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  1. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy.

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    Kriplani, Alka; Mahey, Reeta; Dash, Biswa Bhusan; Kulshreshta, Vidushi; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (Panaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.

  2. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

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    Alka Kriplani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001 after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l (P<0.001. Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%.Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its

  3. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  4. Safety, therapeutic effectiveness, and cost of parenteral iron therapy.

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    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2009-07-01

    Patients have to discontinue the use of oral iron therapy due to the development of side effects and lack of long-term adherence to medication for iron deficiency anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy. The computerized database and medical records of 453 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who received intravenous iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The improvement of hematologic parameters and cost of therapy were evaluated 4 weeks after therapy. 453 patients (443 females, 10 males; age: 44.2 +/- 12.3 years) received iron sucrose therapy. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume values were 8.2 +/- 1.4 g/dL, 26.9 +/- 3.8%, and 66.1 +/- 7.8 fL, respectively, before therapy and 11.5 +/- 1.0 g/dL, 35.8 +/- 2.5%, 76.5 +/- 6.1 fL, respectively, after therapy (P 50%). The mean cost of therapy was 143.07 +/- 29.13 US dollars. The therapy was well tolerated. Although the cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy may seem high, a lack of adherence to therapy and side effects including gastrointestinal irritation during oral iron therapy were not experienced during intravenous therapy.

  5. Response to parenteral iron therapy distinguish unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia from iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

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    Akin, M; Sarbay, H; Guler, S; Balci, Y I; Polat, A

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated that response to parenteral iron therapy could be helpful in distinguishing the types of iron deficiency anemia. This study analyzed responses to IV iron sucrose therapy of 15 children with unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia (URIDA). We compared the results at diagnosis, 6 weeks and 6 months after the therapy. Results were compared with responses of 11 patients' results with iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) from our previous study. Six weeks after the start of treatment, ferritin, MCV, MCH and Hb values were in normal range in 10 patients. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 2.6-3.5 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. In five patients, Hb, MCH, and MCV mean (range) values [11.2 g/dL (11-12.2), 24.5 pg (24-25.6), and 67 fL (65-70)] were nearly normal but ferritin mean (range) values [9.8 ng/mL (8-11)] were below normal. Six weeks after the start of treatment, Hb, MCH, MCV and ferritin values of patients with IRIDA were increased. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 0.8-2.7 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. IRIDA is only partially responsive to parenteral iron supplementation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the response to intravenous iron therapy for the URIDA cases improved blood parameters more effectively than hereditary IRIDA. Response to parenteral iron therapy would be helpful to distinguish unexplained refractory IDA from hereditary IRIDA for clinicians who do not have access to hepcidin or TMPRS6 mutation analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Medication adherence to oral iron therapy in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

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    Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Asli; Erdogan, Ferit; Kut, Altug

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting medication adherence in patients who use oral iron therapy due to iron deficiency anemia. A total of 96 female patients in fertile age with mean age of 30±10.1 years (range 18-53) who were admitted to Family Medicine Clinic between 01 January and 31 March 2015 and who had received iron therapy within the recent three years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form. Of the patients, 39 (40,6%) were detected not to use the medication regularly or during the recommended period. A statistically significant relationship was found between non-adherence to therapy and gastrointestinal side effects and weight gain (p<0.05). Medication adherence is deficient in patients with iron deficiency anemia. The most important reason for this seems gastrointestinal side effects, in addition to weight gain under treatment.

  7. Medication adherence to oral iron therapy in patients with iron deficiency anemia

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    Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Asli; Erdogan, Ferit; Kut, Altug

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting medication adherence in patients who use oral iron therapy due to iron deficiency anemia. Methods: A total of 96 female patients in fertile age with mean age of 30±10.1 years (range 18-53) who were admitted to Family Medicine Clinic between 01 January and 31 March 2015 and who had received iron therapy within the recent three years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form. Results: Of the patients, 39 (40,6%) were detected not to use the medication regularly or during the recommended period. A statistically significant relationship was found between non-adherence to therapy and gastrointestinal side effects and weight gain (p<0.05). Conclusion: Medication adherence is deficient in patients with iron deficiency anemia. The most important reason for this seems gastrointestinal side effects, in addition to weight gain under treatment. PMID:27375698

  8. Modern iron replacement therapy: clinical and pathophysiological insights.

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    Girelli, Domenico; Ugolini, Sara; Busti, Fabiana; Marchi, Giacomo; Castagna, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is extremely frequent worldwide, representing a major public health problem. Iron replacement therapy dates back to the seventeenth century, and has progressed relatively slowly until recently. Both oral and intravenous traditional iron formulations are known to be far from ideal, mainly because of tolerability and safety issues, respectively. At the beginning of this century, the discovery of hepcidin/ferroportin axis has represented a turning point in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iron metabolism disorders, ushering a new era. In the meantime, advances in the pharmaceutical technologies are producing newer iron formulations aimed at minimizing the problems inherent with traditional approaches. The pharmacokinetic of oral and parenteral iron is substantially different, and diversities have become even clearer in light of the hepcidin master role in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Here we review how iron therapy is changing because of such important advances in both pathophysiology and pharmacology.

  9. Significance of iron reduction for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C

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    Nožić Darko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been established that many patients with chronic hepatitis C have elevated serum iron, feritin levels and iron deposits in the liver. Therefore, the liver damage due to hepatitis C virus may be aggravated with iron overload. In many studies higher levels of iron in the blood and the liver were connected with the decreased response to interferon-alfa therapy for chronic viral hepatitis C. Recent introduction of pegylated interferons plus ribavirin has improved the therapeutic response, so it is now possible to cure more than 50% of the patients. Case report. Three patients with chronic hepatitis C and iron overload were presented. Iron reduction therapy using phlebotomy or eritrocytapheresis with plasmapheresis was done at different times in regard to specific antiviral therapy or as a sole therapy. Conclusion. It has been shown that iron reduction, sole or combined with antiviral therapy, led to the deacreased aminotransferase serum activity and might have slow down the evolution of chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

  10. Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity

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    Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

  11. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

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    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergey G. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  12. Iron Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: Review of Iron Preparations for Practitioners.

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    Drozd, Marcin; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.

  13. Iron overload and chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes.

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    Temraz, Sally; Santini, Valeria; Musallam, Khaled; Taher, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in MDS patients especially those requiring recurrent blood transfusions. The consequence of iron overload may be more relevant in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who may survive long enough to experience such manifestations. It is a matter of debate whether this overload has time to yield organ damage, but it is quite evident that cellular damage and DNA genotoxic effect are induced. Iron overload may play a critical role in exacerbating pre-existing morbidity or even unmask silent ones. Under these circumstances, iron chelation therapy could play an integral role in the management of these patients. This review entails an in depth analysis of iron overload in MDS patients; its pathophysiology, effect on survival, associated risks and diagnostic options. It also discusses management options in relation to chelation therapy used in MDS patients and the impact it has on survival, hematologic response and organ function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapidly Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Transdermal Iron Replenishment Therapy.

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    Maurya, Abhijeet; Nanjappa, Shivakumar H; Honnavar, Swati; Salwa, M; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2018-02-17

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is predominant in women and children especially in developing countries. The disorder affects cognitive functions and physical activity. Although oral iron supplementation and parenteral therapy remains the preferred choice of treatment, gastric side effects and risk of iron overload decreases adherence to therapy. Transdermal route is an established approach, which circumvents the side effects associated with conventional therapy. In this project, an attempt was made to investigate the use of rapidly dissolving microneedles loaded with ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) as a potential therapeutic approach for management of IDA. Microneedle array patches were made using the micromolding technique and tested in vitro using rat skin to check the duration required for dissolution/disappearance of needles. The ability of FPP-loaded microneedles to replenish iron was investigated in anemic rats. Rats were fed iron-deficient diet for 5 weeks to induce IDA following which microneedle treatment was initiated. Recovery of rats from anemic state was monitored by measuring hematological and biochemical parameters. Results from in vivo study displayed significant improvements in hemoglobin and serum iron levels after 2-week treatment with FPP-loaded microneedles. The study effectively demonstrated the potential of microneedle-mediated iron replenishment for treatment of IDA. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy

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    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Neres, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Barreiros, A.; Fleming, R.; Silva, J.N.; Filipe, P.; Silva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies. (author)

  16. Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: Dosing Considerations

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    Todd A. Koch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for iron therapy dosing in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA, we conducted a study examining the benefits of a higher cumulative dose of intravenous (IV iron than what is typically administered. Methods. We first individually analyzed 5 clinical studies, averaging the total iron deficit across all patients utilizing a modified Ganzoni formula; we then similarly analyzed 2 larger clinical studies. For the second of the larger studies (Study 7, we also compared the efficacy and retreatment requirements of a cumulative dose of 1500 mg ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to 1000 mg iron sucrose (IS. Results. The average iron deficit was calculated to be 1531 mg for patients in Studies 1–5 and 1392 mg for patients in Studies 6-7. The percentage of patients who were retreated with IV iron between Days 56 and 90 was significantly (p<0.001 lower (5.6% in the 1500 mg group, compared to the 1000 mg group (11.1%. Conclusions. Our data suggests that a total cumulative dose of 1000 mg of IV iron may be insufficient for iron repletion in a majority of patients with IDA and a dose of 1500 mg is closer to the actual iron deficit in these patients.

  17. Clinical consequences of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: the case for iron chelation therapy.

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    Shammo, Jamile M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2018-06-14

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS. Expert Commentary: While a benefit of ICT has been more firmly established in other transfusion-dependent conditions such as thalassemia, its role in reducing iron overload in MDS remains controversial due to the lack of prospective controlled data demonstrating a survival benefit. Orally administered chelation agents (e.g., deferasirox), are now available, and observational and/or retrospective data support a survival benefit of using ICT in MDS. The placebo-controlled TELESTO trial (NCT00940602) is currently examining the use of deferasirox in MDS patients with iron overload, and is evaluating specifically whether use of ICT to alleviate iron overload can also reduce iron overload-related complications in MDS and improve survival.

  18. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease and iron deficiency; the role of iron therapy.

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    Cases Amenós, Aleix; Ojeda López, Raquel; Portolés Pérez, José María

    Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF) and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement. In a posthoc analysis of a clinical trial, iron therapy improved kidney function in patients with HF and iron deficiency. In fact, the European Society of Cardiology's recent clinical guidelines on HF suggest that in symptomatic patients with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, treatment with IV ferric carboxymaltose should be considered to improve symptoms, the ability to exercise and quality of life. Iron plays a key role in oxygen storage (myoglobin) and in energy metabolism, and there are pathophysiological bases that explain the beneficial effect of IV iron therapy in patients with HF. All these aspects are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. IRON CHELATION THERAPY IN THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES

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    Paolo Cianciulli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusional hemosiderosis is a frequent complication in patients with transfusion dependent chronic diseases such as  thalassemias and severe type of sickle cell diseases. As there are no physiological mechanisms to excrete the iron contained in transfused red cells (1 unit of blood contains approximately 200 mg of iron the excess of iron is stored in various organs. Cardiomyopathy is the most severe complication covering more than 70% of the causes of death of thalassemic patients. Although the current reference standard iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO has been used clinically for over four decades, its effectiveness is limited by a demanding therapeutic regimen that leads to poor compliance. Despite poor compliance, because of the inconvenience of subcutaneous infusion, DFO improved considerably the survival and quality of life of patients with thalassemia. Deferiprone since 1998 and Deferasirox since 2005 were licensed for clinical use. The oral chelators have a better compliance because of oral use, a comparable efficacy to DFO in iron excretion and probably a better penetration to myocardial cells. Considerable increase in iron excretion was documented with combination therapy of DFO and Deferiprone. The proper use of the three chelators will improve the prevention and treatment of iron overload, it will reduce  complications, and improve survival and quality of life of transfused patients

  20. Iron Deficiency in Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition Therapy.

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    Hwa, Yi L; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Kelly, Darlene G; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-08-01

    Iron is not routinely added to parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations in the United States because of the risk of anaphylaxis and concerns about incompatibilities. Studies have shown that iron dextran in non-lipid-containing PN solutions is safe. Data are limited on iron status, prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and efficacy of intravenous iron infusion in long-term home PN (HPN). We aimed to determine the incidence of IDA and to examine the effectiveness of parenteral iron replacement in patients receiving HPN. Medical records of patients receiving HPN at the Mayo Clinic from 1977 to 2010 were reviewed. Diagnoses, time to IDA development, and hemoglobin, ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values were extracted. Response of iron indices to intravenous iron replacement was investigated. Of 185 patients (122 women), 60 (32.4%) were iron deficient. Five patients were iron deficient, and 18 had unknown iron status before HPN. Of 93 patients who had sufficient iron storage, 37 had IDA development after a mean of 27.2 months (range, 2-149 months) of therapy. Iron was replaced by adding maintenance iron dextran to PN or by therapeutic iron infusion. Patients with both replacement methods had significant improvement in iron status. With intravenous iron replacement, mean ferritin increased from 10.9 to 107.6 mcg/L (P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Iron therapy for improving psychomotor development and cognitive function in children under the age of three with iron deficiency anaemia.

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    Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Gong, Ting; Lee, Liming

    2013-06-06

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in young children. It has been suggested that the lack of iron may have deleterious effects on children's psychomotor development and cognitive function. To evaluate the benefits of iron therapy on psychomotor development and cognitive function in children with IDA, a Cochrane review was carried out in 2001. This is an update of that review. To determine the effects of iron therapy on psychomotor development and cognitive function in iron deficient anaemic children less than three years of age. We searched the following databases in April 2013: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We also searched the reference lists of review articles and reports, and ran citation searches in the Science Citation Index for relevant studies identified by the primary search. We also contacted key authors. Studies were included if children less than three years of age with evidence of IDA were randomly allocated to iron or iron plus vitamin C versus a placebo or vitamin C alone, and assessment of developmental status or cognitive function was carried out using standardised tests by observers blind to treatment allocation. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the searches and assessed full-text copies of all potentially relevant studies against the inclusion criteria. The same review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the eligible studies. Data were analysed separately depending on whether assessments were performed within one month of beginning iron therapy or after one month. We identified one eligible study in the update search that had not been included in the original review. In total, we included eight trials.Six trials, including 225 children with IDA, examined the effects of

  2. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

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    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  3. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease and iron deficiency: The role of iron therapy

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    Aleix Cases Amenós

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement. In a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial, iron therapy improved kidney function in patients with HF and iron deficiency. In fact, the European Society of Cardiology's recent clinical guidelines on HF suggest that in symptomatic patients with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, treatment with IV ferric carboxymaltose should be considered to improve symptoms, the ability to exercise and quality of life. Iron plays a key role in oxygen storage (myoglobin and in energy metabolism, and there are pathophysiological bases that explain the beneficial effect of IV iron therapy in patients with HF. All these aspects are reviewed in this article. Resumen: La enfermedad renal crónica y la anemia son frecuentes en la insuficiencia cardíaca (IC y su presencia se asocia con un peor pronóstico en estos pacientes. La ferropenia es frecuente en pacientes con IC y aumenta el riesgo de morbimortalidad, independientemente de la presencia o no de anemia. Mientras el tratamiento de la anemia con agentes estimuladores de la eritropoyesis en pacientes con IC no ha demostrado un beneficio sobre la morbimortalidad, el tratamiento con hierro intravenoso (iv en pacientes con IC y fracción de eyección disminuida y déficit de hierro se asocia con una mejoría clínica. Además, en un análisis post hoc de un ensayo clínico, la ferroterapia mejoró la función renal en pacientes con IC y

  4. Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Non-Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia.

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    Bou-Fakhredin, Rayan; Bazarbachi, Abdul-Hamid; Chaya, Bachar; Sleiman, Joseph; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Taher, Ali T

    2017-12-20

    Iron overload (IOL) due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin leads to an increase in iron absorption and subsequent release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, leading to depletion of macrophage iron, relatively low levels of serum ferritin, and liver iron loading. The consequences of IOL in patients with NTDT are multiple and multifactorial. Accurate and reliable methods of diagnosis and monitoring of body iron levels are essential, and the method of choice for measuring iron accumulation will depend on the patient's needs and on the available facilities. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) remains the backbone of NTDT management and is one of the most effective and practical ways of decreasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of IOL in NTDT, and the clinical complications that can develop as a result, in addition to the current and future therapeutic options available for the management of IOL in NTDT.

  5. Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Non-Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Bou-Fakhredin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload (IOL due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT, which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin leads to an increase in iron absorption and subsequent release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, leading to depletion of macrophage iron, relatively low levels of serum ferritin, and liver iron loading. The consequences of IOL in patients with NTDT are multiple and multifactorial. Accurate and reliable methods of diagnosis and monitoring of body iron levels are essential, and the method of choice for measuring iron accumulation will depend on the patient’s needs and on the available facilities. Iron chelation therapy (ICT remains the backbone of NTDT management and is one of the most effective and practical ways of decreasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of IOL in NTDT, and the clinical complications that can develop as a result, in addition to the current and future therapeutic options available for the management of IOL in NTDT.

  6. FY 1990 Study Meeting of Catalyst (Iron system). Data; 1990 nendo shokubai kento kai (Tetsu kei) shiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    The FY 1990 Study Meeting of Iron-system Catalyst was held at NEDO on March 12, 1991, and the data were arranged. In the study meeting, papers titled as follows were made public: About the behavior of H{sub 2}S on iron-system catalyst by Muroran Institute of Technology; Results of the test on iron-system catalyst in the BCL project by Research Institute, Mitsubishi Kasei Corp.; Results of the test on iron-system catalyst by 2.4 t/d PDU by NKK; Results of the test on iron-system catalyst by 0.1 t/d BSU by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.; Results of the test on iron-system catalyst by 1 t/d PSU by Nippon Steel Corp.; Results of the research at Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido, and the study; Results of the research at National Chemical Laboratory for Industry and the study; Results of the research at the University of Tokyo and the study; Details of the development of synthetic iron sulfide and the attainment up to now by Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Moreover, the plenary session was held on research items for the development of iron-system catalyst in future. (NEDO)

  7. Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Pathophysiology and Effect of Oral versus Intravenous Iron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common disorder in the world, affecting more than two billion people. The World Health Organization’s global database on anaemia has estimated a prevalence of 14% based on a regression-based analysis. Recent data show that the prevalence of IDA in pregnant women in industrialized countries is 17.4% while the incidence of IDA in developing countries increases significantly up to 56%. Although oral iron supplementation is widely used for the treatment of IDA, not all patients respond adequately to oral iron therapy. This is due to several factors including the side effects of oral iron which lead to poor compliance and lack of efficacy. The side effects, predominantly gastrointestinal discomfort, occur in a large cohort of patients taking oral iron preparations. Previously, the use of intravenous iron had been associated with undesirable and sometimes serious side effects and therefore was underutilised. However, in recent years, new type II and III iron complexes have been developed, which offer better compliance and toleration as well as high efficacy with a good safety profile. In summary, intravenous iron can be used safely for a rapid repletion of iron stores and correction of anaemia during and after pregnancy.

  8. INTRAVENOUS IRON-SUCROSE COMPLEX THERAPY IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA- A STUDY IN TERTIARY CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todak Taba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy continues to be a major public health problem with 54.96% of the pregnant population suffering from it in our setup. Despite the National Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme, anaemia complicating pregnancy continues to be a widespread problem with adverse effects on maternal and foetal outcome. The aim of the study is to find out an alternate iron therapy in the form of intravenous iron-sucrose and to determine its therapeutic effectiveness, safety and compliance in the management of anaemic expectant mother and to compare it with that of conventional oral iron therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Imphal. 100 pregnant women in second or third trimester with mild or moderate anaemia were selected, 50 as study group (intravenous iron and 50 as controls (oral iron. Initial evaluation included complete blood count and serum ferritin level and reevaluated on the 14th and 28th day of initiation of therapy. RESULTS Majority of patients (42% in the study as well as control group were between 26-30 years of age. The mean ± SD increase in haemoglobin and ferritin levels on 28th day were 2.66 ± 0.34 gm/dL and 27.65 ± 1.80 ng/mL in study group and 1.55 ± 0.23 gm/dL and 16.89 ± 0.76 ng/mL in control group respectively, both of which were statistically significant. CONCLUSION The mean haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels throughout the treatment were significantly higher in the intravenous ironsucrose group than in the orally administered iron group and significantly higher number of patients achieved the target haemoglobin of 11.0 gm/dL after 28 days of treatment. This reduces the blood transfusion rates in pregnant women with severe anaemia near term.

  9. Developmental Scores of Iron Deficient Infants and the Effects of Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice S.; Oski, Frank A.

    This study investigated the cognitive and behavioral functions associated with iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers and the short-term effects of therapy on such behaviors. Subjects were 24 iron deficient and anemic infants, 9 to 26 months old. The subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. The Bayley Scales of…

  10. Netherlands in the spotlight at the ENLIGHT meeting on particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Virginia Greco (CERN) and Manjit Dosanjh (ENLIGHT co-coordinator)

    2016-01-01

    The annual meeting of ENLIGHT, which focuses on particle therapy for cancer treatment, was held in the Netherlands.   Participants of the annual meeting of ENLIGHT, held in the Netherlands from 15-17 September 2016. The annual meeting of ENLIGHT (European Network for Light Hadron Therapy), which gathers experts working worldwide in centres and research institutions for particle therapy for cancer treatment, was hosted this year by the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) and the University of Utrecht, in the Netherlands, from 15-17 September. Chaired by the co-coordinator of ENLIGHT, Manjit Dosanjh, and the local organisers, Els Koffeman and Jan Visser from Nikhef, the meeting was attended by almost 100 participants from 15 countries. The Netherlands took centre stage at the ENLIGHT meeting: four brand new centres for proton therapy in the Netherlands are currently at various phases of completion as a consequence of the recent approval by the Dutch government of a plan for mak...

  11. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Independence Following the Initiation of Iron Chelation Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Badawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chelation therapy is often used to treat iron overload in patients requiring transfusion of red blood cells (RBC. A 76-year-old man with MDS type refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, intermediate-1 IPSS risk, was referred when he became transfusion dependent. He declined infusional chelation but subsequently accepted oral therapy. Following the initiation of chelation, RBC transfusion requirement ceased and he remained transfusion independent over 40 months later. Over the same time course, ferritin levels decreased but did not normalize. There have been eighteen other MDS patients reported showing improvement in hemoglobin level with iron chelation; nine became transfusion independent, nine had decreased transfusion requirements, and some showed improved trilineage myelopoiesis. The clinical features of these patients are summarized and possible mechanisms for such an effect of iron chelation on cytopenias are discussed.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount of iron. If you ... stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron levels, your doctor may ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  14. Role of vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy to different iron chelators in young β-thalassemia major patients: efficacy and safety in relation to tissue iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen S; Saber, Maha M; Adly, Amira Abdel Moneam; Ismail, Eman A; Tarif, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Fatma; Elalfy, Omar M

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin C, as antioxidant, increases the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO). To investigate the effects of vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy to the three used iron chelators in moderately iron-overloaded young vitamin C-deficient patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) in relation to tissue iron overload. This randomized prospective trial that included 180 β-TM vitamin C-deficient patients were equally divided into three groups (n = 60) and received DFO, deferiprone (DFP), and deferasirox (DFX). Patients in each group were further randomized either to receive vitamin C supplementation (100 mg daily) or not (n = 30). All patients received vitamin C (group A) or no vitamin C (group B) were followed up for 1 yr with assessment of transfusion index, hemoglobin, iron profile, liver iron concentration (LIC) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*. Baseline vitamin C was negatively correlated with transfusion index, serum ferritin (SF), and LIC. After vitamin C therapy, transfusion index, serum iron, SF, transferrin saturation (Tsat), and LIC were significantly decreased in group A patients, while hemoglobin and cardiac MRI T2* were elevated compared with baseline levels or those in group B without vitamin C. The same improvement was found among DFO-treated patients post-vitamin C compared with baseline data. DFO-treated patients had the highest hemoglobin with the lowest iron, SF, and Tsat compared with DFP or DFX subgroups. Vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy possibly potentiates the efficacy of DFO more than DFP and DFX in reducing iron burden in the moderately iron-overloaded vitamin C-deficient patients with β-TM, with no adverse events. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intravenous iron replacement therapy in eugonadal males with iron-deficiency anemia: Effects on pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters; A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate semen parameters and to assess serum FSH, LH, Testosterone (T concentrations before and 12 weeks after intravenous iron therapy (800-1200 mg elemental iron therapy - IVI in adults with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA. Materials and Methods: We studied 11 eugonadal adults with IDA, aged 40 ± 5 years, due to defective intake of iron. Anemia was diagnosed when hemoglobin (Hb was equal or below 10 g/dl. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC and ferritin concentrations confirmed the diagnosis of IDA. Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T were measured. Semen parameters were evaluated before and 6-7 weeks after IVI therapy. Results: After IVI therapy and correction of anemia, a significant increase of Hb from 8.1 ± 1.17 g/dL to 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL was observed and was associated with an increase of T (from 12.22 ± 1.4 nmol/L to 15.9 ± 0.96 nmol/L; P < 0.001, FSH (from 2.82 ± 0.87 to 3.82 ± 1.08 IU/L; P = 0.007, and LH (from 2.27 ± 0.9 to 3.82 ± 1.5 IU/L; P = 0.0002. Total sperm count (TSC increased significantly from 72 ± 17.5 million/ml to 158 ± 49 million/mL (P < 0.001, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM increased from 22 ± 9.4 to 69 ± 30 million/ml (P < 0.001, and sperms with normal morphology (NM increased from 33 ± 5 to 56 ± 7 million/ml (P < 0.001. Increment in Hb concentration was correlated significantly with LH, FSH, and T concentrations after IVI (r = 0.69 and r = 0.44, r = 0.75, respectively; P < 0.01. The increment in serum T was correlated significantly with increments in the TSC and total sperm motility and RPM (r = 0.66, 0.43, and 0.55, respectively; P < 0.001 but not with gonadotrophin levels. Conclusion: Our study proved for the first time, to our knowledge, that correction of IDA with IVI is associated with significant enhancement of sperm parameters and increased concentrations of serum LH, FSH, and T. These effects on spermatogenesis are reached by an unknown mechanism and

  16. When Density Functional Approximations Meet Iron Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Liu, Xing-Wu; Huo, Chun-Fang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Cao, Dong-Bo; Peng, Qing; Dearden, Albert; Gonze, Xavier; Yang, Yong; Wang, Jianguo; Jiao, Haijun; Li, Yongwang; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-10-11

    Three density functional approximations (DFAs), PBE, PBE+U, and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional (HSE), were employed to investigate the geometric, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of four iron oxides, namely, α-FeOOH, α-Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , and FeO. Comparing our calculated results with available experimental data, we found that HSE (a = 0.15) (containing 15% "screened" Hartree-Fock exchange) can provide reliable values of lattice constants, Fe magnetic moments, band gaps, and formation energies of all four iron oxides, while standard HSE (a = 0.25) seriously overestimates the band gaps and formation energies. For PBE+U, a suitable U value can give quite good results for the electronic properties of each iron oxide, but it is challenging to accurately get other properties of the four iron oxides using the same U value. Subsequently, we calculated the Gibbs free energies of transformation reactions among iron oxides using the HSE (a = 0.15) functional and plotted the equilibrium phase diagrams of the iron oxide system under various conditions, which provide reliable theoretical insight into the phase transformations of iron oxides.

  17. Hepcidin Response to Iron Therapy in Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent CKD: An Analysis of the FIND-CKD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B; Bansal, Sukhvinder S; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Roger, Simon D; Macdougall, Iain C

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis but data are limited regarding its temporal response to iron therapy, and response to intravenous versus oral iron. In the 56-week, open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized FIND-CKD study, 626 anemic patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) and iron deficiency not receiving an erythropoiesis stimulating agent were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600μg/L) or lower (100-200μg/L) ferritin, or to oral iron. Serum hepcidin levels were measured centrally in a subset of 61 patients. Mean (SD) baseline hepcidin level was 4.0(3.5), 7.3(6.4) and 6.5(5.6) ng/mL in the high ferritin FCM (n = 17), low ferritin FCM (n = 16) and oral iron group (n = 28). The mean (SD) endpoint value (i.e. the last post-baseline value) was 26.0(9.1),15.7(7.7) and 16.3(11.0) ng/mL, respectively. The increase in hepcidin from baseline was significantly smaller with low ferritin FCM or oral iron vs high ferritin FCM at all time points up to week 52. Significant correlations were found between absolute hepcidin and ferritin values (r = 0.65, p<0.001) and between final post-baseline increases in both parameters (r = 0.70, p<0.001). The increase in hepcidin levels over the 12-month study generally mirrored the cumulative iron dose in each group. Hepcidin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) absolute values showed no correlation, although there was an association between final post-baseline increases (r = 0.42, p<0.001). Absolute values (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and final post-baseline increases of hepcidin and hemoglobin (p = 0.30, p = 0.030) correlated weakly. Baseline hepcidin levels were not predictive of a hematopoietic response to iron therapy. In conclusion, hepcidin levels rose in response to either intravenous or oral iron therapy, but the speed and extent of the rise was greatest with intravenous iron targeting a higher ferritin level. However neither the

  18. Dose reporting in ion beam therapy. Proceedings of a meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Following the pioneering work in Berkeley, USA, ion beam therapy for cancer treatment is at present offered in Chiba and Hyogo in Japan, and Darmstadt in Germany. Other facilities are coming close to completion or are at various stages of planning in Europe and Japan. In all these facilities, carbon ions have been selected as the ions of choice, at least in the first phase. Taking into account this fast development, the complicated technical and radiobiological research issues involved, and the hope it raises for some types of cancer patients, the IAEA and the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU) jointly sponsored a technical meeting held in Vienna, 23-24 June 2004. That first meeting was orientated mainly towards radiobiology: the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions versus photons, and related issues. One of the main differences between ion beam therapy and other modern radiotherapy techniques (such as proton beam therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy) is related to radiobiology and in particular the increased RBE of carbon ions compared to both protons and photons (i.e., high linear energy transfer (LET) versus low LET radiation). Another important issue for international agencies and commissions, such as the IAEA and the ICRU, is a worldwide agreement and harmonisation for reporting the treatments. In order to evaluate the merits of ion beam therapy, it is essential that the treatments be reported in a similar/comparable way in all centres so that the clinical reports and protocols can be understood and interpreted without ambiguity by the radiation therapy community in general. For the last few decades, the ICRU has published several reports containing recommendations on how to report external photon beam or electron beam therapy, and brachytherapy. A report on proton beam therapy, jointly prepared by the ICRU and the IAEA, is now completed and is being published in the ICRU series. In line with this

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  20. A Case of Plummer-Vinson Syndrome Showing Rapid Improvement of Dysphagia and Esophageal Web after Two Weeks of Iron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS is a rare entity characterized by upper esophageal webs and iron deficiency anemia. We report a case of PVS whose esophageal web was rapidly improved by iron therapy. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dysphagia, vomiting, shortness of breath and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed conjunctival pallor, koilonychia, angular cheilitis and smooth tongue, and laboratory findings were consistent with microcytic hypochromic anemia with iron deficiency. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and barium-swallow esophagography detected a web that prevented passage of the endoscope into the upper portion of the esophagus. The patient received oral iron therapy daily; the hemoglobin concentration rose to 8.9 g/dl and the complaints of dysphagia were dramatically improved after 2 weeks, with improvement of luminal stenosis confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy and barium-swallow esophagography. The PVS described in this report had a distinct clinical course, showing very rapid improvement of dysphagia and esophageal web after 2 weeks of oral iron therapy.

  1. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  2. A Patient with Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration: Treatment with Iron Chelation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Yang Lim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. The patient harbored a novel mutation in the WDR45 gene. A detailed video and description of her clinical condition are provided. Her movement disorder phenomenology was characterized primarily by limb stereotypies and gait dyspraxia. The patient’s disability was advanced by the time iron-chelating therapy with deferiprone was initiated, and no clinical response in terms of cognitive function, behavior, speech, or movements were observed after one year of treatment.

  3. Targeting, Monitoring and Effect of Oral Iron Therapy on Haemoglobin Levels in Older Patients Discharged to Primary Care from Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Cohort Study Using Routinely Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Zach; Hands, Katherine J; Witham, Miles D

    2016-08-01

    Oral iron is commonly prescribed to older patients with suspected or confirmed iron-deficiency anaemia; however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of oral iron therapy in the real world in this population. We therefore determined the prevalence of iron deficiency in older people prescribed oral iron, examined the response mounted to therapy and ascertained predictors of response to oral iron. We analysed a routinely collected, linked dataset from older patients who had undergone inpatient rehabilitation between 1999 and 2011. An initial analysis examined patients within this cohort who were prescribed iron after rehabilitation and derived three groups based upon their ferritin and transferrin indices: probably, possibly and not iron deficient. A second analysis compared pre- and post-treatment haemoglobin to determine the degree of response to iron therapy across each category of deficiency. Finally, patient demographics, linked biochemistry data and comorbid disease based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) codes from previous hospital admissions were used in regression modelling to evaluate factors affecting response to therapy. A total of 490 patients were prescribed oral iron within 90 days of rehabilitation discharge. Of these, 413 (84 %) had iron indices performed; 94 (23 %) were possibly deficient, 224 (54 %) were probably deficient, and 95 (23 %) were not deficient. Of the 490 patients, 360 had both pre- and post-treatment haemoglobin data and iron indices; probably deficient patients mounted a slightly greater response to oral iron (17 vs. 12 g/L for not deficient; p < 0.05). Only pre-treatment haemoglobin, mean cell volume and lower gastrointestinal pathology were significant predictors of a response to oral iron therapy. Notably, acid-suppressant use was not a predictor of response. We conclude that many older patients are exposed to oral iron without good evidence of either iron deficiency or a significant response to

  4. An instrument assessing satisfaction with iron chelation therapy: Psychometric testing from an open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofail, Diana; Viala, Muriel; Gater, Adam; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2010-08-01

    The Satisfaction with Iron Chelation Therapy (SICT) instrument was developed based on a literature review, in-depth patient and clinician interviews, and cognitive debriefing interviews. An, open-label, single arm, multicenter trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in patients diagnosed with transfusion-dependent iron overload, provided an opportunity to assess the psychometric measurement properties of the instrument. Psychometric analyses were performed using data at baseline from 273 patients with a range of transfusion-dependent iron overload conditions who were participating in a multinational study. Responsiveness was further evaluated for all patients who also had subsequent satisfaction domain scores collected at week 4. Baseline SICT domain scores had acceptable floor and ceiling effects and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.75-0.85). Item discriminant and item convergent validity were both excellent although one item in each analysis did not meet the specified criterion. Small to moderate correlations were observed between SICT and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) domain scores. Patients with the highest levels of serum ferritin at baseline (>3100 ng/mL) were the least satisfied about the Perceived Effectiveness of ICT and vice versa. Satisfaction improved in all patients, although there were no clear differences observed between groups of patients defined according to changes in serum ferritin levels from baseline to week 4 (stable, improved, or worsened). The SICT domains are reliable and valid. Further testing using a more specific criterion (such as assessing patient global ratings of change in satisfaction domains that correspond to the SICT domains) could help to establish with greater confidence the responsiveness of the instrument.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  9. Iron Supplementation, Response in Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Analysis of Five Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okam, Maureen M; Koch, Todd A; Tran, Minh-Ha

    2017-08-01

    Oral iron-replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for iron-deficiency anemia, but it is often poorly tolerated or ineffective. Hemoglobin response at day 14 of oral iron may be useful in assessing whether and when to transition patients from oral to intravenous (IV) iron. Pooled data from 5 randomized trials were analyzed to compare oral and IV iron-replacement therapy for iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment criteria and assignment to oral versus IV iron were defined per protocol; this analysis included only subjects receiving oral iron. Responders were subjects with ≥1.0-g/dL increases in hemoglobin at day 14, and nonresponders were those with smaller increases. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated for association with hemoglobin response at multiple timepoints. Most subjects (72.8%) were classified as responders. The proportion of subjects with hemoglobin increases ≥1.0, ≥2.0, and ≥3.0 g/dL was greatest among those with postpartum anemia, intermediate among those with heavy uterine bleeding or gastrointestinal-related causes of anemia, and lowest among those with other causes; this proportion was also significantly greater among responders than nonresponders. A ≥1.0-g/dL increase in hemoglobin on day 14 most accurately predicted satisfactory overall hemoglobin response to oral iron on day 42/56 (sensitivity 90.1%; specificity 79.3%; positive and negative predictive values of 92.9% and 72.7%, respectively). Iron-replacement therapy improved quality of life and reduced fatigue. Hemoglobin responses <1.0 g/dL at day 14 of oral iron identify subjects with iron-deficiency anemia who should be transitioned to IV iron supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of an iron oxide-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for potential bone cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, Murugesan; Sundaram, Nachiappan Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multifunctional magnetic nanostructures have been found to have potential applications in biomedical and tissue engineering. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible and have distinctive magnetic properties that allow their use in vivo for drug delivery and hyperthermia, and as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Hydroxyapatite is used frequently due to its well-known biocompatibility, bioactivity, and lack of toxicity, so a combination of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite materials could be useful because hydroxyapatite has better bone-bonding ability. In this study, we prepared nanocomposites of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite and analyzed their physicochemical properties. The results suggest that these composites have superparamagnetic as well as biocompatible properties. This type of material architecture would be well suited for bone cancer therapy and other biomedical applications.

  11. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  12. 78 FR 44133 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... documents issued from the Office of Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and...

  13. 76 FR 22405 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... June 29, 2011, the committee will discuss cellular and gene therapy products for the treatment of...

  14. 78 FR 79699 - Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... updates on guidance documents issued from the Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies, Center for...

  15. The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) Meeting: observations and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigin, Colleen M; Rodgers, Mary M; Wolf, Steven L

    2010-11-01

    The construct of delivering high-quality and cost-effective health care is in flux, and the profession must strategically plan how to meet the needs of society. In 2006, the House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association passed a motion to convene a summit on "how physical therapists can meet current, evolving, and future societal health care needs." The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting on February 27-28, 2009, in Leesburg, Virginia, sent a clear message that for physical therapists to be effective and thrive in the health care environment of the future, a paradigm shift is required. During the PASS meeting, participants reframed our traditional focus on the physical therapist and the patient/client (consumer) to one in which physical therapists are an integral part of a collaborative, multidisciplinary health care team with the health care consumer as its focus. The PASS Steering Committee recognized that some of the opportunities that surfaced during the PASS meeting may be disruptive or may not be within the profession's present strategic or tactical plans. Thus, adopting a framework that helps to establish the need for change that is provocative and potentially disruptive to our present care delivery, yet prioritizes opportunities, is a critical and essential step. Each of us in the physical therapy profession must take on post-PASS roles and responsibilities to accomplish the systemic change that is so intimately intertwined with our destiny. This article offers a perspective of the dynamic dialogue and suggestions that emerged from the PASS event, providing further opportunities for discussion and action within our profession.

  16. Macrophage membrane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal tumor therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qian-Fang; Rao, Lang; Zan, Minghui; Chen, Ming; Yu, Guang-Tao; Wei, Xiaoyun; Wu, Zhuhao; Sun, Yue; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Fu-Bing; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nanotechnology possesses the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. The ideal nanoparticles used for in vivo cancer therapy should have long blood circulation times and active cancer targeting. Additionally, they should be harmless and invisible to the immune system. Here, we developed a biomimetic nanoplatform with the above properties for cancer therapy. Macrophage membranes were reconstructed into vesicles and then coated onto magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs). Inherited from the Fe3O4 core and the macrophage membrane shell, the resulting Fe3O4@MM NPs exhibited good biocompatibility, immune evasion, cancer targeting and light-to-heat conversion capabilities. Due to the favorable in vitro and in vivo properties, biomimetic Fe3O4@MM NPs were further used for highly effective photothermal therapy of breast cancer in nude mice. Surface modification of synthetic nanomaterials with biomimetic cell membranes exemplifies a novel strategy for designing an ideal nanoplatform for translational medicine.

  17. Instant Noodles and Iron Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Sookpeng Witoo

    2003-06-01

    Instant noodles represent the biggest category of instant foods in the supermarket. This study was undertaken to determine dietary availability for iron from their varieties without and with an addition of pork and/or vitamin C rich-vegetables by in vitro radiometric ( 59 Fe) method. The results showed that 8 to 13 percent of iron in the noodles was available for absorption of which contributed to 0.79 mg absorbed iron per day. This amount was too low to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. With added pork or vegetables, iron availability increased by 2 to 3 times, and by 4 times with added pork and collard or cabbage (p<0.001). The amounts as high as 1.5 to 3.4 mg absorbed iron per day can meet the FAO/WHO requirements for most of the high-risk groups

  18. Instant Noodles and Iron Nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Witoo, Sookpeng [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital (Thailand)

    2003-06-01

    Instant noodles represent the biggest category of instant foods in the supermarket. This study was undertaken to determine dietary availability for iron from their varieties without and with an addition of pork and/or vitamin C rich-vegetables by in vitro radiometric ({sup 59}Fe) method. The results showed that 8 to 13 percent of iron in the noodles was available for absorption of which contributed to 0.79 mg absorbed iron per day. This amount was too low to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. With added pork or vegetables, iron availability increased by 2 to 3 times, and by 4 times with added pork and collard or cabbage (p<0.001). The amounts as high as 1.5 to 3.4 mg absorbed iron per day can meet the FAO/WHO requirements for most of the high-risk groups.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, C; Honegger, C; Hösli, I; Surbek, D

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency occurs frequently in pregnancy and can be diagnosed by serum ferritin-level measurement (threshold value iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in every pregnant women, and should be done by serum ferritin-level screening in the first trimester and regular hemoglobin checks at least once per trimester. In the case of iron deficiency with or without anaemia in pregnancy, oral iron therapy should be given as first-line treatment. In the case of severe iron-deficiency anemia, intolerance of oral iron, lack of response to oral iron, or in the case of a clinical need for rapid and efficient treatment of anaemia (e.g., advanced pregnancy), intravenous iron therapy should be administered. In the postpartum period, oral iron therapy should be administered for mild iron-deficiency anemia (haemorrhagic anemia), and intravenous iron therapy for moderately severe-to-severe anemia (Hb iron therapy in pregnancy or postpartum, iron-containing drugs which have been studied in well-controlled clinical trials in pregnancy and postpartum such as ferric carboxymaltose must be preferred for safety reasons. While anaphylactic reactions are extremely are with non-dextrane products, close surveillance during administration is recommended for all intravenous iron products.

  1. Compacted graphite iron: Cast iron makes a comeback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.

    1994-08-01

    Although compacted graphite iron has been known for more than four decades, the absence of a reliable mass-production technique has resulted in relatively little effort to exploit its operational benefits. However, a proven on-line process control technology developed by SinterCast allows for series production of complex components in high-quality CGI. The improved mechanical properties of compacted graphite iron relative to conventional gray iron allow for substantial weight reduction in gasoline and diesel engines or substantial increases in horsepower, or an optimal combination of both. Concurrent with these primary benefits, CGI also provides significant emissions and fuel efficiency benefits allowing automakers to meet legislated performance standards. The operational and environmental benefits of compacted graphite iron together with its low cost and recyclability reinforce cast iron as a prime engineering material for the future.

  2. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  3. Deep-penetration calculations in concrete and iron for shielding of proton therapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Yen-Fu; Lin, Uei-Tyng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Proton accelerators in the energy range of approximately 200 MeV have become increasingly popular for cancer treatment in recent years. These proton therapy facilities usually involve bulky concrete or iron in their shielding design or accelerator structure. Simple shielding data, such as source terms or attenuation lengths for various proton energies and materials are useful in designing accelerator shielding. Understanding the appropriateness or uncertainties associated with these data, which are largely generated from Monte Carlo simulations, is critical to the quality of a shielding design. This study demonstrated and investigated the problems of deep-penetration calculations on the estimation of shielding parameters through an extensive comparison between the FLUKA and MCNPX calculations for shielding against a 200-MeV proton beam hitting an iron target. Simulations of double-differential neutron production from proton bombardment were validated by comparison with experimental data. For the concrete shielding, the FLUKA calculated depth–dose distributions were consistent with the MCNPX results, except for some discrepancies in backward directions. However, for the iron shielding, if FLUKA is used inappropriately then overestimation of neutron attenuation can be expected as shown by this work because of the multigroup treatment for low-energy neutrons in FLUKA. Two neutron energy group structures, three degrees of self-shielding correction, and two iron compositions were considered in this study. Significant variation of the resulting attenuation lengths indicated the importance of problem-dependent multigroup cross sections and proper modeling of iron composition in deep-penetration calculations.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  5. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starzynski, R.R.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Pieszka, M.; Stys, A.; Mickiewicz, M.; Lipinski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning),

  6. 75 FR 66381 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  7. 76 FR 49774 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  8. 76 FR 64951 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. 78 FR 15726 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  11. The iron chelator deferasirox protects mice from mucormycosis through iron starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebermariam, Teclegiorgis; Fu, Yue; Lin,, Lin; Husseiny, Mohamed I.; French, Samuel W.; Schwartz, Julie; Skory, Christopher D.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad J.

    2007-01-01

    Mucormycosis causes mortality in at least 50% of cases despite current first-line therapies. Clinical and animal data indicate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Here we demonstrate that deferasirox, an iron chelator recently approved for use in humans by the US FDA, is a highly effective treatment for mucormycosis. Deferasirox effectively chelated iron from Rhizopus oryzae and demonstrated cidal activity in vitro against 28 of 29 clinical isolates of Mucorales at concentrations well below clinically achievable serum levels. When administered to diabetic ketoacidotic or neutropenic mice with mucormycosis, deferasirox significantly improved survival and decreased tissue fungal burden, with an efficacy similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B. Deferasirox treatment also enhanced the host inflammatory response to mucormycosis. Most importantly, deferasirox synergistically improved survival and reduced tissue fungal burden when combined with liposomal amphotericin B. These data support clinical investigation of adjunctive deferasirox therapy to improve the poor outcomes of mucormycosis with current therapy. As iron availability is integral to the pathogenesis of other infections (e.g., tuberculosis, malaria), broader investigation of deferasirox as an antiinfective treatment is warranted. PMID:17786247

  12. NMR guided focused ultrasound for myoma therapy - results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin; David, M.; Kroencke, T.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin

    2013-01-01

    The contribution on the results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting concerning NMR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for myoma therapy covers the following topics: structural prerequisites for MRgFUS therapy; required examinations before MRgFUS therapy; indication for MRgFUS therapy; success criteria for the MRgFUS therapy; contraindications; MRgFUS therapy for patients that want to have children; side effects and complications of MRgFUS therapy; post-examination after MRgFUS therapy.

  13. New developments in breast cancer therapy: role of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoidingjam, Shivani; Bhan Tiku, Ashu

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. The high metastatic rate and drug resistance makes it one of the difficult cancers to treat. Early diagnosis and treatment are keys to better survival of breast cancer patients. Conventional treatment approaches like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery suffer from major drawbacks. Novel approaches to improve cancer therapy with minimal damage to normal tissues and better quality of life for cancer patients need to be developed. Among various approaches used for treatment and diagnosis of breast cancer, use of nanoparticles (NPs) is coming up as a new and promising treatment regime. It can help overcome various limitations of conventional therapies like non-targeted effects, resistance to treatment, late diagnosis, etc. Among various nanoparticles studied for their biomedical applications, especially for breast cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are perhaps the most exciting due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, size and properties like superparamagnetism. Besides, IONPs are also the only metal oxide nanoparticles approved for clinical use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is an added advantage for early detection. Therefore in this mini review, we are discussing the developments made in the use of IONPs for breast cancer therapy over the short span of the last five years i.e. 2010-2015. Since late diagnosis and therapy resistance are important drawbacks in breast cancer therapy, the potential of IONPs to overcome these limitations are also evaluated.

  14. The Effect Of Local Coal And Smelting Sponge Iron On Iron Content Of Pig Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oediyani, Soesaptri; Juwita Sari, Pramita; Hadi P, Djoko

    2018-03-01

    The new regulation on mineral resources was announced by Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (ESDM) of Indonesia at 2014 which it called Permen ESDM No 1/2014. Therefore, this research was conducted to add the value of local iron ores by using smelting technology. The objective of the research is to produce pig iron that meet the requirement of the new regulation of mineral resources such as 90% Fe. First, iron ores and coal mixed together with lime as a flux, then smelted in a Electric Arc Furnace at 1800°C. The process variables are (1; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2.0) and the composition of coal (0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%). The type of coal that used in this research was bituminous coal from Kalimantan and also the iron ores from Kalimantan. The products of the smelting technology are Pig iron and slag. Both pig iron and slag then analyzed by SEM-EDS to measure the iron content. The result shows that the maximum iron content on pig iron is about 95.04% meanwhile the minimum iron content on slag is about 3.66%. This result achieved at 1.6% coal and 2.0.

  15. The FIND-CKD study--a randomized controlled trial of intravenous iron versus oral iron in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: background and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Cushway, Timothy; Roger, Simon D

    2014-04-01

    Rigorous data are sparse concerning the optimal route of administration and dosing strategy for iron therapy with or without concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy for the management of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomized three-arm study (NCT00994318) of 626 patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency anaemia randomized to (i) intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) at an initial dose of 1000 mg iron with subsequent dosing as necessary to target a serum ferritin level of 400-600 µg/L (ii) IV FCM at an initial dose of 200 mg with subsequent dosing as necessary to target serum ferritin 100-200 µg/L or (iii) oral ferrous sulphate 200 mg iron/day. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA therapy, iron therapy other than study drug or blood transfusion) or a haemoglobin (Hb) trigger (two consecutive Hb values FIND-CKD was the longest randomized trial of IV iron therapy to date. Its findings will address several unanswered questions regarding iron therapy to treat iron deficiency anaemia in patients with ND-CKD. It was also the first randomized trial to utilize both a high and low serum ferritin target range to adjust IV iron dosing, and the first not to employ Hb response as its primary end point.

  16. Consequences and costs of noncompliance with iron chelation therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delea, Thomas E; Edelsberg, John; Sofrygin, Oleg; Thomas, Simu K; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Phatak, Pradyumna D; Coates, Thomas D

    2007-10-01

    Patients with thalassemia major require iron chelation therapy (ICT) to prevent complications from transfusional iron overload. Deferoxamine is effective, but requires administration as a slow continuous subcutaneous or intravenous infusion five to seven times per week. Deferiprone is a three-times-daily oral iron chelator, but has limited availability in the United States. Deferasirox is a once-daily oral iron chelator that was approved in the United States in 2005 for patients older than 2 years of age with transfusional iron overload. Published evidence on rates of compliance with ICT and the association between compliance, and the incidence and costs of complications of iron overload, in patients with thalassemia major was reviewed. A total of 18 studies were identified reporting data on compliance with ICT, including 7 that examined deferoxamine only, 6 that examined deferiprone only, and 5 that compared deferoxamine and deferiprone; no studies reporting compliance with deferasirox were identified. In studies of deferoxamine only, estimated mean compliance ranged from 59 to 78 percent. Studies of deferiprone generally reported better compliance, ranging from 79 to 98 percent. Results of comparative studies of deferoxamine and deferiprone suggest that compliance may be better with oral therapy. Numerous studies demonstrate that that poor compliance with ICT results in increased risk of cardiac disease and endocrinopathies, as well as lower survival. Although data on the costs of noncompliance are limited, a recent model-based study estimated the lifetime costs of inadequate compliance with deferoxamine to be $33,142. Inadequate compliance with ICT in thalassemia major is common and results in substantial morbidity and mortality, as well as increased costs.

  17. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  19. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia should be administered with a target to restore/replenish the iron stores and the hemoglobin level in a suitable way. However, in patients with IBD flares and inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice. Neither oral nor intravenous therapy seems to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD, and intravenous iron therapy can be administered even in active disease stages and concomitantly with biologics. In conclusion, because many physicians are in doubt as to how to manage anemia and iron deficiency in IBD, there is a clear need for the implementation of evidence-based recommendations on this matter. Based on the data presented, oral iron therapy should be preferred for patients with quiescent disease stages and trivial iron deficiency anemia unless such patients are intolerant or have an inadequate response, whereas intravenous iron supplementation may be of advantage in patients with aggravated anemia or flares of IBD because inflammation hampers intestinal absorption of iron. PMID:26061331

  20. Severe iron intoxication treated with exchange transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, M; Cortes, D; Jepsen, S

    2009-01-01

    An 18-month-old previous healthy girl who had ingested 442 mg elemental iron/kg was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. The child was treated with gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation and intravenous deferoxamine. After 2 h of standard therapy serum iron had risen threefold to 1362 µg....../dl (244 µmol/l). The child was treated with exchange transfusion (ET; 52 ml/kg) and serum iron fell to 134 µg/dl (24 µmol/l). The patient made an uncomplicated recovery. ET should be considered in severe iron poisoning when standard therapy is inadequate....

  1. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  3. Iron chelation therapy: clinical effectiveness, economic burden and quality of life in patients with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Krista A; Rofail, Diana; Baladi, Jean-François; Viala, Muriel; Abetz, Linda; Desrosiers, Marie-Pierre; Lordan, Noreen; Ishak, Khajak; Proskorovsky, Irina

    2008-08-01

    This study of UK patients examines clinical, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and economic outcomes associated with iron chelation therapy (ICT). Desferrioxamine (DFO) (Desferal; Novartis, Switzerland) and Deferiprone (Ferriprox; Apotex, Canada) are ICTs used to treat iron overload. DFO requires 8-to 12-hour infusions a minimum of five times per week. Deferiprone is administered in an oral daily regimen. Although pharmacologically efficacious, clinical effectiveness of ICT within the real-world setting is yet to be fully elucidated. A naturalistic cohort study of 60 patients (beta-thalassaemia, n=40; sickle cell disease, n=14; myelodysplastic syndromes, n=6; 63% female) receiving ICT in four UK treatment centres was conducted. Serum ferritin level data were abstracted from medical charts. Compliance, HRQOL, satisfaction and resource utilisation data were collected from interviews. Maximum ICT costs were estimated using the resource utilisation data associated with DFO. Mean serum ferritin levels, generally, remained elevated despite ICT. Compliance was suboptimal and HRQOL scores were lower than population norms. The total estimated mean weighted annual per-patient cost of DFO treatment was approximately pound19,000. DFO-related equipment, DFO drug, and home healthcare were estimated to account for 43%, 19% and 24% of costs, respectively. Other more minor components of total annual costs were for in-patient infusions, ICT home delivery services and monitoring costs. Generally, patients are not achieving target serum ferritin thresholds despite chronic treatment for iron overload. ICT appears to negatively impact HRQOL; compliance with ICT is poor; and, in the case of DFO, treatment costs well exceed the cost of DFO alone. These results suggest that current ICT in the real-world setting is suboptimal with respect to various clinical, HRQOL and economic outcomes.

  4. Focal Therapy: Patients, Interventions, and Outcomes—A Report from a Consensus Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ian A.; Alonzi, Roberto; Barratt, Dean; Barret, Eric; Berge, Viktor; Bott, Simon; Bottomley, David; Eggener, Scott; Ehdaie, Behfar; Emberton, Mark; Hindley, Richard; Leslie, Tom; Miners, Alec; McCartan, Neil; Moore, Caroline M.; Pinto, Peter; Polascik, Thomas J.; Simmons, Lucy; van der Meulen, Jan; Villers, Arnauld; Willis, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal therapy as a treatment option for localized prostate cancer (PCa) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving field. Objective To gather expert opinion on patient selection, interventions, and meaningful outcome measures for focal therapy in clinical practice and trial design. Design, setting, and participants Fifteen experts in focal therapy followed a modified two-stage RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Methodology process. All participants independently scored 246 statements prior to rescoring at a face-to-face meeting. The meeting occurred in June 2013 at the Royal Society of Medicine, London, supported by the Wellcome Trust and the UK Department of Health. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Agreement, disagreement, or uncertainty were calculated as the median panel score. Consensus was derived from the interpercentile range adjusted for symmetry level. Results and limitations Of 246 statements, 154 (63%) reached consensus. Items of agreement included the following: patients with intermediate risk and patients with unifocal and multifocal PCa are eligible for focal treatment; magnetic resonance imaging–targeted or template-mapping biopsy should be used to plan treatment; planned treatment margins should be 5 mm from the known tumor; prostate volume or age should not be a primary determinant of eligibility; foci of indolent cancer can be left untreated when treating the dominant index lesion; histologic outcomes should be defined by targeted biopsy at 1 yr; residual disease in the treated area of ≤3 mm of Gleason 3 + 3 did not need further treatment; and focal retreatment rates of ≤20% should be considered clinically acceptable but subsequent whole-gland therapy deemed a failure of focal therapy. All statements are expert opinion and therefore constitute level 5 evidence and may not reflect wider clinical consensus. Conclusions The landscape of PCa treatment is rapidly evolving with new

  5. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  6. Occupational Therapy: Meeting the Needs of Families of People With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Watling, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy has much to offer to families of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, people outside the profession may be unaware of occupational therapy's breadth and scope. It is our responsibility and our duty to express the full range of occupational therapy services through research, clinical practice, advocacy, and consumer education. This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, with its focus on autism, embarks on this endeavor by highlighting research and theoretical articles that address the various aspects of occupational therapy practice that can help to fully meet the needs of people with ASD and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Oral versus intravenous iron therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency with and without anemia in Germany – a real-world evidence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein J

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Stein,1,2 Jennifer Scarlet Haas,3 Siew Hwa Ong,4 Kathrin Borchert,3 Thomas Hardt,5 Elmira Lechat,4 Kerry Nip,5 Douglas Foerster,4 Sebastian Braun,3 Daniel C Baumgart6 1Interdisciplinary Crohn Colitis Center Rhein-Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, DGD Clinics Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of the J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany; 3Xcenda GmbH, Hannover, Germany; 4Vifor Pharma Ltd., Glattbrugg, Switzerland; 5Vifor Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany; 6Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency are common comorbidities associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD resulting in impaired quality of life and high health care costs. Intravenous iron has shown clinical benefit compared to oral iron therapy. Aim: This study aimed to compare health care outcomes and costs after oral vs intravenous iron treatment for IBD patients with iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (ID/A in Germany. Methods: IBD patients with ID/A were identified by ICD-10-GM codes and newly commenced iron treatment via ATC codes in 2013 within the InGef (formerly Health Risk Institute research claims database. Propensity score matching was performed to balance both treatment groups. Non-observable covariates were adjusted by applying the difference-in-differences (DID approach. Results: In 2013, 589 IBD patients with ID/A began oral and 442 intravenous iron treatment. After matching, 380 patients in each treatment group were analyzed. The intravenous group had fewer all-cause hospitalizations (37% vs 48% and ID/A-related hospitalizations (5% vs 14% than the oral iron group. The 1-year preobservation period comparison revealed significant health care cost differences between both groups. After adjusting for cost differences by DID method, total health care cost savings in the intravenous iron group were

  8. Severe iron intoxication treated with exchange transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Marcella; Cortes, Dina; Jepsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An 18-month-old previous healthy girl who had ingested 442 mg elemental iron/kg was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. The child was treated with gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation and intravenous deferoxamine. After 2 h of standard therapy serum iron had risen threefold to 1362 mi...... microg/dl (244 micromol/l). The child was treated with exchange transfusion (ET; 52 ml/kg) and serum iron fell to 134 microg/dl (24 micromol/l). The patient made an uncomplicated recovery. ET should be considered in severe iron poisoning when standard therapy is inadequate....

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  10. Rational Management of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikner, Malene Elbaek; Weiss, Günter

    2018-01-01

    Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of anaemia, (4) a balanced overview of the different modes of iron replacement therapy, (5) evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and subsequently, (6) an updated recommendation for the practical management of anaemia in IBD. Following the introduction of various intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, questions persist about when to use these preparations as opposed to traditional and other novel oral iron therapeutic agents. At present, oral iron therapy is generally preferred for patients with quiescent IBD and mild iron-deficiency anaemia. However, in patients with flaring IBD that hampers intestinal iron absorption and in those with inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice, although information on the efficacy of intravenous iron in patients with active IBD and anaemia is scare. Importantly, anaemia in IBD is often multifactorial and a careful diagnostic workup is mandatory for optimized treatment. Nevertheless, limited information is available on optimal therapeutic start and end points for treatment of anaemia. Of note, neither oral nor intravenous therapies seem to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD. However, additional prospective studies are still warranted to determine the optimal therapy in complex conditions such as IBD. PMID:29342861

  11. Compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) therapy among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Anaemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women and iron ... Methodology: This study included 190 pregnant women seeking ante-natal care in tertiary health centres in the Mangalore ..... preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid.

  12. Females Are Protected From Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Independent of Iron Metabolism: Key Role of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhash K; Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Wang; DesAulniers, Jessica; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2017-01-23

    Sex-related differences in cardiac function and iron metabolism exist in humans and experimental animals. Male patients and preclinical animal models are more susceptible to cardiomyopathies and heart failure. However, whether similar differences are seen in iron-overload cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. Male and female wild-type and hemojuvelin-null mice were injected and fed with a high-iron diet, respectively, to develop secondary iron overload and genetic hemochromatosis. Female mice were completely protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy, whereas iron overload resulted in marked diastolic dysfunction in male iron-overloaded mice based on echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume analyses. Female mice demonstrated a marked suppression of iron-mediated oxidative stress and a lack of myocardial fibrosis despite an equivalent degree of myocardial iron deposition. Ovariectomized female mice with iron overload exhibited essential pathophysiological features of iron-overload cardiomyopathy showing distinct diastolic and systolic dysfunction, severe myocardial fibrosis, increased myocardial oxidative stress, and increased expression of cardiac disease markers. Ovariectomy prevented iron-induced upregulation of ferritin, decreased myocardial SERCA2a levels, and increased NCX1 levels. 17β-Estradiol therapy rescued the iron-overload cardiomyopathy in male wild-type mice. The responses in wild-type and hemojuvelin-null female mice were remarkably similar, highlighting a conserved mechanism of sex-dependent protection from iron-overload-mediated cardiac injury. Male and female mice respond differently to iron-overload-mediated effects on heart structure and function, and females are markedly protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Ovariectomy in female mice exacerbated iron-induced myocardial injury and precipitated severe cardiac dysfunction during iron-overload conditions, whereas 17β-estradiol therapy was protective in male iron-overloaded mice.

  13. The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Bhandari, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, is highly prevalent worldwide and has clinical consequences. The prevention and treatment of ID is a major public health goal. Accurate diagnosis, selection of the appropriate iron replacement therapy and addressing the underlying cause, remain as the main challenges in ID management. Areas covered: This review aims to provide a narrative review of current available evidence on iron supplementation options regularly used to treat ID, including oral and intravenous (IV) iron formulations, with emphasis on safety issues. Analyzed safety concerns include gastrointestinal side effects (oral iron) and risks of hypotension, anaphylaxis, infection, hypophosphatemia, oxidative stress and mortality (IV iron). Expert opinion: Low-to-moderate doses of oral iron supplementation remains as first line therapy for uncomplicated ID, but it has been scarcely discussed in the setting of inflammation. Confirmatory studies on the efficacy of newer oral iron formulations in this setting are needed. Compared with oral iron, short-term IV iron administration is more efficacious in ID correction, without significant safety concerns. However, long-term safety of IV iron maintenance therapy, head to head comparisons of IV iron preparations, pharmacological modulation of hepcidin and HIF, and extra-erythropoietic effects of iron are among the important areas of research.

  14. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  15. Results of the First American Prospective Study of Intravenous Iron in Oral Iron-Intolerant Iron-Deficient Gravidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Michael; James, Stephanie E; Nicoletti, Melissa; Lenowitz, Steven; London, Nicola; Bahrain, Huzefa F; Derman, Richard; Smith, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Anemia affects up to 42% of gravidas. Neonatal iron deficiency is associated with low birth weight, delayed growth and development, and increased cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. While oral iron is convenient, up to 70% report significant gastrointestinal toxicity. Intravenous iron formulations allowing replacement in one visit with favorable side-effect profiles decrease rates of anemia with improved hemoglobin responses and maternal fetal outcomes. Seventy-four oral iron-intolerant, second- and third-trimester iron-deficient gravidas were questioned for oral iron intolerance and treated with intravenous iron. All received 1000 mg of low-molecular-weight iron dextran in 250 mL normal saline. Fifteen minutes after a test dose, the remainder was infused over the balance of 1 hour. Subjects were called at 1, 2, and 7 days to assess delayed reactions. Four weeks postinfusion or postpartum, hemoglobin levels and iron parameters were measured. Paired t test was used for hemoglobin and iron; 58/73 women were questioned about interval growth and development of their babies. Seventy-three of 74 enrolled subjects completed treatment. Sixty had paired pre- and posttreatment data. The mean pre- and posthemoglobin concentrations were 9.7 and 10.8 g/dL (P iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous iron has less toxicity and is more effective, supporting moving it closer to frontline therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood Transfusion, Serum Ferritin, and Iron in Hemodialysis Patients in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouegnigan Rerambiah, Leonard; Essola Rerambiah, Laurence; Mbourou Etomba, Armel; Mouguiama, Rose Marlène; Issanga, Phanie Brunelle; Biyoghe, Axel Sydney; Batchilili, Batchelili; Akone Assembe, Sylvestre; Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. There is no data analyzing the outcome of blood transfusions and oral iron therapy in patients with kidneys failure in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to fill that gap and assess the value of ferritin in the diagnosis of iron overload and deficiency. Design. From January to February 2012, we prospectively studied 85 hemodialysis patients (78% of males and 22% of females aged 20 to 79 years) attending the Gabonese National Hemodialysis Centre. Results. Correlation studies showed (a) a strong positive linear relationship between the number of blood transfusions and high serum ferritin in hemodialysis patient (Spearman r : 0.74; P value: 0.0001); (b) a weak association between the number of blood transfusions and serum iron concentrations (Spearman r : 0.32; P value: 0.04); (c) a weak association between serum ferritin and serum iron (Spearman r : 0.32; P value: 0.003). Also, the strength of agreement beyond chance between the levels of ferritin and iron in the serum was poor (κ = 0.14). The prevalence of iron overload was 10.6%, whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency was 2.3%, comparing (1) patients with a maximum of one transfusion not on iron therapy; (2) patients with a maximum of one transfusion on iron therapy; (3) polytransfused patients not on iron therapy; and (4) polytransfused patients on oral iron therapy. The “Kruskal-Wallis test” showed that ferritin levels varied significantly between the groups (P value: 0.0001). Conclusion. Serum ferritin is not reliable as a marker of iron overload. For patients undergoing regular transfusion we recommend routine serum ferritin measurement and yearly measurement of LIC. PMID:25685597

  17. Caregiver perceptions of iron deficiency anemia and iron replacement therapies in young children with nutritional iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., approximately 3% of young children develop iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with Hispanic/Latino children disproportionately affected. IDA is associated with inferior neurodevelopmental outcomes. Treatment with oral iron mitigates its consequences yet non-adherence often results in treatme...

  18. The Battle for Iron between Humans and Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Peggy L

    2018-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment. To describe complex 'tug of war' for iron that has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. A review of current literature was performed, to assess current approaches and controversies in iron therapy and chelation in humans. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection. The administration of iron chelating agents and siderophore- conjugate drugs to infected hosts seems a biologically plausible approach as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of infections caused by pathogens dependent on host iron supply (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, and many bacterial and fungal pathogens); however, thus far, studies in humans have proved unsuccessful. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Parenteral Iron Therapy in the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia During Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, N.; Ayub, R.; Khan, W. U.; Ijaz, S.; Alam, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety profile of total dose infusion of low molecular weight iron dextran with divided doses of intravenous iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Pregnant women at gestational age more than 12 weeks with the confirmed diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) were divided into two groups. In the group-A, intravenous iron sucrose was given in divided doses while in the group-B, total daily intake of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) of iron dextran was given. Post-infusion Hemoglobin (Hb) was checked at 4 weeks and at the time of delivery for both groups. Paired sample t-test is applied and comparison (in terms of rise in hemoglobin from pre to post) of both groups was not found to be significant. Results: In the group-A (iron sucrose group), mean pre-infusion Hb levels was 9.09 ± 0.83 gm/dl. Mean increase in Hemoglobin (Hb) was 10.75 ± 1.097 gm/dl after 4 weeks of infusion and 11.06 ± 0.866 gm/dl at delivery (p < 0.001). In group-B (iron dextran group) pre-infusion haemoglobin was 8.735 ± 0.956 gm/dl and the mean increase in hemoglobin was 10.613 ± 1.22 gm/dl at 4-week while mean increase of 10.859 ± 1.11 gm/dl at the time of delivery (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both LMW iron dextran, as well as iron sucrose are equally effective in treatment of IDA during pregnancy, however, LMW iron dextran has the advantage of single visit treatment. (author)

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for ... Surgery, upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  3. Exploring dialectical behaviour therapy clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Cian; Ryan, Patrick; Flynn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a detailed idiographic analysis of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings. DBT is an evidence-based psychological intervention with a demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Team consultation meetings encompass one of the primary components involved in this treatment model; where DBT clinicians regularly meet to discuss client work and enhance further learning. The present study's aim was to assess what are DBT clinicians' experiences of the consultation meeting component and whether it is useful or not. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 11 DBT clinicians (nine females, two males) from three different consultation teams. The research project utilised an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework. Audio-recorded interview data was analysed using this framework. Four superordinate themes emerged from the interview data, which included ten subordinate themes. The superordinate themes focused on: (1) the acquisition of DBT technical knowledge and other MDT related expertise (2) participants' emotional experiences of DBT and consultation meetings, and how this can evolve over time (3) the underlying processes that occur in the consultation team including the development of a team bond and the impact of membership changes and (4) the largely consistent and reliable nature of consultation meetings and how they help maintain clinician motivation. Team consultation meetings were found to be supportive; playing an important role in maintaining clinician motivation through the availability of team support, opportunities to reflect and learn, and assistance in regulating emotions. Challenges arose in relation to team membership changes and acclimatisation to the type of feedback utilised in team consultation. The study's implications for practise are considered.

  4. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  5. World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council: A report on the 5th International Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Colloquium and the Final Planning Meeting of the World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council held at Santiago, Chile, 29 September, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The 5th International Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Colloquium was held on 29th October 2002 as a pre-congress meeting of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology Congress in Santiago, Chile. Work-in-Progress research papers were presented by leaders in the field of therapeutic nuclear oncology. Speakers gave untitled presentations without abstracts and reported data from studies performed only days or weeks before the meeting. Such cutting edge research presentations stimulated lively discussion which also addressed the problems encountered and ways in which they may be circumvented. Radioimmunotherapy of haematological malignancy was discussed by Greg Wiseman of the Mayo Clinic, and Thomas Behr of the University of Marburg. Radiopeptide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours was presented by Larry Kvols from the University of Florida, and locoregional therapy of glioma was presented by John Buscombe of the Royal Free Hospital, London. All speakers reported encouraging clinical results with objective tumour responses, increased survival and improved quality of life, which encourages wider clinical application of these novel radiopharmaceutical therapies. The Round Table Discussion on clinical applications of Rhenium-188 radiopharmaceuticals was chaired by Russ Knapp from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hans Biersack of the University of Bonn. Following an outline of current developments by Russ Knapp preliminary results of clinical trials were presented for discussion. Hans Biersack, Javier Gaudiano from Montevideo and Achim Kropp from Dresden reported effective palliation of painful skeletal metastases with 188Re-HEDP. Ajit Padhy gave an update of the IAEA multicentre trial of intrahepatic arterial 188Re-Lipiodol therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma and Harvey Turner reported preliminary results in hepatoma patients using an alternative kit formulation of 188Re-Lipiodol in Fremantle. Early experience with Rhenium 188 in the prevention of re

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Iron deficiency anemia working group consensus report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Olus; Breyman, Christian; Çetiner, Mustafa; Demir, Cansun; Ecder, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is the most common disease, affecting >1.5 billion people worldwide. Furthermore, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) accounts for 50% of cases of anemia. IDA is common during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this report was to present the experiences of a multidisciplinary expert group, and to establish reference guidelines for the optimal diagnosis and treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Studies and guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of IDA published in Turkish and international journals were reviewed. Conclusive recommendations were made by an expert panel aiming for a scientific consensus. Measurement of serum ferritin has the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of IDA unless there is a concurrent inflammatory condition. The lower threshold value for hemoglobin (Hb) in pregnant women is anemia. Oral iron therapy is given as the first-line treatment for IDA. Although current data are limited, intravenous (IV) iron therapy is an alternative therapeutic option in patients who do not respond to oral iron therapy, have adverse reactions, do not comply with oral iron treatment, have a very low Hb concentration, and require rapid iron repletion. IV iron preparations can be safely used for the treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and are more beneficial than oral iron preparations in specific indications. PMID:28913064

  7. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10...... 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p vitamin C status modulates the release of iron from...

  8. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia should be administered with a target to restore/replenish the iron stores and the hemoglobin level in a suitable way. However, in patients with IBD flares and inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice. Neither oral nor intravenous therapy seems to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD, and intravenous iron therapy can be administered even in active disease stages and concomitantly with biologics. In conclusion, because many physicians are in doubt as to how to manage anemia and iron deficiency in IBD, there is a clear need for the implementation of evidence-based recommendations on this matter. Based on the data presented, oral iron therapy should be preferred for patients with quiescent disease stages and trivial iron deficiency anemia unless such patients are intolerant or have an inadequate response, whereas intravenous iron supplementation may be of advantage in patients with aggravated anemia or flares of IBD because inflammation hampers intestinal absorption of iron.

  9. Oral iron therapy in human subjects, comparative absorption between ferrous salts and iron polymaltose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.; Johnson, G.; Wood, L.

    1984-01-01

    Iron absorption was directly compared between equivalent doses of ferrous salts and a polymaltose complex using a twin-isotope technique in which each individual acts as his own control. In the first study, bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate and the complex was defined at physiologic doses of 5 mg (Group 1: n = 14) and therapeutic doses of 50 mg (Group 2: n = 13). In Group 1, mean absorption from salt was 47.77% (SD 14.58%) and from polymaltose, 46.56% SD 17.07%). In Group 2, mean absorption from salt was 32.92% (SD 13.42%) and from polymaltose, 27.07% (SD 6.50%). In a second study, 100 mg of iron in a chewable formulation was used to compare absorption between equal doses of ferrous fumarate and the polymaltose complex. Mean absorption from salt was 10.25% (SD 6.89%) and from polymaltose 10.68% (SD 4.68%). At all three dosage levels, iron is equally available from salt or polymaltose for hemoglobin synthesis (p greater than 0.20), and absorption negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (p less than 0.01). These two materials may be used interchangeably in the treatment of patients with absolute iron deficiency

  10. Clinical and economic burden of infused iron chelation therapy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Krista A; Desrosiers, Marie-Pierre; Caro, J Jaime; Baladi, Jean-François; Lordan, Noreen; Proskorovsky, Irina; Ishak, Khajak; Rofail, Diana

    2007-10-01

    Patients requiring chronic blood transfusions are at risk for iron overload, which, if not treated by iron chelation therapy (ICT), can create serious organ damage and reduce life expectancy. Current ICT requires burdensome 8- to 12-hour infusions five to seven times per week. A naturalistic study of the burden of infused ICT was conducted in four US centers. Data from the initial and most recent years of ICT were collected from medical charts of consenting thalassemia (n = 40) and sickle cell disease (n = 9) patients. Quality of life (QoL), treatment satisfaction, and ICT-related resource utilization data were also collected from a patient interview. Mean serum ferritin levels during the initial (2519 +/- 1382 ng/mL) and most recent (2741 +/- 2532 ng/mL) years remained unacceptably high and increased over time (306 +/- 2200 ng/mL; mean of 20+/- years of therapy). Within 30 days before interview, 55 percent of patients suffered at least one ICT-related adverse event; 76 percent missed at least one dose. QoL, measured by the SF-36, and treatment satisfaction appear compromised in this cohort. Although total annual costs of ICT were estimated at USD $30,000 to $35,000, drug accounted for only 50 to 60 percent of this amount. Infused ICT may not provide adequate effectiveness in the real world. High ferritin levels seem to be associated with ICT noncompliance, likely in relation to the bothersome mode of administration and side effects. The total cost of ICT appears to well exceed that of drug alone.

  11. Removal of both dissolved and particulate iron from groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    H. van Dijk; H. Leijssen; L. Rietveld; A. Abrahamse; K. Teunissen

    2008-01-01

    Iron is the primary source for discolouration problems in the drinking water distribution system. The removal of iron from groundwater is a common treatment step in the production of drinking water. Even when clear water meets the drinking water standards, the water quality in the distribution system can deteriorate due to settling of iron (hydroxide) particles or post-treatment flocculation of dissolved iron. Therefore it is important to remove dissolved and particulate iron to a large exten...

  12. Theranostic MUC-1 aptamer targeted gold coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy of colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Saei, Amir Ata

    2016-01-01

    Favorable physiochemical properties and the capability to accommodate targeting moieties make superparamegnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) popular theranostic agents. In this study, we engineered SPIONs for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells...

  13. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Khushnooma; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  14. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushnooma Italia

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes and the role of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Donald

    2010-04-01

    The epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and iron overload, recent clinical findings that highlight the importance of actively managing iron overload, and recommendations for initiating and maintaining iron chelation therapy (ICT) are summarized. MDS are a variety of hematological disorders with differing time courses. Disease morbidities are primarily due to cytopenias and evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload is a serious complication in patients with MDS due to the long-term use of red blood cell transfusions in patients with symptomatic anemia. Clinical consequences of iron overload include end-organ damage and dysfunction, an increased frequency of transplant-related complications, and reduced survival rates. To prevent these complications, recommendations for initiating and maintaining ICT should be followed by clinicians caring for patients with MDS and iron overload. As current therapeutic options for patients with MDS do not always reduce the transfusion burden, many patients will still need long-term transfusion therapy. Strategies for the management of iron overload in MDS should be considered early in the disease course and in appropriate patients in order to prevent negative clinical outcomes associated with excessive iron accumulation.

  16. Management of inflammatory bowel disease-related anemia and iron deficiency with specific reference to the role of intravenous iron in current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Aksan, Ayşegül; Farrag, Karima; Dignass, Axel; Radeke, Heinfried H

    2017-11-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, impacting disease prognosis, morbidity, hospitalization rates and time lost from work. While iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic inflammation predominate, combinations of hematimetric and biochemical markers facilitate the diagnosis and targeted therapy of other etiologies according to their underlying pathophysiological causes. Intravenous iron replacement is currently recommended in IBD patients with moderate to severe anemia or intolerance to oral iron. Areas covered: This review examines the impact, pathophysiology and diagnostics of iron deficiency and anemia, compares the characteristics and safety profiles of available oral and intravenous iron preparations, and highlights issues which require consideration in decision making for therapy administration and monitoring. Expert opinion: Modern intravenous iron formulations have been shown to be safe and effective in IBD patients, allowing rapid anemia correction and repletion of iron stores. While traditional oral iron preparations are associated with increased inflammation, negative effects on the microbiome, and poor tolerance and compliance, first clinical trial data indicate that newer oral compounds such as ferric maltol and sucrosomial iron offer improved tolerability and may thus offer a viable alternative for the future.

  17. Iron supplementation in Switzerland - A bi-national, descriptive and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biétry, Fabienne A; Hug, Balthasar; Reich, Oliver; Susan, Jick S; Meier, Christoph Rudolf

    2017-07-11

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world, and it is the only common nutrient deficiency in industrialised nations. It is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia. Use of iron supplementation in Switzerland has not been previously quantified in detail. We quantified use of iron supplementation from Swiss data and compared it with data from the UK. We assessed the frequency of serum ferritin and haemoglobin tests prior to newly started iron therapy to see whether use was based on documented low iron levels or blood parameters, especially in the case of parenteral iron supplementation. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of prescription iron supplementation use, and compared use of oral or parenteral iron drugs between Switzerland (CH) and the UK. We retrieved Swiss data from the Swiss Health Insurance Helsana Group, and UK data were from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The study period was 2012 to 2014. The 3-year prevalence of iron supplementation was 9.4% in Switzerland and 4.4% in the UK. Iron use increased slightly between 2012 and 2014 in both countries (CH +0.3%, UK +0.2%). Recorded parenteral iron administration was roughly a thousand times higher in Switzerland (1.9%) than in the UK in 2014. In Switzerland, iron supplements were mostly given to patients aged 20 to 49 years or older than of 80 years. In the UK, iron supplementation was less frequent in younger people, but more prevalent in the elderly. Prior to a first iron prescription, ferritin tests were done more frequently in Switzerland (oral 67.2%, parenteral 86.6%) than in the UK (oral 43.3%, parenteral 65.5%). Haemoglobin was measured before a new parenteral iron therapy rarely in Switzerland (oral 14.9%, parenteral 11.7%), but frequently in the UK (oral 77.4%, parenteral 85.6%). Iron supplementation is more common in Switzerland than in the UK, particularly parenteral iron supplementation. Haemoglobin measurements prior to a new parenteral

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Iron deficiency anemia working group consensus report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Breyman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, anemia is the most common disease, affecting >1.5 billion people worldwide. Furthermore, iron deficiency anemia (IDA accounts for 50% of cases of anemia. IDA is common during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this report was to present the experiences of a multidisciplinary expert group, and to establish reference guidelines for the optimal diagnosis and treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Studies and guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of IDA published in Turkish and international journals were reviewed. Conclusive recommendations were made by an expert panel aiming for a scientific consensus. Measurement of serum ferritin has the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of IDA unless there is a concurrent inflammatory condition. The lower threshold value for hemoglobin (Hb in pregnant women is <11 g/dL during the 1st and 3rd trimesters, and <10.5 g/dL during the 2nd trimester. In postpartum period a Hb concentration <10 g/dL indicates clinically significant anemia. Oral iron therapy is given as the first-line treatment for IDA. Although current data are limited, intravenous (IV iron therapy is an alternative therapeutic option in patients who do not respond to oral iron therapy, have adverse reactions, do not comply with oral iron treatment, have a very low Hb concentration, and require rapid iron repletion. IV iron preparations can be safely used for the treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and are more beneficial than oral iron preparations in specific indications.

  19. Balancing ESA and iron therapy in a prospective payment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, George R; Gaweda, Adam E

    2014-02-01

    Ever since the introduction of EPO, ESAs and iron dosing have been driven by financial incentives. When ESAs were a profit center for providers, large doses were used. With ESAs becoming a cost center, a new trend has appeared, gradually replacing their use with iron to achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower cost. This financially driven approach, treating ESAs and iron as alternatives, is not consistent with human physiology where these agents act in a complementary manner. It is likely that we are still giving unnecessarily large doses of ESAs and iron, relative to what our patients' true needs are. Although we have highlighted the economic drivers of this outcome, many other factors play a role. These include our lack of understanding of the complex interplay of the anemia of chronic disease, inflammation, poor nutrition, blood loss through dialysis, ESAs and iron deficiency. We propose that physiology-driven modeling may provide some insight into the interactions between erythropoiesis and ferrokinetics. This insight can then be used to derive new, physiologically compatible dosing guidelines for ESAs and iron.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. Older adults, who are more likely to fall, should be especially cautious when resuming activities. Reminders ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  1. Dual drug loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Singh, Abhalaxmi; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-05-01

    The primary inadequacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is their relative non-specificity and potential side effects to the healthy tissues. To overcome this, drug loaded multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are conceptualized. We report here an aqueous based formulation of glycerol monooleate coated magnetic nanoparticles (GMO-MNPs) devoid of any surfactant capable of carrying high payload hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The biocompatibility was confirmed by tumor necrosis factor alpha assay, confocal microscopy. High entrapment efficiency approximately 95% and sustained release of encapsulated drugs for more than two weeks under in vitro conditions was achieved for different anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, rapamycin, alone or combination). Drug loaded GMO-MNPs did not affect the magnetization properties of the iron oxide core as confirmed by magnetization study. Additionally the MNPs were functionalized with carboxylic groups by coating with DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) for the supplementary conjugation of amines. For targeted therapy, HER2 antibody was conjugated to GMO-MNPs and showed enhanced uptake in human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) doses revealed potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7. Therefore, antibody conjugated GMO-MNPs could be used as potential drug carrier for the active therapeutic aspects in cancer therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  5. Removal of both dissolved and particulate iron from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, K.; Abrahamse, A.; Leijssen, H.; Rietveld, L.; Van Dijk, H.

    2008-01-01

    Iron is the primary source for discolouration problems in the drinking water distribution system. The removal of iron from groundwater is a common treatment step in the production of drinking water. Even when clear water meets the drinking water standards, the water quality in the distribution

  6. Iron overload: what is the role of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Sayers, Cindy A; Grosse, Scott D; Garrison, Cheryl; Grant, Althea M

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 1, also known as hereditary hemochromatosis classical (HHC), is an iron overload disorder associated, in most cases, with mutations of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. Although suggested algorithms for diagnosing iron overload are available, there are still questions about options for genetic and biochemical screening for hemochromatosis and duration of treatment. This article provides a summary of an expert workgroup meeting convened on September 24-25, 2009, entitled "Iron Overload: What is the Role of Public Health?" The purpose of the meeting was to enable subject matter experts to share their most recent clinical and scientific iron overload information and to facilitate the discussion of future endeavors, with special emphasis on the role of public health in this field. The two main topics were the research priorities of the field, including clinical, genetic, and public health issues, and the concerns about the validity of current screening recommendations for the condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2014-08-07

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from β-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  10. FIND-CKD: a randomized trial of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Nolen, Jacqueline G; Roger, Simon D

    2014-11-01

    The optimal iron therapy regimen in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Ferinject® assessment in patients with Iron deficiency anaemia and Non-Dialysis-dependent Chronic Kidney Disease (FIND-CKD) was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective and randomized study of 626 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, anaemia and iron deficiency not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patients were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting a higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin or oral iron therapy. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA, other iron therapy or blood transfusion) or haemoglobin (Hb) trigger of two consecutive values <10 g/dL during Weeks 8-52. The primary end point occurred in 36 patients (23.5%), 49 patients (32.2%) and 98 patients (31.8%) in the high-ferritin FCM, low-ferritin FCM and oral iron groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR): 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.95; P = 0.026 for high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron]. The increase in Hb was greater with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (P = 0.014) and a greater proportion of patients achieved an Hb increase ≥1 g/dL with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.52-2.72; P < 0.001). Rates of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in all groups. Compared with oral iron, IV FCM targeting a ferritin of 400-600 µg/L quickly reached and maintained Hb level, and delayed and/or reduced the need for other anaemia management including ESAs. Within the limitations of this trial, no renal toxicity was observed, with no difference in cardiovascular or infectious events. NCT00994318. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  11. Report of a Technical Meeting on ''Alpha emitting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for therapy''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Considering the high potential of α-emitters for future development of radionuclide therapy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a Technical Meeting on ‘Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy’, from June 24 to 28, 2013, at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna with the purpose of gathering eminent Experts in the field and discuss with them the status and future perspectives of the field. Sixteen Experts and two External Observers from ten different countries, and four IAEA Technical Officers attended this meeting. Outstanding lectures have been presented covering all relevant aspects of α-therapy, which were followed by extensive discussions and analysis. Selected arguments encompassed production methods and availability of alpha-emitting radionuclides, labelling chemistry of alpha-emittting radioelements, design and development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals, physical principles of alpha-particle dosimetry and advanced dosimetric models, biological effects of alpha radiation at the cellular level, on-going preclinical and clinical studies with new radiopharmaceuticals, results of clinical trials on the use of radium-223 chloride solutions for the treatment of metastatic bone cancer. The broad scientific background of invited components of the Experts’ panel conferred a strong interdisciplinary trait to the overall discussion and stimulated a critical analysis of this emerging unexplored field. Results of this comprehensive overview on alpha therapy, including recommendations to the Agency on suitable initiatives that may help to promote and spread the knowledge to Members States on this emerging therapeutic modality, are summarized in the present Report

  12. The Aging of Iron Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhaar Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. The Aging of Iron Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Erythropoietic response to oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in the FIND-CKD trial
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Wyck, David Van; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Perrin, Amandine; Roger, Simon D

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate erythropoietic response rates to oral iron over time in iron-deficient anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 1-year, randomized, multicenter trial of iron therapy in patients with ND-CKD, anemia, and iron deficiency, without erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. Patients with active infection or C-reactive protein > 20 mg/L were excluded. In this post-hoc analysis, response was defined as ≥ 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline, before initiation of alternative anemia therapy (i.e., ESA, transfusion, or intravenous iron). 308 patients received oral iron (200 mg elemental iron/day). Mean (SD) Hb at baseline was 10.4 (0.7) g/dL. At week 4, Hb data were available from 292 patients without alternative anemia therapy: 63/292 (21.6%) showed a response. Among the 229 nonresponders at week 4, 48.8% showed a cumulative response on ≥ 1 occasion by week 52 (11.1%, 19.9%, 25.9%, and 28.7% had a response at weeks 8, 12, 24, and 52, respectively), and 27.9% had received alternative iron therapy by week 52. Baseline levels of Hb, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were lower in responders than in nonresponders. Neither concomitant medication nor adherence (as assessed by medication count) was substantially different between early responders and nonresponders. Four weeks after starting oral iron therapy, only 21.6% of anemic patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency showed an Hb increase of at least 1 g/dL. Among early nonresponders, < 30% responded at any subsequent time point. Earlier consideration of alternative therapy could improve anemia management in this population.
.

  15. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of anemia and thrombocytopenia as a result of uterine fibroid and adenomyosis, complicated by immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. Symptoms were presented as menorrhagia and metrorrhagia in a 34-year-old African American woman, who was later treated with blood and platelet transfusion and iron therapy with steroids. Uterine fibroids are commonly found to cause hematologic disturbances such as anemia and reactive thrombocytosis and, less commonly, thrombocytopenia. Moreover, such hematologic disturbances are secondary to heavy and irregular uterine bleeding, which is typically presented. A previous uterine fibroid diagnosis was made and reconfirmed by pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound to exclude other locoregional pathologies. ITP was suggested by Coombs test and several other serologies, leading to confirmation via bone marrow biopsy. In a previous case study, we reported positive responses in hemotecrit and platelet count after the introduction of iron therapy to an iron-depleted middle-aged female presenting severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. 1

  16. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Lauren; Jaraisy, Ameen; Haj, Saeda; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of depleted iron stores among persons infected with Helicobacter pylori compared to uninfected ones. We also assessed the impact of anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy on ferritin and hemoglobin levels compared to iron therapy alone. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. Observational studies with methodological quality score of 13 (median score) and above, on a scale of 0-16, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for the meta-analyses. Pooled point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the random effects model. Compared to uninfected persons, H. pylori-infected individuals showed increased likelihood of iron deficiency anemia (14 observational studies); pooled OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42); iron deficiency (pooled OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.54; 30 studies); and anemia (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.00-1.32; 23 studies). Meta-analyses of seven RCTs showed increased ferritin, standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.53 (95% 0.21-0.85), but not hemoglobin, SMD 0.36 (95% -0.07 to 0.78), Pv=.1, following anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy as compared with iron therapy alone. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies, as well as evidence of publication bias. Current evidence indicates increased likelihood of depleted iron stores in relation to H. pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy, added to iron therapy, might be beneficial in increasing ferritin and hemoglobin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intersections of pathways involving biotin and iron relative to therapeutic mechanisms for progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidker, Rebecca M; Emerson, Mitchell R; LeVine, Steven M

    2016-12-01

    While there are a variety of therapies for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a lack of treatments for progressive MS. An early study indicated that high dose biotin therapy has beneficial effects in approximately 12-15% of patients with progressive MS. The mechanisms behind the putative improvements seen with biotin therapy are not well understood, but have been postulated to include: 1) improving mitochondrial function which is impaired in MS, 2) increasing synthesis of lipids and cholesterol to facilitate remyelination, and 3) affecting gene expression. We suggest one reason that a greater percentage of patients with MS didn't respond to biotin therapy is the inaccessibility or lack of other nutrients, such as iron. In addition to biotin, iron (or heme) is necessary for energy production, biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids, and for some protective mechanisms. Both biotin and iron are required for myelination during development, and by inference, remyelination. However, iron can also play a role in the pathology of MS. Increased deposition of iron can occur in some CNS structures possibly promoting oxidative damage while low iron levels can occur in other areas. Thus, the potential, detrimental effects of iron need to be considered together with the need for iron to support metabolic demands associated with repair and/or protective processes. We propose the optimal utilization of iron may be necessary to maximize the beneficial effects of biotin. This review will examine the interactions between biotin and iron in pathways that may have therapeutic or pathogenic implications for MS.

  18. [Life paths and motifs. Meeting points of hypnotherapy and music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, P József

    2013-01-01

    Effects both of hypnotherapy and music therapy are originated from an attunement as supposed by the author. Either to a hypnotherapist's suggestions or to a piece of music one is able to be tuned in them. On one hand, the hypnotherapist's prosody, which can be called as melodic declamation seen as a musical phenomenon transmitting emotions. On the other hand, music has got emotional and visceral impacts. As a meeting points of these two methods four possibilities are shown by the author: 1. musical analogies of vitality affects ; 2. paternal and maternal archetypes in music; 3. analogies of copings in music; 4. corrections of psychological deficits by virtue of hypno- and music therapy with parallel used energy healing method. Finally, the author suggests, that hypnosis is regarded as an inductive method expressing its effect from outside to inside; music, however is likely to be employed as a deductive therapeutic tool, effecting from inside to outside.

  19. Is There a Role for Preoperative Iron Supplementation in Patients Preparing for a Total Hip or Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen M; Lanting, Brent A; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; Naudie, Douglas D R; Ralley, Fiona E; Howard, James L

    2017-09-01

    Several treatment modalities exist for the treatment of perioperative anemia. We determined the effect of oral iron supplementation on preoperative anemia, and the use of blood-conserving interventions before total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 3435 total joint arthroplasties (1461 THAs and 1974 TKAs) were analyzed during 2 phases of a blood conservation program. The first phase used erythropoietin alfa (EPO) or intravenous (IV) iron for patients at risk for perioperative anemia. The second phase included these interventions, as well as preoperative iron supplementation. The effect on preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin, as well as EPO and IV iron utilization, was determined. Oral iron therapy increased preoperative Hb level by 6 g/L (P iron reduced from 4% to 2% (P = .05) and 5% to 2% (P iron therapy reduced the burden of perioperative anemia and reduced utilization of other blood-conserving therapies before THA and TKA. Future research should delineate the cost-effectiveness of oral iron therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Satisfaction and adherence in patients with iron overload receiving iron chelation therapy as assessed by a newly developed patient instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofail, Diana; Abetz, Linda; Viala, Muriel; Gait, Claire; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Payne, Krista

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses satisfaction with iron chelation therapy (ICT) based on a reliable and valid instrument, and explores the relationship between satisfaction and adherence to ICT. Patients in the USA and UK completed a new "Satisfaction with ICT" (SICT) instrument consisting of 28 items, three pertaining to adherence. Simple and multivariate regression analyses assessed the relationship between satisfaction with different aspects of ICT and adherence. First assessments of the SICT instrument indicate its validity and reliability. Recommended thresholds for internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects were met. A number of variables were identified in the simple linear regression analyses as significant predictors of "never thinking about stopping ICT," a proxy for adherence. These significant variables were entered into the multivariate model to assess the combined factor effects, explaining 42% of the total variance of "never thinking about stopping ICT." A significant and positive relationship was demonstrated between "never thinking about stopping ICT" and age (P = 0.04), Perceived Effectiveness of ICT (P = 0.003), low Burden of ICT (P = 0.002), and low Side Effects of ICT (P = 0.01). The SICT is a reliable and valid instrument which will be useful in ICT clinical trials. Furthermore, the administration of ICT by slow subcutaneous infusion negatively impacts on satisfaction with ICT which was shown to be a determinant of adherence. This points to the need for new more convenient and less burdensome oral iron chelators to increase adherence, and ultimately to improve patient outcomes.

  1. Synthesis and In Vitro Performance of Polypyrrole-Coated Iron-Platinum Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy and Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thi Tuong Vy; Bui, Nhat Quang; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-10-01

    Multifunctional nano-platform for the combination of photo-based therapy and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for cancer treatment has recently attracted much attention to nanotechnology development. In this study, we developed iron-platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) with the polypyrrole (PPy) coating as novel agents for combined photothermal therapy (PTT) and PAI. The obtained PPy-coated FePt NPs (FePt@PPy NPs) showed excellent biocompatibility, photothermal stability, and high near-infrared (NIR) absorbance for the combination of PTT and PAI. In vitro investigation experimentally demonstrated the effectiveness of FePt@PPy NPs in killing cancer cells with NIR laser irradiation. Moreover, the phantom test of PAI used in conjunction with FePt@PPy NPs showed a strong photoacoustic signal. Thus, the novel FePt@PPy NPs could be considered as promising multifunctional nanoparticles for further applications of photo-based diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Rational Design of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Targeted Nanomedicines for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Forrest M.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology provides a flexible platform for the development of effective therapeutic nanomaterials that can interact specifically with a target in a biological system and provoke a desired biological response. Of the nanomaterials studied, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as one of top candidates for cancer therapy due to their intrinsic superparamagnetism that enables non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biodegradability favorable for in vivo application. This dissertation is aimed at development of SPION-based nanomedicines to overcome the current limitations in cancer therapy. These limitations include non-specificity of therapy which can harm healthy tissue, the difficulty in delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy, the formation of drug resistance, and the inability to detect and treat micrometastases. First, a SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was developed through functionalization of the SPION core with a co-polymer designed to provide stable binding of DNA and low toxicity which showed excellent gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. This SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was then activated with a targeting agent to improve gene delivery throughout a xenograft tumor of brain cancer. It was found that targeting did not promote the accumulation of SPIONs at the tumor site, but rather improved the distribution of SPIONs throughout the tumor so a higher proportion of cells received treatment. Next, the high surface area of SPIONs was utilized for loading large amounts of drug which was shown to overcome the multidrug resistance acquired by many cancer cells. Drug bound to SPIONs showed significantly higher multidrug resistant cell uptake as compared to free drug which translated into improved cell kill. Also, an antibody activated SPION was developed and was shown to be able to target micrometastases in a transgenic animal model of metastatic breast cancer. These SPION-based nanomedicines

  3. Serum B/sub 12/ levels in iron definiency anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L A; Ohki, Keiichi

    1964-04-23

    As part of its research program to study the late effects of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombs, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in conjunction with the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH), conducts biennial medical examinations on the selected population which comprises the ABCC-JHIN Adult Health Study sample. The patients herein described as Groups 1 and 2 were selected from among those examined in Nagasaki who had had a hemoglobin value of less than 11.0 g/100 ml at examination 2 years previously and who had responded to iron therapy sufficiently to justify a diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Almost all were women of child bearing age. The effect of iron therapy on the level of serum B/sub 12/ was investigated. Of 58 patients so studied, 46 showed some rise in post-treatment levels of B/sub 12/. This is evaluated as indicating that gastric secretion of intrinsic factor is depressed in the majority of iron deficient patients.

  4. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  5. Update on the use of deferasirox in the management of iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Taher,1 Maria Domenica Cappellini21American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Universitá di Milano, Policlinico Foundation IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Regular blood transfusions as supportive care for patients with chronic anemia inevitably lead to iron overload as humans cannot actively remove excess iron. The cumulative effects of iron overload cause significant morbidity and mortality if not effectively treated with chelation therapy. Based on a comprehensive clinical development program, the once-daily, oral iron chelator deferasirox (Exjade® is approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in adult and pediatric patients with various transfusion-dependent anemias, including β-thalassemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Deferasirox dose should be titrated for each individual patient based on transfusional iron intake, current iron burden and whether the goal is to decrease or maintain body iron levels. Doses of >30 mg/kg/day have been shown to be effective with a safety profile consistent with that observed at doses <30 mg/kg/day. Recent data have highlighted the ability of deferasirox to decrease cardiac iron levels and to prevent the accumulation of iron in the heart. The long-term efficacy and safety of deferasirox for up to 5 years of treatment have now been established. The availability of this effective and generally well tolerated oral therapy represents a significant advance in the management of transfusional iron overload. Keywords: deferasirox, Exjade, oral, iron chelation, iron overload, cardiac iron 

  6. Review of the 25th annual scientific meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwit, James M; Kalinski, Pawel; Sondak, Vernon K; Coulie, Pierre G; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Gajewski, Thomas F; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-12

    Led by key opinion leaders in the field, the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc, recently renamed the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC) provided a scientific platform for ~500 attendees to exchange cutting-edge information on basic, clinical, and translational research in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The meeting included keynote addresses on checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy and recent advances in therapeutic vaccination against cancer induced by Human Papilloma Virus 16. Participants from 29 countries interacted through oral presentations, panel discussions, and posters on topics that included dendritic cells and cancer, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapy, innate/adaptive immune interplay in cancer, clinical trial endpoints, vaccine combinations, countering negative regulation, immune cell trafficking to tumor microenvironment, and adoptive T cell transfer. In addition to the 50 oral presentations and >180 posters on these topics, a new SITC/iSBTc initiative to create evidence-based Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines was announced. The SITC/iSBTc Biomarkers Taskforce announced the release of recommendations on immunotherapy biomarkers and a highly successful symposium on Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers that took place on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) immediately prior to the Annual Meeting. At the Annual Meeting, the NIH took the opportunity to publicly announce the award of the U01 grant that will fund the Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network (CITN). In summary, the Annual Meeting gathered clinicians and scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies from around the globe to interact and exchange important scientific advances related to tumor immunobiology and cancer immunotherapy.

  7. An unusual case of iron deficiency anemia is associated with extremely low level of transferrin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuangying; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Juan; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    A case study of a female patient, diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, was unresponsive to oral iron treatment and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy, a clinical profile resembling the iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) disorder. However, the patient failed to exhibit microcytic phenotype, one of the IRIDA hallmarks. Biochemical assays revealed that serum iron, hepcidin, interluekin 6, and transferrin saturation were within the normal range of references or were comparable to her non-anemic offspring. Iron contents in serum and red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were measured, which confirmed the partial improvement of anemia after parenteral iron therapy. Strikingly, serum transferrin receptor in patient was almost undetectable, reflecting the very low activity of bone-marrow erythropoiesis. Our data demonstrate that this is not a case of systemic iron deficiency, but rather cellular iron deficit due to the low level of transferrin receptor, particularly in erythroid tissue.

  8. A highly effective in vivo photothermal nanoplatform with dual imaging-guided therapy of cancer based on the charge reversal complex of dye and iron oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Y.; Li, X.; Kong, X.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tu, L.; Xue, B.; Wu, F.; Cao, D.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the treatment efficiency of photothermal therapy (PTT) with very little light-associated side effect, we have constructed a highly effective PTT nanoplatform for fluorescence and MRI dual imaging-guided PTT of cancer, based on IR806 dye and iron oxide complex functionalized with

  9. Treating iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali T; Viprakasit, Vip; Musallam, Khaled M; Cappellini, M Domenica

    2013-01-01

    Despite receiving no or only occasional blood transfusions, patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) have increased intestinal iron absorption and can accumulate iron to levels comparable with transfusion-dependent patients. This iron accumulation occurs more slowly in NTDT patients compared to transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, and complications do not arise until later in life. It remains crucial for these patients' health to monitor and appropriately treat their iron burden. Based on recent data, including a randomized clinical trial on iron chelation in NTDT, a simple iron chelation treatment algorithm is presented to assist physicians with monitoring iron burden and initiating chelation therapy in this group of patients. Am. J. Hematol. 88:409–415, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475638

  10. Review of the 25th annual scientific meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffee Elizabeth M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Led by key opinion leaders in the field, the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc, recently renamed the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC provided a scientific platform for ~500 attendees to exchange cutting-edge information on basic, clinical, and translational research in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The meeting included keynote addresses on checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy and recent advances in therapeutic vaccination against cancer induced by Human Papilloma Virus 16. Participants from 29 countries interacted through oral presentations, panel discussions, and posters on topics that included dendritic cells and cancer, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapy, innate/adaptive immune interplay in cancer, clinical trial endpoints, vaccine combinations, countering negative regulation, immune cell trafficking to tumor microenvironment, and adoptive T cell transfer. In addition to the 50 oral presentations and >180 posters on these topics, a new SITC/iSBTc initiative to create evidence-based Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines was announced. The SITC/iSBTc Biomarkers Taskforce announced the release of recommendations on immunotherapy biomarkers and a highly successful symposium on Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers that took place on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH immediately prior to the Annual Meeting. At the Annual Meeting, the NIH took the opportunity to publicly announce the award of the U01 grant that will fund the Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network (CITN. In summary, the Annual Meeting gathered clinicians and scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies from around the globe to interact and exchange important scientific advances related to tumor immunobiology and cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Iron overload of organism and current options of chelation treatment in onco haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guman, T.; Rothova, E.; Kafkova, A.; Fricova, M.; Dulova, I.; Stecova, N.; Hlebaskova, M.; Surova, M.; Takac, V.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the biological importance of iron in the organism, primary and secondary causes of iron overload, complications in function of liver, heart and endocrine organs due to overload of iron, the pathophysiology of iron overload, transfusion risks associated with the iron overload, assessment of risk groups of patients suitable for chelation treatment fulfilling the indication criteria, treatment modalities of chelation therapy and its significance regarding the prevention and treatment effectiveness. (author)

  12. Iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukalled, Nour M; El Rassi, Fuad A; Temraz, Sally N; Taher, Ali T

    2018-06-15

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS. In addition to its suggested role in the exacerbation of ineffective erythropoiesis, multiple reports have identified a prognostic implication for the development of iron overload in patients with MDS, with an improvement in overall survival after the initiation of iron chelation therapy. This review includes a detailed discussion of iron overload in patients with MDS whether they are undergoing supportive therapy or curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a focus on the mechanism, diagnosis, and effect on survival as well as the optimal management of this highly variable complication. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  13. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  14. Clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with refractory chronic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Gao, Li Li, Baoan Chen, Huihui Song, Jian Cheng, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunyu SunDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with chronic refractory anemia.Methods: Clinical manifestations, main organ function, results of computed tomography (CT, endocrine evaluation, and serum ferritin levels were analyzed retrospectively in 13 patients who were transfusion-dependent for more than 1 year (receiving >50 units of red blood cells to determine the degree of iron overload and efficacy of iron-chelating therapy.Results: Serum ferritin levels increased to 1,830–5,740 ng/mL in all patients. Ten patients had abnormal liver function. The CT Hounsfield units in the liver increased significantly in eleven patients, and were proportional to their serum ferritin levels. Skin pigmentation, liver dysfunction, and endocrine dysfunction were observed in nine patients with serum ferritin >3,500 ng/mL, eight of whom have since died. Interestingly, serum ferritin levels did not decrease significantly in nine transfusion-dependent patients who had received 15–60 days of iron-chelating therapy.Conclusion: Transfusion-dependent patients may progress to secondary iron overload with organ impairment, which may be fatal in those who are heavily iron-overloaded. The CT Hounsfield unit is a sensitive indicator of iron overload in the liver. Iron chelation therapy should be initiated when serum ferritin is >1,000 ng/mL and continued until it is <1,000 ng/mL in transfusional iron-overloaded patients.Keywords: anemia, aplastic, iron overload, myelodysplastic syndromes

  15. Iron deposition in cranial bone marrow with sickle cell disease: MR assessment using a fat suppression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.H.; Kogutt, M.S.; Robinson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing transfusion therapy and 8 control patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate bone marrow change due to iron deposition from hematologic marrow hyperplasia. Using T1-weighted spin echo images, only two subjects showed extremely low signal intensity marrow compatible with iron deposition. However, using T2-weighted fast spin echo images with fat suppression, cranial bone marrow in SCD patients with transfusion therapy showed considerably lower signal than that of controls. The main cause of marrow signal decrease in SCD patients with transfusion therapy was considered to be iron deposition due to repeated transfusion therapy rather than red marrow hyperplasia. (orig.)

  16. The Capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis To Survive Iron Starvation Might Enable It To Persist in Iron-Deprived Microenvironments of Human Granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthkoti, Krishna; Amin, Hamel; Marakalala, Mohlopheni J; Ghanny, Saleena; Subbian, Selvakumar; Sakatos, Alexandra; Livny, Jonathan; Fortune, Sarah M; Berney, Michael; Rodriguez, G Marcela

    2017-08-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants. M. tuberculosis mutants compromised in their ability to survive Fe starvation were identified. The findings of this study advance the understanding of the physiological settings that may underpin the chronicity of human tuberculosis (TB) and are relevant to the design of effective antitubercular therapies. IMPORTANCE One-third of the world population may harbor persistent M. tuberculosis , causing an asymptomatic infection that is refractory to treatment and can reactivate to become potentially lethal tuberculosis disease. However, little is known about the factors that trigger and maintain M. tuberculosis persistence in infected individuals. Iron is an essential nutrient for M. tuberculosis growth. In this study, we show, first, that in human granulomas the immune defense creates microenvironments in which M. tuberculosis likely experiences drastic Fe deprivation and, second, that Fe-starved M. tuberculosis is capable of long-term persistence without growth. Together, these observations suggest that Fe deprivation in the lung might trigger a state of persistence in M. tuberculosis and promote chronic TB. We also identified vulnerabilities of iron-restricted persistent M. tuberculosis , which can be exploited for the design of new antitubercular therapies. Copyright © 2017 Kurthkoti et al.

  17. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  18. Assessment of iron status of Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Madriaga, J R; Perlas, L A; Desnacido, J A

    1989-09-01

    Plasma ferritin (PF), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and hemoglobin (Hb) were used to assess the iron status of 158 Filipino pregnant women included as subjects in the third national nutrition survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute in 1987. The prevalence of iron depletion was 39.9% based on PF (less than 12 ng/ml). Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 36.1% based on EP of greater than 28 micrograms/dl whole blood and 40.5% based on EP/Hb ratio of greater than 2.4. When the criterion of iron deficiency was that both PF and EP were abnormal, the prevalence of deficiency was lower and only 16.4%. Iron deficiency anemia was present in 14.6% based on Hb less than 11 g/dl in addition to abnormal PF and EP. Significantly lower mean values for PF were obtained in women on the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicating decreasing iron stores and the need for iron therapy to prevent anemia during those periods. The iron status of 38 women who reported taking iron supplements was not significantly different from those who did not take supplements.

  19. Patient Affected by Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration: A Therapeutic Attempt with Iron Chelation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Fonderico

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old patient with a diagnosis of de novo mutation of the WDR45 gene, responsible for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, a phenotypically distinct, X-linked dominant form of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. The clinical history is characterized by a relatively stable intellectual disability and a hypo-bradykinetic and hypertonic syndrome with juvenile onset. Genetic investigations and T1 and T2-weighted MR images align with what is described in literature. The patient was also subjected to PET with 18-FDG investigation and DaT-Scan study. In reporting relevant clinical data, we want to emphasize the fact that the patient received a chelation therapy with deferiprone (treatment already used in other forms of NBIA with encouraging results, which, however, had to be interrupted because the parkinsonian symptoms worsened. Conversely, the patient has benefited from non-drug therapies and, in particular, from an adapted motor activity with assisted pedaling (method in the process of validation in treatments of parkinsonian syndromes, which started before the treatment with deferiprone and still continues.

  20. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron from common diets from Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleta, N.; Diaz, A.; Bedregal, P.; Montoya R, E.

    1993-01-01

    The nutritional iron absorption from a typical peruvian diet was studied by the Eakins and Brown method. the food were breakfast: coffee and bread with butter; lunch: vegetable soup rice with cow tripe stew and lemonade; dinner: vegetable soup and bread. The results show that despite low iron content in the meals, which is not enough to meet daily iron requirements absorption was good in lunch possibly by the action of the promoters ascorbic acid (lemonade) and heme iron (cow tripe). Iron absorption in lunch was good and different from dinner and breakfast. We cannot conclude if the low iron absorption from bread is affected by coffee. (authors). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Improvement of bioavailability for iron from vegetarian meals by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sritongkul, N.; Tuntawiroon, M.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are two kinds of iron in the diet with respect to the mechanism of absorption, heme-iron which is present as haemoglobin or myoglobin in meat and blood products, and, non-heme iron which is the main source of dietary iron. The bioavailability of the non-heme food iron is much lower than heme-iron. Vegetarian diets contain only non-heme iron. Iron intake from vegetarian meals are generally satisfied with the requirements, however, the bioavailabilities for non-heme iron is determined not only by iron content byt also the balance between different dietary factors enhancing and inhibiting iron absorption. The main enhancing factor in vegetarian meals is ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables, inhibitors are phytate in cereals and grains, and tannins in some spices and vegetables. It has been reported that iron deficiency is one of the common micronutrient problems associated with unplanned vegetarian diets. In the present study the absorption of non-heme iron was measured from 2 vegetarian meals containing considerable amounts of phytate and tannin. The extrinsic tay method ( 59 Fe/ 55 Fe) was used to labelled the non-heme iron. The mean percentage absorption of non-heme iron from both meals was slightly different due to differences in their dietary contents. Their initial percentages iron absorption were apparent low (3.5% and 4.1%), however, the absorption progressively increased with increase in the level of ascorbic acid, 2-3 times with 100 mg and 4-5 times with 200 mg of ascorbic acid. The average amount of iron absorbed per 2000 kcal increased from 0.37 mg to 0.86 mg and 1.45 mg with the addition of 100 mg and 200 mg ascorbic acid respectively (p < 0.001). Considering the limited caloric intakes and the iron content in the meals, the amount of iron absorbed from vegetarian meals without ascorbic acid was not able to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. The minimal requirement for dietary iron needed to be absorbed is

  2. Improvement of bioavailability for iron from vegetarian meals by ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sritongkul, N; Tuntawiroon, M; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R [Siriraj Hospital Medical School, Bangkok (Thailand). Section of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-01

    There are two kinds of iron in the diet with respect to the mechanism of absorption, heme-iron which is present as haemoglobin or myoglobin in meat and blood products, and, non-heme iron which is the main source of dietary iron. The bioavailability of the non-heme food iron is much lower than heme-iron. Vegetarian diets contain only non-heme iron. Iron intake from vegetarian meals are generally satisfied with the requirements, however, the bioavailabilities for non-heme iron is determined not only by iron content byt also the balance between different dietary factors enhancing and inhibiting iron absorption. The main enhancing factor in vegetarian meals is ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables, inhibitors are phytate in cereals and grains, and tannins in some spices and vegetables. It has been reported that iron deficiency is one of the common micronutrient problems associated with unplanned vegetarian diets. In the present study the absorption of non-heme iron was measured from 2 vegetarian meals containing considerable amounts of phytate and tannin. The extrinsic tay method ({sup 59}Fe/ {sup 55}Fe) was used to labelled the non-heme iron. The mean percentage absorption of non-heme iron from both meals was slightly different due to differences in their dietary contents. Their initial percentages iron absorption were apparent low (3.5% and 4.1%), however, the absorption progressively increased with increase in the level of ascorbic acid, 2-3 times with 100 mg and 4-5 times with 200 mg of ascorbic acid. The average amount of iron absorbed per 2000 kcal increased from 0.37 mg to 0.86 mg and 1.45 mg with the addition of 100 mg and 200 mg ascorbic acid respectively (p < 0.001). Considering the limited caloric intakes and the iron content in the meals, the amount of iron absorbed from vegetarian meals without ascorbic acid was not able to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. The minimal requirement for dietary iron needed to be

  3. Progress in the Full-Text Publication Rate of Orthopaedic and Sport Physical Therapy Abstracts Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Fletcher, Jacquelyn M; Barker, Rick G; Guildenbecher, Elizabeth A; Gorkis, Colleen E; Thompson, William R

    2017-10-07

    Study Design Descriptive study. Background Professional meetings, such as the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA's) Combined Sections Meeting (CSM), provide forums for sharing information. However, it was reported that only one-quarter of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at the CSM between 2000 and 2004 went on to full-text publication. This low conversion rate raises a number of concerns regarding the full dissemination of work within the profession. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the full-text publication rate of work presented in abstract form at subsequent CSMs and investigate factors influencing the rate. Methods A systematic search was undertaken to locate full-text publications of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at CSMs between 2005 and 2011. Eligible publications were published within 5 years following abstract presentation. The influences of year of abstract presentation, APTA section, presentation type, institution of origin, study design, and study significance were assessed. Results Over one-third (38.6%) of presented abstracts progressed to full-text publication. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract was presented as a platform presentation, originated from a doctorate-granting institution, reported findings of an experimental study, or reported a statistically significant finding. Conclusion The full-text publication rate for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at recent CSMs has increased by over 50% compared to that reported for the preceding period. The rate is now in the range of that reported in comparable clinical disciplines, demonstrating important progress in the full dissemination of work within the profession. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 7 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7581.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for precision oncology: theranostic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for image-guided and targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Zhiyang; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have shown promise in the development of new personalized therapeutic approaches for clinical management of cancer patients. The unique physicochemical properties of MNPs endow them with novel multifunctional capabilities for imaging, drug delivery and therapy, which are referred to as theranostics. To facilitate the translation of those theranostic MNPs into clinical applications, extensive efforts have been made on designing and improving biocompatibility, stability, safety, drug-loading ability, targeted delivery, imaging signal and thermal- or photodynamic response. In this review, we provide an overview of the physicochemical properties, toxicity and theranostic applications of MNPs with a focus on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  6. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of transfusional iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Emmanouil; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Karali, Vasiliki; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Sfikakis, Petros P; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes represent a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms derived from an abnormal multipotent progenitor cell, characterized by a hyperproliferative bone marrow, dysplasia of the cellular hemopoietic elements and ineffective erythropoiesis. Anemia is a common finding in myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and blood transfusions are the only therapeutic option in approximately 40% of cases. The most serious side effect of regular blood transfusion is iron overload. Currently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2 is routinely used to identify patients with myocardial iron overload and to guide chelation therapy, tailored to prevent iron toxicity in the heart. This is a major validated non-invasive measure of myocardial iron overloading and is superior to surrogates such as serum ferritin, liver iron, ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler parameters. The indication for iron chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndrome patients is currently controversial. However, cardiovascular magnetic resonance may offer an excellent non-invasive, diagnostic tool for iron overload assessment in myelodysplastic syndromes. Further studies are needed to establish the precise indications of chelation therapy and the clinical implications of this treatment on survival in myelodysplastic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND IRON-DEFICIENT ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 62 chronic heart failure (CHF patients with iron-deficient anemia (IDA were studied. Standard CHF therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides was accompanied with the correction of iron deficiency by intravenous injection of Venofer and subsequent Ferro-Folgamma prescription (average daily dose of iron 137,75±5mg. After treatment serum iron level increased by 95,5% and hemoglobin level – by 9,8%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 32,2% and physical activity tolerance – by 47,6%. Before treatment 32 CHF patients with IDA (51,6% had III functional class (FC of CHF according to NYHA and 16 patients (25,8% – IV FC. After treatment I FC was observed in 18 CHF patients (29%, II FC – in 26 patients and only 18 patients demonstrated III FC of CHF.

  8. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND IRON-DEFICIENT ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 62 chronic heart failure (CHF patients with iron-deficient anemia (IDA were studied. Standard CHF therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides was accompanied with the correction of iron deficiency by intravenous injection of Venofer and subsequent Ferro-Folgamma prescription (average daily dose of iron 137,75±5mg. After treatment serum iron level increased by 95,5% and hemoglobin level – by 9,8%. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 32,2% and physical activity tolerance – by 47,6%. Before treatment 32 CHF patients with IDA (51,6% had III functional class (FC of CHF according to NYHA and 16 patients (25,8% – IV FC. After treatment I FC was observed in 18 CHF patients (29%, II FC – in 26 patients and only 18 patients demonstrated III FC of CHF.

  9. Sleep and Neurofunctions Throughout Child Development: Lasting Effects of Early Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirano, Patricio D.; Algarín, Cecilia R.; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcelo I.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) continues to be the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. Infants are at particular risk due to rapid growth and limited dietary sources of iron. An estimated 20–25% of the world’s infants have IDA, with at least as many having iron deficiency without anemia. High prevalence is found primarily in developing countries, but also among poor, minority, and immigrant groups in developed ones. Infants with IDA test lower in mental and motor development assessments and show affective differences. After iron therapy, follow-up studies point to long-lasting differences in several domains. Neurofunctional studies showed slower neural transmission in the auditory system despite 1 year of iron therapy in IDA infants; they still had slower transmission in both the auditory and visual systems at preschool age. Different motor activity patterning in all sleep-waking states and several differences in sleep states organization were reported. Persistant sleep and neurofunctional effects could contribute to reduced potential for optimal behavioral and cognitive outcomes in children with a history of IDA. PMID:19214058

  10. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem in the Philippines especially in infants, children and pregnant women. The immediate cause is inadequate intake of available iron to meet increased iron requirements. Iron supplementation studies on pregnant women showed improvement in haemoglobin level and reduction of prevalence of anaemia. A project on iron fortification of rice with ferrous sulphate is going on. It is proposed to study iron and zinc absorption from weaning food prepared from germinated rice: mungbean, germinated rice: cowpea, and germinated corn:mungbean to support the finding that these formulations will alleviate not only protein-energy malnutrition but contribute to improvement of iron status as well since iron contents are higher and anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannin) are either reduced or eliminated. This study aims to measure the iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated rice-mungbean, germinated rice-cowpea, and germinated corn-mungbean and to indicate usefullness of modifying local foods to improve iron absorption. 24 refs, 4 figs

  11. Budget Impact Analysis of Oral Fisiogen Ferro Forte® versus Intravenous Iron for the Management of Iron Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, Josep; Ascanio, Meritxell

    2018-06-22

    Iron deficiency is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is associated with a decrease in the quality of life of patients and an increase in the risk of other clinical complications. Iron therapy represents one of the fundamentals of patients with CKD. Sucrosomial ® oral iron allows Fisiogen Ferro Forte ® to be used in all patients who are intolerant to treatment by the oral route of administration, or who present with malabsorption of conventional oral iron preparations. The main objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of the oral iron Fisiogen Ferro Forte ® for the management of iron deficiency in CKD patients in Spain. A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2017-2020 for CKD patients with iron deficiency who were candidates for intravenous iron due to a lack of response to oral iron, from the perspective of the Spanish healthcare system. Three subgroups of CKD patients were included in the analysis: predialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and post-transplant. The intravenous iron formulations Ferinject ® , Venofer ® , and Feriv ® were considered appropriate comparators to be used in the model. National data on the prevalence of CKD for the three subgroups of patients were obtained from the literature, and input data on drug utilization and outpatient hospitalizations associated with iron administration were obtained by consulting nephrologists. Nephrology experts were also asked about resources used during medical visits and monitoring tests. Based on the unit costs for each iron therapy and the resources used, the total treatment cost per patient associated with each product was obtained to estimate the global budget impact of increasing the use of Fisiogen Ferro Forte ® . The average annual budget savings due to an increase in Fisiogen Ferro Forte ® and a decrease in intravenous iron have been estimated at €398,685, €180,937, and €195,842 over 4 years for the predialysis, peritoneal dialysis

  12. Iron complexes of pharmaceutical interest: Antianemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Milorad D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations based on different compounds of bi- and trivalent iron are curently used for the prevention and therapy of sideropenic anemia in human and veterinary medicine. The application of preparations based on dextran started about 1950. Up to now, synthesis and production of preparations were performed with the purpose of improving pharmacological performance by using dextran oligosaccharides with different weight - average molar masses and their oxidized and hydrogenated derivatives. Synthesis of polynuclear iron(lll complexs with other oligosaccharides (inulin and pullulan and their derivatives was developed, with potential or valid pharmacological activity for sideropenic anemia treatment.A Review of iron(lll complexes with different oligosaccharides, their physico-chemical characterization pharmaco-biological performance, global structure, further research and possible applications of then complexes, are presented in this paper.

  13. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions

  14. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wood, John [University of Southern California, California (United States); Hamerschlak, Nelson [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  15. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  16. Pharmacokinetics study of Zr-89-labeled melanin nanoparticle in iron-overload mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjun; Yue, Yuanyuan; Pan, Donghui; Yang, Runlin; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Lizhen; Yan, Junjie; Li, Xiaotian; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Melanin, a natural biological pigment present in many organisms, has been found to exhibit multiple functions. An important property of melanin is its ability to chelate metal ions strongly, which might be developed as an iron chelator for iron overload therapy. Herein, we prepared the ultrasmall water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MP) and firstly evaluate the pharmacokinetics of MP in iron-overload mice to provide scientific basis for treating iron-overload. To study the circulation time and biodistribution, MP was labeled with 89 Zr, a long half-life (78.4 h) positron-emitting metal which is suited for the labeling of nanoparticles and large bioactive molecule. MP was chelated with 89 Zr directly at pH 5, resulting in non-decay-corrected yield of 89.6% and a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. The specific activity was at least190 MBq/μmol. The 89 Zr-MP was stable in human plasma and PBS for at least 48 h. The half-life of 89 Zr-MP was about 15.70 ± 1.74 h in iron-overload mice. Biodistribution studies and MicroPET imaging showed that 89 Zr-MP mainly accumulated in liver and spleen, which are the target organ of iron-overload. The results indicate that the melanin nanoparticle is promising for further iron overload therapy.

  17. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement...... available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library......, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia...

  18. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  19. Terapia quelante oral com deferiprona em pacientes com sobrecarga de ferro Oral iron chelator therapy with deferiprone in patients with overloaded iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fabron Jr

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da introdução da quelação parenteral de ferro com desferoxamina há mais de trinta anos, 50% dos pacientes com talassemia major morrem antes dos 35 anos de idade, predominantemente por insuficiência cardíaca secundária a sobrecarga de ferro. Embora a desferrioxamina, possa reduzir ou estabilizar o acúmulo de ferro no corpo, um grande número de pacientes não recebe terapia adequada com este quelante devido principalmente à intolerância a um regime que requer administração parenteral prolongada, cinco a sete dias por semana. Para esses pacientes, a deferiprona, um quelante oralmente ativo, surge com uma alternativa de tratamento para o controle da sobrecarga de ferro. Um grande número de estudos clínicos demonstraram a segurança e eficácia da deferiprona. Estima-se que mais de 6 mil pacientes com sobrecarga de ferro já tenham sido tratados com este quelante, com alguns pacientes tomando a droga por mais de dez anos. A quantidade de ferro excretada induzida pela deferiprona é diretamente influenciada pela dose da droga e pelo grau de sobrecarga de ferro do paciente. Recentemente, demonstrou-se que desferrioxamina e deferiprona exibem capacidades quelantes diversas e que, usados simultaneamente ou numa terapia sequencial, promovem uma excreção de ferro adicional ou sinérgica com rápida redução na carga de ferro do corpo. Pela primeira vez é possível considerar esquemas de quelação individualizados baseados nas necessidades individuais de cada paciente.Despite the introduction of the parenteral iron chelator desferrioxamine more than 30 years ago, 50% of patients with thalassemia major die before the age of 35 years, predominantly due to iron-induced heart failure. Although desferrioxamine can reduce or stabilize the iron load, many patients still do not receive adequate chelation mainly due to its cumbersome mode of administration which impairs the compliance with the regime of repeatedly subcutaneous infusions

  20. A child with severe iron-deficiency anemia and a complex TMPRSS6 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Anna Paola; Ferro, Elisa; Cannavò, Laura; La Rosa, Maria Angela; Zirilli, Giuseppina

    2017-10-01

    We report a case of a 7-year-old girl with severe hypochromic microcytic anemia, who was unresponsive to classical iron supplements. We suspected IRIDA, iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia, a genetic iron metabolism disorder, caused by TMPRSS6 variations. TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a negative regulator of hepcidin, and its pathological variants are related to normal to high levels of hepcidin. We analyzed the TMPRSS6 gene and we improved clinical management of the patient, selecting the appropriate supplementation therapy. Intervention & Technique: The parenteral iron therapy was started, but the patient was only partially responsive and the anemia persisted. To confirm the diagnosis, the TMPRSS6 gene sequence was analyzed by DNA sequencing and other relevant biochemical parameters were evaluated. The TMPRSS6 sequence analysis showed a complex genotype with a rare heterozygous missense variant, in addition to other common polymorphisms. The serum hepcidin value was normal. We unexpectedly observed a normalization of patient's hemoglobin (Hb) levels only after liposomal iron treatment. The proband was symptomatic for IRIDA during a critical phase of growth and development, but we did not find a clearly causative genotype. A long-term result, improving stably patient's Hb levels, was obtained only after liposomal iron supplementation. Children may be at greater risk for iron deficiency and the degree of anemia as well as the response to the iron supplements varies markedly patient to patient. Here, we show the importance of comprehensive study of these patients in order to collect useful information about genotype-phenotype association of genes involved in iron metabolism.

  1. Understanding the management of iron deficiency anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact on cellular respiration and ATP production, which in turn, decreases DNA ... by stimulating the degradation of ferroportin, the protein responsible for the ... to respond to oral iron therapy after 4 to 6 weeks (an increase of less than 1 g ...

  2. China's emergence as the world's leading iron-ore-consuming country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, W.S.

    2004-01-01

    China has become the leading iron ore consuming nation, and, based on recent steel production capacity increases and plans for more, its consumption will almost certainly to continue to grow. China's iron ore industry, however, faces a number of problems. China's iron ore is low-grade, expensive to process, and its mines are being depleted. For many Chinese steelmakers, particularly in the coastal regions, the delivered cost of domestic iron ore, is more than the delivered cost of foreign ore. Thus China's iron ore imports are expected to increase. As China's growth continues, it will almost certainly surpass Japan to become the leading iron ore importing country as well. Without China's increasing appetite for iron ore, the world iron ore market would be flat or declining. China's recent imports largely offset the slump in demand in North America and Europe. China is regarded by the iron ore industry as the growth sector for the next decade. Although Chinese imports are expected to continue their rapid increase and imports in other Asian countries are expected to continue growing, there appears to be enough greenfield and expansion projects to meet future demand for iron ore worldwide. Present suppliers of iron ore, Australia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will probably be the chief beneficiaries of China's increasing consumption of iron ore. How long China can continue its extraordinary growth is the primary issue for the future of the iron ore industry. Based on the number and size of planned blast furnaces it appears that China's growth could continue for several more years. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis.

  3. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boturão-Neto E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF. Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  4. Asthma as a disruption in iron homeostasis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam’s razor to asthma, it is proposed that there is one cause underlying the numerous phenotypes of this disease and that the responsible molecular pathway is a deficiency of iron in the lung tissues. This deficiency can be either absolute (e.g. asthma in the neonate and during both pregnancy and menstruation) or functional (e.g. asthma associated with infections, smoking, and obesity). Comparable associations between asthma co-morbidity (e.g. eczema, urticaria, restless leg syndrome, and pulmonary hypertension) with iron deficiency support such a shared mechanistic pathway. Therapies directed at asthma demonstrate a capacity to impact iron homeostasis, further strengthening the relationship. Finally, pathophysiologic events producing asthma, including inflammation, increases in Th2 cells, and muscle contraction, can correlate with iron availability. Recognition of a potential association between asthma and an absolute and/or functional iron deficiency suggests specific therapeutic interventions including inhaled iron. Asthma is a public health issue that has environmental triggers. Iron homeostasis is an essential mechanism whereby the body manages the impact of environmental agents on overall

  5. Enhanced iron removal from liver parenchymal cells in experimental iron overload: liposome encapsulation of HBED and phenobarbital administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Lau, E.H.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl]-ethylene-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) in removing radioiron introduced into the parenchymal cells of mouse liver as 59 Fe-ferritin has been investigated. The effectiveness of HBED, an iron chelator of low water solubility, has also been compared with that of desferrioxamine (DF), an iron chelator of high water solubility and currently in clinical use for treatment of transfusional iron overload. Using the 59 Fe excretion as the measure of effectiveness of chelation therapy and a standardized single chelator dose of 25 mg/kg, they have found that: (1) a saline suspension of HBED, prepared by sonication and given intraperitoneally to mice, promotes a small but significant increase in excretion of radioiron compared to the untreated controls, whereas DF, in its free form, is ineffective; (2) HBED encapsulated in lipid bilayers of liposomes and given intravenously is superior to nonencapsulated HBED; (3) DF encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes is ineffective in removing iron given in the form of ferritin; (4) administration of phenobarbital in drinking water, at a concentration of 1 g/liter, induces a 30%-55% increase of iron excretion from untreated control mice and also from mice given HBED either in liposome-encapsulated or nonencapsulated form. HBED is superior to DF for removal of storage iron from liver parenchymal cells and liposomes are useful carriers for iron chelators of low water solubility

  6. Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Emre

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Iron Deficiency Anemia Transient ischemic attacks are episodes of transient focal ischemia involving the brain or brainstem. They are commonly two to thirty minutes in duration and lasting less than 24 hours. Anemia of iron deficiency isn’t frequently cause for transient ischemic attack. It has been reported as a risk factor for childhood ischemic strokes. In the iron deficiency anemia, T‹A may develop as result of hypercoagulable state and increased viscosity that is caused by anemic hypoxia that is result of reduce hemoglobine level, seconder thrombosis and microcytose As iron deficiency anemia has been reported so rarely in adult patients with transient ischemic attacks as a cause, we aimed to discuss the clinical and outcome features of two cases with iron deficiency anemia and transient ischemic attacks in this study. Materials and methods: Routine neurologic examination, biochemical screen, serological tests, vasculitic markers, thyroid function tests, vitamin B 12 level, cranial imaging, vertebral carotid doppler USG examination was conducted in the two patients. Anemia of iron deficiency was found as the only risk factor for TIA and the two patients were treated with replacement of iron and antiagregan therapy. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality through the two years of follow-up. The iron deficiency anemia may be cause of many neurologic problems such a irritability, lethargy, headache, development retardation except from T‹A. In the iron deficiency anemia, early diagnosis and treatment is important

  7. In-situ Characterization and Mapping of Iron Compounds in Alzheimer's Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Terry, J.; Dobson, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953, where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown to accumulate at sites of brain pathology such as senile plaques. However, since this discovery, progress in understanding the origin, role and nature of iron compounds associated with neurodegeneration has been slow. Here we report, for the first time, the location and characterization of iron compounds in human AD brain tissue sections. Iron fluorescence was mapped over a frontal-lobe tissue section from an Alzheimer's patient, and anomalous iron concentrations were identified using synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques at 5 (micro)m spatial resolution. Concentrations of ferritin and magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide potentially indicating disrupted brain-iron metabolism, were evident. These results demonstrate a practical means of correlating iron compounds and disease pathology in-situ and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and potential therapies.

  8. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  9. Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron therapy as an alternative/adjunct to allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Breymann, C; García-Erce, J A; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Comin, J; Bisbe, E

    2008-04-01

    Anaemia is a common condition among patients admitted to hospital medicosurgical departments, as well as in critically ill patients. Anaemia is more frequently due to absolute iron deficiency (e.g. chronic blood loss) or functional iron deficiency (e.g. chronic inflammatory states), with other causes being less frequent. In addition, preoperative anaemia is one of the major predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion. In surgical patients, postoperative anaemia is mainly caused by perioperative blood loss, and it might be aggravated by inflammation-induced inhibition of erythropoietin and functional iron deficiency (a condition that cannot be corrected by the administration of oral iron). All these mechanisms may be involved in the anaemia of the critically ill. Intravenous iron administration seems to be safe, as very few severe side-effects were observed, and may result in hastened recovery from anaemia and lower transfusion requirements. However, it is noteworthy that many of the recommendations given for intravenous iron treatment are not supported by a high level of evidence and this must be borne in mind when making decisions regarding its application to a particular patient. Nonetheless, this also indicates the need for further large, randomized controlled trials on the safety and efficacy of intravenous iron for the treatment of anaemia in different clinical settings.

  10. Intravenous Iron Carboxymaltose as a Potential Therapeutic in Anemia of Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lofruthe

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron supplementation is an effective therapy in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, but controversial in anemia of inflammation (AI. Unbound iron can be used by bacteria and viruses for their replication and enhance the inflammatory response. Nowadays available high molecular weight iron complexes for intravenous iron substitution, such as ferric carboxymaltose, might be useful in AI, as these pharmaceuticals deliver low doses of free iron over a prolonged period of time. We tested the effects of intravenous iron carboxymaltose in murine AI: Wild-type mice were exposed to the heat-killed Brucella abortus (BA model and treated with or without high molecular weight intravenous iron. 4h after BA injection followed by 2h after intravenous iron treatment, inflammatory cytokines were upregulated by BA, but not enhanced by iron treatment. In long term experiments, mice were fed a regular or an iron deficient diet and then treated with intravenous iron or saline 14 days after BA injection. Iron treatment in mice with BA-induced AI was effective 24h after iron administration. In contrast, mice with IDA (on iron deficiency diet prior to BA-IA required 7d to recover from AI. In these experiments, inflammatory markers were not further induced in iron-treated compared to vehicle-treated BA-injected mice. These results demonstrate that intravenous iron supplementation effectively treated the murine BA-induced AI without further enhancement of the inflammatory response. Studies in humans have to reveal treatment options for AI in patients.

  11. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  12. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary. - Mechanical properties under compressive stresses. - Material properties at elevated temperatures. - Influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties. - Production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported. (Auth.)

  13. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary: mechanical properties under compressive stresses; material properties at elevated temperatures; influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties; production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported

  14. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German E

    2017-06-21

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread and frequent nutritional disorder in the world. It affects a high proportion of children and women in developing countries and is also significantly prevalent in the industrialised world, with a clear predominance in adolescents and menstruating females. Iron is essential for optimal cognitive function and physical performance, not only as a binding site of oxygen but also as a critical constituent of many enzymes. Therefore iron deficiency at all its levels - nonanaemic iron deficiency, iron deficiency with microcytosis or hypochromia and iron deficiency anaemia - should be treated. In the presence of normal stores, however, preventative iron administration is inefficient, has side effects and seems to be harmful. In symptomatic patients with fatigue or in a population at risk for iron deficiency (adolescence, heavy or prolonged menstruation, high performance sport, vegetarian or vegan diet, eating disorder, underweight), a baseline set of blood tests including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and serum ferritin levels are important to monitor iron deficiency. To avoid false negative results (high ferritin levels in spite of iron deficiency), an acute phase reaction should be excluded by history and measurement of C-reactive protein. An algorithm leads through this diagnostic process and the decision making for a possible treatment. For healthy males and females aged >15 years, a ferritin cut-off of 30 µg/l is appropriate. For children from 6-12 years and younger adolescents from 12-15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20 µg/l, respectively, are recommended. As a first step in treatment, counselling and oral iron therapy are usually combined. Integrating haem and free iron regularly into the diet, looking for enhancers and avoiding inhibitors of iron uptake is beneficial. In order to prevent reduced compliance, mainly as a result of

  15. Hypericin-bearing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, Harald; Subatzus, Daniel; Tietze, Rainer; Janko, Christina; Poettler, Marina; Stiegelschmitt, Alfons; Schuster, Matthias; Maake, Caroline; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Combining the concept of magnetic drug targeting and photodynamic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. A high selectivity as well as significant fewer side effects can be achieved by this method, since the therapeutic treatment only takes place in the area where accumulation of the particles by an external electromagnet and radiation by a laser system overlap. In this article, a novel hypericin-bearing drug delivery system has been developed by synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with a hypericin-linked functionalized dextran coating. For that, sterically stabilized dextran-coated SPIONs were produced by coprecipitation and crosslinking with epichlorohydrin to enhance stability. Carboxymethylation of the dextran shell provided a functionalized platform for linking hypericin via glutaraldehyde. Particle sizes obtained by dynamic light scattering were in a range of 55-85 nm, whereas investigation of single magnetite or maghemite particle diameter was performed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and resulted in approximately 4.5-5.0 nm. Surface chemistry of those particles was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ζ potential measurements, indicating successful functionalization and dispersal stabilization due to a mixture of steric and electrostatic repulsion. Flow cytometry revealed no toxicity of pure nanoparticles as well as hypericin without exposure to light on Jurkat T-cells, whereas the combination of hypericin, alone or loaded on particles, with light-induced cell death in a concentration and exposure time-dependent manner due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the combination of SPIONs' targeting abilities with hypericin's phototoxic properties represents a promising approach for merging magnetic drug targeting with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer.

  16. A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Jinlong; Li, Jinqing; Huang, Xi; Yang, Qing; Shao, Yongzhao; Axelrod, Deborah; Smith, Julia; Singh, Baljit; Krauter, Stephanie; Chiriboga, Luis; Yang, Zhaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we used immuno-competent and immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models as well as hemoglobin as a marker of iron status in young BC patients to demonstrate whether host iron deficiency plays a pro-metastatic role. We showed that mice fed an iron-deficient diet had significantly higher tumor volumes and lung metastasis compared to those fed normal iron diets. Iron deficiency mainly altered Notch but not TGF-β and Wnt signaling in the primary tumor, leading to the activation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was revealed by increased expression of Snai1 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Importantly, correcting iron deficiency by iron therapy reduced primary tumor volume, lung metastasis, and reversed EMT markers in mice. Furthermore, we found that mild iron deficiency was significantly associated with lymph node invasion in young BC patients (p<0.002). Together, our finding indicates that host iron deficiency could be a contributor of poor prognosis in young BC patients

  17. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adolescents Who Present with Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Amanda G; McCavit, Timothy L; Buchanan, George R; Powers, Jacquelyn M

    2017-04-01

    To assess the clinical severity and initial treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in female adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in our center. Retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records via search of administrative records using International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes for IDA or unspecified anemia and disorders of menstruation. Children's Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. One hundred seven patients with HMB and concomitant IDA (median age, 14.4 years) who presented to the outpatient, emergency department, and/or inpatient settings. The median initial hemoglobin concentration for all patients (n = 107) was 7.4 g/dL, and most (74%, n = 79) presented to the emergency department or via inpatient transfer. Symptomatic IDA was treated with blood transfusion in 46 (43%, n = 46). Ferrous sulfate was the most commonly prescribed oral iron therapy. Seven patients received intravenous iron therapy either initially or after oral iron treatment failure. Combined oral contraceptives were commonly prescribed for abnormal uterine bleeding, yet 10% of patients (n = 11) received no hormonal therapy during their initial management. Evaluation for underlying bleeding disorders was inconsistent. Severe anemia because of IDA and HMB resulting in urgent medical care, including hospitalization and blood transfusion, is a common but underemphasized problem in adolescent girls. In addition to prevention and early diagnosis, meaningful efforts to improve initial management of adolescents with severe HMB and IDA are necessary. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anemia and iron deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Connor, Susan; Virgin, Garth; Ong, David Eng Hui; Pereyra, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease, and also with liver disorders. Different factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption and inflammation may contribute to IDA. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are frequently referred to gastroenterologists, the approach to diagnosis and selection of treatment as well as follow-up measures is not standardized and suboptimal. Iron deficiency, even without anemia, can substantially impact physical and cognitive function and reduce quality of life. Therefore, regular iron status assessment and awareness of the clinical consequences of impaired iron status are critical. While the range of options for treatment of IDA is increasing due to the availability of effective and well-tolerated parenteral iron preparations, a comprehensive overview of IDA and its therapy in patients with gastrointestinal conditions is currently lacking. Furthermore, definitions and assessment of iron status lack harmonization and there is a paucity of expert guidelines on this topic. This review summarizes current thinking concerning IDA as a common co-morbidity in specific gastrointestinal and liver disorders, and thus encourages a more unified treatment approach to anemia and iron deficiency, while offering gastroenterologists guidance on treatment options for IDA in everyday clinical practice. PMID:27672287

  19. Anemia and iron deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jürgen; Connor, Susan; Virgin, Garth; Ong, David Eng Hui; Pereyra, Lisandro

    2016-09-21

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions other than inflammatory bowel disease, and also with liver disorders. Different factors such as chronic bleeding, malabsorption and inflammation may contribute to IDA. Although patients with symptoms of anemia are frequently referred to gastroenterologists, the approach to diagnosis and selection of treatment as well as follow-up measures is not standardized and suboptimal. Iron deficiency, even without anemia, can substantially impact physical and cognitive function and reduce quality of life. Therefore, regular iron status assessment and awareness of the clinical consequences of impaired iron status are critical. While the range of options for treatment of IDA is increasing due to the availability of effective and well-tolerated parenteral iron preparations, a comprehensive overview of IDA and its therapy in patients with gastrointestinal conditions is currently lacking. Furthermore, definitions and assessment of iron status lack harmonization and there is a paucity of expert guidelines on this topic. This review summarizes current thinking concerning IDA as a common co-morbidity in specific gastrointestinal and liver disorders, and thus encourages a more unified treatment approach to anemia and iron deficiency, while offering gastroenterologists guidance on treatment options for IDA in everyday clinical practice.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of a class of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane derivatives as iron depletion antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Gai, Yongkang; Zhang, Shasha; Ke, Lei; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guangya

    2018-01-15

    Iron depletion has been confirmed as an efficient strategy for cancer treatment. In the current study, a series of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane derivatives HE-NO2A, HP-NO2A and NE2P2A, as well as the bifunctional chelators p-NO 2 -PhPr-NE3TA and p-NH 2 -PhPr-NE3TA were synthesized and evaluated as iron-depleting agents for the potential anti-cancer therapy against human hepatocellular carcinoma. The cytotoxicity of these chelators was measured using hepatocellular cancer cells and compared with the clinically available iron depletion agent DFO and the universal metal chelator DTPA. All these 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-based chelators exhibited much stronger antiproliferative activity than DFO and DTPA. Among them, chelators with phenylpropyl side chains, represented by p-NO 2 -PhPr-NE3TA and p-NH 2 -PhPr-NE3TA, displayed the highest antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cells. Hence, these compounds are attractive candidates for the advanced study as iron depletion agents for the potential anti-cancer therapy, and could be further in conjugation with a targeting moiety for the future development in targeted iron depletion therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Budapest Meeting 2005 intensified networking on ethics of science: the case of reproductive cloning, germline gene therapy and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steendam, Guido; Dinnyés, András; Mallet, Jacques; Meloni, Rolando; Casabona, Carlos Romeo; González, Jorge Guerra; Kure, Josef; Szathmáry, Eörs; Vorstenbosch, Jan; Molnár, Péter; Edbrooke, David; Sándor, Judit; Oberfrank, Ferenc; Cole-Turner, Ron; Hargittai, István; Littig, Beate; Ladikas, Miltos; Mordini, Emilio; Roosendaal, Hans E; Salvi, Maurizio; Gulyás, Balázs; Malpede, Diana

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports on the meeting of the Sounding Board of the EU Reprogenetics Project that was held in Budapest, Hungary, 6-9 November 2005. The Reprogenetics Project runs from 2004 until 2007 and has a brief to study the ethical aspects of human reproductive cloning and germline gene therapy. Discussions during The Budapest Meeting are reported in depth in this paper as well as the initiatives to involve the participating groups and others in ongoing collaborations with the goal of forming an integrated network of European resources in the fields of ethics of science.

  2. Erythrocytic ferroportin reduces intracellular iron accumulation, hemolysis, and malaria risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Wu, Jian; Shah, Binal N; Greutélaers, Katja C; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre, Hayden; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Thuma, Philip E; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Gordeuk, Victor R; Rouault, Tracey A

    2018-03-30

    Malaria parasites invade red blood cells (RBCs), consume copious amounts of hemoglobin, and severely disrupt iron regulation in humans. Anemia often accompanies malaria disease; however, iron supplementation therapy inexplicably exacerbates malarial infections. Here we found that the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN) was highly abundant in RBCs, and iron supplementation suppressed its activity. Conditional deletion of the Fpn gene in erythroid cells resulted in accumulation of excess intracellular iron, cellular damage, hemolysis, and increased fatality in malaria-infected mice. In humans, a prevalent FPN mutation, Q248H (glutamine to histidine at position 248), prevented hepcidin-induced degradation of FPN and protected against severe malaria disease. FPN Q248H appears to have been positively selected in African populations in response to the impact of malaria disease. Thus, FPN protects RBCs against oxidative stress and malaria infection. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Evaluation of cardiac and hepatic iron overload in thalassemia major patients with T2* magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidiyat, Pustika Amalia; Liauw, Felix; Sekarsari, Damayanti; Putriasih, Siti Ayu; Berdoukas, Vasili; Pennell, Dudley J

    2017-09-01

    Recent advancements have promoted the use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the non-invasive detection of iron overload in various organs for thalassemia major patients. This study aims to determine the iron load in the heart and liver of patients with thalassemia major using T2* MRI and to evaluate its correlation with serum ferritin level and iron chelation therapy. This cross-sectional study included 162 subjects diagnosed with thalassemia major, who were classified into acceptable, mild, moderate, or severe cardiac and hepatic iron overload following their T2* MRI results, respectively, and these were correlated to their serum ferritin levels and iron chelation therapy. The study found that 85.2% of the subjects had normal cardiac iron stores. In contrast, 70.4% of the subjects had severe liver iron overload. A significant but weak correlation (r = -0.28) was found between cardiac T2* MRI and serum ferritin, and a slightly more significant correlation (r = 0.37) was found between liver iron concentration (LIC) and serum ferritin. The findings of this study are consistent with several other studies, which show that patients generally manifest with liver iron overload prior to cardiac iron overload. Moreover, iron accumulation demonstrated by T2* MRI results also show a significant correlation to serum ferritin levels. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Indonesia, which supports the fact that T2* MRI is undoubtedly valuable in the early detection of cardiac and hepatic iron overload in thalassemia major patients.

  4. Ebselen inhibits iron-induced tau phosphorylation by attenuating DMT1 up-regulation and cellular iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Xin, Na; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Zhan-You

    2012-08-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently reported that divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is upregulated in an AD transgenic mouse brain, and that silencing of DMT1, which reduces cellular iron influx, results in inhibition of amyloidogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential target of DMT1 for AD therapy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of DMT1 with ebselen, a DMT1 transport inhibitor, could affect tau phosphorylation. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with ebselen and then treated with ferrous sulfate (dissolved in ascorbic acid), and the effects of ebselen on tau phosphorylation and the relative signaling pathways were examined. Our results showed that ebselen decreased iron influx, reduced iron-induced ROS production, inhibited the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and ultimately attenuated the levels of tau phosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Ser396 and Thr231. The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on AD is not only related to its antioxidant activity as reported previously, but is also associated with a reduction in tau phosphorylation by inhibition of DMT1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost of post-operative intravenous iron therapy in total lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Naveira, Enrique; Seara, Javier; Pavía, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total lower limb arthroplasty are still high (20–50%), and post-operative intravenous iron has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements for this surgery. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is also likely to be cost-effective. Materials and methods Data from 182 matched-pairs of total lower limb arthroplasty patients, managed with a restrictive transfusion protocol and without (control group) or with post-operative intravenous iron (iron group), were retrospectively reviewed. Acquisition and administration costs of iron (iron sucrose or ferric carboxymaltose) and allogeneic red cell concentrates, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged stay in hospital were used for blood management cost analysis. Results Patients in the iron group received 600 mg intravenous iron, without clinically relevant incidents, and had a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (11.5% vs 26.4% for the iron and control groups, respectively; p=0.001). The reduction in transfusion rate was more pronounced in anaemic patients (17% vs 40%; p=0.015) than in non-anaemic ones (9.6% vs 21.2%; p=0.011). There were no differences with respect to post-operative infection rate. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2–2.6]). As intravenous iron reduces the allogeneic transfusion rate, both iron formulations were cost-neutral in the different cost scenarios (−25.5 to 62.1 €/patient for iron sucrose, and −51.1 to 64.4 €/patient for ferric carboxymaltose). Discussion In patients presenting with or without pre-operative anaemia, post-operative intravenous iron after total lower limb arthroplasty seems to be safe and is associated with reduced transfusion rates, without incremental costs. For anaemic patients, its efficacy could be increased by associating some other blood-saving method. PMID:24120595

  6. Increasing Provasculature Complexity in the Arabidopsis Embryo May Increase Total Iron Content in Seeds: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannetz Roschzttardtz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature. It has been reported that cotyledon provasculature pattern complexity can be modified, thus we hypothesize that changes in the complexity of embryo vein patterns may affect total iron content in Arabidopsis seeds. This approach could be used as basis to develop strategies aimed to biofortify seeds.

  7. 76th Annual Meeting | Annual Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural materials for the future: The case of bulk metallic glasses ... Cell therapy for ocular surface: A successful model of regenerative medicine. 11.45. SHUBHA TOLE, Tata ... Business Meeting of Fellows (Seminar Hall). 17.30 - 18.00.

  8. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome with Improvement After Iron Repletion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient presented with long-standing dysphagia and symptomatic anemia. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an upper esophageal web arising from the anterior wall. She was started on iron therapy daily and after 2 months both the dysphagia and anemia had improved significantly. Therefore, though this is a ...

  9. Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Singh, Sucha; Valore, Erika V; Jung, Grace; Popovic, Branimir; Poddar, Minakshi; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Ganz, Tomas; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-08-01

    Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment options for iron-induced damage are limited, partly because there is lack of animal models of human disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of iron overload in liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO), which are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure. Iron overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times. To ameliorate an oxidant-mediated component of tissue injury, N-Acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine (NAC) was added to drinking water of mice on iron overload diet. KO on iron diet (KO +Fe) exhibited remarkable inflammation, followed by steatosis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, regenerating nodules and occurrence of occasional HCC. Increased injury in KO +Fe was associated with activated protein kinase B (AKT), ERK, and NF-κB, along with reappearance of β-catenin and target gene Cyp2e1, which promoted lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage. Addition of NAC to drinking water protected KO +Fe from hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis, and prevented activation of AKT, ERK, NF-κB and reappearance of β-catenin. The absence of hepatic β-catenin predisposes mice to hepatic injury and fibrosis following iron overload, which was reminiscent of hemochromatosis and associated with enhanced steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Disease progression was notably alleviated by antioxidant therapy, which supports its chemopreventive role in the management of chronic iron overload disorders. Lack of animal models for iron overload disorders makes it hard to study the disease process for improving therapies. Feeding high iron diet to mice that lack the β-catenin gene in liver cells led to increased inflammation followed by fat accumulation, cell death and wound healing that mimicked

  10. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  11. The association of pagophagia with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan; Serin, Ender

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between pagophagia (compulsive ice eating) and H. pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia. We identified H. pylori infection using the (13)C-urea breath test in 45 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (group 1) and 55 patients with iron-deficiency anemia and pagophagia (group 2). Subgroups for testing oral intestinal iron absorption were randomly assigned from both groups. These subgroups consisted of (a) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia, (b) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia and pagophagia, (c) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia, pagophagia, and H. pylori infection before the eradication of H. pylori and (d) subgroup c after eradication therapy. There was no difference in the rate of H. pylori infection in the iron-deficiency anemia groups, with or without pagophagia. Furthermore, oral intestinal iron absorption was not influenced by pagophagia and/or H. pylori infection. Pagophagia did not increase the risk of H. pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia. Pagophagia and H. pylori infection do not synergistically affect the development of intestinal iron absorption abnormalities.

  12. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  13. Tip of the iceberg: Extra–haematological consequences of early iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareeda Sohrabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency in early pregnancy and childhood can potentially have long-lasting effects on brain development and cognitive abilities and is ultimately engrossed with many confounding factors which need to be separated from the disease process in order to appreciate the real impact of this condition. Long-term studies are needed to assess whether normalisation of cognitive abilities with iron repletion therapy occurs, as they are currently sparse in the literature.

  14. Universal iron fortification of foods: the view of a hematologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murilo Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of reducing the high incidence of iron deficiency anemia, the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA adopted Resolution 344 in December 2002, which made the addition of iron and folic acid to all industrialized wheat and maize flours in Brazil compulsory. After a series of doubts about this universal measure of food fortification, a review of case reports on long-term medicinal iron intake published in the medical literature was undertaken to investigate the clinical behavior of this hematological conduct. Long-term medicinal iron ingestion is an extremely rare and serious situation. The data suggest that there are cases of hemochromatosis in women whose illnesses were accelerated with this therapy. It is very difficult to determine the amount of iron ingested by Brazilian citizens in the current system of fortification, but there is evidence that there has been an appreciable increase. Although iron fortification of food has been recognized by some authors as a good strategy to combat iron deficiency, some nation shave abandoned this measure. The patient with hemochromatosis is the most affected by compulsory iron fortification and as this disease is now considered a public health problem, we believe that Resolution 344 of ANVISA should be reviewed in order to find a solution beneficial to all segments of the Brazilian population; one should not try to correct one condition (iron deficiency by exacerbating another (acceleration of iron overload cases.

  15. Status of nuclear data needed for radiation therapy and existing data development activities in Member States. Summary report of a consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the ''Status of nuclear data needed for radiation therapy and existing data development activities in Member States'' held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 9-11 December 1996. The present activities on nuclear data for radiotherapy are summarized in Member States, the present status of nuclear data for photon, neutron and proton therapy is reviewed and topics which are not presently covered by other institutions are identified. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  16. Reducing the iron burden and improving survival in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanzay K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Karim Bayanzay, Lama Alzoebie Department of Hematology, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates Abstract: Hypertransfusion regimens for thalassemic patients revolutionized the management of severe thalassemia; transforming a disease which previously led to early infant death into a chronic condition. The devastating effect of the accrued iron from chronic blood transfusions necessitates a more finely tuned approach to limit the complications of the disease, as well as its treatment. A comprehensive approach including carefully tailored transfusion protocol, continuous monitoring and assessment of total body iron levels, and iron chelation are currently the mainstay in treating iron overload. There are also indications for ancillary treatments, such as splenectomy and fetal hemoglobin induction. The main cause of death in iron overload continues to be related to cardiac complications. However, since the widespread use of iron chelation started in the 1970s, there has been a general improvement in survival in these patients. Keywords: hematology, chelators, deferoxamine, deferiserox, deferiprone, liver iron concentration, iron overload, serum ferritin concentration, hepatic iron storage, iron chelation therapy

  17. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport. Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1 ) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2 ) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3 ) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4 ) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels. Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively ( P Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc ( P zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450.

  18. Landsat science team meeting: Summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The summer meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held at the USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center July 7-9, 2015, in Sioux Falls, SD. The LST co-chairs, Tom Loveland [EROS—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist], opened the three-day meeting on an upbeat note following the recent successful launch of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 mission on June 23, 2015 (see image on page 14), and the news that work on Landsat 9 has begun, with a projected launch date of 2023.

  19. The Budapest Meeting 2005. Intensified networking on ethics of science : The case of reproductive cloning, germline gene therapy and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steendam, Guido; Dinnyes, Andras; Mallet, Jacques; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the meeting of the Sounding Board of the EU Reprogenetics Project that was held in Budapest, Hungary, 6–9 November 2005. The Reprogenetics Project runs from 2004 until 2007 and has a brief to study the ethical aspects of human reproductive cloning and germline gene therapy.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  1. Dietary assessment of vitamin A and iron among pregnant women at

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chege

    Consumption Report indicated that 30% of pregnant women in Nyanza do not meet ... Poverty, lack of nutrition knowledge and poor attendance to MCH by ... Sixty-five percent (64.8%) pregnant women had iron consumption levels of 25cm. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70.

  2. Competition of dipositive metal ions for Fe (III) binding sites in chelation therapy of Iron Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, Fouzia S.

    2005-01-01

    Iron overload is a condition in which excessive iron deposited in the liver, kidney and spleen of human beings in the patients of beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Instead of its importance iron could be toxic when in excess, it damages the tissues. For the treatment of iron overload, a drug desferrioxamine mesylate has been used. It is linear trihydroxamic acid, a natural siderophore produced by streptomyces which removes the extra iron from body. Salicylhydroxamate type siderphore. In present research salicylhydroxamate was used for the complexation with dipositive metal ions which are available in biological environments such as Mn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II). The aim of our work was to study the competition reactions between Fe (III) and other dipositive ions; to calculate the thermodynamic data of chelation of these metal ions complexes with hydroxamate by computer program and comparison with hydroxamate complexes. (author)

  3. The New Approaches to Improve the Morpho-Functional Readiness for Systematic School Training of Six-Year Old Children with Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mokiia-Serbinа

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to increase morpho-functional readiness for systematic school training of six-year old children with iron deficiency. Materials and methods. The study included 155 six-year old children in preschools with diagnosed iron deficiency and 50 healthy children. Patients were randomized into the basic group (52 children with established latent iron deficiency and 25 persons with iron deficiency anemia I degree and comparison group (53 children with latent iron deficiency and 25 children with iron deficiency anemia I degree. Children with iron deficiency received standard iron therapy. In the basic group combined drug with multicomponent action was additionally used. There were studied such parameters as anthropometric (height, weight, chest perimeter, fine motor skills of hands, biological (change of first teeth, the ratio of the circumference of the head to the body length, the degree of ossification of the left hand skeleton. Results. Under the combined therapy anthropometric parameters and fine motor hand skills restored to the level of healthy children reliably faster. Parameters ofbiological development improved in both groups with no statistical difference. Conclusions. Iron therapy supplied by multi-component drug in six-year old children with iron deficiency enhances their morpho-functional readiness for systematic school training.

  4. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  5. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  6. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  7. Efficacy of intravenous iron in treating iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Are there predictors of response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ferreiro Iglesias

    Full Text Available Introduction: in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a very common disorder. Until recently, oral iron has been the mainstay therapy, nevertheless it has been associated with intolerance and noncompliance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron in IDA in IBD patients and the secondary aim was to investigate whether other potential factors could influence in the response to the treatment. Design: an open-label, prospective, consecutive, single centre study. Material and methods: we performed our study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD with severe anaemia or intolerance with oral iron. All of them received intravenous sacarose iron and did biochemistry profile with haemoglobin (Hb. Moreover, the correlation with other variables was studied: age, sex, smoking habit, IBD type, previous surgery and type of surgery and other treatments. Response was defined as Hb increase of ≥ 2 g/dL or normalization of the levels. Results: fifty-four patients were included into the study, 34 (63% with UC y 20 (37% with CD, 18 (33.3% men and 36 women (66.6% and the average was 48 ± 14 years. The total proportion of responders was 52% (SD ± 05; 43% of the patients reached Hb ≥ 2 g/dl and y 9% of them normalized Hb. Only the utilization of 5-ASA was associated with low response to iron treatment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: our study suggests that response to intravenous iron is achievable in the majority of patients with IBD and severe IDA or intolerance treatment with oral iron. Moreover, the patients with consumption of 5-ASA could had less response to the treatment.

  8. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing working hours of 8:00 am till 4:00 pm and caters ... Consecutive apparently healthy children whose parents ... Children on long-term transfusion therapy b. ... Social class was determined from occupation and ed- .... gression model was used to assess the effects of the .... iron stores in 6–24-month-old New Zealanders.

  9. Hypericin-bearing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery in photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unterweger H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Harald Unterweger,1 Daniel Subatzus,1 Rainer Tietze,1 Christina Janko,1 Marina Poettler,1 Alfons Stiegelschmitt,2 Matthias Schuster,3 Caroline Maake,4 Aldo R Boccaccini,5 Christoph Alexiou11ENT Department, Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON, Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung Professorship, University Hospital Erlangen; 2Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 3Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 4Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr, Zurich, Switzerland; 5Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Combining the concept of magnetic drug targeting and photodynamic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. A high selectivity as well as significant fewer side effects can be achieved by this method, since the therapeutic treatment only takes place in the area where accumulation of the particles by an external electromagnet and radiation by a laser system overlap. In this article, a novel hypericin-bearing drug delivery system has been developed by synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs with a hypericin-linked functionalized dextran coating. For that, sterically stabilized dextran-coated SPIONs were produced by coprecipitation and crosslinking with epichlorohydrin to enhance stability. Carboxymethylation of the dextran shell provided a functionalized platform for linking hypericin via glutaraldehyde. Particle sizes obtained by dynamic light scattering were in a range of 55–85 nm, whereas investigation of single magnetite or maghemite particle diameter was performed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and resulted in approximately 4.5–5.0 nm. Surface chemistry of those

  10. Simple educational intervention will improve the efficacy of routine antenatal iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Hemantha M; Premaratne, Samanthi P; Palihawadana, Thilina; Wijeratne, Sumeda

    2010-06-01

    Sri Lanka has a policy of free provision of iron supplements to pregnant women. However, iron deficiency anemia remains common in pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that educating women regarding improving bioavailability could improve the efficacy of iron supplementation. The education focused on how best supplements could be taken and on how they should be stored. We carried out a study using a quasi-experimental design on a group of women attending for antenatal care at a suburban University Obstetric Unit in Sri Lanka. The control group had care free of charge including iron supplementation and antihelminthic therapy. In addition, the study group received an education in small groups regarding maximizing bioavailability of iron. Hemoglobin and iron status of the women were compared between the groups at recruitment and at 34 weeks of gestation. The two groups were equally matched in demographic data, and hemoglobin and iron status. There were significant differences between the two groups at 34 weeks in the hemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, anemia rates and the number with low ferritin (P tablets in ways that improved their bioavailability. A simple health education improved the efficacy of iron supplementation in this population. Such interventions should be an integral part of iron supplementation programs, especially in populations whose habits tend to reduce the bioavailability of iron.

  11. Why should neuroscientists worry about iron? The emerging role of ferroptosis in the pathophysiology of neuroprogressive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Carvalho, André F; Maes, Michael; Walker, Adam J; Puri, Basant K

    2018-04-02

    Ferroptosis is a unique form of programmed death, characterised by cytosolic accumulation of iron, lipid hydroperoxides and their metabolites, and effected by the fatal peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. It is a major driver of cell death in neurodegenerative neurological diseases. Moreover, cascades underpinning ferroptosis could be active drivers of neuropathology in major psychiatric disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress can adversely affect mechanisms and proteins governing cellular iron homeostasis, such as the iron regulatory protein/iron response element system, and can ultimately be a source of abnormally high levels of iron and a source of lethal levels of lipid membrane peroxidation. Furthermore, neuroinflammation leads to the upregulation of divalent metal transporter1 on the surface of astrocytes, microglia and neurones, making them highly sensitive to iron overload in the presence of high levels of non-transferrin-bound iron, thereby affording such levels a dominant role in respect of the induction of iron-mediated neuropathology. Mechanisms governing systemic and cellular iron homeostasis, and the related roles of ferritin and mitochondria are detailed, as are mechanisms explaining the negative regulation of ferroptosis by glutathione, glutathione peroxidase 4, the cysteine/glutamate antiporter system, heat shock protein 27 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The potential role of DJ-1 inactivation in the precipitation of ferroptosis and the assessment of lipid peroxidation are described. Finally, a rational approach to therapy is considered, with a discussion on the roles of coenzyme Q 10 , iron chelation therapy, in the form of deferiprone, deferoxamine (desferrioxamine) and deferasirox, and N-acetylcysteine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. I-SWOT as instrument to individually optimize therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: Effective, norm-compliant and meeting the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachweh, A; von Kodolitsch, Y; Kölbel, T; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Wipper, S; Bernhardt, A M; Girdauskas, E; Detter, C; Reichenspurner, H; Blankart, C R; Debus, E S

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs. How can physicians together with the patients translate the medical evidence into an individually optimized therapy? At the German Aortic Center in Hamburg we use I‑SWOT as an instrument to identify such individually optimized therapy. With I‑SWOT, we present an instrument with which we have developed an (I) efficient, (II) conform and (III) needs-oriented therapeutic strategy for individual patients. I-SWOT cross-tabulates strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients. This I‑SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy, which comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. We discuss the case of a patient with asymptomatic thoracoabdominal aneurysm to show how I‑SWOT is used to identify an individually optimized therapy strategy.

  13. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  14. Safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roger, Simon D; Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H

    2017-01-01

    -label, multicenter, prospective study of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, anemia and iron deficiency randomized (1:1:2) to IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin, or oral iron. A post hoc analysis of adverse event rates per 100 patient......: These results further support the conclusion that correction of iron deficiency anemia with IV FCM is safe in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD.......Background: The evidence base regarding the safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete and largely based on small studies of relatively short duration. Methods: FIND-CKD (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00994318) was a 1-year, open...

  15. Landsat Science Team meeting: Winter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Todd A.; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The summer meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held at the USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center July 7-9, 2015, in Sioux Falls, SD. The LST co-chairs, Tom Loveland [EROS—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist], opened the three-day meeting on an upbeat note following the recent successful launch of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 mission on June 23, 2015 (see image on page 14), and the news that work on Landsat 9 has begun, with a projected launch date of 2023.With over 60 participants in attendance, this was the largest LST meeting ever held. Meeting topics on the first day included Sustainable Land Imaging and Landsat 9 development, Landsat 7 and 8 operations and data archiving, the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) stray-light issue, and the successful Sentinel-2 launch. In addition, on days two and three the LST members presented updates on their Landsat science and applications research. All presentations are available at landsat.usgs.gov/science_LST_Team_ Meetings.php.

  16. Determination of iron content in whole blood in different mouse strains using a portable XRFS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Metairon, Sabrina; Suzuki, M.F.; Bahovschi, Vanessa; Rizzutto, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Iron has an important role in blood as an indicator of a great number of anomalies. Anemia due to iron-deficiency in the world is a public health problem in all ages and socioeconomic levels. Nowadays, Brazil's pharmaceutical companies are testing iron compounds to reduce the costs of those new drugs. In this study, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Technique was applied to determine Fe concentrations in blood samples of different mice strains using a Portable XRF Spectrometer. These data may help researchers choose the convenient mice strain that best meets its medical investigation, reducing costs and optimizing their researches. (author)

  17. Zonulin and iron metabolism in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowski, P; Nowak, E; Janik, L; Wasilewski, G; Kozlowska, S; Małyszko, J

    2014-10-01

    In patients after heart transplantation, anemia is relatively common and is associated with impaired kidney function, subclinical inflammatory state, and immunosuppressive treatment. Zonulin-prehaptoglibin-2 is newly discovered protein with poorly defined function. Hemoglobin binds haptoglobin, and this stable complex prevents oxidative stress caused by hemoglobin. Zonulin is necessary for integrity of intracellular tight junction in the gut. Taking into consideration iron metabolism, including its absorption in the gut, the aim of this study was to assess zonulin levels in heart transplant recipients and their possible correlations with iron status, immunosuppressive therapy, and kidney function. The study was performed with 80 stable heart transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers. Zonulin, iron status, and inflammatory markers were assessed with the use of commercially available kits. Zonulin correlated with intraventricular diameter (r = 0.30; P zonulin and iron status. Zonulin was significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in healthy volunteers (P zonulin level. Zonulin, despite its effect on the absorption of different nutrients and other substances and hypothethic role in oxidative stress, seems not to play a role in the pathogenesis of anemia in heart transplant recipients. Its physiologic role remains obscure.

  18. Autoimmune gastritis presenting as iron deficiency anemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2014-11-14

    To characterize clinical, laboratorial, and histological profile of pediatric autoimmune gastritis in the setting of unexplained iron deficiency anemia investigation. A descriptive, observational study including pediatric patients with a diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (positive parietal cell antibody and gastric corpus atrophy) established in a 6 year period (2006-2011) in the setting of refractory iron deficiency anemia (refractoriness to oral iron therapy for at least 6 mo and requirement for intravenous iron therapy) investigation, after exclusion of other potentially contributing causes of anemia. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and anti-secretory therapy were also excluded. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical files, including: demographic data (age, gender, and ethnic background), past medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms, familial history, laboratorial evaluation (Hb, serum ferritin, serum gastrin, pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II, B12 vitamin, intrinsic factor autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies, and anti-transglutaminase antibodies), and endoscopic and histological findings (HE, Periodic Acid-Schiff/Alcian blue, gastrin, chromogranin A and immunochemistry analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD68). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, median, and standard deviation). We report a case-series concerning 3 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 13.6 ± 2.8 years (3 Caucasian and 2 African). One girl had type I diabetes. Familial history was positive in 4/5 cases, respectively for autoimmune thyroiditis (2/5), sarcoidosis (1/5) and multiple myeloma (1/5). Laboratorial evaluation on admission included: Hb: 9.5 ± 0.7 g/dL; serum ferritin: 4.0 ± 0.9 ng/mL; serum gastrin: 393 ± 286 pg/mL; low pepsinogen I/ pepsinogen II ratio in 1/5 patients; normal vitamin B12 levels (analyzed in 3 patients). Endoscopy findings included: duodenal nodularity (2/5) and gastric fold softening (2/5), and histological evaluation showed

  19. MRI marrow observations in thalassemia: the effects of the primary disease, transfusional therapy, and chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Sheth, S.S.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Abramson, S.; Piomelli, S.; Berdon, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance bone marrow patterns in thalassemia were evaluated to determine changes produced by transfusion and chelation therapy. Thirteen patients had T1- and T2-weighted images of the spine, pelvis and femurs. Three received no therapy (age range 2.5-3 years). Three were ''hypertransfused'' (transfused to maintain a hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dl) and not chelated because of age (age range 6 months-8 years). Seven were ''hypertransfused'' and chelated (age range 12-35 years). Signal characteristics of marrow were compared with those of surrounding muscle and fat. Fatty marrow (isointense with subcutaneous fat) was compared with red marrow (hypointense to fat and slightly hyperintense to muscle). Marrow hypointense to muscle was identified as iron deposition within red marrow. The untreated group demonstrated signal consistent with red marrow throughout the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused but not chelated patients demonstrated marked iron deposition in the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused and chelated patients demonstrated iron deposition in the central skeleton and a mixed appearance of marrow in the peripheral skeleton. The MR appearance of marrow in thalassemia is a reflection of the patient's transfusion and chelation therapy. Iron deposition occurs despite chelation therapy in sites of active red marrow. As red marrow retreats centrally with age, so does the pattern of iron deposition. The long-term biological effects of this iron deposition are unknown. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Diagnostic relevance of radioiron-absorption-measurements and immunoradiometric serum-ferritin-assay in the evaluation of iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Negative iron balance and enhanced iron demand respectively causes deficient iron stores (prelatent iron deficiency) with increased iron absorption, later on decrease of serum iron and increase of transferrin (latent Fe deficiency) and at least iron deficient anemia (manifest iron deficiency). In prelatend iron deficiency diagnostic 59 Fe 2+ absorption is increased and the RES cells do not show storage iron cytochemically. In latent iron deficiency in addition serum iron, transferrin iron saturation and serum ferritin is decreased and hypochromic mikrocytic anemia completes the signs of manifest iron deficiency. Besides rare cases of primary hemochromatosis and marked hyperdasia of ineffective erythropoiesis in homocygotic beta-thalassemia, hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency and some sideroblastic anemias increased 59 Fe 2+ absorption is a reliable measure of exhausted iron stores. In these exceptional cases differential diagnosis between sideroachrestic and siderosensitive iron deficiency anemia can be made by measurement of serum iron and serum ferritin respectively. The etiology of iron deficiency is to be cleared by measurement of 59 Fe absorption from 59 Fe 2+ and 59 Fe-marked meat with consecutive estimation of whole body 59 Fe elimination. Shortly after completion or during oral iron therapy serum ferritin concentration is not suitable to evaluate the content of iron stores. (orig.) [de

  1. Higher iron bioavailability of a human-like collagen iron complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Yang, Fan; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Ya; Yu, Yuanyuan

    2017-07-01

    Iron deficiency remains a public health problem around the world due to low iron intake and/or bioavailability. FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, and ferrous glycinate chelate are rich in iron but have poor bioavailability. To solve the problem of iron deficiency, following previous research studies, a thiolated human-like collagen-ironcomplex supplement with a high iron content was prepared in an anaerobic workstation. In addition, cell viability tests were evaluated after conducting an MTT assay, and a quantitative analysis of the thiolated human-like collagen-iron digesta samples was performed using the SDS-PAGE method coupled with gel filtration chromatography. The iron bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cell monolayers and iron-deficiency anemia mice models. The results showed that (1) one mole of thiolated human-like collagen-iron possessed approximately 35.34 moles of iron; (2) thiolated human-like collagen-iron did not exhibit cytotoxity and (3) thiolated human-like collagen- iron digesta samples had higher bioavailability than other iron supplements, including FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, ferrous glycine chelate and thiolated human-like collagen-Fe iron. Finally, the iron bioavailability was significantly enhanced by vitamin C. These results indicated that thiolated human-like collagen-iron is a promising iron supplement for use in the future.

  2. Photodynamic synchrotron x-ray therapy in Glioma cell using superparamagnetic iron nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Jheon, Sanghoon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Bong-Il; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate cytotoxic effects of secondary Auger electron emission(Photon Activation Therapy:PAT) from alginate-coated iron nanoparticles(Alg-SNP), Alg-SNP-uptaken C6 glioma cell lines were irradiated with 6.89/7.2 Kev synchrotron X-ray. 0-125 Gy were irradiated on three experimental groups including No-SNP group incubating without SNP as control group, 6hr-SNP group incubating with SNP for 6hr and ON-SNP group incubating with SNP overnight. Irradiated cells were stained with Acridine Orange(AO) and Edithium Bromide(EB) to count their viability with fluorescent microscopy in comparison with control groups. AO stained in damaged DNA, giving FL color change in X-ray plus SNP group. EB did not or less enter inside the cell nucleus of control group. In contrast, EB entered inside the cell nucleus of Alg-SNP group which means more damage compared with Control groups. The results of MTT assay demonstrated a X-ray dose-dependent reduction generally in cell viability in the experimental groups. 3 or 9 times increase in cell survival loss rate was observed at 6hr-SNP and ON-SNP groups, respectively compared to No-SNP control group in first experiment that was done to test cell survival rate at relatively lower dose, from 0 to 50 Gy. In second experiment X-ray dose was increased to 125 Gy. Survival loss was sharply decreased in a relatively lower dose from 5 to 25 Gy, and then demonstrated an exponentially decreasing behavior with a convergence until 125 Gy for each group. This observation suggests PAT effects on the cell directly by X-ray in the presence of Alg-SNP occurs within lower X-ray dose, and conventional X-ray radiation effect becomes dominant in higher X-ray dose. The cell viability loss of ON-SNP group was three times higher compared with that of 6hr-SNP group. In conclusion, it is possible to design photodynamic X-ray therapy study using a monochromatic x-ray energy and metal nanoparticle as x-ray sensitizer, which may enable new X-ray PDT to

  3. Role of preoperative intravenous iron therapy to correct anemia before major surgery: study protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Abdelsalam M; Meyer, Steven R; Bagshaw, Sean M; MacArthur, Roderick G; Carroll, Linda J

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative anemia is a common and potentially serious hematological problem in elective surgery and increases the risk for perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Transfusion is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Preoperative intravenous (IV) iron therapy has been proposed as an intervention to reduce perioperative transfusion; however, studies are generally small, limited, and inconclusive. We propose performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane-controlled trial registry, Scopus, registries of health technology assessment and clinical trials, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and conference proceedings in transfusion, hematology, and surgery. We will contact our study drug manufacturer for unpublished trials. Titles and abstracts will be identified and assessed by two reviewers for potential relevance. Eligible studies are: randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing preoperative administration of IV iron with placebo or standard of care to reduce perioperative blood transfusion in anemic patients undergoing major surgery. Screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal will be conducted independently by two authors. Data will be presented in evidence tables and in meta-analytic forest plots. Primary efficacy outcomes are change in hemoglobin concentration and proportion of patients requiring RBC transfusion. Secondary outcomes include number of units of blood or blood products transfused perioperatively, transfusion-related acute lung injury, neurologic complications, adverse events, postoperative infections, cardiopulmonary complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/readmission, length of hospital stay, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Continuous outcomes will be reported using calculated weighted mean differences. Meta-regression will be

  4. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging and Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION have emerged as an MRI contrast agent for tumor imaging due to their efficacy and safety. Their utility has been proven in clinical applications with a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Extensive research has been performed to study various strategies that could improve SPION by tailoring the surface chemistry and by applying additional therapeutic functionality. Research into the dual-modal contrast uses of SPION has developed because these applications can save time and effort by reducing the number of imaging sessions. In addition to multimodal strategies, efforts have been made to develop multifunctional nanoparticles that carry both diagnostic and therapeutic cargos specifically for cancer. This review provides an overview of recent advances in multimodality imaging agents and focuses on iron oxide based nanoparticles and their theranostic applications for cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the physiochemical properties and compare different synthesis methods of SPION for the development of multimodal contrast agents.

  5. The application of fracture mechanics on nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Blind, D.; Kockelmann, H.; Roos, E.; Eisele, U.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies on predominantly thick-walled castings was the first attempt at a characterization of the material of ferritization-annealed ductile cast iron under aspects of fracture mechanics according to today's state of fracture-mechanics research and testing. As in static and dynamic tensile testing, ferritic cast iron meeting specifications was found to be tough down -40 0 C and below in fracture mechanical testing without substantial reduction of the corresponding characteristics at room temperature; this is true for a temperature range where the lowest point of impact notch work has been reached already. Impact-type stresses with and without notching resulted in enhanced deformation resistance and deformability in the longitudinal samples taken from tubes. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Iron and Reactive Oxygen Species: Friends or Foes of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: In this review, the dual nature of both iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be explored in normal and cancer cell metabolism. Although iron and ROS play important roles in cellular homeostasis, they may also contribute to carcinogenesis. On the other hand, many studies have indicated that abrogation of iron metabolism, elevation of ROS, or modification of redox regulatory mechanisms in cancer cells, should be considered as therapeutic approaches for cancer. Recent Advances: Drugs that target different aspects of iron metabolism may be promising therapeutics for cancer. The ability of iron chelators to cause iron depletion and/or elevate ROS levels indicates that these types of compounds have more potential as antitumor medicines than originally expected. Other natural and synthetic compounds that target pathways involved in ROS homeostasis also have potential value alone or in combination with current chemotherapeutics. Critical Issues: Although ROS induction and iron depletion may be targets for cancer therapies, the optimal therapeutic strategies have yet to be identified. This review highlights some of the research that strives to identify such therapeutics. Future Directions: More studies are needed to better understand the role of iron and ROS in carcinogenesis not only as cancer promoters, but also as cytotoxic agents to cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Moreover, the structure–activity effects of iron chelators and other compounds that increase ROS and/or disrupt iron metabolism need to be further evaluated to assess the effectiveness and selectivity of these compounds against both cancer and CSCs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1917–1924. PMID:23198911

  7. The new generation of intravenous iron: chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of ferric carboxymaltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Felix; Ryle, Peter; Canclini, Camillo; Neiser, Susann; Geisser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An ideal preparation for intravenous iron replacement therapy should balance effectiveness and safety. Compounds that release iron rapidly tend to cause toxicity, while large molecules can induce antibody formation and cause anaphylactic reactions. There is therefore a need for an intravenous iron preparation that delivers appropriate amounts of iron in a readily available form but with minimal side effects and thus with an excellent safety profile. In this paper, a review is given on the chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject), a stable and robust complex formulated as a colloidal solution with a physiological pH. The complex is gradually taken up mainly from the hepatic reticulo-endothelial system (RES), followed by effective delivery of iron to the endogeneous transport system for the haem synthesis in new erythrocytes, as shown in studies on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics with radio-labelled FCM. Studies with radio-labelled FCM also demonstrated a barrier function of the placenta and a low transfer of iron into the milk of lactating rats. Safety pharmacology studies indicated a favourable profile with regard to cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, and renal toxicity. A high maximum non-lethal dose was demonstrated in the single-dose toxicity studies. Furthermore, based on the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Levels (NOAELs) found in repeated-dose toxicity studies and on the cumulative doses administered, FCM has good safety margins. Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies did not reveal any direct or indirect harmful effects. No genotoxic potential was found in in vitro or in vivo studies. Moreover, antigenicity studies showed no cross-reactivity of FMC with anti-dextran antibodies and also suggested that FCM does not possess sensitizing potential. Lastly, no evidence of irritation was found in local tolerance studies with FCM. This excellent toxicity profile and the high effectiveness of FCM allow

  8. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  9. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  10. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  11. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  13. 77 FR 65693 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...] Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug... notice of a meeting of the Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. This meeting was... announced that a meeting of the Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee would be held on...

  14. Innovative design of ironing board based on Kansei Engineering and usability test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhafira Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry business is popular service business in Indonesia that mostly involve muscle activity for lifting and ironing activity. It causes the worker get muscular fatigue and injury especially for ironing activity that is included in the static and monotonous activity. moreover, existed ironing board design in the market is not easy to be adjusted to standing or sitting position of workers. Hence, this paper aimed to design the innovative and adjustable ironing board to minimize the musculoskeletal complaint. The preliminary study is conducted by NBM questionnaires found that fatigue experienced mostly in the back, right upper arm, and calves. The product designed by Kansei engineering to satisfy consumer's feeling and assessed by USE questionnaire to fulfil consumer's usability. Orthogonal array and conjoint analysis were conducted to incorporate all attribute potentials in developing a new single concept design. Statistical analysis was also done to test the hypothesis. 80 respondents have participated in this study. The result of this study is an innovative design of ironing board which is valid to meet consumers' needs such as comfort, secure, attractive, sturdy, durable and multifunction and practical at 5% of the significant level.

  15. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  16. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy.

  17. Ten years of "Optimal Therapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer. Update" meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, A

    2008-01-01

    The International Symposium on Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Optimal Therapy was founded by Dr. Andrés Poveda and Prof. Jan B. Vermorken, and each edition has been directed by them. The 6th edition was held on March 2, 2007. This symposium is organized every other year by GEICO (Grupo Español de Investigación de Cáncer de Ovario/Spanish Ovarian Cancer Research Group), under the auspices of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Educational Committee for its Medical Oncology Recertification Approval (ESMO/MORA) Program. One hundred and fifty people attended the symposium's 1st edition, held in 1996. Since then, the interest in this meeting has increased. Last year, almost three hundred people coming not only from Spain but also from Europe, North and Latin America, Asia, and Australia were present in the symposium. This is a great challenge for us. Some important international cooperative groups from Europe, America, and Australia collaborate with this symposium, such as GOG, NCIC, EORTC, AGO, Scottish Group, ICON, GINECO, NSGO, ANZGOG, and others.

  18. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  19. Noninvasive analysis of skin iron and zinc levels in beta-thalassemia major and intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Dagan, I.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence analysis, was used for noninvasive determination of iron and zinc in two distinct skin areas, representing predominantly dermal and epidermal tissues, in 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. The mean iron levels in the skin of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia were elevated by greater than 200% and greater than 50%, respectively, compared with control values. The zinc levels of both skin areas examined were within the normal range. The data indicate that the rate and number of blood transfusions, which correlated well with serum ferritin levels (r . 0.8), are not the only factors that determine the amount of iron deposition in the skin (r less than 0.6). Other sources of iron intake contribute to the total iron load in the tissues, particularly in patients who are not given multiple transfusions. The noninvasive quantitation of skin levels may reflect the extent of iron deposition in major parenchymal organs. Repeated DXS examinations of the skin could monitor the clearance of iron from the tissues of patients with iron overload in the course of therapy with chelating agents

  20. Bench to Bedside: Future Therapies For Treatment Of Anemia In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM Murali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic kidney disease (CKD and anemia has been known for over 180 years ever since it was highlighted by the legendary Richard Bright. The key etiological factors responsible for anemia due to renal disease were identified in the 1950s as relative deficiency of erythropoietin and reduced red cell survival as well as abnormalities in iron metabolism. This knowledge was not translated to therapeutics for the next three decades and red cell transfusions were the main-stay of treatment of renal anemia till recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO was introduced in the 1980s. Recurrent transfusions, in addition to causing HLA sensitization, frequently resulted in iron overload with subsequent parenchymal iron deposition and organ dysfunction - a well-known scenario in the pre-erythropoetin era and use of iron chelation therapy was a feasible therapeutic option in long-term dialysis patients. This situation changed dramatically with the widespread clinical use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA, and polar opposite to the iron overload problems, most patient on erythropoietin therapy required oral or parenteral iron supplements to replenish iron stores for optimal erythropoiesis. Over the last three decades developments in molecular engineering lead to the modification of the original rHuEPO to longer acting analogues such as darbepoetin (Aranesp ® and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera ® and a raft of EPO biosimilars. In India, where the cost of medications constrains the universal access to ESA therapy, biosimilar erythropoetins offer a relative advantage in that they cost less than half the price of the premium brands. Nevertheless, the progress in clinically prescribed ESA therapy since the discovery of rHuEPO has resulted from modest modification of existing knowledge rather than a revolutionary break from convention. Over the last few years newer molecules capable of revolutionizing the therapy of renal

  1. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent ......Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate...... precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria...... and in the extracellular precipitates reached complete oxidation within 6 days. While a progressive oxidation of Fe in the bacteria and in the medium could be observed, spatial redox (oxido-reduction state) heterogeneities were detected at the cell poles and in the extracellular precipitates after 1 day. All...

  2. Isolation and characterization of iron chelators from turmeric (Curcuma longa): selective metal binding by curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Donald J; Surrago, Christine; Fiordalisi, Celia; Chung, Wing Yin; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-10-01

    Iron overload disorders may be treated by chelation therapy. This study describes a novel method for isolating iron chelators from complex mixtures including plant extracts. We demonstrate the one-step isolation of curcuminoids from turmeric, the medicinal food spice derived from Curcuma longa. The method uses iron-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-agarose, to which curcumin binds rapidly, specifically, and reversibly. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin each bound iron-NTA-agarose with comparable affinities and a stoichiometry near 1. Analyses of binding efficiencies and purity demonstrated that curcuminoids comprise the primary iron binding compounds recovered from a crude turmeric extract. Competition of curcuminoid binding to the iron resin was used to characterize the metal binding site on curcumin and to detect iron binding by added chelators. Curcumin-Iron-NTA-agarose binding was inhibited by other metals with relative potency: (>90% inhibition) Cu 2+  ~ Al 3+  > Zn 2+  ≥ Ca 2+  ~ Mg 2+  ~ Mn 2+ (80% by addition of iron to the media; uptake was completely restored by desferoxamine. Ranking of metals by relative potencies for blocking curcumin uptake agreed with their relative potencies in blocking curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose. We conclude that curcumin can selectively bind toxic metals including iron in a physiological setting, and propose inhibition of curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose for iron chelator screening.

  3. MRI evaluation of tissue iron burden in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas [University of Ioannina, Radiology Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    {beta}-Thalassaemia major is a hereditary haemolytic anaemia that is treated with multiple blood transfusions. A major complication of this treatment is iron overload, which leads to cell death and organ dysfunction. Chelation therapy, used for iron elimination, requires effective monitoring of the body burden of iron, for which serum ferritin levels and liver iron content measured in liver biopsies are used as markers, but are not reliable. MRI based on iron-induced T2 relaxation enhancement can be used for the evaluation of tissue siderosis. Various MR protocols using signal intensity ratio and mainstream relaxometry methods have been used, sometimes with discrepant results. Relaxometry methods using multiple echoes achieve better sampling of the time domain in which relaxation mechanisms take place and lead to more precise results. In several studies the MRI parameters of liver siderosis have failed to correlate with those of other affected organs, underlining the necessity for MRI iron evaluation in individual organs. Most studies have included children in the evaluated population, but MRI data on very young children are lacking. Wider application of relaxometry methods is indicated, with the establishment of universally accepted MRI protocols, and further studies, including young children, are needed. (orig.)

  4. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should be...

  5. Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Sixto M; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S; Di Pietro, Antonio; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections.

  6. Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto M Leal

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections.

  7. Quantification of body iron and iron absorption in the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Joseph E; Birch, Rebecca J; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Cable, Ritchard G

    2017-07-01

    Repeated blood donation alters the iron balance of blood donors. We quantified these effects by analyzing changes in body iron as well as calculating iron absorbed per day for donors enrolled in a prospective study. For 1308 donors who completed a final study visit, we calculated total body iron at the enrollment and final visits and the change in total body iron over the course of the study. Taking into account iron lost from blood donations during the study and obligate losses, we also calculated the average amount of iron absorbed per day. First-time/reactivated donors at enrollment had iron stores comparable to previous general population estimates. Repeat donors had greater donation intensity and greater mean iron losses than first-time/reactivated donors, yet they had little change in total body iron over the study period, whereas first-time/reactivated donors had an average 35% drop. There was higher estimated iron absorption in the repeat donors (men: 4.49 mg/day [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.41-4.58 mg/day]; women: 3.75 mg/day [95% CI, 3.67-3.84 mg/day]) compared with estimated iron absorption in first-time/reactivated donors (men: 2.89 mg/day [95% CI, 2.75-3.04 mg/day]; women: 2.76 mg/day [95% CI, 2.64-2.87 mg/day]). The threshold for negative estimated iron stores (below "0" mg/kg stores) was correlated with the development of anemia at a plasma ferritin value of 10 ng/mL. These analyses provide quantitative data on changes in estimated total body iron for a broad spectrum of blood donors. In contrast to using ferritin alone, this model allows assessment of the iron content of red blood cells and the degree of both iron surplus and depletion over time. © 2017 AABB.

  8. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  10. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting, Hyderabad, India, 16-20 November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Isotope-Aided Studies on the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets'' was initiated by the IAEA in 1990, and presently encompasses participating institutes in 11 countries. A summary of the discussions that took place during thr second Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Hyderabad, India, between 16-20 November 1992, is given in this report together with 12 working papers (progress reports) presented by individual participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  12. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  13. Magnetic tumor targeting of β-glucosidase immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-09-01

    Directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (DEPT) has promising application for cancer therapy. However, most current DEPT strategies face shortcomings such as the loss of enzyme activity during preparation, low delivery and transduction efficiency in vivo and difficultly of monitoring. In this study, a novel magnetic directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) was set up by conjugating β-glucosidase (β-Glu) to aminated, starch-coated, iron oxide magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), abbreviated as β-Glu-MNP, using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. This β-Glu-MNP was then characterized in detail by size distribution, zeta potential, FTIR spectra, TEM, SQUID and magnetophoretic mobility analysis. Compared to free enzyme, the conjugated β-Glu on MNPs retained 85.54% ± 6.9% relative activity and showed much better temperature stability. The animal study results showed that β-Glu-MNP displays preferable pharmacokinetics characteristics in relation to MNPs. With an adscititious magnetic field on the surface of a tumor, a significant quantity of β-Glu-MNP was selectively delivered into a subcutaneous tumor of a glioma-bearing mouse. Remarkably, the enzyme activity of the delivered β-Glu in tumor lesions showed as high as 20.123±5.022 mU g-1 tissue with 2.14 of tumor/non-tumor β-Glu activity.

  14. Liver iron content determined by MRI. Spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S.; Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Cario, H. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Schmid, M. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Medizinische Onkologie und Haematologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Liver iron content (LIC) measurement plays a central role in the management of patients with transfusional iron overload. Calculating the LIC with data obtained from standardized MRI sequences represents an attractive alternative diagnostic possibility. The purpose of this study was to compare the LIC measurement obtained with gradient-echo (GRE) sequences to the mean liver proton transverse relaxation (R2) acquired with SE sequences. Materials and Methods: 68 patients with iron overload (median age: 24, range: 3 - 88) underwent 1.5 T MRI for liver iron content measurement. All patients received spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) sequences. Results: The two MRI methods revealed different liver iron content results although a significant correlation was found (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Values evaluated using GRE sequences (median: 260 {mu}mol/g dry weight [d.w.], range: 6 - 732) were generally higher than those obtained by SE examinations (median: 161 {mu}mol /g d.w., range: 5 - 830). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study revealed different results for both MRI measurements, which could lead to different decisions concerning the management of chelation therapy in individual patients. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of efficacy of ferrous and iron polymaltose salts in the treatment of childhood iron deficiency anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, I.U.; Hassan, K.A.; Javed, T.; Chishti, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency of anemia (IDA) is defined as reduced number of red blood cells, and / or reduced concentration hemoglobin (Hb) due to deficiency of iron. Treatment involves dietary modifications and inorganic iron salt supplements like ferrous sulfate (FS) or Iron polymaltose complex (IPC). The decision to select either drug rests on therapeutic efficacy, untoward side effects; cost of complete course, patient's compliance and discretion of physician. Both drugs can be prescribed in oral form. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of two iron preparations (ferrous sulphate and iron polymaltose complex salts) in childhood iron deficiency anemia. Objective: To compare the efficacy of Ferrous Sulphate and Iron Polymaltose Complex salts in the treatment of childhood Iron Deficiency Anemia. Methodology: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Department of Pediatric Medicine Unit-II Mayo Hospital, Lahore, for a period of 6 months. One hundred and fifty children aged 6 months to 5 years suffering from iron deficiency anemia were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 75 each (Group A and B prescribed FS and IPC respectively). Results were analyzed in terms of rise in Hb from the baseline after three months. Increase in Hb level 2 gm/dl after three months of treatment was considered as effective. Results were analyzed by SPSS version 17. Efficacy of both the drugs, was compared by chi square test. P value 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: There were 34 cases (22.7%) in 6-12 months age, 77 cases (51.3%) between 1-3 years age and 39 cases (26%) between 3-5 years age. The number of male and female children was 82 (54.7%) and 68 (45.3%) respectively. The baseline hemoglobin of all study cases was 6.64+-1.08 gm/dl (6.59+-1.13 gm/dl in Group A and 6.69+-1.04 gm/dl in Group B). At completion of therapy, the mean hemoglobin of all study cases was 9.15+-1.21 gm/dl (9.20+9-1.17 gm/dl in Group A and 9.11+-1.25 gm/dl in Group B). The difference

  16. Comparative study of efficacy, tolerability and compliance of oral iron preparations (iron edetate, iron polymatose complex) and intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anaemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Qureshi, S.M.; Lutafullah, M.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerability and compliance of oral iron preparations(iron edetate and Iron polymaltose complex) with each other and with intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anaemia in children. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was carried out at the Paediatric Department of Combined Military Hospital (CMH) from January 2006 to December 2007. In total 146 children, up to 12 years age having haemoglobin (Hb%) less than 8 gm% were included. They were randomly distributed into three groups. Group A(64 cases) received oral sodium iron edetate (SIE), Group B (40 cases) received oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC) and group C (42 cases) received intramuscular iron sorbitol (IS) in recommended dosages. Rise in Hb%>10 gm% was kept as desired target. Maximum duration of treatment planned was 2 weeks for parenteral iron (group C) and 12 weeks for oral iron (groups A and B). Haematological parameters- Hb%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were measured at induction followed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after start of treatment. Compliance and drop out rates were determined on each visit. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. ANOVA was used to analyze difference in rise in Hb% at various intervals. Statistically significant increase in mean Hb%, MCV, MCHC after 02 weeks was observed in group C (IS). Rise in these parameters became significant in group A (SIE) and B (IPC) after 04 weeks. Persistent rise was observed in oral groups at 08 and 12 weeks. Rise in Hb% was much faster in group C (IS). It took 2 weeks to achieve mean Hb% > 10 gm% and compliance rate was 40.5%, while to achieve same target, duration required was 8 weeks in group A (SIE) and 12 weeks in group B (IPC) and compliance rate was 39% and 30% respectively. Adverse effects were much more common with group A (SIE) as compared to other two groups. Intramuscular iron sorbitol is a reliable and

  17. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-López S

    2011-10-01

    peculiarities in pediatric patients, in the elderly, in pregnant women, and in patients with dietary restrictions, such as celiac disease. Keywords: iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, dietary iron, therapy 

  18. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  19. Absorption of medicamental iron and iron from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Carlmark, B.; Ehn, L.; Forsberg, K.; Hoeglund, S.; Terpstra, T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the measurement of iron absorption. The chemical balance method has been almost entirely supplanted by radioisotope methods, which include notably whole-body counting and measurement of incorporation of radioiron into red cells. A survey is also given of the various conditions that influence iron absorption, including chemical form of iron, amount of iron, accompanying diet. Absorption tests must be conducted under relevant conditions. (author)

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  1. Studying disorders of vertebrate iron and heme metabolism using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vorm, Lisa N; Paw, Barry H

    2017-01-01

    Iron is a crucial component of heme- and iron-sulfur clusters, involved in vital cellular functions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. Both excess and insufficient levels of iron and heme-precursors cause human disease, such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, and porphyrias. Hence, their levels must be tightly regulated, requiring a complex network of transporters and feedback mechanisms. The use of zebrafish to study these pathways and the underlying genetics offers many advantages, among others their optical transparency, ex-vivo development and high genetic and physiological conservations. This chapter first reviews well-established methods, such as large-scale mutagenesis screens that have led to the initial identification of a series of iron and heme transporters and the generation of a variety of mutant lines. Other widely used techniques are based on injection of RNA, including complementary morpholino knockdown and gene overexpression. In addition, we highlight several recently developed approaches, most notably endonuclease-based gene knockouts such as TALENs or the CRISPR/Cas9 system that have been used to study how loss of function can induce human disease phenocopies in zebrafish. Rescue by chemical complementation with iron-based compounds or small molecules can subsequently be used to confirm causality of the genetic defect for the observed phenotype. All together, zebrafish have proven to be - and will continue to serve as an ideal model to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of human iron and heme-related diseases and to develop novel therapies to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  6. The study of high-boron steel and high-boron cast iron used for shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xuerong; Lu Jixin; Wen Yaozeng; Wang Zhaishu; Cheng Jiantin; Cheng Wen; Shun Danqi; Yu Jinmu

    1996-12-01

    The smelting, forging, heat-treatment technology and the mechanical properties of three kinds of high-boron steels (type 1: 0.5% boron; type 2: 0.5% boron and 4% or 2% nickel; type 3: 0.5% boron, 0.5% nickel and 0.5% molybdenum) were studied. The test results show that the technology for smelting, forging and heat-treatment (1050 degree C/0.5 h water cooled + 810 degree C/1 h oil cooled) in laboratory is feasible. Being sensitive to notch, the impact toughness of high-boron steel type 1 is not steady and can not meet the technology requirements on mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of both high-boron steel type 2 and type 3 can meet the technological requirements. The smelting technology of high-boron casting iron containing 0.5% boron was researched. The tests show that this casting iron can be smelted in laboratory and its properties can basically satisfy the technology requirements. (10 refs., 6 figs., 11 tab.)

  7. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  8. Characterization of physicochemical and colloidal properties of hydrogel chitosan-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, E; Di Benedetto, A

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have recently been investigated for their potential to kill cancer cells with promising results, owing to their ability to be targeted and heated by magnetic fields. In this study, novel hydrogel, chitosan Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized to induce magnetic hyperthermia, and targeted delivering of chemotherapeutics in the cancer microenvironment. The characteristic properties of synthesized bare and CS-MNPs were analyzed by various analytical methods: X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the co-precipitation method. This synthesis technique resulted in nanoparticles with an average particle size of 16 nm. The pure obtained nanoparticles were then successfully encapsulated with 4-nm-thick chitosan coating. The formation of chitosan on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by physicochemical analyses. Heating experiments at safe magnetic field (f = 100 kHz, H =10-20 kA m -1 ) revealed that the maximum achieved temperature of water stable chitosan-coated nanoparticles (50 mg ml -1 ) is fully in agreement with cancer therapy and biomedical applications. (paper)

  9. Characterization of physicochemical and colloidal properties of hydrogel chitosan-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, E.; Di Benedetto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have recently been investigated for their potential to kill cancer cells with promising results, owing to their ability to be targeted and heated by magnetic fields. In this study, novel hydrogel, chitosan Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized to induce magnetic hyperthermia, and targeted delivering of chemotherapeutics in the cancer microenvironment. The characteristic properties of synthesized bare and CS-MNPs were analyzed by various analytical methods: X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the co-precipitation method. This synthesis technique resulted in nanoparticles with an average particle size of 16 nm. The pure obtained nanoparticles were then successfully encapsulated with 4-nm-thick chitosan coating. The formation of chitosan on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by physicochemical analyses. Heating experiments at safe magnetic field (f = 100 kHz, H =10-20 kA m-1) revealed that the maximum achieved temperature of water stable chitosan-coated nanoparticles (50 mg ml-1) is fully in agreement with cancer therapy and biomedical applications.

  10. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  11. Iron-binding haemerythrin RING ubiquitin ligases regulate plant iron responses and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nagasaka, Seiji; Senoura, Takeshi; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms. Plants transcriptionally induce genes involved in iron acquisition under conditions of low iron availability, but the nature of the deficiency signal and its sensors are unknown. Here we report the identification of new iron regulators in rice, designated Oryza sativa Haemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene (RING)- and Zinc-finger protein 1 (OsHRZ1) and OsHRZ2. OsHRZ1, OsHRZ2 and their Arabidopsis homologue BRUTUS bind iron and zinc, and possess ubiquitination activity. OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are susceptible to degradation in roots irrespective of iron conditions. OsHRZ-knockdown plants exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency, and accumulate more iron in their shoots and grains irrespective of soil iron conditions. The expression of iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron utilization is enhanced in OsHRZ-knockdown plants, mostly under iron-sufficient conditions. These results suggest that OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are iron-binding sensors that negatively regulate iron acquisition under conditions of iron sufficiency. PMID:24253678

  12. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Török, B; Thiele, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well

  13. Siderophore-mediated iron trafficking in humans is regulated by iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuoming; Lanford, Robert; Mueller, Sebastian; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Luscieti, Sara; Sanchez, Mayka; Devireddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Siderophores are best known as small iron binding molecules that facilitate microbial iron transport. In our previous study we identified a siderophore-like molecule in mammalian cells and found that its biogenesis is evolutionarily conserved. A member of the short chain dehydrogenase family of reductases, 3-OH butyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of the mammalian siderophore. We have shown that depletion of the mammalian siderophore by inhibiting expression of bdh2 results in abnormal accumulation of cellular iron and mitochondrial iron deficiency. These observations suggest that the mammalian siderophore is a critical regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and facilitates mitochondrial iron import. By utilizing bioinformatics, we identified an iron-responsive element (IRE; a stem-loop structure that regulates genes expression post-transcriptionally upon binding to iron regulatory proteins or IRPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the human BDH2 (hBDH2) gene. In cultured cells as well as in patient samples we now demonstrate that the IRE confers iron-dependent regulation on hBDH2 and binds IRPs in RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, we show that the hBDH2 IRE associates with IRPs in cells and that abrogation of IRPs by RNAi eliminates the iron-dependent regulation of hBDH2 mRNA. The key physiologic implication is that iron-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of hBDH2 controls mitochondrial iron homeostasis in human cells. These observations provide a new and an unanticipated mechanism by which iron regulates its intracellular trafficking. PMID:22527885

  14. Porous Iron-Carboxylate Metal-Organic Framework: A Novel Bioplatform with Sustained Antibacterial Efficacy and Nontoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sha; Liu, Xiangmei; Tan, Lei; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Pan, Haobo; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-06-07

    Sustained drug release plays a critical role in targeting the therapy of local diseases such as bacterial infections. In the present work, porous iron-carboxylate metal-organic framework [MOF-53(Fe)] nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to entrap the vancomycin (Van) drugs. This system exhibited excellent chemical stability under acidic conditions (pH 7.4, 6.5, and 5.5) and much higher drug-loading capability because of the high porosity and large surface area of MOF NPs. The results showed that the drug-loading ratio of Van could reach 20 wt % and that the antibacterial ratio of the MOF-53(Fe)/Van system against Staphylococcus aureus could reach up to 90%. In addition, this MOF-53(Fe)/Van system exhibited excellent biocompatibility because of its chemical stability and sustained release of iron ions. Hence, these porous MOF NPs are a promising bioplatform not only for local therapy of bacterial infections but also for other biomedical therapies for tissue regeneration.

  15. Current opinion on the management of iron deficiency anaemia in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derovs, Aleksejs; Pokrotnieks, Juris; Derova, Jelena; Danilans, Anatolijs; Pukitis, Aldis; Dombure, Polina; Leiniece, Sandra; Zeltina Indra

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia in the world. Despite frequently weak and masked clinical presentation of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), this disease is very serious with complications leading to early mortality. In the developed countries IDA is predominantly diagnosed as the complication of another disease or as the result of major bleeding events. Diagnosis of IDA should be based on laboratory findings i.e. haemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and ferritin. Latter is the most sensitive marker for iron deficiency. Anaemia of chronic disease should be taken into an account as a potential differential diagnosis or coexisting state. For women in fertility age with IDA, gynaecological disorders should be ruled out first. Males and postmenopausal women with IDA should undergo upper, lower and in certain cases capsule endoscopy and/or enteroscopy to find a plausible cause of IDA. The ultimate goal of therapy is to find out and treat the primary cause of IDA. Iron body stores should be restored using either oral or parenteral iron preparations. The use of parenteral iron preparations in patients with gastrointestinal pathologies is often clinically substantiated for the treatment of IDA. Red blood cell transfusion should be administered in emergency cases only.

  16. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Hand Warmer Packet Ingestion: A Case of Elemental Iron Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Jessica L; Sherrow, Leighanne K; Jayant, Deepak A; Katz, Kenneth D

    2017-09-01

    For individuals who work outdoors in the winter or play winter sports, chemical hand warmers are becoming increasingly more commonplace because of their convenience and effectiveness. A 32-year-old woman with a history of chronic pain and bipolar disorder presented to the emergency department complaining of a "warm sensation" in her mouth and epigastrium after reportedly ingesting the partial contents of a chemical hand warmer packet containing between 5 and 8 g of elemental iron. She had been complaining of abdominal pain for approximately 1 month and was prescribed unknown antibiotics the previous day. The patient denied ingestion of any other product or medication other than what was prescribed. A serum iron level obtained approximately 6 hours after ingestion measured 235 micrograms/dL (reference range 40-180 micrograms/dL). As the patient demonstrated no new abdominal complaints and no evidence of systemic iron toxicity, she was discharged uneventfully after education. However, the potential for significant iron toxicity exists depending on the extent of exposure to this or similar products. Treatment for severe iron toxicity may include fluid resuscitation, whole bowel irrigation, and iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Physicians should become aware of the toxicity associated with ingestion of commercially available hand warmers. Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of radioisotopes in studying iron metabolism in humans in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, C.E.; Thabrew, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is the commonest haematological problem found in Sri Lankan pregnant women and pre-school children. The reported prevalence rates amongst pregnant and lactating women ranged from 60-80%. The present study revealed that 3% of pregnant women had satisfactory iron stores and 57% had virtually no iron stores. Routine iron supplementation is justified not only to correct the anaemia but also to build up the maternal iron stores. In a longitudinal study of 100 pregnant women a very high prevalence was observed in spite of the fact that the population studied was on iron supplementation. A very poor compliance on iron therapy was seen. The incidence of low birth weight observed was 32%, quite similar to that has been reported previously for Sri Lanka. Therefore, further longitudinal studies have been designed to find out the efficacy of the present supplementary programme. In Galle District 54.5% of the pre-school children were found clearly anaemic and another 20% had evidence of iron depletion. As the dietary intake of iron was marginal, the weaning foods that are in practice were tested for iron availability. Iron absorption/availability studies by in-vivo (extrinsic tag method) and in-vitro (using radioiron 59 Fe tracer) methods have shown a very poor (less than 5%) availability in many of the commonly used weaning foods. A statistically significant decrease in iron availability was seen with increase in amount of polyphenols mainly in some of the preparations made with green leaves. Addition of ascorbic acid rich food items showed an increase in iron availability (by 2-6 times). Dietary zinc intake of 46 children (2-5 yrs) was found 2-4 mg/1000 kcal, relating to total energy intake. Mean plasma zinc concentration of these children was 13.8±0.8 μmol/L. Therefore further studies on the improvement of zinc and iron availability in weaning foods have been designed to be done in future. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig

  19. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  20. Pelagic Iron Recycling in the Southern Ocean: Exploring the Contribution of Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavenia Ratnarajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of iron controls primary productivity in large areas of the Southern Ocean. Iron is largely supplied via atmospheric dust deposition, melting ice, the weathering of shelf sediments, upwelling, sediment resuspension, mixing (deep water, biogenic, and vertical mixing and hydrothermal vents with varying degrees of temporal and spatial importance. However, large areas of the Southern Ocean are remote from these sources, leading to regions of low primary productivity. Recent studies suggest that recycling of iron by animals in the surface layer could enhance primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. The aim of this review is to provide a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the current literature on pelagic iron recycling by marine animals in the Southern Ocean and highlight the next steps forward in quantifying the retention and recycling of iron by higher trophic levels in the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton utilize the iron in seawater to meet their metabolic demand. Through grazing, pelagic herbivores transfer the iron in phytoplankton cells into their body tissues and organs. Herbivores can recycle iron through inefficient feeding behavior that release iron into the water before ingestion, and through the release of fecal pellets. The iron stored within herbivores is transferred to higher trophic levels when they are consumed. When predators consume iron beyond their metabolic demand it is either excreted or defecated. Waste products from pelagic vertebrates can thus contain high concentrations of iron which may be in a form that is available to phytoplankton. Bioavailability of fecal iron for phytoplankton growth is influenced by a combination of the size of the fecal particle, presence of organic ligands, the oxidation state of the iron, as well as biological (e.g., remineralization, coprochaly, coprorhexy, and coprophagy and physical (e.g., dissolution, fragmentation processes that lead to the degradation and release of

  1. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to <20 nM coincident with a maximum in particulate iron concentration. Within the iron gradient, we found an increased expression of the key functional marker gene for nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  2. Proceedings of the international heavy particle therapy workshop (PTCOG/EORTC/ECNEU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.

    1990-07-01

    The International Heavy Particle Therapy Workshop at PSI was an experiment in several ways. For the PTCOG it was the first meeting outside the American continent. It was also the first meeting of PRCOG in conjunction with the EORTC Heavy Particle Therapy Group, which up to now has been dominated by discussion on neutron therapy. A common goal for radiotherapy as well as neutron therapy are all aiming at this goal by improved dose distribution and/or higher biological effectiveness. The meeting at Villigen was an attempt to stimulate discussion between the different groups and to strengthen international collaboration. The large number of proffered oral papers and posters was certainly a sign that the meeting served a need and that particle radiotherapy enjoys growing interest worldwide. 89 tabs., 164 figs., 441 refs

  3. Cetuximab-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Heng Tseng,1,2 Min-Yuan Chou,2 I-Ming Chu1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 2Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan Abstract: We have developed a theranostic nanoparticle, ie, cet-PEG-dexSPIONs, by conjugation of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, to dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs via periodate oxidation. Approximately 31 antibody molecules were conjugated to each nanoparticle. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs specifically bind to EGFR-expressing tumor cells and enhance image contrast on magnetic resonance imaging. Cet-PEG-dexSPION-treated A431 cells showed significant inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced EGFR phosphorylation and enhancement of EGFR internalization and degradation. In addition, a significant increase in apoptosis was detected in EGFR-overexpressing cell lines, A431 and 32D/EGFR, after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C with cet-PEG-dexSPIONs compared with cetuximab alone. The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of cetuximab was observed in cet-PEG-dexSPIONs. The results demonstrated that cet-PEG-dexSPIONs retained the therapeutic effect of cetuximab in addition to having the ability to target and image EGFR-expressing tumors. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs represent a promising targeted magnetic probe for early detection and treatment of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, cetuximab, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle, magnetic resonance imaging, sodium periodate, polyethylene glycol

  4. Large-Scale Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chun-Jiang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Luo, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We present an innovative approach to the production of single-crystal iron oxide nanorings employing a solution-based route. Single-crystal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanorings were synthesized using a double anion-assisted hydrothermal method (involving phosphate and sulfate ions), which can...... an intriguing three-dimensional magnetic configuration. This work provides an easily scaled-up method for preparing tailor-made iron oxide nanorings that could meet the demands of a variety of applications ranging from medicine to magnetoelectronics....... able to control the size, morphology, and surface architecture to produce a variety of three-dimensional hollow nanostructures. These can then be converted to magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by a reduction or reduction-oxidation process while preserving the same morphology. The structures...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  6. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Le, Huong; Brouwer, Inge D; Burema, Jan; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2006-12-05

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L), 20% (23.5 microg/L versus 117.3 microg/L), and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg) of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  7. Iron deposits in the knee joints of a thalassemic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos P Economides

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The overall prognosis for patients with ß-thalassemia has improved considerably during the past decades mainly due to regular blood transfusions, improvements in chelation therapy, and enhanced surveillance with imaging studies examining iron overload and other clinical complications. However, the prolonged survival of these patients leads to the development of other health problems including degenerative diseases such as arthropathies, which require further attention since they have a significant impact on the quality of life. In the current case report, we present a 45-year-old white man with ß-thalassemia complaining of non-traumatic pain and restriction in the range of motion of both knees. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a tear in the medial meniscus of the left knee as well as iron deposits in both knees. Histological findings confirmed the presence of hemosiderin in both joints. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of macroscopically documented iron deposits in the knee joints of a patient with ß-thalassemia using MRI.

  8. Effect of iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation on HbA1c levels - Implications for diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, S V; Raj, Abhishek; Gupta, Stuti; Giri, S; Rusia, Usha

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to compare its levels before and after iron supplementations. Age and sex matched subjects were enrolled and clustered in 2 groups: IDA (n=62) and healthy controls (HC; n=60). HbA1c levels were estimated by HPLC. Hemogram were estimated by hematology analyser. Serum ferritin (ELISA) and other parameters of iron profile were measured by standard guidelines of ICSH. HbA1c values and iron studies were repeated after 3months of iron supplementation to determine the effect of iron therapy on HbA1c levels. Significantly higher HbA1c levels were observed in IDA subjects compared to HC (5.51±0.696 v/s 4.85±0.461%, pHbA1c and hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC count, MCH, MCHC and serum ferritin in IDA subjects (r=-0.632, -0.652, -0.384, -0.236, -0.192 and -0.441). Significant decline was noticed in HbA1c levels in IDA subjects after iron supplementation (5.51±0.696 before treatment v/s 5.044±0.603 post-treatment; pHbA1c in pre-diabetes range normalised to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) range and out of 6 patients with pre-treatment HbA1c in diabetes range, 5 reverted to pre-diabetes range while 1 of them reverted to the NGT range. Caution must be exercised in interpreting the results of HbA1c in patients of IDA and iron deficiency must be corrected before diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes solely on the basis of HbA1c criteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  10. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  11. Measurement of iron absorption from meals contaminated with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described to measure in vitro the extent of isotopic exchange between the native nonheme food iron and added inorganic reduction to radioiron tracer. The food is digested with pepsin and trypsin in the presence of radioiron. The exchangeability of food iron is calculated from the specific activity in the food and in an extract of bathophenantroline in isoamyl alcohol obtained after digesting this food. The precision and accuracy of the method is illustrated by two kinds of studies, those in which different amounts of contamination iron are added to a meal and those evaluating contamination iron in natural meals. The present method will make it possible to measure validly iron absorption from meals contaminated with unknown amounts of iron of unknown exchangeability with the extrinsic radioiron tracer

  12. Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc

    2015-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  14. FEASIBILITY OF MEASURING IRON IN VIVO USING FAST 14 MEV NEUTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-05-01

    In this short report, I reassess the feasibility of measuring iron in vivo in the liver and heart of thalassemia patients undergoing chelation therapy. Despite the multiplicity of analytical methods for analyzing iron, only two, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic susceptibility, are suitable for in vivo applications, and these are limited to the liver because of the heart's beat. Previously, a nuclear method, gamma-resonance scattering, offered a quantitative measure of iron in these organs; however, it was abandoned because it necessitated a nuclear reactor to produce the radioactive source. I reviewed and reassessed the status of two alternative nuclear methods, based on iron spectroscopy of gamma rays induced by fast neutron inelastic scattering and delayed activation in iron. Both are quantitative methods with high specificity for iron and adequate penetrating power to measure it in organs sited deep within the human body. My experiments demonstrated that both modalities met the stated qualitative objectives to measure iron. However, neutron dosimetry revealed that the intensity of the neutron radiation field was too weak to reliably assess the minimum detection limits, and to allow quantitative extrapolations to measurements in people. A review of the literature, included in this report, showed that these findings agree qualitatively with the published results, although the doses reported were about three orders-of-magnitude higher than those I used. Reviewing the limitations of the present work, steps were outlined for overcoming some of the shortcomings. Due to a dearth of valid quantitative alternatives for determining iron in vivo, I conclude that nuclear methods remain the only viable option. However, from the lessons learned, further systematic work is required before embarking on clinical studies.

  15. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to a...

  16. Iron status in Danish women, 1984-1994: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Byg, K.E.; Ovesen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background and objectives: From 1954 to 1986, flour in Denmark was fortified with 30 mg carbonyl iron per kilogram. This mandatory enrichment of cereal products was abolished in 1987. The aim was to evaluate iron status in the Danish female population before and after abolishment of iron...... fortification. Methods: Iron status, serum ferritin and haemoglobin, was assessed in population surveys in 1983-1984 comprising 1221 Caucasian women (1089 non-blood-donors, 130 donors) and in 1993-1994 comprising 1261 women (1155 non-blood-donors, 104 donors) equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60......, postmenopausal women had median ferritin of 75 mug/L and in 1994 of 93 mug/L (P iron stores (ferritin iron stores (ferritin less...

  17. 30 anos de encontros nacionais de docentes de terapia ocupacional: 1986-2016 / 30 years of National Meetings of Occupational Therapy Lecturers: 1986-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Selma Hahn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A equipe do Grupo de Pesquisa Terapia Ocupacional: Memórias, Histórias e Fundamentos (CNPq, 2015 vem trabalhando para organizar e sistematizar materiais e documentos que integrem a história da terapia ocupacional brasileira, ampliando fontes primárias e secundárias nesse âmbito, a fim de apreender, dentre outros objetivos, o processo de institucionalização acadêmica da terapia ocupacional no Brasil. Entre 2015 e 2016, uma parte dessas atividades se voltou para os percursos em torno do evento Encontro Nacional de Docentes de Terapia Ocupacional – ENDTO, que, em linhas gerais, vem promovendo a discussão coletiva do ensino de terapia ocupacional no país e, portanto, reverbera parte da história da referida institucionalização. Em 2016, por ocasião do preparo de uma conferência a ser realizada no XV ENDTO, as autoras se debruçaram sobre os documentos, materiais de divulgação, fotos, textos publicados reunidos e, também, apoiando-se na narrativa de uma história da qual participaram de diversas maneiras e em momentos diferentes, perseguiram o objetivo de contar e registar a trajetória dos 30 anos desde a realização do I ENDTO, em 1986. Neste texto, expõe-se uma narrativa dessa trajetória e o registro imagético de parte das fontes reunidas. Trata-se de um patrimônio coletivo da área de terapia ocupacional no Brasil a ser documentado e partilhado com os que fizeram e com os que continuam fazendo essa história. AbstractThe team of the research group “Occupational Therapy: Memories, Histories and Foundations” (CNPq, 2015 has been working to organize and systematize materials and documents that integrate the Brazilian occupational therapy story, expanding primary and secondary sources. Among other objectives the aim is to comprehend the occupational therapy academic institutionalization in Brazil. Part of the activities, between 2015 and 2016, has been directed to the event “The National Meeting of Occupational Therapy

  18. Gene therapy for CNS diseases – Krabbe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy that took place from May 4th through May 7th, 2016 in Washington, DC, USA. While the meeting provided many symposiums, lectures, and scientific sessions this report mainly focuses on one of the sessions on the "Gene Therapy for central nervous system (CNS Diseases" and specifically on the "Gene Therapy for the globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease. Two presentations focused on this subject utilizing two animal models of this disease: mice and dog models. Different serotypes of adeno-associate viral vectors (AAV alone or in combination with bone marrow transplantations were used in these research projects. The Meeting of the ASGCT reflected continuous growth in the fields of gene and cell therapy and brighter forecast for efficient treatment options for variety of human diseases.

  19. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Deferasirox: appraisal of safety and efficacy in long-term therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeti Chaudhary, Vinod PullarkatJane Ann Nohl Division of Hematology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Deferasirox is a once-daily, oral iron chelator that is widely used in the management of patients with transfusional hemosiderosis. Several Phase II trials along with their respective extension studies as well as a Phase III trial have established the efficacy and safety of this novel agent in transfusion-dependent patients with β-thalassemia, sickle-cell disease and bone marrow-failure syndromes, including myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia. Data from various clinical trials show that a deferasirox dose of 20 mg/kg/day stabilizes serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration, while a dose of 30–40 mg/kg/day reduces these parameters and achieves negative iron balance in red cell transfusion-dependent patients with iron overload. Across various pivotal clinical trials, deferasirox was well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash, nonprogressive increases in serum creatinine, and elevations in liver enzyme levels. Longer-term extension studies have also confirmed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox. However, it is essential that patients on deferasirox therapy are monitored regularly to ensure timely management for any adverse events that may occur with long-term therapy.Keywords: deferasirox, iron overload, thalassemia, sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome

  1. Study on uranium loss during 'Iron-Gypsum Cake' precipitation from acid leach liquor of Jaduguda ore using factorially designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amrita; Yadav, Manoj; Chatterjee, Ankur; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid leaching process for uranium recovery from ore often generates considerable amounts of impurities into the solution. It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable impurities as manageable and stable waste products for final disposal, without losing the valuable constituents. The main impurities that come with the leach liquor are iron and sulfate. Their removal is essential for meeting the iron requirement in leaching circuit and also for making the effluent suitable for recycle. Factorial design analysis was applied to study of process variables for precipitation of iron and sulphate from leach liquor with composition using CaO as precipitation reagent

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  10. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF, serum transferrin receptor (TfR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L, 20% (23.5 μg/L versus 117.3 μg/L, and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia.

  11. Hot iron rods branding, its complications: Still continue in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mahant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The middle of the 20th century has often been described as a golden age of scientific advancement and miraculous medical breakthroughs. In spite of a lot of awareness and many health education programs, still some traditional treatment exists in many places in our country including Central India. In some villages of Madhya Pradesh, many horrifying therapies such as iron rods branding are well known for a few common diseases such as ascites, headache, pneumonia, common cold, or hernia. Bruise marks can be seen on the bodies of a majority of villagers. Main reasons behind such therapy are lack of money for medical treatment, lack of medical facilities, and the unwillingness of medical officers to stay in small villages. Besides this, illiteracy compels them to follow old customs and practices. All these strengthen the faith of villagers in such treatments. It is all due to lack of education and proper awareness. Many female patients come to hospital with complications of iron rods branding suggest that despite being educated, strong cultural beliefs forces people to undergo branding as a treatment of many common diseases in India even in the 21st century. Aims and Objectives: To study the reasons and complications of hot iron branding. Materials and Methods: Sample size was 30. Thirty patients with old, healed (within 1 year, or recent scars of iron branding were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for the sociodemographic details and the information of underlying disease, pattern of lesions, and complications of branding. Results: Hot iron branding is still carrying on as traditional treatment in Central India. It is commonly seen in females of age 20–50 years. It is mostly found in illiterate patients of low socioeconomic status who have chronic disease and chronic pain. Conclusion: Skin branding which still has therapeutic uses in some cultural societies have severe medical complications in Central India.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  14. Iron homeostasis and its disruption in mouse lung in iron deficiency and overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gisela; D'Anna, María Cecilia; Roque, Marta Elena

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to explore the role and hitherto unclear mechanisms of action of iron proteins in protecting the lung against the harmful effects of iron accumulation and the ability of pulmonary cells to mobilize iron in iron deficiency. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that pulmonary hepcidin appears not to modify cellular iron mobilization in the lung. We propose pathways for supplying iron to the lung in iron deficiency and for protecting the lung against iron excess in iron overload, mediated by the co-ordinated action of iron proteins, such as divalent metal transporter 1, ZRT-IRE-like-protein 14, transferrin receptor, ferritin, haemochromatosis-associated protein and ferroportin. Iron dyshomeostasis is associated with several forms of chronic lung disease, but its mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the lung in whole-animal models with iron deficiency and iron overload, studying the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 (ZIP14), transferrin receptor (TfR), haemochromatosis-associated protein (HFE), hepcidin, ferritin and ferroportin (FPN) expression. In each model, adult CF1 mice were divided into the following groups (six mice per group): (i) iron-overload model, iron saccharate i.p. and control group (iron adequate), 0.9% NaCl i.p.; and (ii) iron-deficiency model, induced by repeated bleeding, and control group (sham operated). Proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In control mice, DMT1 was localized in the cytoplasm of airway cells, and in iron deficiency and overload it was in the apical membrane. Divalent metal transporter 1 and TfR increased in iron deficiency, without changes in iron overload. ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 decreased in airway cells in iron deficiency and increased in iron overload. In iron deficiency, HFE and FPN were immunolocalized close to the apical membrane

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  16. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  17. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  18. Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani D. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD. This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678 of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer, patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status, and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients.

  19. Hereditary hemochromatosis: An opportunity for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO EZQUER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of body iron should be tightly controlled to prevent the formation of oxygen radicals, lipoperoxidation, genotoxicity, and the production of cytotoxic cytokines, which result in damage to a number of organs. Enterocytes in the intestinal villae are involved in the apical uptake of iron from the intestinal lumen; iron is further exported from the cells into the circulation. The apical divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 transports ferrous iron from the lumen into the cells, while the basolateral transporter ferroportin extrudes iron from the enterocytes into the circulation. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis display an accelerated transepithelial uptake of iron, which leads to body iron accumulation that results in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatitis, and cardiomyopathy. Hereditary hemochromatosis, a recessive genetic condition, is the most prevalent genetic disease in Caucasians, with a prevalence of one in 300 subjects. The majority of patients with hereditary hemochromatosis display mutations in the gene coding for HFE, a protein that normally acts as an inhibitor of transepithelial iron transport. We discuss the different control points in the homeostasis of iron and the different mutations that exist in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. These control sites may be influenced by gene therapeutic approaches; one general therapy for hemochromatosis of different etiologies is the inhibition of DMT1 synthesis by antisense-generating genes, which has been shown to markedly inhibit apical iron uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. We further discuss the most promising strategies to develop gene vectors and deliver them into enterocytes

  20. Ambient iron-mediated aeration (IMA) for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Englehardt, James D; Abdul-Aziz, Samer; Bataille, Tristan; Cueto, Josenrique; De Leon, Omar; Wright, Mary E; Gardinali, Piero; Narayanan, Aarthi; Polar, Jose; Tomoyuki, Shibata

    2013-02-01

    Global water shortages caused by rapidly expanding population, escalating water consumption, and dwindling water reserves have rendered water reuse a strategically significant approach to meet current and future water demand. This study is the first to our knowledge to evaluate the technical feasibility of iron-mediated aeration (IMA), an innovative, potentially economical, holistic, oxidizing co-precipitation process operating at room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and neutral pH, for water reuse. In the IMA process, dissolved oxygen (O₂) was continuously activated by zero-valent iron (Fe⁰) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at ambient pH, temperature, and pressure. Concurrently, iron sludge was generated as a result of iron corrosion. Bench-scale tests were conducted to study the performance of IMA for treatment of secondary effluent, natural surface water, and simulated contaminated water. The following removal efficiencies were achieved: 82.2% glyoxylic acid, ~100% formaldehyde as an oxidation product of glyoxylic acid, 94% of Ca²⁺ and associated alkalinity, 44% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26% of electrical conductivity (EC), 98% of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), 80% of 17β-estradiol (E2), 45% of total nitrogen (TN), 96% of total phosphorus (TP), 99.8% of total Cr, >90% of total Ni, 99% of color, 3.2 log removal of total coliform, and 2.4 log removal of E. Coli. Removal was attributed principally to chemical oxidation, precipitation, co-precipitation, coagulation, adsorption, and air stripping concurrently occurring during the IMA treatment. Results suggest that IMA is a promising treatment technology for water reuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis of iron overload and heart disease by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Wood

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to estimate tissue iron was initiated nearly three decades ago but has only become a practical reality in the last ten years. MRI is most often used to estimate hepatic and cardiac iron in patients with thalassemia or sickle cell disease and has largely replaced liver biopsy for liver iron quantification. The ability of MRI to image extra hepatic organs has really transformed our understanding of iron mediated toxicity in transfusional siderosis. For decades, iron cardiomyopathy was the leading cause of death in thalassemia major, but it is now relatively rare in centers with regular MRI screening. Early recognition of cardiac iron loading allows more gentle modifications of iron chelation therapy prior to life threatening organ dysfunction. Serial MRI evaluations have demonstrated differential kinetics of uptake and clearance among the difference organs of the body. Although elevated serum ferritin and liver iron concentration increase the risk of cardiac and endocrine toxicities, extra hepatic iron deposition and toxicity occurs in many patients despite having low total body iron stores; there is no safe liver iron level in chronically transfused patients. Instead, the type, dose, and pattern of iron chelation therapy all contribute to whether cardiac iron accumulation will occur. These observations, coupled with the advent of increasing options for iron chelation therapy, are allowing clinicians to more appropriately tailor chelation therapy to individual patient needs, producing greater efficacy with fewer toxicities. With the decline in cardiac mortality, future frontiers in MRI monitoring including better prevention of endocrine toxicities, particularly hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and diabetes. These organs also serve as early warning signals for inadequate control of non-transferrin bound iron, a risk factor for cardiac iron loading. Thus MRI assessment of extra hepatic iron stores is a

  2. Improved treatment satisfaction and convenience with deferasirox in iron-overloaded patients with beta-Thalassemia: Results from the ESCALATOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali; Al Jefri, Abdullah; Elalfy, Mohsen Saleh; Al Zir, Kusai; Daar, Shahina; Rofail, Diana; Baladi, Jean François; Habr, Dany; Kriemler-Krahn, Ulrike; El-Beshlawy, Amal

    2010-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes of once-daily oral deferasirox (Exjade) in iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia not achieving successful chelation with prior deferoxamine and/or deferiprone were investigated in a prospective, open-label, 1-year, multicenter study in the Middle East (ESCALATOR). The initial dose of deferasirox was 20 mg/kg/day, with subsequent dose adjustments. At baseline and the end of study (EOS), patients (n = 237) completed a 5-point rating scale for treatment satisfaction and convenience, and recorded time lost to treatment. At EOS, 90.7% of patients were 'satisfied'/'very satisfied' with their iron chelation therapy (ICT) versus 23.2% at baseline. 92.8% (EOS) versus 21.5% (baseline) of patients considered their therapy to be 'convenient'/'very convenient'. Time lost to therapy for daily activities was substantially reduced (3.2 +/- 8.6 [mean +/- SD; EOS] vs. 30.1 +/- 44.2 [baseline] h/month). Patients reported greater satisfaction and convenience, and lower impact on daily activities, with deferasirox than with previous ICT. This may help improve adherence to lifelong ICT in iron-overloaded beta-thalassemia patients. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Iron Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mechanistic Insights into Siderophore-Mediated Iron Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires iron for normal growth but faces a limitation of the metal ion due to its low solubility at biological pH and the withholding of iron by the mammalian host. The pathogen expresses the Fe3+-specific siderophores mycobactin and carboxymycobactin to chelate the metal ion from insoluble iron and the host proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin. Siderophore-mediated iron uptake is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis, as knockout mutants, which were defective in siderophore synthesis or uptake, failed to survive in low-iron medium and inside macrophages. But as excess iron is toxic due to its catalytic role in the generation of free radicals, regulation of iron uptake is necessary to maintain optimal levels of intracellular iron. The focus of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of iron homeostasis in M. tuberculosis that is discussed in the context of mycobactin biosynthesis, transport of iron across the mycobacterial cell envelope, and storage of excess iron. The clinical significance of the serum iron status and the expression of the iron-regulated protein HupB in tuberculosis (TB) patients is presented here, highlighting the potential of HupB as a marker, notably in extrapulmonary TB cases. PMID:27402628

  4. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  5. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  6. Effect of Combined versus Monotherapy with Deferoxamine and Deferiprone in Iron Overloaded Thalassemia Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Hejazi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with transfusional iron overload have depended on iron chelation therapy and improving chelation regimens have been of the highest priority. The aim of this study was to compare effect of combined versus monotherapy with Deferoxamine (DFO and Deferiprone (DFP in iron overloaded beta thalassemia (BT major patients Materials and Methods We studied 36 BT major patients (mean age 7.6±4.6; range 3–16 years attending the Ormieh Motahari hospital for regular transfusional support. Patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the following two treatments: DFO in combination with DFP (n=12, DFO alone (n=12 and DFP alone (n=12. Serum ferritin level, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine and side effects were monitored over a 12 months period. Results: After one year, serum ferritin decreased more significantly in patients on DFO+DFP therapy compared to patients who only received DFO or DFP alone (P

  7. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  8. Nicotianamine, a novel enhancer of rice iron bioavailability to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polished rice is a staple food for over 50% of the world's population, but contains little bioavailable iron (Fe to meet human needs. Thus, biofortifying the rice grain with novel promoters or enhancers of Fe utilization would be one of the most effective strategies to prevent the high prevalence of Fe deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in the developing world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We transformed an elite rice line cultivated in Southern China with the rice nicotianamine synthase gene (OsNAS1 fused to a rice glutelin promoter. Endosperm overexpression of OsNAS1 resulted in a significant increase in nicotianamine (NA concentrations in both unpolished and polished grain. Bioavailability of Fe from the high NA grain, as measured by ferritin synthesis in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model that simulates the human digestive system, was twice as much as that of the control line. When added at 1:1 molar ratio to ferrous Fe in the cell system, NA was twice as effective when compared to ascorbic acid (one of the most potent known enhancers of Fe bioavailability in promoting more ferritin synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that NA is a novel and effective promoter of iron utilization. Biofortifying polished rice with this compound has great potential in combating global human iron deficiency in people dependent on rice for their sustenance.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  10. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  11. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  12. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    2005-05-01

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  13. Oral sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in anemic cancer patients without iron deficiency receiving darbepoetin alfa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafodda, Antonino; Giuffrida, D; Prestifilippo, A; Azzarello, D; Giannicola, R; Mare, M; Maisano, R

    2017-09-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often used in treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Many studies have demonstrated an improved hemoglobin (Hb) response when ESA is combined with intravenous iron supplementation and a higher effectiveness of intravenous iron over traditional oral iron formulations. A new formulation of oral sucrosomial iron featuring an increased bioavailability compared to traditional oral formulations has recently become available and could provide a valid alternative to those by intravenous (IV) route. Our study evaluated the performance of sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in increasing hemoglobin in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa, as well as safety, need of transfusion, and quality of life (QoL). The present study considered a cohort of 64 patients with chemotherapy-related anemia (Hb >8 g/dL iron deficiency, scheduled to receive chemotherapy and darbepoetin. All patients received darbepoetin alfa 500 mcg once every 3 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of IV ferric gluconate 125 mg weekly or oral sucrosomial iron 30 mg daily. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the performance of oral sucrosomial iron in improving Hb response, compared to intravenous iron. The Hb response was defined as the Hb increase ≥2 g/dL from baseline or the attainment Hb ≥ 12 g/dL. There was no difference in the Hb response rate between the two treatment arms. Seventy one percent of patients treated with IV iron achieved an erythropoietic response, compared to 70% of patients treated with oral iron. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. There were also no differences in the proportion of patients requiring red blood cell transfusions and changes in QoL. Sucrosomial oral iron was better tolerated. In cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia receiving darbepoetin alfa, sucrosomial oral iron provides

  14. Free Radical Oxidation Induced by Iron Metabolism Disorder in Femoral and Pelvic Fractures and Potential for Its Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Orlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the pathogenic significance of iron ions in the activation of free radical oxidation in trau matic disease and valuate the efficacy of Desferal in the complex therapy of patients with femoral and pelvic fractions.Materials and methods. Iron metabolism and the intensity of free radical oxidation have been studed in 30 patients with traumas. The patients were randomized into two groups by gender, age and the severity of injury. Group I (n=15 included the injured patients who received the standard intensive therapy. Group II (n=15 included the patients who were treated with Desferal of 8 mg/kg twice daily in 12 hours along with the intensive therapy. The control group comprized of 10 healthy individuals of the same age. The concentration of total and free hemoglobine, serum iron, transferrin, total antioxidant activity of blood serum, the intensity of free radical oxida tion by the Fe2+induced chemiluminescence and hemostatic parameters were studied on admittance as well as on 3rd and 5th day of hospitalization. The parameters of sistemic hemodyamics were checked by integral rheovasog raphy. Statistical processing of data was carried out using Biostat and MS Excel software. The results were pre sented as a mean and standart deviation (M±δ. The Student’s (t and MannWhitney tests were used to prove the hypotheses. The critical level of significance was P=0.05.Results. It was determined that the disorders of iron metabolism in patients with traumatic disease were accompanied by intra and extravascular hemolysis, the excess off reduced iron ions catalizing the free radical oxidation, and failure of antioxidant system and disorders of hemostatic system and central hemodynamics. Desferal lowered the level of reduced iron in blood serum, diminished the intensity of free radical oxidation and eliminated the disorders in hemostasis and systemic hemodynamics.Conclusion. Data confirm the pathogenic role of iron ions in the

  15. CERN launches new cancer therapy initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The first meeting of a new European network for research in cancer therapy was held at CERN, in February 2002. ENLIGHT, the European Network for Research in Light Ion Therapy aims to coordinate the development of a variety of projects at European facilities for "light ion therapy" - a form of radiation therapy that uses beams of the nuclei of lightweight atoms" (1/2 page).

  16. Preparation and chemical stability of iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xin; Liu Shixiong

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles were prepared by nitridation of the surface of iron microparticles with ammonia gas at a temperature of 510 deg. C. The phases, composition, morphology, magnetic properties, and chemical stability of the particles were studied. The phases were α-Fe, ε-Fe 3 N, and γ-Fe 4 N. The composition varied from the core to the surface, with 99.8 wt% Fe in the core, and 93.8 wt% Fe and 6 wt% N in the iron-nitride coating. The thickness of the iron-nitride coating was about 0.28 μm. The chemical stability of the microparticles was greatly improved, especially the corrosion resistance in corrosive aqueous media. The saturation magnetization and the coercive force were 17.1x10 3 and 68 kA/m, respectively. It can be concluded that iron-nitride-coated iron microparticles will be very useful in many fields, such as water-based magnetorheological fluids and polishing fluids

  17. Obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage iron content and tissue iron distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S; Kennedy, Arion; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Webb, Corey D; Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M; Zhang, Yaofang; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their function is altered in obesity. Herein, we report the discovery of a population of alternatively activated ATMs with elevated cellular iron content and an iron-recycling gene expression profile. These iron-rich ATMs are referred to as MFe(hi), and the remaining ATMs are referred to as MFe(lo). In lean mice, ~25% of the ATMs are MFe(hi); this percentage decreases in obesity owing to the recruitment of MFe(lo) macrophages. Similar to MFe(lo) cells, MFe(hi) ATMs undergo an inflammatory shift in obesity. In vivo, obesity reduces the iron content of MFe(hi) ATMs and the gene expression of iron importers as well as the iron exporter, ferroportin, suggesting an impaired ability to handle iron. In vitro, exposure of primary peritoneal macrophages to saturated fatty acids also alters iron metabolism gene expression. Finally, the impaired MFe(hi) iron handling coincides with adipocyte iron overload in obese mice. In conclusion, in obesity, iron distribution is altered both at the cellular and tissue levels, with AT playing a predominant role in this change. An increased availability of fatty acids during obesity may contribute to the observed changes in MFe(hi) ATM phenotype and their reduced capacity to handle iron.

  18. Initial Serum Ferritin Predicts Number of Therapeutic Phlebotomies to Iron Depletion in Secondary Iron Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panch, Sandhya R.; Yau, Yu Ying; West, Kamille; Diggs, Karen; Sweigart, Tamsen; Leitman, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapeutic phlebotomy is increasingly used in patients with transfusional siderosis to mitigate organ injury associated with iron overload (IO). Laboratory response parameters and therapy duration are not well characterized in such patients. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 99 consecutive patients undergoing therapeutic phlebotomy for either transfusional IO (TIO, n=88; 76% had undergone hematopoietic transplantation) or non-transfusional indications (hyperferritinemia or erythrocytosis) (n=11). CBC, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and transaminases were measured serially. Phlebotomy goal was an SF< 300 mcg/L. Results Mean SF prior to phlebotomy among TIO and nontransfusional subjects was 3,093 and 396 mcg/L, respectively. Transfusion burden in the TIO group was 94 ± 108 (mean ± SD) RBC units; about half completed therapy with 24 ± 23 phlebotomies (range 1–103). One-third was lost to follow-up. Overall, 15% had mild adverse effects, including headache, nausea, and dizziness, mainly during first phlebotomy. Prior transfusion burden correlated poorly with initial ferritin and total number of phlebotomies to target (NPT) in the TIO group. However, NPT was strongly correlated with initial SF (R2=0.8; p<0.0001) in both TIO and nontransfusional groups. ALT decreased significantly with serial phlebotomy in all groups (mean initial and final values, 61 and 39 U/L; p = 0.03). Conclusions Initial SF but not transfusion burden predicted number of phlebotomies to target in patients with TIO. Despite good treatment tolerance, significant losses to follow-up were noted. Providing patients with an estimated phlebotomy number and follow-up duration, and thus a finite endpoint, may improve compliance. Hepatic function improved with iron off-loading. PMID:25209879

  19. Iron-biofortified rice improves the iron stores of nonanemic Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Beard, John L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; del Mundo, Angelita M; Felix, Angelina; Gregorio, Glenn B

    2005-12-01

    Iron deficiency is endemic in much of the world, and food system-based approaches to eradication may be viable with new plant breeding approaches to increase the micronutrient content in staple crops. It is thought that conventional plant breeding approaches provide varieties of rice that have 400-500% higher iron contents than varieties commonly consumed in much of Asia. The efficacy of consuming high-iron rice was tested during a 9-mo feeding trial with a double-blind dietary intervention in 192 religious sisters living in 10 convents around metro Manila, the Philippines. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either high-iron rice (3.21 mg/kg Fe) or a local variety of control rice (0.57 mg/kg Fe), and daily food consumption was monitored. The high-iron rice contributed 1.79 mg Fe/d to the diet in contrast to 0.37 mg Fe/d from the control rice. The 17% difference in total dietary iron consumption compared with controls (10.16 +/- 1.06 vs. 8.44 +/- 1.82 mg/d) resulted in a modest increase in serum ferritin (P = 0.10) and total body iron (P = 0.06) and no increase in hemoglobin (P = 0.59). However, the response was greater in nonanemic subjects for ferritin (P = 0.02) and body iron (P = 0.05), representing a 20% increase after controlling for baseline values and daily rice consumption. The greatest improvements in iron status were seen in those nonanemic women who had the lowest baseline iron status and in those who consumed the most iron from rice. Consumption of biofortified rice, without any other changes in diet, is efficacious in improving iron stores of women with iron-poor diets in the developing world.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  1. Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

  2. On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, L.; Turmel, S.; Boivin, J.-A.; Sabsabi, M.; Martinovic, T.I.; Ouellet, G.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for a better control [Lb1] of the various additives used in the iron ore pellet making process, Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) has been tested for the on-line monitoring of Si, AI, Ca, Mg, and C. This work shows that factors such as laser beam focusing, particle size, slurry density and mineralogical composition have to be taken into account to meet precision and accuracy requirements. An internal standardization (peak ratio) and an original multivariate calibration technique based on fuzzy logic concepts [Lb2] are [Lb3] used to minimize the effect of these factors. This paper describes the experimental set-up, the effect of influence factors and the results obtained both in the laboratory and in an iron ore plant. (author)

  3. Sobrecarga e quelação de ferro na anemia falciforme Iron overload and iron chelation in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-09-01

    regimens have been of the highest priority in the last years.In this review, the most important advances in iron-chelating therapy are described, particularly the analysis of the two orally active iron chelators: deferiprone and the novel oral chelator deferasirox.

  4. Metallofullerenol Inhibits Cellular Iron Uptake by Inducing Transferrin Tetramerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxia; Xing, Xueqing; Sun, Baoyun; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Zhonghua

    2017-10-18

    Herein, A549 tumor cell proliferation was confirmed to be positively dependent on the concentration of Fe 3+ or transferrin (Tf). Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 or C 60 (OH) 22 effectively inhibited the iron uptake and the subsequent proliferation of A549 cells. The conformational changes of Tf mixed with FeCl 3 , GdCl 3 , C 60 (OH) 22 or Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 were obtained by SAXS. The results demonstrate that Tf homodimers can be decomposed into monomers in the presence of FeCl 3 , GdCl 3 or C 60 (OH) 22 , but associated into tetramers in the presence of Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 . The larger change of SAXS shapes between Tf+C 60 (OH) 22 and Tf+FeCl 3 implies that C 60 (OH) 22 is bound to Tf, blocking the iron-binding site. The larger deviation of the SAXS shape from a possible crystal structure of Tf tetramer implies that Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 is bound to the Tf tetramer, thus disturbing iron transport. This study well explains the inhibition mechanism of Gd@C 82 (OH) 22 and C 60 (OH) 22 on the iron uptake and the proliferation of A549 tumor cells and highlights the specific interactions of a nanomedicine with the target biomolecules in cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen.

  6. Zinc therapy on children with Psoriasis modulates trace elements in serum and tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements in either serum and skin which has been done on twenty patients with psoriasis with age range between 4 -13 years. They were under medical treatment with 5 milligram; oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. A significant increase in both serum and tissue copper and iron levels was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer . In addition, a significant decrease in both serum and tissue calcium and magnesium in psoriatic patients. It has been concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium in psoriatic patients.

  7. MR marrow signs of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Sheth, S.S.; Hurlet, A.; Comerci, S.C.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Piomelli, S.; Berdon, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) marrow signal in the axial and appendicular skeleton of 13 transfusion-dependent and chelated pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia (SSD) was compared with marrow signal in six non-transfusion-dependent patients with SSD. Hepatic, pancreatic, and renal MR signal were also evaluated. Indication for hypertransfusion therapy was primarily prior history of stroke. Transfusion-dependent patients had evidence of iron deposition throughout the imaged marrow and the liver, despite deferoxamine chelation therapy. Non-transfusion-dependent patients did not demonstrate grossly apparent signs of iron overload. Red marrow restoration was present in the spine, pelvis, and long bones and, in some patients, within the epiphyses. Marrow edema secondary to vaso-occlusive crises was evident in the metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones in areas of both red and fatty marrow and was best seen using fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging techniques. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Evaluation of a new tablet formulation of deferasirox to reduce chronic iron overload after long-term blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers AW

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna W Chalmers, Jamile M Shammo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Transfusion-dependent anemia is a common feature in a wide array of hematological disorders, including thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, and myelodysplastic syndromes. In the absence of a physiological mechanism to excrete excess iron, chronic transfusions ultimately cause iron overload. Without correction, iron overload can lead to end-organ damage, resulting in cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine dysfunction/failure. Iron chelating agents are utilized to reduce iron overload, as they form a complex with iron, leading to its clearance. Iron chelation has been proven to decrease organ dysfunction and improve survival in certain transfusion-dependent anemias, such as β-thalassemia. Several chelating agents have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron overload, including deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. A variety of factors have to be considered when choosing an iron chelator, including dosing schedule, route of administration, tolerability, and side effect profile. Deferasirox is an orally administered iron chelator with proven efficacy and safety in multiple hematological disorders. There are two formulations of deferasirox, a tablet for suspension, and a new tablet form. This paper is intended to provide an overview of iron overload, with a focus on deferasirox, and its recently approved formulation Jadenu® for the reduction of transfusional iron overload in hematological disorders. Keywords: iron chelation therapy, transfusional iron overload, deferasirox

  9. In vitro evaluation of iron solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants and of iron-fortified milk products targeted for infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P iron was higher (P iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.

  10. Anti frictional materials iron-pig iron-brass manufacture using shaving waste products of pig-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasamov, S. N.; Krivij, N.; Gudenau, H. W.; Babich, A. I.; Garcia, L. L.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts based on iron and steel powders are widely used in the manufacture of automobile and domestic equipment. This work was done to study the anti-friction properties of iron-pig iron-brass compositions of materials which were obtained by pressing and sintering from a mix of iron powders and industrial by products of cast-iron turnings, brass, talc and technical sulphur. Experiments were performed using cold pressure technology in the flowing matrix of the powder composite without solid lubricants. The subsequent sintering was carried out at 1200 degree centigree under isothermal conditions in a nitrogen atmosphere in the sintering zone during 1 h. The physical-mechanical and anti-friction properties were almost double by the active drainage of the gases from the compression mould. The study of the microstructure of the sintered materials showed that free cementite existed between the particle limits and around the pores. large agglomerations of dark inclusions could be observed, consisting of graphite, zinc and iron oxides, which were points of tension in the materials that reduce its durability and, therefore, its wear resistance to dry friction. (Author) 34 refs

  11. Assessment of polyphase sintered iron-cobalt-iron boride cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, J.; Pieczonka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Sintering of iron, cobalt and boron powders has been analysed. As a result iron-iron boride, Fe-Fe 2 B and iron/cobalt boride with a slight admixture of molybdenum, Fe - Co - (FeMoCo) 2 B cermets have been produced. Iron was introduced to the mixture as the Astalloy Mo Hoeganaes grade powder. Elemental amorphous boron powder was used, and formation of borides occurred both during heating and isothermal sintering periods causing dimensional changes of the sintered body. Dilatometry was chosen to control basic phenomena taking place during multiphase sintering of investigated systems. The microstructure and phase constituents of sintered compacts were controlled as well. The cermets produced were substituted to: metallographic tests, X-ray analysis, measurements of hardness and of microhardness, and of wear in the process of sliding dry friction. Cermets are made up of two phases; hard grains of iron - cobalt boride, (FeCo) 2 B (1800 HV) constituting the reinforcement and a relatively soft and plastic eutectic mixture Fe 2 B - Co (400-500 HV) constituting the matrix. (author)

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  13. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  14. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, N.; Munazza, B.; Ayub, M.; Sarwar, I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly iron deficiency anaemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objective of this study was to assess and compare the iron status of normal healthy non-pregnant women with that of pregnant women of Hazara Division. Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Health Sciences, Hazara University, and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from first March to /31 August 2006. Altogether 120 women, 90 pregnant at various stages of pregnancy and 30 non-pregnant women as control group were included in this study by convenience sampling. Their iron status was assessed by determination of haemoglobin (Hb), Serum ferritin, Serum-iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and Percentage saturation of transferrin. Data generated on these variables were subjected to ANOVA and correlation analysis. Results: The salient finding of this study is a significant decrease in Hb, Serum ferritin, Serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and a significant increase in values of TIBC and a pronounced increase in UIBC in second and third trimester compared to first trimester in iron deficient pregnant women. The mean values of Hb, SF, and Fe/TIBC% were significantly lower in the cases than in the control and significantly higher values of TIBC and UIBC were observed in the cases compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed for TIBC, UIBC and Fe/TIBC% against serum iron in different trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion: A high percentage of the pregnant women are iron deficient due to factors such as high parity, poor dietary habits and socioeconomic status. (author)

  15. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  16. Rational hemochromatosis therapy with erythrocytapheresis under low doses of erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    Brückl, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Hereditary hemochromatosis with an incidence of 1:200 – 1:400 is the most common hereditary disease. It is characterized by increased iron absorption and deposition in various organs, leading to organ damage and even death. To date, phlebotomy (bloodletting) is the standard therapy of iron-overload in hemochromatosis. However, this treatment is long lasting, frequently intolerable and/or remains limited due the development of significant anemia. All these difficulties might be ov...

  17. Treating thalassemia major-related iron overload: the role of deferiprone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdoukas V

    2012-10-01

    use of other combinations in chelation treatment, some of which have been used only in a very limited fashion to date. All these advances in management require absolute cooperation and understanding of parents, children, and, subsequently, the patients themselves. Only with such cooperation can normal long-term survival be achieved, as adherence to treatment is now likely the primary barrier to longevity.Keywords: thalassemia, iron overload, iron chelation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, deferoxamine, deferiprone, deferasirox

  18. Iron and iron-related proteins in asbestosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: We tested the postulate that iron homeostasis is altered among patients diagnosed to have asbestosis. Lung tissue from six individuals diagnosed to have had asbestosis at autopsy was stained for iron, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (FP...

  19. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  20. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C. M.; van der Vorm, Lisa N.; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Evans, Patricia J.; Hod, Eldad A.; Brittenham, Gary M.; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Porter, John B.; Mattijssen, Vera E. J. M.; Biemond, Bart J.; MacKenzie, Marius A.; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  1. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  3. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  4. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krachler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  5. Comparison of food habits, iron intake and iron status in adolescents before and after the withdrawal of the general iron fortification in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A; Hulthén, L

    2015-04-01

    Sifted flour was fortified with carbonyl iron for 50 years in Sweden. This study evaluates changes in food habits, intake of iron, factors affecting iron absorption and iron status after the discontinuation of the general iron fortification in adolescents with the highest requirements. A total of 2285 15- to 16-year-old students in 1994 (634 girls and 611 boys) and in 2000 (534 girls and 486 boys) in 13 schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included in two cross-sectional surveys assessing food habits with diet history interviews and iron deficiency defined with serum ferritin stores ⩽ 15 μg/l and no preceding infection. In girls, iron deficiency increased from 37 to 45%, while in boys, it was stable at 23%. Total iron intake decreased from 15.7 to 9.5 mg/day and 22.5 to 13.9 mg/day in girls and boys, respectively. Cereals were the main iron source. Among girls, the increase of fish and decrease of calcium intake may not counteract the effect of decreased intake of fortification iron. Among boys, more meat, less calcium and more vitamin C may have favoured the bioavailability of iron. The discontinuation of the general iron fortification resulted in a 39% decrease in total iron intake and iron deficiency increased substantially in girls. However, in boys no change in iron deficiency was observed. Whether this was a result of changed bioavailability of dietary iron or simultaneous changes of non-dietary factors remains to be explored.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  7. Use of radionuclides in the study of iron metabolism in iron deficient states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatkov, A.; Karakostov, K.; Iliev, Z.; Dimitrov, L.

    1977-01-01

    A study of erythropoiesis in iron deficient anemias by simultaneous labelling with the radionuclides iron 59 and chromium 51 revealed accelerated iron circuit, higher percentage of daily hemolysis, severely reduced or even absent labile reserves, decreased volume of packed red cells with no decrease of blood volume. Adequate iron 59 utilization was observed after administration of large doses of iron (500 mg) in the treatment of iron deficient anemias. (author)

  8. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  9. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  10. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  11. Comparison of efficacy of oral and intramuscular iron supplementation for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Ahmad, T.M.; Sbir, M.U.; Tarar, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    more prominent when compared with group A (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: Intramuscular iron sorbitol therapy is an alternative and comparatively better treatment option as compared to oral iron therapy, sodium feredetate, in regards of treatment duration and earlier rise in the laboratory indices. (author)

  12. Megavoltage radiation therapy: Meeting the technological needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In its simplest description, the purpose of radiation therapy is to hit the target and to miss all other parts of the patient. While there are multiple technological methods available for doing this, the actual radiation treatment needs to be considered in the broader context of the total radiation treatment process. This process contains multiple steps, each of which has an impact on the quality of the treatment and on the possible clinical outcome. One crucial step in this process is the determination of the location and extent of the disease relative to the adjacent normal tissues. This can be done in a variety of ways, ranging from simple clinical examination to the use of complex 3-D imaging, sometimes aided by contrast agents. As part of this localization process, it is very important that patient immobilization procedures be implemented to ensure that the same patient position will be used during both the planning and the daily treatment stages. With the knowledge of the location of the target and the critical tissues, decisions can be made about the appropriate beam arrangements to provide adequate tumour coverage while sparing the healthy tissues. This beam arrangement may have to be confirmed on a therapy simulator prior to actual implementation of the radiation treatment. In summary, the treatment process includes diagnosis, patient immobilization, target and normal tissue localization, beam selection, beam shaping, dose calculation, technique optimization, simulation, prescription, treatment verification and, finally, treatment. Dependent on the type of disease, it is not necessary that every patient undergoes all of the steps in the process; however, it is necessary that each step of the process used for a particular patient be carried out with the greatest accuracy. Uncertainties at any stage of the process will be carried through to subsequent stages and have an impact on clinical outcome. It is, therefore, important to recognize, when

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  15. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  16. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  17. Iron overload triggers mitochondrial fragmentation via calcineurin-sensitive signals in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Dong Gil; Kim, Bokyung; Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Jung-Hak; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    development of novel therapies for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders related to iron toxicity.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  11. Whole-body iron-59 retention measurements for estimating the iron status of piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, A.; Rudolphi, K.; Heinrich, H.C.; Gabbe, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    A large-volume, 4π whole-body liquid scintillation detector was used to determine 59 Fe absorption in 173 one-to-six-weeks-old piglets with normal and depleted iron stores. Values of intestinal absorption from a 10 μmole (corresponds to 0.558 mg) 59 Fe 2+ test dose were compared with levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, and serum iron as well as with stainable diffuse iron of bone marrow reticuloendothelial cells, and the dose relationship of intestinal iron absorption from 59 Fe-labelled FeSO 4 and methaemoglobin was measured. The investigations indicated that neither blood parameters, cytochemical gradings nor absorption levels from the 59 Fe test dose alone were sufficient to describe quantitatively the various stages of iron deficiency in piglets. A synopsis of all parameters appeared to be necessary for defining normal iron status and prelatent, latent and manifest iron deficiency. Piglets fed on sows' milk only developed manifest iron deficiency within the first three weeks of age. After an access to soil and/or creep feed from the eighth day of age, or intramuscular injections of 200 mg Fe as iron-dextran at three days of age, or injections of 200 or 400 mg Fe combined with access to creep feed, stages of manifest, latent or prelatent iron deficiency could be observed. For an iron-dextran dose of 800 mg Fe injected in amounts of 400 mg Fe at 3 and 10 days of age, a normal iron status was obtained in three-week-old piglets. The iron dose relationship indicated that 20 mg Fe administered orally as FeSO 4 or 40 mg Fe as methaemoglobin-Fe daily should cover the iron requirement of piglets for the first three weeks of life, whereas a three-week total of iron given orally in a single dose would lead to unphysiological or fatal conditions in nursing pigs. (author)

  12. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  17. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  2. [Causes of iron-deficiency anaemia in the internal medecine department of the national teaching hospital of Ouagadougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacoulma, Eric William Camille; Sakande, Jean; Ouermi, Alain; Tieno, Hervé; Drabo, Youssoufou Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study in the internal medicine department of the national teaching hospital of Ouagadougou was conducted to identify the main causes of iron-deficiency anaemia. Among the 65 subjects meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, mean haemoglobin was 7.5 g/dl, with mean serum ferritin 8.9 microg/l among women and 15.5 microg/l among men. The most common cause was chronic blood loss, and hookworm was a major cause in 19.6% of cases. These results suggest the need for preventive measures against iron deficiency and for reinforcement of the fight against diseases producing fecal blood loss.

  3. Iron-57 and iridium-193 Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of supported iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1988-01-01

    57 Fe and 193 Ir Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that silica- and alumina-supported iron-iridium catalysts formed by calcination in air contain mixtures of small particle iron(III) oxide and iridium(IV) oxide. The iridium dioxide in both supported catalysts is reduced in hydrogen to metallic iridium. The α-Fe 2 O 3 in the silica supported materials is predominantly reduced in hydrogen to an iron-iridium alloy whilst in the alumina-supported catalyst the iron is stabilised by treatment in hydrogen as iron(II). Treatment of a hydrogen-reduced silica-supported iron catalyst in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is accompanied by the formation of iron carbides. Carbide formation is not observed when the iron-iridium catalysts are treated in similar atmospheres. The results from the bimetallic catalysts are discussed in terms of the hydrogenation of associatively adsorbed carbon monoxide and the selectivity of supported iron-iridium catalysts to methanol formation. (orig.)

  4. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  5. Targeted Mesoporous Iron Oxide Nanoparticles-Encapsulated Perfluorohexane and a Hydrophobic Drug for Deep Tumor Penetration and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Lin; Fang, Jen-Hung; Liao, Chia-Ying; Lin, Chein-Ting; Li, Yun-Ting; Hu, Shang-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    A magneto-responsive energy/drug carrier that enhances deep tumor penetration with a porous nano-composite is constructed by using a tumor-targeted lactoferrin (Lf) bio-gate as a cap on mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs). With a large payload of a gas-generated molecule, perfluorohexane (PFH), and a hydrophobic anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), Lf-MIONs can simultaneously perform bursting gas generation and on-demand drug release upon high-frequency magnetic field (MF) exposure. Biocompatible PFH was chosen and encapsulated in MIONs due to its favorable phase transition temperature (56 °C) and its hydrophobicity. After a short-duration MF treatment induces heat generation, the local pressure increase via the gasifying of the PFH embedded in MION can substantially rupture the three-dimensional tumor spheroids in vitro as well as enhance drug and carrier penetration. As the MF treatment duration increases, Lf-MIONs entering the tumor spheroids provide an intense heat and burst-like drug release, leading to superior drug delivery and deep tumor thermo-chemo-therapy. With their high efficiency for targeting tumors, Lf-MIONs/PTX-PFH suppressed subcutaneous tumors in 16 days after a single MF exposure. This work presents the first study of using MF-induced PFH gasification as a deep tumor-penetrating agent for drug delivery.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  7. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  8. Efficacy of iron supplementation may be misinterpreted using conventional measures of iron status in iron-depleted, nonanemic women undergoing aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompano, Laura M; Haas, Jere D

    2017-12-01

    Background: Despite its known detrimental effects, iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron status involve physically active populations. Intense aerobic exercise training negatively affects iron status; however, the impact of regular moderate aerobic exercise on the effectiveness of iron supplementation remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training modifies the assessment of the effectiveness of iron supplementation in improving conventional iron status measures. Design: Seventy-two iron-depleted, nonanemic Chinese women [serum ferritin (sFer) 110 g/L] were included in an 8-wk, partially blinded, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplements (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic training (five 25-min sessions/wk at 75-85% of maximum heart rate) or no training. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relation between supplement type, training, and changes in iron status over time, measured by sFer, hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and estimated total body iron. Results: After treatment, both the iron-supplemented trained and untrained groups showed significantly improved sFer, sTfR, and body iron values compared with either of the placebo groups. Similarly, trained participants had significantly higher aerobic fitness measures than untrained participants. Training modified the sFer response to supplementation (training by supplement interaction, P = 0.07), with the iron-supplemented trained group having significantly lower sFer than the iron-supplemented untrained group at week 8 (mean ± SD: 31.8 ± 13.5 and 47.6 ± 15.7 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.042), whereas there was no significant difference between the placebo trained and untrained groups (21.3 ± 12.2 and 20.3 ± 7.0 μg/L, respectively; P = 1.00). Conclusions: Regular aerobic training reduces the apparent effectiveness

  9. Can hydroxyurea serve as a free radical scavenger and reduce iron overload in β-thalassemia patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Khushnooma; Chandrakala, S; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that hydroxyurea could provide an additional benefit as a free radical scavenger and/or iron chelator in β-thalassemia patients with iron overload. Twenty-one β-thalassemia intermedia patients who presented between 3 and 17 years but later required regular blood transfusions were enrolled for hydroxyurea therapy for a year. Fourteen patients responded to the therapy with hemoglobin levels maintained above 7.5 g/dl without transfusions. Hydroxyurea was discontinued after 6 months in seven patients who did not respond to the therapy and had to be continued on regular blood transfusions. We observed a statistically significant decrease in serum ferritin levels from 4194 ± 4850 ng/ml to 2129 ± 2380 ng/ml among the responders and from 2955 ± 2909 ng/ml to 2040 ± 2432 ng/ml among the non-responders and statistically significant decrease in labile iron pool from 18678.7 ± 10067.4 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) to 14888.5 ± 5284.0 MFI among responders and from 17986.3 ± 9079.8 MFI to 15634.8 ± 8976.9 MFI among the non-responders after therapy. Phosphatidylserine externalization also showed a statistically significant decrease from 44.2 ± 22.2 MFI to 16.6 ± 6.7 MFI among the responders and from 46.9 ± 33.1 MFI to 39.8 ± 7.4 MFI among the non-responders along with a statistically significant decrease in the levels of reactive oxygen species from 72.8 ± 35.5 MFI to 29.0 ± 8.3 MFI among the responders and from 80.9 ± 41.4 MFI to 40.5 ± 15.8 MFI among the non-responders after therapy. A statistically significant increase in reduced glutathione levels was also observed from 430.8 ± 201.1 MFI to 715.5 ± 292.4 MFI among the responders and from 359.6 ± 165.6 MFI to 450.3 ± 279.5 MFI among the non-responders after therapy. This suggests the possible additional role of hydroxyurea as a free radical scavenger and

  10. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  11. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  12. The role of mitochondria in cellular iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Roland; Hoffmann, Bastian; Molik, Sabine; Pierik, Antonio J; Rietzschel, Nicole; Stehling, Oliver; Uzarska, Marta A; Webert, Holger; Wilbrecht, Claudia; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in iron metabolism in that they synthesize heme, assemble iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins, and participate in cellular iron regulation. Here, we review the latter two topics and their intimate connection. The mitochondrial Fe/S cluster (ISC) assembly machinery consists of 17 proteins that operate in three major steps of the maturation process. First, the cysteine desulfurase complex Nfs1-Isd11 as the sulfur donor cooperates with ferredoxin-ferredoxin reductase acting as an electron transfer chain, and frataxin to synthesize an [2Fe-2S] cluster on the scaffold protein Isu1. Second, the cluster is released from Isu1 and transferred toward apoproteins with the help of a dedicated Hsp70 chaperone system and the glutaredoxin Grx5. Finally, various specialized ISC components assist in the generation of [4Fe-4S] clusters and cluster insertion into specific target apoproteins. Functional defects of the core ISC assembly machinery are signaled to cytosolic or nuclear iron regulatory systems resulting in increased cellular iron acquisition and mitochondrial iron accumulation. In fungi, regulation is achieved by iron-responsive transcription factors controlling the expression of genes involved in iron uptake and intracellular distribution. They are assisted by cytosolic multidomain glutaredoxins which use a bound Fe/S cluster as iron sensor and additionally perform an essential role in intracellular iron delivery to target metalloproteins. In mammalian cells, the iron regulatory proteins IRP1, an Fe/S protein, and IRP2 act in a post-transcriptional fashion to adjust the cellular needs for iron. Thus, Fe/S protein biogenesis and cellular iron metabolism are tightly linked to coordinate iron supply and utilization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ironing Out the Unconventional Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition and Gene Regulation in Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D. Pokorzynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, along with its close species relatives, is known to be strictly dependent upon the availability of iron. Deprivation of iron in vitro induces an aberrant morphological phenotype termed “persistence.” This persistent phenotype develops in response to various immunological and nutritional insults and may contribute to the development of sub-acute Chlamydia-associated chronic diseases in susceptible populations. Given the importance of iron to Chlamydia, relatively little is understood about its acquisition and its role in gene regulation in comparison to other iron-dependent bacteria. Analysis of the genome sequences of a variety of chlamydial species hinted at the involvement of unconventional mechanisms, being that Chlamydia lack many conventional systems of iron homeostasis that are highly conserved in other bacteria. Herein we detail past and current research regarding chlamydial iron biology in an attempt to provide context to the rapid progress of the field in recent years. We aim to highlight recent discoveries and innovations that illuminate the strategies involved in chlamydial iron homeostasis, including the vesicular mode of acquiring iron from the intracellular environment, and the identification of a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator that is synthesized as a fusion with a ABC-type transporter subunit. These recent findings, along with the noted absence of iron-related homologs, indicate that Chlamydia have evolved atypical approaches to the problem of iron homeostasis, reinvigorating research into the iron biology of this pathogen.

  14. ESR spectroscopy of blood serum in thalassemia: discrimination of iron overload severity in deferoxamine-cured patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Schianchi, G.; Giori, D.C.; Pedrazzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    Iron impairments in homozygous β-thalassemia include iron overload syndrome, partially prevented by deferoxamine (DF) and methemalbumin (MHA) in serum. The latter has been studied by electron spin resonance ESR before the clinical use of DF and recently in DF cured subjects. We monitored by X-band ESR at 163 K, the Fe (III) bound in MHA and transferrin (Tf) in serum from transfused, DF-cured patients. Plotting MHA/Tf versus individual DF dose divided the patients into two subgroups, A and B; A with the two variables correlated linearly and B presenting no correlation. The patients in B presented a higher incidence and severity of clinical complications and lower therapy responsiveness as compared to subjects in A. The ratio MHA/Tf evidenced a quadratic dependence on the mass of transfused erythrocytes (TE) in A, and no regularity in B. Similar patterns appeared in plots of ferritin (FT) and hemoglobin (Hb) vs. DF and TE, but all correlation become visible only after A vs. B discrimination by ESR. The results point to a heavier iron overload in B than in A patients, suggesting different Hb degradation pathways in the two subgroups with more toxic 'free' iron produced in B than in A. Therefore, ESR of serum might serve for improving the precision of diagnosis, for prognosis of dissimilar therapeutic efficiency of DF in patients and for monitoring the long-term efficiency of therapy in homozygous β-thalassemia. (authors)

  15. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  16. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market - Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-05-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled 'Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market' was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  20. Determination of Iron Content in Iron Deficiency Drugs by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate a simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron in the iron deficiency drugs, namely are Feroglobin B12, Ferose-F and Ferose. The proposed method is based on the reaction of iron with ammonium thiocyanate after the wet digestion of the drugs under study with HNO3 and H2O2.  Effects of pH, temperature, standing time and thiocyanate concentration on the determination of iron in drugs containing iron have been investigated. The λmax was 430 nm and the molar absorptivity of 0.0399 L mol-1 cm-1. The linear regression was in the range 0.5 - 60 μg/mL for iron content in hemoglobin. The detection limit and the limit of quantification were found to be 0.040 and 0.122 µg mL-1 for the iron respectively, and with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.998. Recovery measurements ranged from 99.63-100.20%. This method is simple and fast can be used for the determination of iron in the iron deficiency drugs in pharmaceutical laboratories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.953

  1. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  2. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅳ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  3. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  4. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 4: Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  5. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  6. The role of erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous (IV) iron in the cardio renal anemia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is common in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality, morbidity and progressive renal failure. The most common causes of the anemia in CHF are (1) the associated Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), which causes depression of erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney, and (2) excessive cytokine production in CHF, which can cause both depression of erythropoietin production in the kidney and depression of erythropoietin response in the bone marrow. The cytokines can also induce iron deficiency by increasing hepcidin production from the liver, which both reduces gastrointestinal iron absorption and reduces iron release from iron stores located in the macrophages and hepatocytes. It appears that iron deficiency is very common in CHF and is rarely recognized or treated. The iron deficiency can cause a thrombocytosis that might contribute to cardiovascular complications in both CHF and CKD and is reversible with iron treatment. Thus, attempts to control this anemia in CHF will have to take into consideration both the use of both Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) such as EPO and oral and, probably more importantly, intravenous (IV) iron. Many studies of anemia in CHF with ESA and oral or IV iron and even with IV iron without ESA have shown a positive effect on hospitalization, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac and renal function, quality of life, exercise capacity and reduced Beta Natriuretic Peptide and have not demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular damage related to the therapy. However, adequately powered long-term placebo-controlled studies of ESA and of IV iron in CHF are still needed and are currently being carried out.

  7. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  10. Medical imaging projects meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    ENTERVISION, the Research Training Network in 3D Digital Imaging for Cancer Radiation Therapy, successfully passed its mid-term review held at CERN on 11 January. This multidisciplinary project aims at qualifying experts in medical imaging techniques for improved hadron therapy.   ENTERVISION provides training in physics, medicine, electronics, informatics, radiobiology and engineering, as well as a wide range of soft skills, to 16 researchers of different backgrounds and nationalities. The network is funded by the European Commission within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network, and relies on the EU-funded research project ENVISION to provide a training platform for the Marie Curie researchers. The two projects hold their annual meetings jointly, allowing the young researchers to meet senior scientists and to have a full picture of the latest developments in the field beyond their individual research project. ENVISION and ENTERVISION are both co-ordinated by CERN, and the Laboratory hosts t...

  11. Cytosolic iron chaperones: Proteins delivering iron cofactors in the cytosol of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Caroline C; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Frey, Avery; Patel, Sarju

    2017-08-04

    Eukaryotic cells contain hundreds of metalloproteins that are supported by intracellular systems coordinating the uptake and distribution of metal cofactors. Iron cofactors include heme, iron-sulfur clusters, and simple iron ions. Poly(rC)-binding proteins are multifunctional adaptors that serve as iron ion chaperones in the cytosolic/nuclear compartment, binding iron at import and delivering it to enzymes, for storage (ferritin) and export (ferroportin). Ferritin iron is mobilized by autophagy through the cargo receptor, nuclear co-activator 4. The monothiol glutaredoxin Glrx3 and BolA2 function as a [2Fe-2S] chaperone complex. These proteins form a core system of cytosolic iron cofactor chaperones in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  14. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  15. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be connected...

  16. Role of liver magnetic resonance imaging in hyperferritinaemia and the diagnosis of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruefer, Axel; Bapst, Christine; Benz, Rudolf; Bremerich, Jens; Cantoni, Nathan; Infanti, Laura; Samii, Kaveh; Schmid, Mathias; Vallée, Jean-Paul

    2017-11-09

    Hyperferritinaemia is a frequent clinical problem. Elevated serum ferritin levels can be detected in different genetic and acquired diseases and can occur with or without anaemia. It is therefore important to determine whether hyperferritinaemia is due to iron overload or due to a secondary cause. The main causes of iron overload are intestinal iron hyperabsorption disorders and transfusion-dependent disorders. Iron homeostasis and iron overload are quantified by different diagnostic approaches. The evaluation of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is the first diagnostic step to identify the cause of hyperferritinaemia. The assessment of liver iron concentration by liver biopsy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may guide the further diagnostic and therapeutic workup. Liver biopsy is invasive and poorly accepted by patients and should only be carried out in selected patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. As a non-invasive approach, MRI is considered the standard method to diagnose and to monitor both hepatic iron overload and the effectiveness of iron chelation therapy in many clinical conditions such as thalassaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Accurate evaluation and monitoring of iron overload has major implications regarding adherence, quality of life and prognosis. There are different technical MRI approaches to measuring the liver iron content. Of these, T2 and T2* relaxometry are considered the standard of care. MRI with cardiac T2* mapping is also suitable for the assessment of cardiac iron. Currently there is no consensus which technique should be preferred. The choice depends on local availability and patient population. However, it is important to use the same MRI technique in subsequent visits in the same patient to get comparable results. Signal intensity ratio may be a good adjunct to R2 and R2* methods as it allows easy visual estimation of the liver iron concentration. In this review a group of Swiss haematologists and radiologists

  17. A 3-marker index improves the identification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Mercadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron disorders are common and complex in chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to determine whether a 3-marker index would improve the classification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. METHODS: We studied the association between Hb level and iron indexes combining 2 or 3 of the following markers: serum ferritin (<40 ng/mL, transferrin saturation (TSAT<20% and total iron binding capacity (TIBC<50 µmol/L in 1011 outpatients with non-dialysis CKD participating in the Nephrotest study. All had glomerular filtration rates measured (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance; 199 also had hepcidin measures. RESULTS: The TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index explained Hb variation better than indexes combining TSAT-TIBC or ferritin-TSAT. It showed hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional iron deficiency (ID to be more common than either absolute or inflammatory ID: 20%, 19%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. Hb was lower in all abnormal, compared with normal, iron profiles, and decreased more when mGFR was below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (interaction p<0.0001. In patients with mGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2, the Hb decreases associated with hypotransferrinaemia, non-inflammatory functional ID, and absolute ID were 0.83±0.16 g/dL, 0.51±0.18 and 0.89±0.29, respectively. Compared with normal iron profiles, hepcidin was severely depressed in absolute ID but higher in hypotransferrinaemia. CONCLUSIONS: The combined TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index identifies hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional ID as the major mechanisms of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. Both disorders were associated with a greater decrease in Hb when mGFR was <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2. Taking these iron profiles into account may be useful in stratifying patients in clinical trials of CKD anaemia and might improve the management of iron therapy.

  18. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient occupational therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.59 Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions. (a) Basic rule... occupational therapy services only if they are furnished by an individual meeting the qualifications in part...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  1. Oral administration of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin-loaded ceramic nanocapsules for breast cancer therapy and influence on iron and calcium metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-01-01

    We determined the anticancer efficacy and internalization mechanism of our polymeric-ceramic nanoparticle system (calcium phosphate nanocores, enclosed in biodegradable polymers chitosan and alginate nanocapsules/nanocarriers [ACSC NCs]) loaded with iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in a breast cancer xenograft model. ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs with an overall size of 322±27.2 nm were synthesized. In vitro internalization and anticancer efficacy were evaluated in the MDA-MB-231 cells using multicellular tumor spheroids, CyQUANT and MTT assays. These NCs were orally delivered in a breast cancer xenograft mice model, and their internalization, cytotoxicity, biodistribution, and anticancer efficacy were evaluated. Chitosan-coated calcium phosphate Fe-bLf NCs effectively (59%, P≤0.005) internalized in a 1-hour period using clathrin-mediated endocytosis (P≤0.05) and energy-mediated pathways (P≤0.05) for internalization; 3.3 mg/mL of ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs completely disintegrated (~130-fold reduction, P≤0.0005) the tumor spheroids in 72 hours and 96 hours. The IC50 values determined for ACSC-Fe-bLf NCs were 1.69 mg/mL at 10 hours and 1.62 mg/mL after 20 hours. We found that Fe-bLf-NCs effectively (P≤0.05) decreased the tumor size (4.8-fold) compared to the void NCs diet and prevented tumor recurrence when compared to intraperitoneal injection of Taxol and Doxorubicin. Receptor gene expression and micro-RNA analysis confirmed upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor (liver, intestine, and brain). Several micro-RNAs responsible for iron metabolism upregulated with NCs were identified. Taken together, orally delivered Fe-bLf NCs offer enhanced antitumor activity in breast cancer by internalizing via low-density lipoprotein receptor and transferrin receptor and regulating the micro-RNA expression. These NCs also restored the body iron and calcium levels and increased the hematologic counts.

  2. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravenous iron treatments for iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: a budget impact analysis of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, R F; Muduma, G

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading cause of anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Intravenous iron is the first-line treatment for clinically active IBD or previous oral iron intolerance. The aim of the present study was to develop a comparative model of iron deficiency and delivery for iron isomaltoside (IIM), ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID), and iron sucrose (IS) in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with IBD. Areas covered: A model was developed to evaluate iron delivery characteristics, resource use and costs associated with IIM, FCM, LMWID and IS. Iron deficiency was modeled using dosing tables and retreatments were modeled based on a pooled retrospective analysis. The analyses were conducted over 5 years in patients with IBD with mean bodyweight of 75.4 kg and hemoglobin levels of 10.77 g/dL based on observational data. Expert opinion: The modeling analysis showed that using IIM required 1.2 infusions (per treatment) to correct the mean iron deficit, compared with 1.6, 1.2, and 7.1 with FCM, LMWID and IS, respectively. Costs were estimated to be 2,518 pounds sterling (GBP) per patient with IIM or LMWID, relative to GBP 3,309 with FCM or GBP 14,382 with IS.

  4. Valorization of mining waste from Ouenza iron ore mine (eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Idres

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article is devoted to the development of a hematite-poor ore mine in Ouenza, which does not meet the steelmaker's requirements. Significant volumes are stored at the pithead of the mine, and the reserves are estimated at over 100 million tones. This enormous quantity of mining waste occupies an important space and poses a real threat to the environment as well as for the mining city of Ouenza. In order to solve these socio-economic and environmental problems, a sustainable development and a better quality of life for inhabitants of this region is needed. For this, representative samples were taken at the level of the dumps. Taking into account the natural characteristics of the stock namely; mineralogical composition, iron content, particle size of the rock mass, as well as the release mesh of iron minerals from the gangue. Firstly, tests are conducted on the recovery by radiometric separation of iron-rich pieces and graded. Then the rest of the ore was subjected to mechanical preparation followed by enrichment, which will be the subject of another study. The research is conducted on samples to determine the optimal parameters of the g-rays absorption tested by radiometry; these parameters were the velocity of the conveyor belt and the time of exposure to g-rays. The obtained results by this valorization process are very significant: iron content 53.5% and 8.3% recovery.

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and chemotherapy cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, A. A.; Giustini, A. J.; Ryan, P.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of combining hyperthermia and chemotherapy to treat cancer is well established. However, combined therapy has not yet achieved standard of care status. The reasons are numerous and varied, however the lack of significantly greater tumor cell sensitivity to heat (as compared to normal cells) and the inability to deliver heat to the tumor in a precise manner have been major factors. Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia, alone and combined with other modalities, offers a new direction in hyperthermia cancer therapy via improved tumor targeting and an improved therapeutic ratio. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity (in vitro and in vivo) with IONP heat and cisplatinum (CDDP) doses lower than those necessary when using conventional heating techniques or cisplatinum alone. Ongoing studies suggest such treatment could be further improved through the use of targeted nanoparticles.

  6. Bioavailability & absorption of Iron and Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kapil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans derive iron from their everyday diet, predominantly from plant foods and the rest from foods of animal origin. Iron is found in food as either haem or non-haem iron.  Haem iron, which is about up to 40 per cent of the iron in meat, poultry, and fish, is well absorbed.  All the iron in plants (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts is in the form of non-haem iron and is relatively poorly absorbed. Non-haem iron contributes about 90-95 per cent of total daily iron in vegan diets. In western countries,the intake of haem iron from meat and meat products accounts for bulk of the dietary iron. The haem iron consumption is minimal in developing countries with majority obtaining non-haem iron from cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruits'. The diets is plagued by low iron content and poor absorption. Major sources of non-haem iron are plant foods. The iron is chemically diverse, ranging from simple iron oxides and salts to more complex organic chelates such as hydroxyphosphates in phytoferritin(1.

  7. Bioavailability & absorption of Iron and Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kapil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans derive iron from their everyday diet, predominantly from plant foods and the rest from foods of animal origin. Iron is found in food as either haem or non-haem iron.  Haem iron, which is about up to 40 per cent of the iron in meat, poultry, and fish, is well absorbed.  All the iron in plants (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts is in the form of non-haem iron and is relatively poorly absorbed. Non-haem iron contributes about 90-95 per cent of total daily iron in vegan diets. In western countries,the intake of haem iron from meat and meat products accounts for bulk of the dietary iron. The haem iron consumption is minimal in developing countries with majority obtaining non-haem iron from cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruits'. The diets is plagued by low iron content and poor absorption. Major sources of non-haem iron are plant foods. The iron is chemically diverse, ranging from simple iron oxides and salts to more complex organic chelates such as hydroxyphosphates in phytoferritin(1.

  8. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietamese schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Huong T.; Brouwer, I.D.; Burema, J.; NGuyen, K.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children

  9. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin; Fiskal, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface...

  10. Roentgenoelectronic investigation into oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, A.G.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Machavariani, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetics of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloy oxidation (of the Kh13 and Kh18N10T steels) in oxygen was investigated using X-ray electron spectroscopy. It was found that according to X-ray electron spectra chromium oxidation kinetics in the iron-chromium alloy differs significantly from oxidation kinetics of chromium pattern. Layer by layer X-ray electron analysis showed that chromium is subjected to a deeper oxidation as compared to iron, and accordingly, Cr 2 O 3 layer with pure iron impregnations is placed between the layer of mixed oxide (Fe 3 O 4 +Cr 2 O 3 ) and metal. A model of the iron-chromium alloy surface is suggested. The mixed oxide composition on the steel surface is presented as spinel Fesub(2+x)Crsub(1-x)Osub(y)

  11. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Mei, Zuguo; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  12. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  13. Therapeutic iron : Evaluation of methods to assess intravenous iron safety profiles and the development of a novel formulation for oral iron delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357800842

    2018-01-01

    Iron treatment is necessary to replenish iron deficit due to several clinical conditions such as chronic diseases. However, as an excess of iron can result in redox imbalance resulting in oxidative stress and thus severe damage to tissue and organs, it is of utmost importance to develop iron

  14. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  15. Modelling Systemic Iron Regulation during Dietary Iron Overload and Acute Inflammation: Role of Hepcidin-Independent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enculescu, Mihaela; Metzendorf, Christoph; Sparla, Richard; Hahnel, Maximilian; Bode, Johannes; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Legewie, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic iron levels must be maintained in physiological concentrations to prevent diseases associated with iron deficiency or iron overload. A key role in this process plays ferroportin, the only known mammalian transmembrane iron exporter, which releases iron from duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, or iron-recycling macrophages into the blood stream. Ferroportin expression is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to hypoxia, iron deficiency, heme iron and inflammatory cues by cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. At the systemic level, the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is released from the liver in response to these cues, binds to ferroportin and triggers its degradation. The relative importance of individual ferroportin control mechanisms and their interplay at the systemic level is incompletely understood. Here, we built a mathematical model of systemic iron regulation. It incorporates the dynamics of organ iron pools as well as regulation by the hepcidin/ferroportin system. We calibrated and validated the model with time-resolved measurements of iron responses in mice challenged with dietary iron overload and/or inflammation. The model demonstrates that inflammation mainly reduces the amount of iron in the blood stream by reducing intracellular ferroportin transcription, and not by hepcidin-dependent ferroportin protein destabilization. In contrast, ferroportin regulation by hepcidin is the predominant mechanism of iron homeostasis in response to changing iron diets for a big range of dietary iron contents. The model further reveals that additional homeostasis mechanisms must be taken into account at very high dietary iron levels, including the saturation of intestinal uptake of nutritional iron and the uptake of circulating, non-transferrin-bound iron, into liver. Taken together, our model quantitatively describes systemic iron metabolism and generated experimentally testable predictions for additional

  16. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose in Iron Deficiency Anaemia During Post-partum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Roy, Priyankar; Gandhi, Khushali; Choudhary, Sumesh; Aggarwal, Rohina; Sokabaj, Shaheen

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the commonest treatable cause of postpartum anaemia. Parenteral iron therapy results in faster and higher replenishment of iron stores and correction of haemoglobin levels with better compliance. Ferric Carboxy Maltose is an effective and a safe option which can be administered intravenously in single total correction dose without any serious adverse effects.The study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ferric Carboxy Maltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in post-natal patients. It was an open, single arm study including 615 women with diagnosis of Iron deficiency anaemia and haemoglobin (Hb) levels between 4gm% and 11gm% from January 2013 to December 2016. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose(500-1500mg) was administered and the improvement in haemoglobin levels and iron stores were assessed after three weeks of total dose infusion. Out of the 615 women, 595 women were included in the analysis. Most of the women were in the age group of 27-30 years. Most of the women had mild anaemia as per World Health Organisation guidelines. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased over a period of three weeks after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. Other parameters like total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and Iron also had a significant improvement after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. No serious adverse events were observed after Ferric Carboxy Maltose. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose was an effective and a safe treatment option for iron deficiency anaemia and has an advantage of single administration of high doses without serious adverse effects.

  18. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-08-01

    Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) iron (BI) anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin 118 μmol/mol). A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P iron supplementation reduced anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Moessbauer study on the distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Kenzo; Sato, Masaki; Shinohara, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S with the controlled compositions was investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. Moessbauer spectrum was composed of several component spectra. These component spectra were assigned to the iron atoms with different configurations of neighboring iron vacancies. Judging from the composition dependence of intensity of each component, iron vacancies are considered to lie in every second iron layer for specimens with x between 0.125 and 0.10. For specimens with x between 0.10 and 0.09, this arrangement is nearly kept in the sample quenched from a higher temperature than 473 K, but after annealing at a lower temperature than 473 K iron vacancies are considered to lie not only in every second iron layer but also in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers. The iron vacancy arrangement lying in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers tends to dominate for specimens with x below 0.09. (author)

  20. Facile and sustainable synthesis of shaped iron oxide nanoparticles: effect of iron precursor salts on the shapes of iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Farheen N; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2015-05-05

    A facile and sustainable protocol for synthesis of six different shaped iron oxides is developed. Notably, all the six shapes of iron oxides can be synthesised using exactly same synthetic protocol, by simply changing the precursor iron salts. Several of the synthesised shapes are not reported before. This novel protocol is relatively easy to implement and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining various shaped iron oxides in economical and sustainable manner.

  1. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    hydroxide planar layer were preserved during the oxidation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. The high positive charge in the hydroxide layer produced by the oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) is partially compensated by the deprotonation of hydroxy groups, as shown by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy...... between the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecanoate anions play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and hindering the collapse of the iron(II)–iron(III) (hydr)oxide structure during oxidation. This is the first report describing the formation of a stable planar layered octahedral iron......(III) (hydr)oxide. oxGRC12 shows promise as a sorbent and host for hydrophobic reagents, and as a possible source of single planar layers of iron(III) (hydr)oxide....

  2. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  3. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheo Shankar Pandey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in

  4. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  6. Music Therapy and Avatars: Reflections on Virtual Learning Environments for Music Therapy Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Story, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy students have expressed concerns regarding their general preparedness for practicum and working with new populations. Simulations in the immersive virtual world, Second Life, may provide a platform to assist in training music therapy students and enhance preparedness. This project...... examined the feasibility of utilizing Second Life to assist in training music therapists. Music therapy practicum students enrolled in a music therapy equivalency program participated in weekly one hour virtual class meetings in Second Life, which included 5 sessions of music therapy simulations....... At the end of the semester, students were interviewed in relation to their experiences, and interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Common themes among students were limitations of Second Life software, student’s knowledge of software, emotional reactions (both positive and negative), and distance learning....

  7. Iron deficiency in infancy and neurocognitive functioning at 19 years: evidence of long-term deficits in executive function and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Koss, Marlene; Burden, Matthew J; Jonides, John; Nelson, Charles A; Kaciroti, Niko; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2010-04-01

    Iron deficiency in infancy negatively impacts a variety of neurodevelopmental processes at the time of nutrient insufficiency, with persistent central nervous system alterations and deficits in behavioral functioning, despite iron therapy. In rodent models, early iron deficiency impairs the hippocampus and the dopamine system. We examined the possibility that young adults who had experienced chronic, severe, iron deficiency as infants would exhibit deficits on neurocognitive tests with documented frontostriatal (Trail Making Test, Intra-/Extra-dimensional Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing) and hippocampal specificity (Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory). Participants with chronic, severe iron deficiency in infancy performed less well on frontostriatal-mediated executive functions, including inhibitory control, set-shifting, and planning. Participants also exhibited impairment on a hippocampus-based recognition memory task. We suggest that these deficits may result from the long-term effects of early iron deficiency on the dopamine system, the hippocampus, and their interaction.

  8. Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Products Successfully to the Market – Report from the CAT-DGTI-GSCN Workshop at the DGTI Annual Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Hystad, Marit; Schüßler-Lenz, Martina; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Flory, Egbert; Beuneu, Claire; Reischl, Ilona; Salmikangas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2014, a workshop entitled ‘Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: How to Bring Cell-Based Medicinal Product Successfully to the Market’ was held at the 47th annual meeting of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI), co-organised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the DGTI in collaboration with the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN). The workshop brought together over 160 participants from academia, hospitals, small- or medium-sized enterprise developers and regulators. At the workshop, speakers from EMA, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT), industry and academia addressed the regulatory aspects of development and authorisation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), classification of ATMPs and considerations on cell-based therapies for cardiac repair. The open forum discussion session allowed for a direct interaction between ATMP developers and the speakers from EMA and CAT. PMID:26195933

  9. Relating dynamic conditions to the performance of biological rapid sand filters used to remove ammonium, iron, and manganese from drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    consistently meeting regulatory guidelines for compounds like ammonium and reduced forms of iron and manganese. These compounds can cause biological instability in the distribution system and can lead to many problems including the growth of pathogens and aesthetic problems (taste, odor, and color...... and media samples were collected throughout the depth of the column and over the operational cycle of the columns. Substrate analysis included ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, iron, and manganese. Qpcr analysis were also performed to quantify ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), ammonium oxidizing archea ( AOAs...

  10. Zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Koc-Zorawska, E; Levin-Iaina, N; Malyszko, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    In patients after kidney transplantation, anemia is relatively common and is associated with impaired kidney function, subclinical inflammatory state, and immunosuppressive treatment. Zonulin-prehaptoglobin-2, a newly discovered protein, is necessary for integrity of intracellular tight junctions in the gut. Taking into consideration iron metabolism, including its absorption in the gut, we designed a cross-sectional study to look for the possible interactions among zonulin, iron status, and anemia in kidney transplant recipients. The study was performed on 72 stable kidney transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers. Zonulin, iron status, and inflammatory markers were assessed with the use of commercially available kits. Zonulin was significantly lower in kidney allograft recipients than in healthy volunteers (P Zonulin correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.33; P Zonulin was not affected by sex, type of immunosuppressive therapy, presence of