pin solar cells prepared with the same i-material.

  3. Survey report on high temperature irradiation experiment programs for new ceramic materials in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    A survey research on status of research activities on new ceramic materials in Japan was carried out under contract between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The purpose of the survey is to provide information to prioritize prospective experiments and tests in the HTTR. The HTTR as a high temperature gas cooled reactor has a unique and superior capability to irradiate large-volumed specimen at high temperature up to approximately 800degC. The survey was focused on mainly the activities of functional ceramics and heat resisting ceramics as a kind of structural ceramics. As the result, the report recommends that the irradiation experiment of functional ceramics is feasible to date. (K. Itami)

  4. An ultrathin dual-band metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Duan, Junping; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Wanjun; Zhang, Binzhen

    2016-10-01

    The design and preparation of an ultrathin dual-band metamaterial absorber whose resonant frequency located at radar wave (20 GHz-60 GHz) is presented in this paper. The absorber is composed of a 2-D periodic sandwich featured with two concentric annuluses. The influence on the absorber's performance produced by resonant cell's structure size and material parameters was numerically simulated and analyzed based on the standard full wave finite integration technology in CST. Laser ablation process was adopted to prepare the designed absorber on epoxy resin board coated with on double plane of copper with a thickness that is 1/30 and 1/50 of the resonant wavelength at a resonant frequency of 30.51 GHz and 48.15 GHz. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 2.2 GHz and 2.35 GHz and the peak of the absorptance reached 99.977%. The ultrathin absorber is nearly omnidirectional for all polarizations. The test results of prepared sample testify the designed absorber's excellent absorbing performance forcefully. The absorber expands inspirations of radar stealth in military domain due to its flexible design, cost-effective and other outstanding properties.

  5. Perovskite semiconductor La(Ni0.75W0.25)O3 nanoparticles for visible-light-absorbing photocatalytic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Xie, Hongde; Pu, Yinfu; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2017-01-01

    La(Ni0.75W0.25)O3 perovskite oxide was prepared via the sol-gel Pechini route. The pure crystalline phase was verified via X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld structure refinements. Some measurements were applied to characterize the surface of the nanoparticles such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, specific surface area, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The optical measurement confirmed that this perovskite oxide can absorb the visible light presenting low band energy of 2.41 eV. The d-d allowed transitions in Ni2+-O octahedral have great contributions to the narrow band-gap. The Ni2+-containing perovskite was applied as a photocatalyst showing the desirable photodegradation ability for methylene blue solutions under the excitation of visible-light. The photocatalysis activities were discussed in the relationship with its special perovskite-type structure such as the NiO6 color centers and multivalent cation ions etc.

  6. Nanoscale controlled Li-insertion reaction induced by scanning electron-beam irradiation in a Li4Ti5O12 electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Kohyama, Masanori

    2017-05-10

    The development of a nanoscale battery reaction in an electrode material associated with in situ microscopic observation is significant to an understanding of the solid-state mechanism of a battery reaction. With a Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) crystal as the negative electrode of a Li-ion battery (LIB), we show that a nanoscale-controlled Li-insertion reaction can be produced by electron beam irradiation with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A selected area in a Li2O-coated thin LTO crystal was irradiated by the electron probe of STEM with a high beam intensity of 2.5 × 10(7) (electrons per nm(2)). Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that significant changes in the chemical feature occurred only in the high-dose irradiation area in the LTO specimen. The features of Li-K, Ti-L and O-K spectra in that area were completely equal to those of a Li7Ti5O12 (Li-LTO) phase, as an electrochemically Li-inserted LTO phase, in contrast to usual LTO-like spectra in the region surrounding the specimen. For a pristine LTO specimen without Li2O coating, no Li-insertion reaction was observed under the same irradiation conditions. The high-dose electron beam seems to induce the dissociation of Li2O, providing Li ions and electrons, and the rapid and directional growth of a Li-LTO phase along the electron beam in the LTO specimen, forming a nanoscale steep interface with the surrounding LTO phase. The present phenomenon is a new type of electron beam assisted chemical reaction in a solid state, and could have a large impact on the science and technology of battery materials.

  7. Nano-Composite Superfine Nickel Powder Double Absorbent Coating Designing

    Institute of S