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Sample records for iron plate materials

  1. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  2. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    stresses in castings are also gaining increasing attention. State-of-the-art tools allow the prediction of residual stresses and iron casting distortion quantitatively. Cracks in castings can be assessed, as well as the reduction of casting stresses during heat treatment. As the property requirements for cast iron as a material in design strongly increase, new alloys and materials such as ADI might become more attractive, where latest software developments allow the modeling of the required heat treatment. Phases can be predicted and parametric studies can be performed to optimize the alloy dependent heat treatment conditions during austenitization, quenching and ausferritization. All this quantitative information about the material's performance is most valuable if it can be used during casting design. The transfer of local properties into the designer抯 world, to predict fatigue and durability as a function of the entire manufacturing route, will increase the trust in this old but highly innovative material and will open new opportunities for cast iron in the future. The paper will give an overview on current capabilities to quantitatively predict cast iron specific defects and casting performance and will highlight latest developments in modeling the manufacture of cast iron and ADI as well as the prediction of iron casting stresses.

  3. Electroless plating preparation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Zhou, Wancheng; Li, Rong; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To solve the serious electromagnetic interference problems at elevated temperature, one thin microwave-absorbing sheet employing Co-coated carbonyl iron particles and polyimide was prepared. The Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were successfully prepared using an electroless plating method. The microstructure, composition, phase and static magnetic properties of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized by combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The electromagnetic parameters of Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composite were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and the electromagnetic loss mechanism of the material-obtained was discussed. The microwave absorption properties of composites before and after heat treatment at 300 °C for 100 h were characterized in 2-18 GHz frequency range. It was established that composites based on Co-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate thermomagnetic stability, indicating that Co coating reduces the oxidation of carbonyl iron. Thus, Co-coated carbonyl iron particles/polyimide composites are useful in the design of microwave absorbers operating at temperatures up to 300 °C.

  4. Development of tin-plated regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. Y.; Morie, T.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2017-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of a cryocooler, it is vital to improve the regenerator. In general, the heat capacity of materials decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, when temperature is below 50 K, lead spheres are often used as a regenerator material. However, the pressure drop through a sphere regenerator is larger than that through a screen regenerator. To overcome this dilemma, a new, low pressure loss tin-plated screen is proposed. A comparison test was performed with a two-stage GM cryocooler by replacing part of the first stage regenerator material, bronze screens with tin-plated screens. Compared to a regenerator filled with bronze screens, the cooling capacity of the first stage increased by about 14% at 40 K and 90% at 30 K with such tin-plated screens. The ratio of the wire diameter before and after the deposition was also optimized. An optimum cooling capacity of 53.5 W at 40 K was obtained at a diameter ratio of about 1.4. The detailed experimental results are reported in this paper.

  5. Interaction of Lamb Waves with Domain Walls in an Iron Borate Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Zhukov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the calculation results of the Lamb wave spectra in a plate of iron borate. Experimental data on how flexural vibrations in a borate plate influence its domain structure are provided.

  6. Study on the new materials for fiberboard refiner plate of defibrator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOZe-hui; XIANGHong-liang; LUOJi-rong

    2003-01-01

    Defibrator is a very important machine in the wood industry for producing fiberboard.The refiner plates are the key parts of defibrator that directly act with the wood,and broken easily.The working life of the refiner plates is of significance to the wood industry.It may affect refining quality,production efficiency,and power consumption.In this paper,the abrasion resistance of the refiner plate made of different materials,the stainless steels and high chromium cast irons,were tested and compared.The results showed that abrasion resistance of refiner plate made of high chromium cast irons was better than that of the stainless steel materials.Although the two kinds of materials have the same compositions,their abrasion resistances have apparent difference.The main reason is that the material microstructures have very important effects on their performance.The refiner plates made of developed high chromium cast irons don't demand the complex heat treatment.This can simplify the producing process,save the cost of production,decrease labor strength,and increase the production efficiency.

  7. The field-dependent rheological properties of magnetorheological fluids featuring plate-like iron particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bok eChoi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with an investigation of the plate-like iron particles based MR suspensions under the application of magnetic fields to ascertain the influence of particle size in the rheological performance. A novel synthesis route to prepare magnetorheological fluid (MRF using two different sizes of plate-like iron particles is described in detail. Two different kinds of MRF are then prepared and their rheological properties are presented and discussed extensively. Steady shear flow and small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements are carried out in the presence of magnetic field. This experimental study reveals and highlights the importance of exploiting some parameters such as magnetic field strength, effect of particle size, magneto-viscous and visco-elastic properties of the suspending fluid. The magnetization of the fluids is also performed to explain the effect of particle size in the magnetic field which is directly correlated with the yield stress. In the absence of magnetic field, the properties of fluid are isotropic and upon the application of magnetic field the magnetized particles form a strong-chain like structures in the field direction which promotes the appearance of yield stress. This material is known as smart material whose properties amend from liquid to solid immediately after applying the magnetic field. It is found from this work that the large size particle based MRF exhibits high yield stress and strong chain structuration under the applying magnetic field.

  8. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-19

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications.

  9. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Microchannel plate special nuclear materials sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, W.B., E-mail: bfeller@novascientific.com [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); White, P.L.; White, P.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Siegmund, O.H.W.; Martin, A.P.; Vallerga, J.V. [Sensor Sciences, 3333 Vincent Road, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Nova Scientific Inc., is developing for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO SBIR no. HSHQDC-08-C-00190), a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to {sup 3}He gas tubes, using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing {sup 10}B and/or Gd. This work directly supports DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. Neutron-sensitized MCPs have been shown theoretically and more recently experimentally, to be capable of thermal neutron detection efficiencies equivalent to {sup 3}He gas tubes. Although typical solid-state neutron detectors typically have an intrinsic gamma sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than that of {sup 3}He gas detectors, we dramatically reduce gamma sensitivity by combining a novel electronic coincidence rejection scheme, employing a separate but enveloping gamma scintillator. This has already resulted in a measured gamma rejection ratio equal to a small {sup 3}He tube, without in principle sacrificing neutron detection efficiency. Ongoing improvements to the MCP performance as well as the coincidence counting geometry will be described. Repeated testing and validation with a {sup 252}Cf source has been underway throughout the Phase II SBIR program, with ongoing comparisons to a small commercial {sup 3}He gas tube. Finally, further component improvements and efforts toward integration maturity are underway, with the goal of establishing functional prototypes for SNM field testing.

  11. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  12. Corrosion of Cast Iron Mill Plates in Wet Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion studies were carried out on two different maize grinding plates. Maize was soaked in water for three days and the water decanted and used as electrolyte. Mass loss and pH measurements were carried out every 3 days for 15-day period. Results show that, for each plate, mass loss and pH increased with exposure time. Corrosion rates determined from mass loss data was found to be strongly dependent on pH. The observed behaviour may be explained in terms of the chemical composition and/or microstructures of the plates. Results are briefly discussed in terms of the contribution of corrosion to wear.

  13. Mechanism for Corrosion Prevention by a Mechanical Plating of Uniform Zinc-Iron Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Kaku, Yoshihiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Hirai, Kuninori

    2016-09-01

    In situ electrochemical monitoring with a three-electrode cell was applied to investigate the anti-corrosion properties of a mechanical zinc-iron alloy plating. Several electron probe microanalyses were also conducted to identify the chemical elements in the plating. The results indicated the formation of a Zn-Fe intermetallic compound, which allowed a mechanism for corrosion prevention to be proposed. In the proposed mechanism, Zn(OH)2 plays a significant role in the corrosion prevention of steel alloys.

  14. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  15. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; F. Pahlevani; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change the dendritic structure to globular. In the slope plate angle of 7.5°and length of 560 mm with cooling rate of 67K·s-1 the optimum nodular graphite and solid globular particle were achieved.The results also show that by using slope plate inoculant fading can be prevented more easily since the total time of process is rather short.In addition, the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared by inclined plate method, was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. Solid fraction at different reheating temperatures and holding time was obtained and based on these results the optimum reheating temperature range was determined.

  16. Removal of surface layers from plated materials: upgrading of scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapper, G.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of a method developed for the purpose of removing surface layers from plated materials. The principle of separation is based on the difference in vapour pressures and stabilities with the formation of metal chlorides. A series of pyrolytic experiments was carried

  17. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  18. Thermal Fatigue Study on the Divertor Plate Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继红; 张斧; 许增裕; 严建成

    2002-01-01

    Thermal fatigue property of the divertor plate is one of the key issues that governs the lifetime of the divertor plate. Taking tungsten as surface material, a small-mock-up divertor plate was made by hot isostatic press welding (HIP). A thermal cycling experiment for divertor mock-up was carried out in the vacuum, where a high-heat-flux electronic gun was used as the thermal source. A cyclic heat flux of 9 MW/m2 was loaded onto the mock-up, a heating duration of 20 s was selected, the cooling water flow rate was 80 ml/s. After 1000 cycles, the surface and the W/Cu joint of the mock-up did not show any damage. The SEM was used to analyze the microstructure of the welding joint, where no cracks were found also.

  19. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  20. Supersonic flutter analysis of thin cracked functionally graded material plates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Bordas, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flutter behaviour of simply supported square functionally graded material plates immersed in a supersonic flow is studied. An enriched 4-noded quadrilateral element based on field consistency approach is used for this study and the crack is modelled independent of the underlying mesh. The material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and graded only in the thickness direction. The effective material properties are estimated using the rule of mixtures. The formulation is based on the first order shear deformation theory and the shear correction factors are evaluated employing the energy equivalence principle. The influence of the crack length, the crack orientation, the flow angle and the gradient index on the aerodynamic pressure and the frequency are numerically studied. The results obtained here reveal that the critical frequency and the critical pressure decreases with increase in crack length and it is minimum when the crack is aligned to the flow angle.

  1. Hadron energy resolution as a function of iron plate thickness at ICAL

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Lakshmi S; Devi, Moon Moon; Kaur, Daljeet; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol; Indumathi, D; Murthy, M V N; Naimuddin, Md

    2014-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the hadron energy resolution as a function of the thickness of the absorber plates for the proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We compare the hadron resolutions obtained with absorber thicknesses in the range 1.5 -- 8 cm for neutrino interactions in the energy range 2 -- 15 GeV, which is relevant to hadron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions. We find that at lower energies, the thickness dependence of energy resolution is steeper than at higher energies, however there is a constant contribution that dominates at the lower thicknesses discussed in this paper. As a result, the gain in hadron energy resolution with decreasing plate thickness is marginal. We present the results in the form of fits to a function with energy-dependent exponent.

  2. Enhanced antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of Co-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles prepared by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yingying, E-mail: zyzlchappy1989@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhou, Wancheng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Li, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); No. 603 Faculty, Xi’an Institute of High Technology, Xi’an 710025 (China); Mu, Yang; Qing, Yuchang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co-coated carbonyl iron particles were prepared by electroless plating method. • The obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 400 °C after Co-coated. • The permeability of the Co-coated particle composite kept almost invariable. • Co-coated carbonyl iron composite reserves a better absorption after heat treatment. - Abstract: Co was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using an electroless plating method. The morphologies, composition, as well as magnetic, antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows that the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred from 300 to 400 °C after Co-coated. In contrast to raw carbonyl iron, the Co-coated carbonyl iron shows better stability on electromagnetic properties after 300 °C heat treatment for 10 h, demonstrating that the Co coating can act as the protection of carbonyl iron.

  3. Characterization of impact behaviour of armour plate materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazimuddin G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three armour plate materials, including two steels, namely HHA and Mars 300, and an aluminium alloy 5083, were studied under impact loading to determine their behaviour and the mechanisms of deformation that lead to failure. The experimental testing was carried out using either a direct impact compression Split Hopkinson Bar or a torsion Hopkinson Bar. The impact properties and stress-strain cures were obtained as a function of the impact momentum in compression and the angle of twist in torsion. It was found that at the high strain rates developed in the specimen during the tests, the deformation occurs by the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs which may lead to the formation of cracks within the bands and the ultimate failure of the specimens. It was also found that below a certain impact momentum, the deformation is more uniform and no ASBs are formed. Also, ASBs are more likely to form in the BCC metals such as the two steels while diffuse ASBs associated with plastic flow are exhibited in the 5083 aluminum alloy. Microstructural techniques ranging from optical microscopy to atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to study the topography of the ASBs. Also, modelling of the formation was performed. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ASBs in the failure of these materials.

  4. Characterization of impact behaviour of armour plate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassim, M. N.; Bolduc, M.; Nazimuddin, G.; Delorme, J.; Polyzois, I.

    2012-08-01

    Three armour plate materials, including two steels, namely HHA and Mars 300, and an aluminium alloy 5083, were studied under impact loading to determine their behaviour and the mechanisms of deformation that lead to failure. The experimental testing was carried out using either a direct impact compression Split Hopkinson Bar or a torsion Hopkinson Bar. The impact properties and stress-strain cures were obtained as a function of the impact momentum in compression and the angle of twist in torsion. It was found that at the high strain rates developed in the specimen during the tests, the deformation occurs by the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) which may lead to the formation of cracks within the bands and the ultimate failure of the specimens. It was also found that below a certain impact momentum, the deformation is more uniform and no ASBs are formed. Also, ASBs are more likely to form in the BCC metals such as the two steels while diffuse ASBs associated with plastic flow are exhibited in the 5083 aluminum alloy. Microstructural techniques ranging from optical microscopy to atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the topography of the ASBs. Also, modelling of the formation was performed. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ASBs in the failure of these materials.

  5. Indirect ignition of energetic materials with laser-driven flyer plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Steven W; De Lucia, Frank C; Gottfried, Jennifer L

    2017-01-20

    The impact of laser-driven flyer plates on energetic materials CL-20, PETN, and TATB has been investigated. Flyer plates composed of 25 μm thick Al were impacted into the energetic materials at velocities up to 1.3 km/s. The flyer plates were accelerated by means of an Nd:YAG laser pulse. The laser pulse generates rapidly expanding plasma between the flyer plate foil and the substrate to which it is adhered. As the plasma grows, a section of the metal foil is ejected at high speed, forming the flyer plate. The velocity of the flyer plate was determined using VISAR, time of flight, and high-speed video. The response of the energetic material to impact was determined by light emission recorded by an infrared-sensitive photodiode. Following post-impact analysis of the impacted energetic material, it was hypothesized that the light emitted by the material after impact is not due to the impact of the flyer itself but rather is caused by the decomposition of energetic material ejected (via the shock of flyer plate impact) into a cloud of hot products generated during the launch of the flyer plate. This hypothesis was confirmed through schlieren imaging of a flyer plate launch, clearly showing the ejection of hot gases and particles from the region surrounding the flyer plate launch and the burning of the ejected energetic material particles.

  6. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  7. Static Corrosion Test of Porous Iron Material with Polymer Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markušová-Bučková, Lucia; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Gorejová, Radka; Kupková, Miriam; Hrubovčáková, Monika; Baláž, Matej; Kováľ, Karol

    2016-12-01

    At present biodegradable implants received increased attention due to their use in various fields of medicine. This work is dedicated to testing of biodegradable materials which could be used as bone implants. The samples were prepared from the carbonyl iron powder by replication method and surface polymer film was produced through sol-gel process. Corrosion testing was carried out under static conditions during 12 weeks in Hank's solution. The quantity of corrosion products increased with prolonging time of static test as it can be concluded from the results of EDX analysis. The degradation of open cell materials with polyethylene glycol coating layer was faster compared to uncoated Fe sample. Also the mass losses were higher for samples with PEG coating. The polymer coating brought about the desired increase in degradation rate of porous iron material.

  8. Effect of Slope Plate Variable and Reheating on the Semi-Solid Structure of Ductile Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; F. Pahlevani; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming is a promising production method for a wide range of metal alloys. In spite of many applications for semi-solid processed light alloys, few works have reported on the semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research, an inclined plate was used to change the dendritic structure of iron to globular. The effects of the length and slope of the plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process effectively changes the dendritic structure to globular. A sloped plate angle of 7.5° and length of 560 mm with a cooling rate of 67 K·s-1 gave the optimum graphite nodu-larity and solid particle globularity. The results also show that the sloped plate more easily prevents inocu-lant fading since the total time processing is rather short. In addition the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared using the inclined plate method was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the micro-structure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. The solid fractions at different reheating temperatures and holding times were used to find the optimum reheating temperature range.

  9. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  10. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  11. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  12. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg; Shopska, M., E-mail: shopska@ic.bas.bg; Paneva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media (Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  13. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  14. Nanosynthesis of Iron Based Material for Green Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeminde, Alec W.

    In this work, nanosynthesis of multiple iron-based materials are explored to further their use in green renewable-energy applications. First, the nanosynthesis of the abundant, non-toxic semi-conductor Iron Disulfide (Iron Pyrite, Fool's Gold, FeS2) is investigated. Within these studies, it became possible to tune the shape of the FeS2 nanoparticles easily by modifying injection temperatures and iron precursors. From here, the growth mechanisms of the different shapes were elucidated by examining different time points within the synthesis. It was discovered that the FeS2 did not grow by Ostwald Ripening, but instead by Oriented Attachment. Knowing this, it was possible to not only further the shapes of FeS2 nanoparticles, but also manipulate the size and crystallinity. Focus was then shifted to creating larger micron sized FeS2 crystals. Larger crystals where achieved by a unique FeS nanowire precursor followed by sulfurization. The dominant crystal surface of these crystals could be regulated simply by the time and temperature of the sulfurization. Second, synthetic control of magnetic nanoparticles was examined. A novel synthesis of Iron Palladium (FePd) made possible by interdiffusion of iron into palladium nanocores was identified. Furthermore, a shell of Iron oxide (Fe2O3) could facilely be grown on the FePd nanoparticles, generating a FePd/Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticle. These FePd/Fe2O3 core/shell particles provided an excellent foundation to create an L10- FePd/α-Fe exchange-coupled nanocomposite that exhibited improved magnetic properties compared to its single phase FePd counterpart. However, the stabilizing ligand used within this FePd synthesis doped into the final nanoparticles, degraded the magnetic properties. iii To overcome the dopant ligand problem, a novel nanoalloy synthetic strategy of Metal Redox was developed. The Metal Redox strategy utilized the inherent reducing power of zero-valent metal sources to create a vast sampling of metal

  15. Effect of plate preparation on active-material utilization and cycleability of positive plates in automotive lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun, H.; Lam, L. T.; Rand, D. A. J.; Bhargava, S. K.

    The power demands from automotive lead/acid batteries are rising steadily with the increasing number of electronic accessories that are being fitted to modern vehicles. In order to meet new levels of performance, automotive batteries have been redesigned to use low-ohmic microporous separators, as well as thinner plates (to increase the number of plates per cell) that are made with a low paste density. This approach, however, has led to a separate problem, namely, an appreciable reduction in battery service life. To redress this situation, a research programme has been implemented in our laboratories to examine, in detail, the effect of plate preparation on the active-material utilization and cycleability of automotive positive plates with grids made from low-antimony alloy. The cycleability is evaluated in terms of repetitive reserve-capacity. The results suggest that a paste formula with a combination of high density and low acid-to-oxide ratio is the most appropriate technology for the production of the thin positive plates that are required in advanced designs of automotive batteries.

  16. Three-dimensional Analysis of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Plate with Arbitrarily Distributed Material Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wuxiang; MA Shaokun; WU Hao

    2014-01-01

    An orthotropic functionally graded piezoelectric rectangular plate with arbitrarily distributed material properties was studied, which is simply supported and grounded (electrically) on its four lateral edges. The state equations of the functionally graded piezoelectric material were obtained using the state-space approach, and a Peano-Baker series solution was obtained for the coupled electroelastic fields of the functionally graded piezoelectric plate subjected to mechanical and electric loading on its upper and lower surfaces. The influence of different distributions of material properties on the structural response of the plate was studied using the obtained solutions.

  17. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  18. Topological material layout in plates for vibration suppression and wave propagation control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Laksafoss, B.; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin pl...... effectively suppress the overall vibration level or alternatively transport energy in predefined paths in the plates, including the realization of a ring wave device.......We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin...

  19. A new dual-plate slipometer for measuring slip between molten polymers and extrusion die materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, A M; Giacomin, A J

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we study the slip behaviors common to plastics die extrusion metals or platings using a new instrument called a dual-plate slipometer. By dual-plate, we mean that whereas the stationary plate incorporates a local shear stress transducer, the moving plate does not. The stationary plate and transducer are made of one stainless steel, but the moving plate is made from, or plated with, different extrusion die materials under study. This new instrument allows slip velocity to be measured without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each extrusion metal or plating under study. We explore the effect of extrusion die composition and die metal surface morphology on the slip properties of polyolefins using a sliding plate rheometer. In this work, we studied the slip behaviors of polyolefins on four common plastics die extrusion metals or platings, without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each. Specifically, our new method replaces the moving plate; with each of the four die metals or platings under study without changing the stainless steel material of the shear stress transducer and its stationary plate. Our experiments include high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and polypropylene (PP) on four different die metals or platings. We use steady simple shear to obtain shear stress versus nominal shear rate for different gaps, from which we can then deduce the slip velocity using the Mooney analysis. We then fit four slip models to our experimental measurements, and we find the Hatzikiriakos hyperbolic sine model to be accurate, even for the measured inflections in the slip velocity as a function of shear stress curves. Our analysis includes detailed characterization of the die metal plating surfaces, including measurements of the composition of the sliding plates by energy dispersive spectroscopy, surface energy by contact angle goniometry, and surface roughness by both white light interference and stylus

  20. PECULIARITIES OF LAMB WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH TWO-LAYERED THIN PLATE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the plate wave propagation through two-layered thin plate have been analyzed and formulas for velocity determination of the quickest plate mode have been proposed.  The ascertained interaction makes it possible   to determine coating layer thickness in accordance with the given and known elastic parameters of contacting materials. On the basis of the developed methodology experiments have been carried out that revealed qualitative and quantitative correspondence  between theoretical and experimental data. The paper shows a principle possibility for assessment  of  material separation surface by time propagation data of the investigated mode .

  1. Wave propagation in parallel-plate waveguides filled with nonlinear left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burhan Zamir; Rashid Ali

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of field components for transverse electric mode in the parallel-plate waveguides has been studied. In this analysis two different types of waveguide structures have been discussed, i.e., (a) normal good/perfect conducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material and (b) high-temperature-superconducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material. The dispersion relations of transverse electric mode have also been discussed for these two types of waveguide structures.

  2. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  3. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  4. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  5. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron basis... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the...

  6. Methodology for approximating material loss on structural plating subjected to dissimilar marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Robert A.

    Non destructive measurement technologies such ultrasonic pulse echo are typically employed to measure remaining shell plating thickness for determining remaining life on marine structures. However, the technology provides total material loss across the shell plate and cannot distinguish how much material loss occurs on each plate side. By understanding material loss contribution on each plate side, engineers and maintenance personnel can have a better understanding of the environments influencing material loss, optimally plan, and schedule maintenance activities. This need is evermore important today as the U.S. proceeds to address its aging infrastructure problems. This research defines and tests a new maintenance inspection methodology called relative material loss (RML) used for distinguishing the material loss contribution on each shell plate side separating dissimilar marine environments. The RML methodology leverages actual "at sea" environmental and operational conditions and the relationships between to solve for material loss contribution. In much the same fashion as a structural engineer isolate joints on a truss and solve free body diagram equations to determine member forces, relative loss equations are defined across various environmental boundaries (such as shell plating) and solved simultaneously to suggest solutions. To demonstrate and test the RML theory, a case study is presented using a sixty five year old "at-sea" structure; a dry dock caisson gate. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to valid the model. Shell plate material loss contribution profiles are defined using statistical and regression techniques and correlated to profiles of environmental factors known to influence marine corrosion. Spin off discoveries and recommendations for future research are included.

  7. Free material optimization for laminated plates and shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot; Stolpe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for conceptual optimal design of composite structures. The design variable in FMO is the entire elastic material tensor which is allowed to vary almost freely over the design domain. The imposed requirements on the tensor are that it is symm......Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for conceptual optimal design of composite structures. The design variable in FMO is the entire elastic material tensor which is allowed to vary almost freely over the design domain. The imposed requirements on the tensor...

  8. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of cast iron material under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji Hoon; Kim, Chang Lae; Oh, Jeong Taek; Kim, Dae Eun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nemati, Narguess [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Cast iron is widely used in fields such as the transport and heavy industries. For parts where contact damage is expected to occur, it is necessary to understand the friction and wear characteristics of cast iron. In this study, we use cast iron plates as the specimens to investigate their friction and wear characteristics. We perform various experiments using a reciprocating type tribotester. We assess the frictional characteristics by analyzing the friction coefficient values that were obtained during the sliding tests. We observe the wear surfaces of cast iron and steel balls using a scanning electron microscope, confocal microscope, and 3D profiler. We investigate the friction and wear characteristics of cast iron by injecting sand and alumina particles having various sizes. Furthermore, we estimate the effect of temperature on the friction and wear characteristics. The results obtained are expected to aid in the understanding of the tribological characteristics of cast iron in industry.

  9. Pure bending of simply supported circular plate of transversely isotropic functionally graded material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-yu; DING Hao-jiang; CHEN Wei-qiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the pure bending problem of simply supported transversely isotropic circular plates with elastic compliance coefficients being arbitrary functions of the thickness coordinate. First, the partial differential equation, which is satisfied by the stress functions for the axisymmetric deformation problem is derived. Then, stress functions are obtained by proper manipulation. The analytical expressions of axial force, bending moment and displacements are then deduced through integration.And then, stress functions are employed to solve problems of transversely isotropic functionally graded circular plate, with the integral constants completely determined from boundary conditions. An elasticity solution for pure bending problem, which coincides with the available solution when degenerated into the elasticity solutions for homogenous circular plate, is thus obtained.A numerical example is finally presented to show the effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic field in a simply supported circular plate of transversely isotropic functionally graded material (FGM).

  10. Energy trapping of thickness-shear vibration modes of elastic plates with functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-03-01

    Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.

  11. Static Response of Functionally Graded Material Plate under Transverse Load for Varying Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient materials (FGM are one of the most widely used materials in various applications because of their adaptability to different situations by changing the material constituents as per the requirement. Nowadays it is very easy to tailor the properties to serve specific purposes in functionally gradient material. Most structural components used in the field of engineering can be classified as beams, plates, or shells for analysis purposes. In the present study the power law, sigmoid law and exponential distribution, is considered for the volume fraction distributions of the functionally graded plates. The work includes parametric studies performed by varying volume fraction distributions and aspect ratio. The FGM plate is subjected to transverse UDL (uniformly distributed load and point load and the response is analysed.

  12. A Transverse Dynamic Deflection Model for Thin Plate Made of Saturated Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng-xi, Zhou; Xiao-lin, Cao

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a transverse dynamic deflection model is established for thin plate made of saturated porous materials. Based on the Biot's model for fluid-saturated porous media, using the Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing equations of transverse vibrations of fluid-saturated poroelastic plates are derived in detail, which take the inertial, fluid viscous, mechanical couplings, compressibility of solid, and fluid into account. The free vibration and forced vibration response of a simply supported poroelastic rectangular plate is obtained by Fourier series expansion method. Through numerical examples, the effect of porosity and permeability on the dynamic response, including the natural frequency, amplitude response, and the resonance areas is assessed.

  13. Natural frequencies of cracked functionally graded material plates by the extended finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Bordas, S; Rabczuk, T; Kerfriden, P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the linear free flexural vibration of cracked functionally graded material plates is studied using the extended finite element method. A 4-noded quadrilateral plate bending element based on field and edge consistency requirement with 20 degrees of freedom per element is used for this study. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of simply supported and clamped square and rectangular plates are computed as a function of gradient index, crack length, crack orientation and crack location. The effect of thickness and influence of multiple cracks is also studied.

  14. Simulation studies of hadron energy resolution as a function of iron plate thickness at INO-ICAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S. M.; Ghosh, A.; Devi, M. M.; Kaur, D.; Choubey, S.; Dighe, A.; Indumathi, D.; Murthy, M. V. N.; Naimuddin, Md

    2014-09-01

    We report on a detailed simulation study of the hadron energy resolution as a function of the thickness of the absorber plates for the proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We compare the hadron resolutions obtained with absorber thicknesses in the range 1.5-8 cm for neutrino interactions in the energy range 2-15 GeV, which is relevant to hadron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions. We find that at lower energies, the thickness dependence of energy resolution is steeper than at higher energies, however there is a thickness-independent contribution that dominates at the lower thicknesses discussed in this work. As a result, the gain in hadron energy resolution with decreasing plate thickness is marginal. We present the results in the form of fits to a function with energy-dependent exponent.

  15. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  16. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation.

  17. A Review of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers an exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. Bipolar plates have been fabricated primarily from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to developing cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Two different classes of materials have attracted attention: metals and composites. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current research being carried out on metallic bipolar plates, covering materials and fabrication methods.

  18. Material and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Plate-Shell Type Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, J. S.; Araújo, A. L.; Mota Soares, C. M.; Mota Soares, C. A.; Herskovits, J.

    2016-08-01

    A nonlinear formulation for general Functionally Graded Material plate-shell type structures is presented. The formulation accounts for geometric and material nonlinear behaviour of these structures. Using the Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative method, the incremental equilibrium path is obtained, and in case of snap-through occurrence the automatic arc-length method is used. This simple and fast element model is a non-conforming triangular flat plate/shell element with 24 degrees of freedom for the generalized displacements. It is benchmarked in the solution of some illustrative plate- shell examples and the results are presented and discussed with numerical alternative models. Benchmark tests with material and geometrically nonlinear behaviour are also proposed.

  19. Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.

  20. Analysis of Sigmoid Functionally Graded Material (S-FGM Nanoscale Plates Using the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a nonlocal elasticity theory, a model for sigmoid functionally graded material (S-FGM nanoscale plate with first-order shear deformation is studied. The material properties of S-FGM nanoscale plate are assumed to vary according to sigmoid function (two power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Elastic theory of the sigmoid FGM (S-FGM nanoscale plate is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and first-order shear deformation theory. The equations of motion of the nonlocal theories are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The nonlocal elasticity of Eringen has the ability to capture the small scale effect. The solutions of S-FGM nanoscale plate are presented to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on bending and vibration response of the S-FGM nanoscale plates. The effects of nonlocal parameters, power law index, aspect ratio, elastic modulus ratio, side-to-thickness ratio, and loading type on bending and vibration response are investigated. Results of the present theory show a good agreement with the reference solutions. These results can be used for evaluating the reliability of size-dependent S-FGM nanoscale plate models developed in the future.

  1. Effect of Welding Parameters on GTA Weld Shape for Pure Iron Plate under Ar-O2 Mixed Shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanping LU; H.Fujii; K.Nogi

    2006-01-01

    Weld shape variation for different welding parameters is investigated on pure iron plate under gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding with argon-oxygen mixed shielding. Results showed that small addition of oxygen to the argon base shielding gas can effectively adjust the oxygen adsorption to the molten pool. An inward Marangoni convection occurs on the pool surface when the oxygen content in the weld pool is over the critical value,80×10-6, for pure iron plate under Ar-0.3%O2 mixed shielding. Low oxygen content in the weld pool changes the inward Marangoni to an outward direction under the Ar-0.1%O2 shielding. The GTA weld shape depends to a large extent on the pattern and strength of the Marangoni convection on the pool surface, which is determined by the content of surface active element, oxygen, in the weld pool and the welding parameters.The strength of the Marangoni convection on the liquid pool is a product of the temperature coefficient of the surface tension (dσ/dT) and the temperature gradient (dT/dr) on the pool surface. Different welding parameters will change the temperature distribution and gradient on the pool surface, and therefore, affect the strength of Marangoni convection and the weld shape.

  2. Bending and vibration of functionally graded material sandwich plates using an accurate theory

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the bending and the free flexural vibration behaviour of sandwich functionally graded material (FGM) plates are investigated using QUAD-8 shear flexible element developed based on higher order structural theory. This theory accounts for the realistic variation of the displacements through the thickness. The governing equations obtained here are solved for static analysis considering two types of sandwich FGM plates, viz., homogeneous face sheets with FGM core and FGM face sheets with homogeneous hard core. The in-plane and rotary inertia terms are considered for vibration studies. The accuracy of the present formulation is tested considering the problems for which three-dimensional elasticity solutions are available. A detailed numerical study is carried out based on various higher-order models to examine the influence of the gradient index and the plate aspect ratio on the global/local response of different sandwich FGM plates.

  3. The results and analysis of irradiation experiments conducted on reactor vessel plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Carter, R.G.; Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper documents the extensive amount of experimental work on radiation damage to reactor vessel materials carried out by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) and others in support of a licensing effort to restart the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor pressure vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.19% and 0.63% were heat treated to produce different microstructures. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4%) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures, 500 F (260 C) and 550 F (288 C), to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The results of this irradiation testing and additional data from a DOE/Sandia National Laboratories irradiation study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent, but varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences, and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response. A mixed effect of microstructure/heat treatment on the materials` irradiation response was noted. Phosphorus potentially played a role in the irradiation response of the low nickel material irradiated at 500 F (288 C) but did not show prominence in the irradiations for the same material conducted at 500 F (260 C).

  4. On the Acoustic Absorption of Porous Materials with Different Surface Shapes and Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, WEN-HWA; LEE, FAN-CHING; CHIANG, DAR-MING

    2000-10-01

    In architectural acoustic design, perforated plates are often used to protect porous materials from erosion. Although porous materials are usually applied to passive noise control, the effects of their surface shapes are seldom studied. To study the acoustic absorption of porous materials with different surface shapes and perforated plates, an efficient finite element procedure, which is derived by the Galerkin residual method and Helmholtz wave propagation equation, is used in this work. The two-microphone transfer function method and the modified Ingard and Dear impedance tube testing system are employed to measure the parameters deemed necessary for the finite element analysis, such as complex wave propagation constant, characteristic impedance and flow resistivity. For verifying the finite element results, the two-microphone transfer function method is also applied to measure the absorption coefficients of the discussed acoustic absorbers. Four surface shapes of commercially available porous materials, i.e., triangle, semicircle, convex rectangle and plate shapes, are chosen for analysis. The porosity of perforated plates is then evaluated. Finally, the distinct effect of the flow resistivity of porous materials on the acoustic absorption is demonstrated.

  5. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  6. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  7. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia sets in. Red blood cells become smaller and ... from the lungs throughout the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness and lack of energy, GI upset, ...

  8. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while maintaining food quality.

  9. Conversion of sandy tailing from banded iron formation exploitation into glass-ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Alves Rodrigues de Melo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramic materials made of 40.0 wt. (% of sandy tailing from banded iron formation exploitation and 60 wt. (% of slag from steelwork were analyzed. Vitrification was obtained by heating the batch samples up to 1400 °C for 1 hour and quenching the melt on a stainless steel plate. Devitrification was obtained by heat-treating the as-quenched glass samples in isothermal conditions at 750 and 1000 °C for 2 hours. FTIR spectroscopy analysis on the devitrified samples indicates a peak shift towards higher wave number with respect to the as-quenched glass because of the crystallization. XRD analysis revealed the presence of crystalline diopside CaMgSi2O6 as the major phase in the glass samples isothermally heat-treated at 1000 °C. Results also indicated that the devitrification at 1000 °C and an incipient devitrification at 750 °C resulted into harder glass-ceramic materials.

  10. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi; Pahlevani, F.; P. Babaghorbani

    2008-01-01

    Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change ...

  11. Fabricating feeding plate in CLP infants with two different material: A series of case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is a family′s biggest concerns when a child is born with cleft lip and/or palate. The goal for that child is to have as near normal feeding as possible. This report presents fabrication of feeding plates in two infants born with cleft lip and palate using two different materials.

  12. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  13. Porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric smart material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Wang, Yan; Zu, Jean W.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates by using both analytical and numerical methods. The FGPM plates contain porosities owing to the technical issues during the preparation of FGPMs. Two types of porosity distribution, namely, even and uneven distribution, are considered. A modified power law model is adopted to describe the material properties of the porous FGPM plates. Using D’Alembert’s principle, the out-of-plane equation of motion is derived by taking into account the Kármán nonlinear geometrical relations. After that, the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, resulting in a set of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. These ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by employing the harmonic balance method. The approximate analytical results are verified by using the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. By means of the perturbation technique, the stability of approximate analytical solutions is examined. An interesting nonlinear broadband vibration phenomenon is detected in the FGPM plates with porosities. Nonlinear frequency-response characteristics of the present smart structures are investigated for various system parameters including the porosity type, the porosity volume fraction, the electric potential, the external excitation, the damping and the constituent volume fraction. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the nonlinear vibration characteristics of porous FGPM plates.

  14. A vision-based material tracking system for heavy plate rolling mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnig, Mark; Reisinger, Johann; Hlobil, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    A modern heavy plate rolling mill can process more than 20 slabs and plates simultaneously. To avoid material confusions during a compact occupancy and the permanent discharging and re-entering of parts, one must know the identity and position of each part at every moment. One possibility to determine the identity and position of each slab and plate is the application of a comprehensive visual-based tracking system. Compared to a tracking system that calculates the position of a plate based on the diameter and the turns of the transport rolls, a visual system is not corrupted by a position- and material dependent transmission slip. In this paper we therefore present a vision-based material tracking system for the 2-dimensional tracking of glowing material in harsh environment. It covers the production area from the plant's descaler to the pre-stand of the rolling mill and consists of four independent, synchronized overlapping cameras. The paper first presents the conceptual design of the tracking system - and continues then with the camera calibration, the determination of pixel contours, the data segmentation and the fitting & modelling of the objects bodies. In a next step, the work will then show the testing setup. It will be described how the material tracking system was implemented into the control system of the rolling mill and how the delivered tracking data was checked on its correctness. Finally, the paper presents some results. It will be shown that the position of some moving plates was estimated with a precision of approx. 0.5m. The results will be analyzed and it will be explained where the inaccuracies come from and how they eventually can be removed. The paper ends with a conclusion and an outlook on future work.

  15. Determination of Rate of Degradation of Iron Plates Due To Rust Using Image Processing -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Choudhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: most of industries and bridges around us make use of iron for manufacturing their products. On the other hand corrosion is a natural process that deteriorates the integrity of iron surface. Therefore, rusting of iron takes place. To avoid unwanted accidents in industries and bridges, it is necessary to detect rusting in earlier stage, so that it can be prevented. Digital image processing for the detection of the rusting provides fast, accurate and objectives results. In this research paper, we have done a systematic review of algorithms that help us to detect the rust area from a metal (iron.it has been found that most of researches are bring their images, processing series in usage for this purpose due to its simplicity in implementing and due to fact the images help capturing the visual inspection process easily and due to the ground teeth. The image processing techniques explored by other peoples based on in-depth analysis, we have also proposed a novel technique to overcome the limitation.

  16. Determination of Rate of Degradation of Iron Plates due to Rust using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of industries and bridges around us make use of iron for manufacturing their products. On the other hand corrosion is a natural process that deteriorates the integrity of iron surface. Therefore, rusting of iron takes place. To avoid unwanted accidents in industries and bridges, it is necessary to detect rusting in earlier stage, so that it can be prevented. Digital image processing for the detection of the rusting provides fast, accurate and objectives results. In this research paper, we have done a systematic review of algorithms that help us to detect the rust area from a metal (iron.it has been found that most of researches are bring their images, processing series in usage for this purpose due to its simplicity in implementing and due to fact the images help capturing the visual inspection process easily and due to the ground teeth. The image processing techniques explored by other peoples based on in-depth analysis, we have also proposed a novel technique to overcome the limitation.

  17. Stress Analysis and Optimization of a Piaggio Ape Clutch Plate with different Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Sreedher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available clutch plate is one of the important part in the power transmission systems. Good design of clutch provides better engine performance. Clutch is device which is used to engage or disengage of gears and it transfers the rotary motion of one shaft to the other shaft when desired. In automobiles friction clutches are widely used in power transmission applications. To transmit maximum torque in friction clutches selection of the friction material is one of the important tasks. In this thesis a model of Piaggio Ape clutch plate has been generated in Pro-E Cre0-5 and then imported in ANSYS for power transmission applications. We have conducted structural analysis by varying the friction surfaces material and keeping base material aluminium same. By seeing the results, Comparison is done for both materials to validate better lining material for Piaggio Ape clutch plate by doing analysis on clutch with help of ANSYS software for find out which material is best for the lining of friction surfaces.

  18. Iron ore tailings used for the preparation of cementitious material by compound thermal activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-lai Yi; Heng-hu Sun; Xiu-quan Wei; Chao Li

    2009-01-01

    In the background of little reuse and large stockpile for iron ore railings, iron ore tailing from Chinese Tonghua were used as raw material to prepare cementitious materials. Cementitious properties of the iron ore tailings activated by compound thermal ac-tivation were studied. Testing methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and IR were used for researching the phase and structure variety of the iron ore tailings in the process of compound thermal activation. The results reveal that a new cementitious material that contains 30wt% of the iron ore tailings can be obtained by compounded thermal activation, whose mortar strength can come up to the stan-dard of 42.5 cement of China.

  19. Grinding Wear Behaviour of Stepped Austempered Ductile Iron as Media Material During Comminution of Iron Ore in Ball Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, H.; Bhat, K. L.; Udupa, K. Rajendra; Hegde, M. M. Rajath

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to evaluate the suitability of austempered ductile iron (ADI) as media material for grinding iron ore in a ball mill. Spheroidal graphite (S.G) iron balls are austenitised at 900° C for 60 minutes and given stepped austempering treatment at 280° C for 30 minutes and 60 minutes followed by 380° C for 60 minutes in each case. These materials are characterised by measuring hardness, analysing X-ray diffraction (X-RD), studying microstructure using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grinding wear behaviour of these materials was assessed for wear loss in wet condition at different pH value of the mineral slurry and found that the wear rate of grinding media material decreases with increase in pH of the slurry. The wear resistance of ADI balls were compared with forged En31 steel balls and found that the stepped austempered ductile iron is superior to forged En31 steel balls.

  20. 纤维板热磨机磨片材质开发与研究%Study on the new materials for fiberboard refiner plate of defibrator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向红亮; 罗吉荣; 肖泽辉

    2003-01-01

    在木材工业中,热磨机是生产纤维板非常重要的机械,而其磨片是直接与木材作用的零件,容易损伤.因此,磨片的使用寿命对木材工业生产纤维板来说具有重要意义.例如,它影响制浆质量,生产效率以及能耗.本文研究主要集中在磨片材质的耐磨性上.通过对热磨机磨片材质不锈钢以及开发的高铬铸铁耐磨性比较,结果表明:高铬铸铁比不锈钢有好的耐磨性:尽管材料含有相同的成分,但耐磨性也是不同的,是因为材质的微观结构对性能具有重要的影响.同时也指出,开发的高铬铸铁制造的磨片不需要复杂的热处理,这能简化生产工艺,节约生产成本,降低劳动强度以及提高生产效率.图6表2参6.%Defibrator is a very important machine in the wood industry for producing fiberboard. The refiner plates are the key parts of defibrator that directly act with the wood, and broken easily. The working life of the refiner plates is of significance to the wood industry. It may affect refining quality, production efficiency, and power consumption. In this paper, the abrasion resistance of the refiner plate made of different materials, the stainless steels and high chromium cast irons, were tested and compared. The results showed that abrasion resistance of refiner plate made of high chromium cast irons was better than that of the stainless steel materials. Although the two kinds of materials have the same compositions, their abrasion resistances have apparent difference. The main reason is that the material microstructures have very important effects on their performance. The refiner plates made of developed high chromium cast irons don't demand the complex heat treatment. This can simplify the producing process, save the cost of production, decrease labor strength, and increase the production efficiency.

  1. Hydrogen Storage in Iron/Carbon Nanopowder Composite Materials: Effect of Varying Spiked Iron Content on Hydrogen Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lin Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of varying the spiked iron content of iron/carbon nanopowder (Fe/CNP composite materials on hydrogen storage capacity. Among four such samples, a maximum hydrogen uptake of approximately 0.48 wt% was obtained with 14 wt% of spiked iron under 37 atm and 300 K. This higher hydrogen uptake capacity was believed to be closely related to the physisorption mechanism rather than chemisorption. In this case, the formation of maghemite catalyzed the attraction of hydrogen molecules and the CNP skeleton was the principal absorbent material for hydrogen storage. However, as the iron content exceeded 14 wt%, the formation of larger and poorly dispersed maghemite grains reduced the available surface areas of CNP for the storage of hydrogen molecules, leading to decreased uptake. Our study shows that hydrogen uptake capacities can be improved by appropriately adjusting the surface polarities of the CNP with well dispersed iron oxides crystals.

  2. Behaviour of Self-Standing CVD Diamond Film with Different Dominant Crystalline Surfaces in Thermal-Iron Plate Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Chao; ZHOU Zu-Yuan; LI Bin; ZHOU You-Liang; J. Askri; LI Cheng-Ming; TANG Wei-Zhong; TONG Yu-Mei; LU Fan-Xiu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Self-standing CVD diamond films with different dominant crystalline surfaces are polished by the thermal-iron plate polishing method. The influence of the dominant crystalline surfaces on polishing efficiency is investigated by measuring the removal rate and final roughness. The smallest rms roughness of 0.14μm is measured with smallest removal rate in the films with the initial (220) dominant crystalline surface. Activation energy for the polishing is analysed by the Arrhenius relation. It is found that the values are 170kJ/mol, 222kJ/mol and 214kJ/mol for the film with t hree different dominant crystalline surfaces. Based on these values, the polishing cause is regarded as the graphitization-controlling process. In the experiment, we find that transformation of the dominant crystalline surfaces from (111) to (220) always appears in the polishing process when we polish the (111) dominant surface.

  3. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  4. Examination of Cast Iron Material Properties by Means of the Nanoindentation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trytek A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of examination of material parameters of cast iron with structure obtained under rapid resolidification conditions carried out by means of the nanoindentation method.

  5. Examination of Cast Iron Material Properties by Means of the Nanoindentation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trytek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of examination of material parameters of cast iron with structure obtained under rapid resolidification conditions carried out by means of the nanoindentation method.

  6. Using the heat flow plate method for determining thermal conductivity of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, M.; Puţan, V.; Vîlceanu, L.

    2017-01-01

    The heat flow plate method is used to determine thermal conductivity of a building material sample made of Rohacell (insulating foam). Experimental technique consists in placing the sample with a reference material on top (polystyrene sample) in a calorimetric chamber and heating from underside. Considering that the heat flux which passes through the two layers is constant and knowing thermal conductivity of the reference material, the sample thermal conductivity is determined. The temperature difference between the two opposite sample’s sides is recorded only when the steady state is achieved (constant heat flux).

  7. Innovative methodology for comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings: part 2: The residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings to prepare cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Yi, Zhonglai; Li, Longtu

    2010-02-15

    In order to comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings, this experimental research was to investigate the possibility of using the residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings as raw materials for the preparation of cementitious material, abbreviated as TSC, including analyses of its mechanical properties, physical properties and hydration products. The TSC1 was prepared by blending 30% the residues, 34% blast-furnace slag, 30% clinker and 6% gypsum. Meanwhile, the raw iron ore tailings (before iron recovery) with the same proportion of TSC1 were selected to compare the cementitious activity of raw tailings and the residues after magnetizing roasting, denoted by TSC0. The hydration products of them were mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel, characterized by XRD, IR and SEM. It was found that ettringite and C-S-H gel were principally responsible for the strength development of TSC mortars with curing time. The results showed that the kaolinite of the tailings was decomposed completely after magnetizing roasting, which promoted the cementitious property of TSC1. Moreover, the mechanical properties of TSC1 are well comparable with those of 42.5 ordinary Portland cement according to Chinese GB175-2007 standard.

  8. Effects of slope plate variable and reheating on semi-solid structure of reheating on semi-solid structure of ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Semi-solid metal casting and forming are known as a promising process for a wide range of metal alloys production. In spite of growing application of semi-solid processed light alloys, a few works have been reported about semi-solid processing of iron and steel. In this research inclined plate was used to change dendritic structure of iron to globular one. The effects of length and slope of plate on the casting structure were examined. The results show that the process can effectively change the dendritic structure to globular. In the slope plate angle of 7.5° and length of 560 mm with cooling rate of 67Ks-1 the optimum nodular graphite and solid globular particle were achieved.The results also show that by using slope plate inoculant fading can be prevented more easily since the total time of process is rather short. In addition, the semi-solid ductile cast iron prepared by inclined plate method, was reheated to examine the effect of reheating conditions on the microstructure and coarsening kinetics of the alloy. Solid fraction at different reheating temperatures and holding time was obtained and based on these results the optimum reheating temperature range was determined.

  9. Iron sand - ZnO based materials of natural origin for dye decolorization under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salprima Yudha, S.; Angasa, Eka; Fitriani, Dyah; Falahudin, Aswin

    2017-03-01

    A mixed iron sand - ZnO materials was prepared by heating a mixture of natural iron sand and ZnO at 900 °C for 5 hours. XRD study of the sample revealed that, in the mixed iron sand - ZnO present some minor peaks that similar with XRD pattern of γ-Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4. Observation of the sample using SEM, showed a compact morpholgy and almost homogenenous in particles size. In purpose to evaluate the ability of this materials for textile dying wastewater treatment, a study on rhodamine B decolorization was carried out as a reperesentative.

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  11. 3D analytical solution for a rotating transversely isotropic annular plate of functionally graded materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiang-ying; CHEN Wei-qiu

    2007-01-01

    The analytical solution for an annular plate rotating at a constant angular velocity is derived by means of direct displacement method from the elasticity equations for axisymmetric problems of functionally graded transversely isotropic media.The displacement components are assumed as a linear combination of certain explicit functions of the radial coordinate, with seven undetermined coefficients being functions of the axial coordinate z. Seven equations governing these z-dependent functions are derived and solved by a progressive integrating scheme. The present solution can be degenerated into the solution of a rotating isotropic functionally graded annular plate. The solution also can be degenerated into that for transversely isotropic or isotropic homogeneous materials. Finally, a special case is considered and the effect of the material gradient index on the elastic field is illustrated numerically.

  12. Hollow melon-seed-shaped lithium iron phosphate micro- and sub-micrometer plates for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Feng; Yang, Jin-Hua; Zhong, Yu Lin; Gariepy, Vincent; Trudeau, Michel L; Zaghib, Karim; Ying, Jackie Y

    2014-06-01

    Melon-seed-shaped LiFePO4 hollow micro- and sub-micrometer plates have been synthesized via a polyol-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were new with regard to their single-crystalline shells with large ac surfaces. Based on the detailed analysis of time-dependent studies, a possible growth mechanism was proposed involving nucleation, anisotropic growth, selective etching, and reversed recrystallization. The effects of polyol concentration, reaction temperature, and feeding sequence of precursors on the growth of LiFePO4 materials were investigated. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared LiFePO4 hollow materials were examined as cathode materials.

  13. Recent status of fluidized bed technologies for producing iron input materials for steelmaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes Leopold Schenk

    2011-01-01

    Today steel is produced by two steelmaking processes,the basic oxygen furnace and the electric arc furnace. Three types of iron input materials for both processes are liquid hot metal or in solidified form as pig iron,direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot briquetted iron (HBI) as well as steel scrap. Hot metal,pig iron,DRI and HBI are virgin iron materials,which have to be produced from iron ore by the so-called ironmaking technologies.New ironmaking processes based on fluidized bed technology have been developed in the last two decades. The main advantage of these technologies is that fine ore can be directly used in the processes and prior treatment such as sintering or pelletizing can be avoided which is required for the established processes. Theoretical aspects for reduction of fine iron oxides in a fluidized bed reactor system will be explained. The fluidized bed reducing technologies utilized in the most advanced new ironmaking processes for direct use of fine ore,FINMET(R),Circored(R),FINEX(R) and Hlsmelt(R) will be compared.

  14. Effect of PVC and iron materials on Mn(II) deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, José M; Reyes, Lourdes P; Alvarado, Carmen N; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2006-08-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and iron pipe materials differentially impacted manganese deposition within a drinking water distribution system that experiences black water problems because it receives soluble manganese from a surface water reservoir that undergoes biogeochemical cycling of manganese. The water quality study was conducted in a section of the distribution system of Tegucigalpa, Honduras and evaluated the influence of iron and PVC pipe materials on the concentrations of soluble and particulate iron and manganese, and determined the composition of scales formed on PVC and iron pipes. As expected, total Fe concentrations were highest in water from iron pipes. Water samples obtained from PVC pipes showed higher total Mn concentrations and more black color than that obtained from iron pipes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that manganese was incorporated into the iron tubercles and thus not readily dislodged from the pipes by water flow. The PVC pipes contained a thin surface scale consisting of white and brown layers of different chemical composition; the brown layer was in contact with the water and contained 6% manganese by weight. Mn composed a greater percentage by weight of the PVC scale than the iron pipe scale; the PVC scale was easily dislodged by flowing water. This research demonstrates that interactions between water and the infrastructure used for its supply affect the quality of the final drinking water.

  15. Effect of annealing on two different niobium-clad stainless steel PEMFC bipolar plate materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Tae HONG; Dae-Wook KIM; Yong-Joo YOU; K.Scott WEIL

    2009-01-01

    Niobium (Nb)-clad stainless steels(SS) produced via roll bonding are being considered for use in the bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel celI(PEMFC) stacks. Because the roll bonding process induces substantial work hardening in the constituent materials, thermal annealing is used to restore ductility to the clad sheet so that it can be subsequently blanked, stamped and dimpled in forming the final plate component. Two roll bonded materials, niobium clad 340L stainless steel (Nb/340L SS) and niobium clad 434 stainless steel (Nb/434 SS) were annealed under optimized conditions prescribed by the cladding manufacturer. Comparative mechanical testing conducted on each material before and after annealing shows significant improvement in ductility in both cases. However, corresponding microstructural analyses indicate an obvious difference between the two heat treated materials. During annealing, an interlayer with thick less than 1 μm forms between the constituent layers in the Nb/340L SS, whereas no interlayer is found in the annealed Nb/434 SS material. Prior work suggests that internal defects potentially can be generated in such an interlayer during metal forming operations. Thus, Nb/434 SS may be the preferred candidate material for this application.

  16. A comparison of field-dependent rheological properties between spherical and plate-like carbonyl iron particles-based magneto-rheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Shilan, Salihah; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ido, Yasushi; Hajalilou, Abdollah; Jeyadevan, Balachandran; Choi, Seung-Bok; Azhani Yunus, Nurul

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes different sizes of the plate-like particles from conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles by adjusting milling time in the ball mill process. The ball mill process to make the plate-like particles is called a solid-state powder processing technique which involves repeated welding, fracturing and re-welding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. The effect of ball milling process on the magnetic behavior of CI particles is firstly investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found form this investigation that the plate-like particles have higher saturation magnetization (about 8%) than that of the spherical particles. Subsequently, for the investigation on the sedimentation behavior the cylindrical measurement technique is used. It is observed from this measurement that the plate-like particles show slower sedimentation rate compared to the spherical particles indicating higher stability of the MR fluid. The field-dependent rheological properties of MR fluids based on the plate-like particles are then investigated with respect to the milling time which is directly connected to the size of the plate-like particles. In addition, the field-dependent rheological properties such as the yield stress are evaluated and compared between the plate-like particles based MR fluids and the spherical particles based MR fluid. It is found that the yield shear stress of the plate-like particles based MR fluid is increased up to 270% compared to the spherical particles based MR fluid.

  17. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed.

  18. Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sidda Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

  19. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  20. Enhancing buckling capacity of a rectangular plate under uniaxial compression by utilizing an auxetic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongcun; Li Xiaobin; Liu Shutian

    2016-01-01

    Auxetic materials have previously been shown to enhance various performances due to its unusual property of becoming fatter when uniaxially stretched and thinner when uniaxially com-pressed (i.e., the materials exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio). The current study focuses on assessing the potential of an auxetic material to enhance the buckling capacity of a rectangular plate under uniaxial compression. The in-plane translational restraint along the unloaded edges that was often neglected in open literature is taken into consideration in our buckling model proposed in this study. The closed-form expressions for the critical buckling coefficient of the rectangle are provided and the predicted results agree well with those determined by the finite element method. Further-more, the results indicate that the buckling performance of a rectangular plate under uniaxial com-pression can be significantly improved by replacing the traditional material that has a positive Poisson’s ratio with an auxetic material when there is in-plane translation restraint along the unloaded edges.

  1. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Martin; Franzka, Steffen [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cappuccio, Franco; Peinecke, Volker; Heinzel, Angelika [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik (ZBT), Carl-Benz-Straße 201, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser bromination of carbon/polymer materials is demonstrated. • Using a microfocused laser functionalized domains with diameters of 5 μm and 100 μm and more can be fabricated. • Bromine groups can be transformed in a variety of other chemical functionalities, i.e. amine groups. • Depending on the chemical functionality, the local chemical affinity and wettability is changed. • The routine can be applied to standard bipolar plate materials used for fuel cell applications. - Abstract: A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar{sup +}-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed.

  2. Development of carbon composite iron ore micropellets by using the microfines of iron ore and carbon-bearing materials in iron making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jagannath; Ghorai, Satadal; Das, Avimanyu

    2015-02-01

    Iron ore microfines and concentrate have very limited uses in sintering processes. They are used in pelletization; however, this process is cost intensive. Furthermore, the microfines of non-coking coal and other carbon-bearing materials, e.g., blast-furnace flue dust (BFD) and coke fines, are not used extensively in the metallurgical industry because of operational difficulties and handling problems. In the present work, to utilize these microfines, coal composite iron oxide micropellets (2-6 mm in size) were produced through an innovative technique in which lime and molasses were used as binding materials in the micropellets. The micropellets were subsequently treated with CO2 or the industrial waste gas to induce the chemical bond formation. The results show that, at a very high carbon level of 22wt% (38wt% coal), the cold crushing strength and abrasion index of the micropellets are 2.5-3 kg/cm2 and 5wt%-9wt%, respectively; these values indicate that the pellets are suitable for cold handling. The developed micropellets have strong potential as a heat source in smelting reduction in iron making and sintering to reduce coke breeze. The micropellets produced with BFD and coke fines (8wt%-12wt%) were used in iron ore sintering and were observed to reduce the coke breeze consumption by 3%-4%. The quality of the produced sinter was at par with that of the conventional blast-furnace sinter.

  3. End plate for e.g. solid oxide fuel cell stack, sets thermal expansion coefficient of material to predetermined value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    .05-0.3 mm. USE - End plate for solid oxide fuel cell stack (claimed). Can also be used in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack and direct methanol fuel cell stack. ADVANTAGE - The robustness of the end plate is improved. The structure of the end plate is simplified. The risk of delamination of the stack......NOVELTY - The end plate is made of material whose thermal expansion coefficient is corresponding to that of material of a cell (103). The thermal expansion coefficient of material is 9asterisk10-6 K-1 to 14asterisk10-6 K11. The thickness of the end plate is within the range of 0.001-1 mm and 0...

  4. Graphite immobilisation in iron phosphate glass composite materials produced by microwave and conventional sintering routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayzan, M.Z.H. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hand, R.J., E-mail: r.hand@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    An investigation of microwave and conventional processing of iron phosphate based graphite glass composite materials as potential wasteforms for the immobilisation of irradiated graphite is reported. For the base iron phosphate glass, full reaction of the raw materials and formation of a glass melt occurs with consequent removal of porosity at 8 min microwave processing. When graphite is present, iron phosphate crystalline phases are formed with higher levels of residual porosity than in the sample prepared using conventional sintering under argon. It is found that graphite reacts with the microwave field when in powder form but this reaction is minimised when the graphite is incorporated into a pellet, and that the graphite also impedes sintering of the glass. Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates that reduction of iron also occurs with concomitant graphite oxidation. Conventionally sintered samples had lower porosities than the equivalent microwaved ones.

  5. TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC HYPER-ELASTIC MATERIAL RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH VOIDS UNDER A UNIAXIAL EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌钧; 任九生

    2003-01-01

    The finite deformation and stress analyses for a transversely isotropic rectangularplate with voids and made of hyper-elastic material with the generalized neo-Hookean strainenergy function under a uniaxial extension are studied. The deformation functions of plateswith voids that are symmetrically distributed in a certain manner are given and the functionsare expressed by two parameters by solving the differential equations. The solution may beapproximately obtained from the minimum potential energy principle. Thus, the analyticsolutions of the deformation and stress of the plate are obtained. The growth of the void.s andthe distribution of stresses along the voids are analyzed and the influences of the degree ofanisotropy, the size of the voids and the distance between the voids are discussed. Thecharacteristics of the growth of the voids and the distribution of stresses of the plates with onevoid, three or five voids are obtained and compared.

  6. APPLICATION OF FLOW-THROUGH THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRODES FOR REGENERATION OF PLATING IRON ELECTROLYTES: 1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Kоshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of electrochemical processes distribution within the three-dimensional flow-through electrode for the system Fe(III/Fe(II/Fe is described in this paper, considering also the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and molecular oxygen reduction. Possible dynamic changes in the parameters of electrode, electrolyte and the process are taken into account in the mathematical model, such as electro-conductivity of electrode material, electrolyte flow rate, material porosity and specific electrode surface, concentrations of electro-active substances and other characteristics within the local volume of electrode. Electrode and process characteristics are treated as time and coordinate functions within the electrode volume. The results of calculations and experimental studies of iron electro-reduction are given, the analysis of the numerical modeling is provided.

  7. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 grade B plate materials. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A 302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in fabricating reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study at Materials Engineering Associates (MEA) on one particular heat of A 302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in numerous tests made on the more recent production materials of A 533 grade B and A 508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the MEA material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A 302 grade B steels or just unique to that one particular plate. Seven heats of modified A 302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A 533 grade B steel were provided to this project by the General Electric Company of San Jose, California. All plates were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550{degrees}F (288{degrees}C). Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, IT, 2T, and 4T). None of the seven heats of modified A 302 grade showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550{degrees}F (82 to 288{degrees}C) produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and mathematical curve fits to the same were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume is a compilation of all data developed.

  8. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  9. A review of composite and metallic bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Materials, fabrication, and material selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate (BP) is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. BPs have primarily been fabricated from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to develop the cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Recently, two different classes of materials have been attracted attention: metals and composite materials. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current researches being carried out on the metallic and composite BPs, covering materials and fabrication methods. In this research, the phenomenon of ionic contamination due to the release of the corrosion products of metallic BP and relative impact on the durability as well as performance of PEM fuel cells is extensively investigated. Furthermore, in this paper, upon several effective parameters on commercialization of PEM fuel cells, such as stack cost, weight, volume, durability, strength, ohmic resistance, and ionic contamination, a material selection is performed among the most common BPs currently being used. This material selection is conducted by using Simple Additive Weighting Method (SAWM).

  10. Sensitivity Characterization of Pressed Energetic Materials using Flyer Plate Mesoscale Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.

    Heterogeneous energetic materials like pressed explosives have complicated microstructure and contain various forms of heterogeneities such as pores, micro-cracks, energetic crystals etc. It is widely accepted that the presence of these heterogeneities can affect the sensitivity of these materials under shock load. The interaction of shock load with the microstructural heterogeneities may leads to the formation of local heated regions known as ``hot spots''. Chemical reaction may trigger at the hot spot regions depending on the hot spot temperature and the duration over which the temperature can be maintained before phenomenon like heat conduction, rarefaction waves withdraws energy from it. There are different mechanisms which can lead to the formation of hot spots including void collapse. The current work is focused towards the sensitivity characterization of two HMX based pressed energetic materials using flyer plate mesoscale simulations. The aim of the current work is to develop mesoscale numerical framework which can perform simulations by replicating the laboratory based flyer plate experiments. The current numerical framework uses an image processing approach to represent the microstructural heterogeneities incorporated in a massively parallel Eulerian code SCIMITAR3D. The chemical decomposition of HMX is modeled using Henson-Smilowitz reaction mechanism. The sensitivity characterization is aimed towards obtaining James initiation threshold curve and comparing it with the experimental results.

  11. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P; Günthardt, Barbara F; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm(-2)) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P.; Günthardt, Barbara F.; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm-2) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements.

  13. Plates soaking prior formation and its influence on positive active material phase composition and battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudia, M.; Zerroual, L. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et Electrochimie du Solide (LEES), Universite Ferhat ABBAS Setif 19000 (Algeria); Matrakova, M. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (CLEPS), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2009-06-01

    In the present work, we studied the behaviour of 3BS and lead oxide paste as a function of soaking time in two sulfuric acid solutions respectively with 1.05 and 1.20 g cm{sup -3} specific gravity. The study was based on X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and chemical analysis. The results showed that during plates soaking, 3BS and PbO are converted to monobasic lead sulphate (1BS) and lead sulphate (PbSO{sub 4}). During plate formation in 1.05 s.g. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, these compounds are oxidized to PbO{sub 2}, the XRD patterns showed that the longer is the time of plates soaking prior formation the lower is {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} content in positive active material. On forming, PbSO{sub 4} crystals convert to {beta}-PbO{sub 2} whereas {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} is a result of 3BS oxidation. The capacity and cycle life of PAM decrease with soaking time, the concentration of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution during soaking exerts stronger influence than the duration of soaking. (author)

  14. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J; Racharaks, Ratanachat

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory investigation evaluated phosphate (PO4(3-)) drainage water treatment capabilities of four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/ hydroxide (IOH). Only filter material retained on a 60-mesh sieve (> 0.25 mm) was used for evaluation. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal or desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Each of the four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values that in most cases were greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. For the 1, 10, and 100 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, each of the four iron-based filter materials removed at least 95% of the PO4(3-)-P originally present. However, for the 1000 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, IOH by far exhibited the greatest removal effectiveness (99% PO4(3-)-P removal), followed by SMI (72% PO4(3-)-P removal), then ZVI (62% PO4(3-)-P removal), and finally PIC (15% PO4(3-)-P removal). The desorption/dissolution batch test results, especially with respect to SMI and IOH, indicate that once PO4(3-) is adsorbed/precipitated onto surfaces of iron-based filter material particles, this PO4(3-) becomes fixed and is then not readily desorbed/dissolved back into solution. The results from the column tests showed that regardless of low or high flow rate (contact time ranged from a few hours to a few minutes) and PO4(3-) concentration (1 ppm or 10 ppm PO4(3-)-P), PIC, SMI, and IOH reduced PO4(3-)-P concentrations to below detection limits, while ZVI removed at least 90% of the influent PO4(3-)-P. Consequently, these laboratory results indicate that the ZVI, PIC, SMI, and IOH filter materials all exhibit promise for phosphate drainage water treatment.

  15. Investigating iron material strength up to 1 Mbar using Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, C. M.; Belof, J. L.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Cavallo, R. M.; Kostinski, N. B.; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H.-S.; Plechaty, C.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Rudd, R.; Swift, D. W.; Wallace, R. J.; Weber, S. V.; Wehrenberg, C.; Wilson, M. J.; Remington, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    The solid-solid phase transition between the bcc (α) and hcp (ɛ) lattice structures in iron is known to occur as the material is compressed. When kept below its melting point, an effective increase in the macroscopic strength of the material accompanies this phase transition. Understanding the material strength of iron throughout the deformation process presents a significant computational challenge, but is important for improving models of planetary structure, including interpretation of seismic measurements taken through our own Earth's core. To explore the strength of iron at high pressures and strain rates, we have developed the IronRT campaign at the OMEGA laser [1]. This laser-driven platform produces pressure greater than 1 Mbar on a thin Fe disk with a sinusoidal ripple pattern imposed on its face. These ripples seed the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, the growth of which is suppressed by the material strength of the sample. The amplitude of the ripples is diagnosed with high-energy x-ray radiography, and the measured growth is compared to simulations performed with different strength models. By matching the simulations to the low level of growth measured, we infer an average flow stress of greater than 40 GPa over the course of the experiment. This value is in agreement with other dynamic iron strength experiments at pressures greater than 1 Mbar [2].

  16. Identification of biologically recycled continental materials in banded iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2015-12-01

    The controversy on the origin of banded iron formations (BIFs) has lasted for many decades. Studies prior to the 1970s suggested that Fe in BIFs was supplied from continental riverine inputs[1], but discovery of midocean ridge hydrothermal systems in the 1970s and identification of positive Eu anomaly in BIF samples led to an alternative model where hydrothermal vents provided Fe in BIFs[2]. Although the latter model has became widely accepted, it should be noted that interpretations of Fe sources for BIFs using the abundance and isotopic composition of rare earth elements (REEs) are based on an assumption that transport and deposition of REEs and Fe were coupled. We address the question of Fe sources and pathways for BIFs by combining stable Fe isotopes with radiogenic Nd isotopes as well as REE measurements to test proposals that Fe in BIFs was hydrothermally sourced. The samples investigated are from a type section of the Dales Gorge member of the 2.5 Ga Brockman Iron Formation, the world's most extensive Superior-type BIF that represents the climax of BIF deposition in the geologic record. Large variations were observed in both Fe and Nd isotope compositions of the BIF samples, and there is a positive correlation between the bulk rock ɛNd and δ56Fe values. In addition, there is a negative corelation between ɛNd and Sm/Nd ratios. In order to explain the observed correlations in those isotopic and elemental data, a two-component model, where mixing between a high ɛNd, low Sm/Nd hydrothermal endmember and a low ɛNd, low δ56Fe, but high Sm/Nd continental endmember occurred prior to deposition of the BIF, is required. The low-δ56Fe, high-Sm/Nd endmember is best explained by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in the coastal sediments, which fractionated Fe isotopes and REEs and released these components back to water column that were ultimately precipitated in BIFs. The range and distribution of ɛNdvalues in the BIF samples suggest that the amount

  17. Material and technique of S i-Mo heatresistant vermicular iron exhaust manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong-xi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Si-Mo vermicular iron is an ideal material for exhaust manifold that works in high temperature and therm alcycle conditions because its properties oftherm alfatigue resistance and thermal distortion resistance are significantly better than that of gray cast iron and nodular iron. This paper explains that the verm icularity of Si-Mo verm icular iron is better to be controlled approxim ately to 50% for the applications of exhaust manifold castings, and generalizes the successful experience ofverm icularizing technique thatuses sandwich(pouroverprocess combining with cored-wire injection in trough process together,and uses rare earths-magnesium-silicon as verm icularizing alloy in Disa high speed molding line and autom atic plug rod airpressure pouring furnace. In addition, this paper also describes the method to solve the shrinkage hole and porosity defects in the exhaustm anifold production.

  18. Material and technique of Si-Mo heat-resistant vermicular iron exhaust manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-xi

    2006-01-01

    Si-Mo vermicular iron is an ideal material for exhaust manifold that works in high temperature and thermal cycle conditions because its properties of thermal fatigue resistance and thermal distortion resistance are significantly better than that of gray cast iron and nodular iron.This paper explains that the vermicularity of Si-Mo vermicular iron is better to be controlled approximately to 50% for the applications of exhaust manifold castings, and generalizes the successful experience of vermicularizing technique that uses sandwich (pour over) process combining with cored-wire injection in trough process together, and uses rare earths-magnesium-silicon as vermicularizing alloy in Disa high speed molding line and automatic plug rod air pressure pouring furnace. In addition, this paper also describes the method to solve the shrinkage hole and porosity defects in the exhaust manifold production.

  19. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Burnable Absorber Materials Being Evaluated for Application in LEU U-Mo Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. Jue; B. Miller; B. Yao; E. Perez; Y. H. Sohn

    2011-03-01

    The starting microstructure of a fuel plate will impact how it performs during irradiation. As a result, microstructural characterization has been performed on as-fabricated monolithic fuel plates to determine the changes in fuel plate microstructure that may result from changes in fabrication parameters. Particular focus has been given to the fuel plate U-10Mo/Zr and Zr/AA6061 cladding interfaces, since the integrity of these interfaces will play a big role in determining the overall performance of the fuel plate during irradiation. In addition, burnable absorber materials for potential incorporation into monolithic fuel plates have been characterized to identify their as-fabricated microstructures. This information will be important when trying to understand the PIE data from fuel plates with burnable absorbers that are irradiated in future irradiation experiments. This paper will focus on the microstructures observed using optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy for monolithic fuel plates exposed to different fabrication parameters and for as-fabricated burnable absorber materials.

  1. Evaluation of materials for bipolar plates in simulated PEM fuel-cell cathodic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, S.V.; Belmonte, M.R.; Moron, L.E.; Torres, J.; Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Technologico en Electroquimica S.C. Parcque Sanfandila, Queretaro (Mexico); Perez-Quiroz, J.T. [Mexican Transport Inst., Queretaro (Mexico); Cortes, M. A. [Mexican Petroleum Inst., Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are exposed to an oxidizing environment on the cathodic side, and therefore are susceptible to corrosion. Corrosion resistant materials are needed for the bipolar plates in order to improve the lifespan of fuel cells. This article described a study in which a molybdenum (Mo) coating was deposited over austenitic stainless steel 316 and carbon steel as substrates in order to evaluate the resulting surfaces with respect to their corrosion resistance in simulated anodic and cathodic PEMFC environments. The molybdenum oxide films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The article presented the experiment and discussed the results of the corrosion behaviour of coated stainless steel. In general, the electrochemical characterization of bare materials and coated steel consisted of slow potentiodynamic polarization curves followed by a constant potential polarization test. The test medium was 0.5M sulfuric acid with additional introduction of oxygen to simulate the cathodic environment. All tests were performed at ambient temperature and at 50 degrees Celsius. The potentiostat used was a Gamry instrument. It was concluded that it is possible to deposit Mo-oxides on steel without using another alloying metal. The preferred substrate for corrosion prevention was found to be an alloy with high chromium content. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  2. An efficient plate heater with uniform surface temperature engineered with effective thermal materials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yichao; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2014-01-01

    Extended from its electromagnetic counterpart, transformation thermodynamics applied to thermal conduction equations can map a virtual geometry into a physical thermal medium, realizing the manipulation of heat flux with almost arbitrarily desired diffusion paths, which provides unprecedented opportunities to create thermal devices unconceivable or deemed impossible before. In this work we employ this technique to design an efficient plate heater that can transiently achieve a large surface of uniform temperature powered by a small thermal source. As opposed to the traditional approach of relying on the deployment of a resistor network, our approach fully takes advantage of an advanced functional material system to guide the heat flux to achieve the desired temperature heating profile. A different set of material parameters for the transformed device has been developed, offering the parametric freedom for practical applications. As a proof of concept, the proposed devices are implemented with engineered therm...

  3. Stress intensity factors of eccentric cracks in bi-materials plate under mode I loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. E. [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Bi-material plates were generally used to joint electronic devices or mechanical components requiring dissimilar materials to be attached. During services, mechanical failure can be occurred due to the formation of cracks at the interfacial joint or away from the centre. Generally, linear elastic fracture mechanics approach is used to characterize these cracks based on stress intensity factors (SIF). Based on the literature survey, the SIFs for the central cracks were easily available. However, the SIFs for eccentric cracks were difficult to obtain. Therefore, this paper presented the SIFs for eccentric cracks subjected to mode I tension loading. Three important parameters were used such as relative crack depth, a/L, relative offset distance, b/L and elastic mismatch, E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} or α. It was found that such parameters significantly affected the characteristic of SIFs and it was depend on the location of cracks.

  4. Heat Transfer Modeling of Phase Change Materials in Multiple Plates Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alipanah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the increasing importance of energy sources, the possibility of energy storage in the heat exchangers through the Phase Change Materials (PCM and releasing it when needed have been extremely essential. This study seeks to model the domestic water heat system in which the paraffin is as the phase change material and it stores the solar energy. The behavior of a PCM plate was studied by writing the governing equations and solving them as the one-dimensional, implicit method and through numerical calculation of the method equations. Given the confirmed accuracy of performed modeling by the results of similar studies for the complete melting and solidification of PCM, the application of this system seems appropriate for the solar domestic water heaters.

  5. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  6. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  7. Influence of temperature-dependent material properties on heat transfer in the turbulent flow over a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehle, F.; Brandt, F.

    The influence of temperature dependence of material properties on heat transfer in a turbulent plate boundary layer is investigated using differential equations for the velocity and temperature fields of even, steady, and compressible boundary layer flows. The results are compared with the well-known material property correction factors of Zhukauskas (1966), Sieder and Tate (1936), and Hufschmidt and Bruck (1968).

  8. Fabrication and characteristics of alumina-iron functionally graded materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Ma, J.; Tan, G.E.B.

    2009-01-01

    . The microstructure and the composition of the prepared component were studied, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fracture energy were tested and evaluated. The relative density and the Vickers hardness of each layer in the graded material were also measured. The correlation between microstructure...

  9. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  10. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  11. Theoretical analysis for the heterogeneous decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen on an iron-metallic plate in a laminar stagnation-point flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche, 24030 Campeche (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: fmendez@servidor.unam.mx; Trevino, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    In this work, we have theoretically analyzed the conversion process of hydrogen sulfide, H{sub 2}S, to atomic hydrogen, H{sup 0}, in a planar stagnation-point flow over an iron-metallic surface. We assume that a binary mixture of hydrogen sulfide and methane composes the laminar stagnation flow. In order to characterize this complex phenomenon with very specific chemical activities on the surface of the metallic plate, we propose a heterogeneous reaction scheme based on four reactions: two electrochemical, one adsorption and an additional exothermic reaction needed to complete the direct conversion of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen on the surface of the iron. The nondimensional governing equations, which include the mass species and momentum conservation of the mixture and the molecular diffusion of hydrogen into the iron plate, are numerically solved by conventional finite-difference methods. The numerical results show the critical conditions of the H{sub 2}S decomposition as functions of the involved nondimensional parameters of the present model. In particular, we show parametrically the influence that has the initial concentration of H{sub 2}S on the surface coverage of the chemical products HS{sup -} H{sup +} and H{sup 0} derived from the chemical and electrochemical reactions.

  12. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  13. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  14. An analysis of surface acoustic wave propagation in a plate of functionally graded materials with a layered model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In a homogeneous plate, Rayleigh waves will have a symmetric and anti-symmetric mode regarding to the mid-plane with different phase velocities. If plate properties vary along the thickness, or the plate is of functionally graded material (FGM), the symmetry of modes and frequency behavior will be modified, thus producing dif-ferent features for engineering applications such as amplifying or reducing the velocity and deformation. This kind of effect can also be easily realized by utilizing a layered structure with desired material properties that can produce these effects in terms of velocity and displacements, since Rayleigh waves in a solid with gen-eral material property grading schemes are difficult to analyze with known methods. Solutions from layered structures with exponential and polynomial property grad-ing schemes are obtained from the layered model and comparisons with known analytical results are made to validate the method and examine possible applica-tions of such structures in engineering.

  15. Characteristics of Iron Sand Magnetic Material from Bugel Beach, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmiati; Nuryono; Suyanta

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic material (MM) of iron sands from Bugel Beach, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta has been prepared and characterized. Magnetic material was separated from iron sands using a permanent magnet followed by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The magnetic material product was characterized with X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Fourrier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer to determine the chemical composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups and the magnetization, respectively. Results showed that the investigated iron sand contained magnetic materials up to 89.47% (w/w). The main composition of MM included Fe2O3, TiO2, and SiO2, with percentages of 72.6, 7.0, and 10.0%, respectively, and the functional groups of material was dominated with Fe–OH and Fe–O. Treatment with NaOH 4M and NaOH 8M increased the content of Fe2O3 and TiO2, otherwise reduced the concentration of SiO2 and contributed to the improvement of the magnetization from 42.1 to 44.3 emu/g (with 4 M NaOH) and 64.0 emu/g (with 8 M NaOH). Additionally, MM was dominated with mineral of magnetite and contained functional groups of Fe–OH and Fe–O.

  16. Microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion of powder-metallurgical iron alloys for biodegradable bone replacement materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Bernd; Sievers, Birte; Utzschneider, Sandra; Mueller, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Roessler, Sophie; Nies, Berthold [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Stephani, Guenter; Kieback, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, Peter, E-mail: peter.quadbeck@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Up to now biodegradable bone implants with the ability of bearing high loads for the temporary replacement of bones or as osteosynthesis material are not available. Iron and iron based alloys have been identified as appropriate materials, since they combine high strength at medium corrosion rates. Thus, the aim of the present study is the development of a degradable iron based alloy with the perspective of using them as matrix material of cellular structures with biomechanical tailored properties. A powder metallurgical approach has been used to manufacture Fe-C, Fe-0.6P, Fe-1.6P, Fe-B and Fe-Ag samples, which have been tested with respect to their microstructure, their cytotoxicity, and their degradation rate. In order to determine the cytotoxicity of the material a monolayer culture of fibroblast and a perfusion chamber system has been chosen, which was recommended by the ISO 10993-5:1999 for biological testing of medical devices. It has been found, that in particular phosphorus features beneficial properties, since density and thus the strength of the material are increased. No corrosion inhibiting effects of phosphorus on the degradation rate have been found.

  17. Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgreen, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed. Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project 'Energy from Waste' an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Hoeganaes AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron

  18. High resistivity iron-based, thermally stable magnetic material for on-chip integrated inductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligianni, Hariklia; Gallagher, William J.; Mason, Maurice; O' Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang

    2017-03-07

    An on-chip magnetic structure includes a palladium activated seed layer and a substantially amorphous magnetic material disposed onto the palladium activated seed layer. The substantially amorphous magnetic material includes nickel in a range from about 50 to about 80 atomic % (at. %) based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material, iron in a range from about 10 to about 50 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material, and phosphorous in a range from about 0.1 to about 30 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material. The magnetic material can include boron in a range from about 0.1 to about 5 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material.

  19. High resistivity iron-based, thermally stable magnetic material for on-chip integrated inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligianni, Hariklia; Gallagher, William J.; Mason, Maurice; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang

    2017-03-07

    An on-chip magnetic structure includes a palladium activated seed layer and a substantially amorphous magnetic material disposed onto the palladium activated seed layer. The substantially amorphous magnetic material includes nickel in a range from about 50 to about 80 atomic % (at. %) based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material, iron in a range from about 10 to about 50 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material, and phosphorous in a range from about 0.1 to about 30 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material. The magnetic material can include boron in a range from about 0.1 to about 5 at. % based on the total number of atoms of the magnetic material.

  20. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  1. Numerical Simulation on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Plate Heat Exchanger Filled with Iron-Nickel Foam%铁镍泡沫填充板式换热器传热特性数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁攸明; 程聪; 张铱鈖

    2012-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional network structure of open-cell foam metal can enhance the nonlinear flow effect of fluid through foam. Large specific surface area and large coefficient of thermal conductivity of the matrix material can improve the heat transfer efficiency. Based on the above features of open-cell foam, a new type of compact plate heat exchanger filled with iron-nickel foam was developed. The characteristics of air-air heat transfer in the plate heat exchanger were numerically simulated. All computations were performed using CFD of the commercially available finite element code FLUENT. Under the same operating conditions, the simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The simulation results show that filling with iron-nickel foam in plate heat exchanger could improve the extent of turbulence of cold and hot air in plate heat exchanger. Compared with the heat exchanger without fillers, the plate heat exchanger filled with iron-nickel foam was obviously improved in heat transter efficiency. Iron-nickel foam fillers increased flow resistance of the hot and cold air, but the resulting loss of pressure was of little effect on heat exchanger performance. While filling with the same porosity iron-nickel foam, the influence of pore density change on heat exchanger efficiency was relatively small. The research results can be reference for structure optimization design and performance a-nalysis of heat transfer equipment.%利用开孔泡沫金属比表面积大、基体金属材料导热系数大和其复杂的三维立体网状结构能提高流体非线性效果的特点,研制了一种新型紧凑式镍铁泡沫填充板式换热器.并用CFD商用有限元软件FLUENT对空气空气在该换热器中的传热特性进行数值模拟.在相同的操作条件下,模拟结果与实验结果吻合较好.研究结果表明:在板式换热器中填充开孔铁镍泡沫材料,冷热空气在换热器中的湍流程度有所增强,板式换热

  2. Innovative application of mathematical methods in evaluation of ore raw materials for production of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current principles of evaluation of ore raw materials are usually based on a comparison of selected isolated criteria. Today‘s sophisticated technological level of blast furnace process requires the introduction of raw material indicators that provide global characteristics of their quality. This can´t be realized with isolated parameters only. The evaluation should incorporate the key characteristics of iron ore and convert them into a uniform evaluation parameter. This article analyzes the use of mathematical methods in the evaluation of the quality of ore raw materials.

  3. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-15

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 degrees C for 110min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process.

  4. Magnetron Sputtering a New Fabrication Method of Iron Based Biodegradable Implant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Jurgeleit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It was shown in the previous decade that pure-iron has a large potential as a biodegradable medical implant material. It is necessary to tailor the material properties according to the intended use of the device. It is of great interest to investigate not only the influence of processing on the material properties but also alternative fabrication methods. In this work for the first time magnetron sputtering in combination with UV lithography was used to fabricate free standing, patterned pure-iron thick films. For the intended use as biodegradable implant material free standing thick films were characterized in terms of microstructure, degradation performance, and mechanical properties before and after various heat treatments. The influence of microstructural changes on the degradation behavior was determined by linear polarization measurements. The mechanical properties were characterized by tensile tests. Microstructure, surface, and composition were investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements. The foils exhibited a preferential orientation in 110 direction and a fine grained structure. Furthermore they showed a higher strength compared to cast iron and corrosion rates in the range of 0.1 mm/year. Their mechanical properties were tuned by grain coarsening resulting in a slight increase of the degradation rate.

  5. Study on dry friction and wear resistance of a WC-Co particle reinforced iron matrix composite material

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Peng; Zeng Shaolian; Zhang Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    In order to select a suitable material for the rolling mill guide application, the dry sliding friction and wear resistance of a tungsten carbide combining cobalt (WC-Co) particle reinforced chromium cast iron composite material were studied. In particular, the wear resistance was discussed in detail. The results showed that the composite material demonstrates 25 times the wear resistance of high Cr cast iron, and 9 times the wear resistance of heat resistant steel. However, the average frict...

  6. Desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.D.; McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Ferrous Metallurgy Research Group; Ren, M.L.; Zhang, D.F. [China Aluminum Co. Ltd., Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The aluminium and steel industries are both energy-intensive and have significant impacts on the environment. The desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminium industry was evaluated in this study. A simple processing technique using dross and white mud was developed to desulphurize hot metals. Waste materials with a high oxide content were combined with an aluminium instant reduction method and then used for hot metal desulphurization. The presence of nickel in the hot metals showed a negative effect on the desulphurization process as the nickel reduced carbon solubility in an iron-based metal solution. It was concluded that the use of waste slags and solids residuals from the aluminium industry within the steel industry will reduce the disposal of waste and provide significant economic benefits to both industries. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

  8. Kinetics and efficiency of H2O2 activation by iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2012-12-01

    To gain insight into factors that control H(2)O(2) persistence and ·OH yield in H(2)O(2)-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H(2)O(2) and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H(2)O(2) decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2-10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H(2)O(2) on manganese oxides does not produce ·OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO(2) slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency.

  9. Estimation of plate material properties by means of a complex wavenumber fit using Hankel's functions and the image source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N. B.; Leclère, Q.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new wave fitting approach to estimate the frequency dependent material properties of thin isotropic plate structures from an experimentally obtained vibrational field, exciting the plate at a single point. The method projects the measurement data on to an analytical image source model, in which Hankel's functions are used for a description of the wave fields emanating from the point of excitation, including the reflected wave fields from the edges of the finite plate. By minimizing the error between the projected field and the measured field, varying the complex wave number and the source strengths of the image sources, an optimum fit is searched for. Thus the source strengths of the image sources do not need to be determined theoretically, but are estimated from the fit on to the experimental data instead (thus avoiding difficulties in theoretically assessing the reflection coefficient of the edges of the plate). The approach uses a complex wavenumber fit, enabling the determination of the dynamic stiffness of the plate structure and its damping properties as function of frequency. The method is especially suited for plates with a sufficient amount of damping, excited at high frequencies.

  10. Removal of chromium from synthetic plating waste by zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saumyen; Bhargava, Puja

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for reduction and removal of chromium from synthetic electroplating waste. The zero-valent iron shows promising results as a reductant of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) to trivalent chromium (Cr+3), capable of 100% reduction. The required iron concentration was a function of chromium concentration in the waste stream. Removal of Cr+3 by adsorption or precipitation on iron leads to complete removal of chromium from the waste and was a slower process than the reduction of Cr+6. Presence SRB in a completely mixed batch reactor inhibited the reduction of Cr+6. In a fixed-bed column reactor, SRB enhanced chromium removal and showed promising results for the treatment of wastes with low chromium concentrations. It is proposed that, for waste with high chromium concentration, zero-valent iron is an efficient reductant and can be used for reduction of Cr+6. For low chromium concentrations, a SRB augmented zero-valent iron and sand column is capable of removing chromium completely.

  11. Material specification and quality control program for ductile iron spent fuel casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmer, B.; Frenz, H.; Weidlich, S.; Kuehn, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In the process of testing spent fuel casks, BAM is gaining a lot of relevant data regarding the quality level of Ductile Cast Iron (DCI). This paper discusses the basic parameters governing the material behavior of ferritic and ferritic-pearlitic DCI and reviews the development of cask quality over the last years. The effect of microstructure and sample size on the fracture toughness of DCI is discussed. The results of a test program show the prominent effect of pearlite content and graphite nodule structure in the mechanical and fracture toughness characteristics of DCI. This observation is important for quality assurance programs for shipping and storage casks of radioactive materials.

  12. Characteristics of Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger with Phase Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi

    In the present paper, a plate-fin heat exchanger with a phase change material (PCM) was studied. The heat exchanger was a singlepass cross-flow type, where both fluids (air) were unmixed. N-octadecane, of which the fusion temperature is 28.0°C, was used as the PCM. Three kinds of experiments were carried out and the inlet and outlet temperatures and the temperatures in the PCM were measured. In the first experiments, the effectiveness and the overall heat-transfer coefficient were obtained at steady states. By the calculations of steady three-dimensional heat conduction, the effects of the parameters, ---, dimensions, thermal properties, and heat transfer coefficients of air ---, on the overall heat-transfer coefficients were obtaiend clearly. In the second experiments, after the higher-temperature air-flow was stopped, the outlet temperatures of the lower-temperature air were maintained at the constant temperatures for 90-150 minutes. In the third experiments, the higher temperature air was flowed intermittently with an equal interval. The fluctuation of the outlet temperature of the lower-temperature air was within ±2.5°C. The above transient and periodical experiments showed that the present heat exchanger with PCM had useful characters of latent heat storage.

  13. Laser-Generated Lamb Waves Propagation in Multilayered Plates Composed of Viscoelastic Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Yuan, Shou-qi; Guan, Yi-jun; Ge, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The propagation characteristics of laser-generated Lamb waves in multilayered fiber-reinforced composite plates with different fiber orientations and number of layers have been investigated quantitatively. Considering the viscoelasticity of the composite materials, we have set up finite element models for simulating the laser-generated Lamb waves in two types of the multilayered composite plates. In the first type, different fiber orientations are adopted. In the second one, different number of layers are considered. The results illustrate the occurrence of attenuation and dispersion, which is induced by the viscoelasticity and multilayer structure, respectively.

  14. Elastomer based composite materials for bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrach, Elaine M.

    2011-07-01

    In most investigations, polymer conductive composite bipolar plates have failed to achieve the low resistivity required for PEMFCs. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate whether a composite of conductive fillers and a two-phase polymeric matrix will achieve low resistivity through preferred distribution of the fillers at the interface of the two phases. The use of an elastomer as one component of the blend will impart fracture resistance. Three types of matrices were investigated, a single phase polyvinyl ester plastic matrix, a compatible one-phase blend of polyvinyl ester (VER) and polyurethane (PU) elastomer, and a two-phase system of polyvinyl ester and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer. The different phases were determined by the theory of mixing. When solubility parameters are closer together it is likely that the system will be one phase. The one and two-phase systems were analyzed within the composition containing natural Cytec DKD graphite fibers, Asbury synthetic graphite 4012 flakes and ultra high surface area synthetic graphite TC 307. Phase systems affect the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The percolation theory analysis was applied to determine the optimal percentage of conductive fillers and polymer blends. The optimal composition for composite materials consisted of 35vo1% of conductive fillers and 65vo1% of a two-phase blend matrix. The conductive filler included 3vol% of synthetic graphite TC307, 25.5vol% of Cytec DKD graphite fibers and 6.5vol% of Asbury synthetic graphite 4012 flakes. The two-phase blend matrix included 40vol% of EPDM to 60vol% of VER. This resulted in an electrical resistivity of 0.009O-cm and a thermal conductivity of 11.6W/m-K. The two-phase blend matrix added more ductility to the composition with the ability to withstand a stress of 10MPa with over 1% strain applied to the overall composite bipolar plates. The composition also absorbed 60% more mechanical energy than that

  15. Framboidal iron oxide: Chondrite-like material from the black mat, Murray Springs, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Hull, Sharon [University of Manitoba, Canada

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Pleistocene a Younger Dryas black mat was deposited on top of the Pleistocene sediments in many parts of North America. A study of the magnetic fraction (~10,900 50 B.P.) from the basal section of the black mat at Murray Springs, AZ revealed the presence of amorphous iron xide framboids in a glassy iron-silica matrix. These framboids are very similar in appearance and chemistry to those reported from several types of carbonaceous chondrites. The glass contains iron, silicon, oxygen, vanadium and minor titanium, while the framboidal particles contain calcium as well. The major element chemistry of both the spherules and the glass matrix are consistent with the chemistry of material associated with meteorite impact sites and meteorites. Electron microscopy confirms that the glassy material is indeed amorphous, and also shows that what appear to be individual oxide particles are amorphous as well. The latter appears consistent with their overall morphology that, while euhedral, typically shows significant fracture. Based on these data, we argue that these particles are the product of a hypervelocity impact.

  16. Framboidal iron oxide: Chondrite-like material from the black mat, Murray Springs, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Hull, Sharon [University of Manitoba, Canada

    2011-01-01

    At the end of the Pleistocene a Younger Dryas black mat was deposited on top of the Pleistocene sediments inmany parts of North America. A study of themagnetic fraction ({approx}10,900 50 B.P.) fromthe basal section of the black mat at Murray Springs, AZ revealed the presence of amorphous iron oxide framboids in a glassy iron-silica matrix. These framboids are very similar in appearance and chemistry to those reported from several types of carbonaceous chondrites. The glass contains iron, silicon, oxygen, vanadium and minor titanium, while the framboidal particles contain calcium as well. The major element chemistry of both the spherules and the glass matrix are consistent with the chemistry of material associated with meteorite impact sites and meteorites. Electron microscopy confirms that the glassy material is indeed amorphous, and also shows that what appear to be individual oxide particles are amorphous as well. The latter appears consistent with their overall morphology that, while euhedral, typically shows significant fracture. Based on these data, we argue that these particles are the product of a hypervelocity impact.

  17. The influence of iron on water radiolysis in cement-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouniol, P., E-mail: pascal.bouniol@cea.f [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, F-91991 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-08-15

    For the time being, assessing the H{sub 2} source term generated by {gamma} irradiated cement-based materials consists of simulating the radiolysis of the pore liquid on the only elementary reactions relating to the decomposition of alkaline water. Such incomplete description does not take into account the impurities contained in the cement and leads to underestimate the production of H{sub 2}. Systematically present in cement materials, iron is likely to influence radiolysis by the disturbance induced on radical chemistry throughout the irradiation period. The faster reactivity of e{sub aq}{sup -} and OH{sup {center_dot}} radicals on Fe(III) and Fe(II), respectively, than on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} is responsible for the lower recycling capability of the 'Allen's chain reaction', allowing for H{sub 2} to be preserved in a closed system. A critical review of reaction data about iron complexes (hydroxo-, peroxo-) is presented in order to build up an 'iron' database. Radiolysis simulations in cement porewater in the presence of Fe(OH){sub 3} (considered as a model phase) show, as expected, an increase in the effective production of radiolytic H{sub 2} and the co-existence of exotic valence Fe(IV) with Fe(II) and (III) during the irradiation period ({gamma}).

  18. The development of iron British piers in the XIX century. The discovery of new materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-García de Velasco, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors study the decadence of wood piers along XIX century, mainly because of problems inherent to the attacks of invertebrates. Soon, the wood structures will be substituted by iron ones, appearing two extraordinary materials, cast iron and wrought iron. Cast iron was a material with a great compression resistance, but weak for traction and flexion. It was not welding, but its resistance to the corrosion was notable, because of it, was very used at piles of British sea piers. On the contrary, wrought iron offered high conditions for traction and flexion, so it appeared like a very useful material to make girders and joists, but suffering the problem of a lack of resistance to corrosion. The combination of both materials supposed a great success in the construction of bridges and piers, since 1850.

    Se estudia en el presente artículo cómo los embarcaderos de madera iban languideciendo a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, aquejados especialmente por los ataques de invertebrados. Pronto, en los embarcaderos británicos, la madera iba a ser sustituida por el hierro, en la versión de dos nuevos materiales, la fundición y el hierro forjado. La fundición poseía una gran resistencia a la compresión, aunque poca a la tracción y a la flexión. Tampoco permitía la soldabilidad, pero presentaba un comportamiento magnífico frente a la corrosión, siendo muy utilizada para pilares en los nuevos embarcaderos. El hierro forjado presentaba menor resistencia a la corrosión pero, en cambio, ofrecía altas prestaciones a tracción y flexión, lo que lo hacía muy valioso para su colocación en vigas y forjados en los muelles. De la combinación de ambos materiales resultó el gran éxito habido en la construcción de puentes y embarcaderos metálicos, a partir de 1850.

  19. Diapir versus along-channel ascent of crustal material during plate convergence: Constrained by the thermal structure of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Qi; Li, Zhong-Hai; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Subduction channel processes are crucial for understanding the material and energy exchange between the Earth's crust and mantle. Crustal rocks can be subducted to mantle depths, interact with the mantle wedge, and then exhume to the crustal depth again, which is generally considered as the mechanism for the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in nature. In addition, the crustal rocks generally undergo dehydration and melting at subarc depths, giving rise to fluids that metasomatize and weaken the overlying mantle wedge. There are generally two ways for the material ascent from subarc depths: one is along subduction channels; the other is through the mantle wedge by diapir. In order to study the conditions and dynamics of these contrasting material ascent modes, systematic petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models are constructed with variable thicknesses of the overriding and subducting continental plates, ages of the subducting oceanic plate, as well as the plate convergence rates. The model results suggest that the thermal structures of subduction zones control the thermal condition and fluid/melt activity at the slab-mantle interface in subcontinental subduction channels, which further strongly affect the material transportation and ascent mode. The thick overriding continental plate and the low-angle subduction style induced by young subducting oceanic plate both contribute to the formation of relatively cold subduction channels with strong overriding mantle wedge, where the along-channel exhumation occurs exclusively to result in the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks. In contrast, the thin overriding lithosphere and the steep subduction style induced by old subducting oceanic plate are the favorable conditions for hot subduction channels, which lead to significant hydration and metasomatism, melting and weakening of the overriding mantle wedge and thus cause the ascent of mantle wedge-derived melts by diapir through the mantle wedge

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Implanted Clavicle Hook Plates With Different Implant Depths and Materials in the Acromioclavicular Joint: A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Shih, Cheng-Min; Huang, Kui-Chou; Chen, Kun-Hui; Hung, Li-Kun; Su, Kuo-Chih

    2016-11-01

    Clinical implantation of clavicle hook plates is often used as a treatment for acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, it is not uncommon to find patients that have developed acromion osteolysis or had peri-implant fracture after hook plate fixation. With the aim of preventing complications or fixation failure caused by implantation of inappropriate clavicle hook plates, the present study investigated the biomechanics of clavicle hook plates made of different materials and with different hook depths in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation, using finite element analysis (FEA). This study established four parts using computer models: the clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate, and screws, and these established models were used for FEA. Moreover, implantations of clavicle hook plates made of different materials (stainless steel and titanium alloy) and with different depths (12, 15, and 18 mm) in patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation were simulated in the biomechanical analysis. The results indicate that deeper implantation of the clavicle hook plate reduces stress on the clavicle, and also reduces the force applied to the acromion by the clavicle hook plate. Even though a clavicle hook plate made of titanium alloy (a material with a lower Young's modulus) reduces the force applied to the acromion by the clavicle hook plate, slightly higher stress on the clavicle may occur. The results obtained in this study provide a better reference for orthopedic surgeons in choosing different clavicle hook plates for surgery. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD'S APPLICATION IN HOLE-EDGE STRESS OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL PLATE WITH DIFFERENT SHAPED HOLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The strength of composite plate with different hole-shapes is always one of the most important but complicated issues in the application of the composite material. The holes will lead to mutations and discontinuity to the structure. So the hole-edge stress concentration is always a serious phenomenon. And the phenomenon makes the structure strength decrease very quickly to form dangerous weak points. Most partial damage begins from these weak points. According to the complex variable functions theory, the accurate boundary condition of composite plate with different hole-shapes is founded by conformal mapping method to settle the boundary condition problem of complex hole-shapes. Composite plate with commonly hole-shapes in engineering is studied by several complex variable stress function. The boundary integral equations are founded based on exact boundary conditions. Then the exact hole-edge stress analytic solution of composite plate with rectangle holes and wing manholes is resolved. Both of offset axis loadings and its influences on the stress concentration coefficient of the hole-edge are discussed. And comparisons of different loads along various offset axis on the hole-edge stress distribution of orthotropic plate with rectangle hole or wing manhole are made. It can be concluded that hole-edge with continuous variable curvatures might help to decrease the stress concentration coefficient; and smaller angle of outer load and fiber can decrease the stress peak value.

  2. Evaluation and selection of material handling equipment in iron and steel industry using analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Sajja; Harshita, Raj; Pramod, Sesha; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a potential decision making method for use in the selection of the most suitable material handling (MH) system in an iron and steel industry. In this study, AHP is used in assessing the various material transportation systems employed in a steel manufacturing industry and to decide the best equipment to be used. Information on the use of AHP in evaluating MH equipment is provided and an AHP model is proposed to guide the management of an iron and steel Industry, i.e., JSW Steel Ltd. Most important factors while selecting material transportation equipment and their relative influence on the objective of decision-making model are found. A total of seven decision criteria and five different alternatives are considered for this purpose. Each alternative is evaluated in terms of the decision criteria and the relative importance (or weight) of each criterion is estimated. From the obtained pairwise comparison matrices, the best alternative is chosen. This paper provides a good insight into a decision-making model to guide managers for assessing the various material transportation equipment that are commonly employed in a steel manufacturing plant.

  3. Framboidal iron oxide: Chondrite-like material from the black mat, Murray Springs, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Hull, Sharon [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; HaynesJr., C. Vance [University of Arizona; Bergen, Laura [University of Manitoba, Canada

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the Pleistocene, many large mammals became extinct in North America1. The three most common theories for this phenomenon include climate change, overkill, or disease. Recently, researchers suggested that an extraterrestrial (ET) event may have caused sudden climate change that devastated these large mammals and had profound effects on the Clovis culture2,3. Critics of the ET event or impact theory note the lack of evidence such as an impact crater, impact material, shocked quartz, or tektites4. Here we present for the first time chemical and textural evidence of impact material from the Clovis-age, Murray Springs black mat layer, Arizona, USA. The impact material contains iron oxide spherules (framboids) in a glassy iron-silica matrix, which is one indicator of a possible meteorite impact. The spherules also contain elevated concentrations of vanadium and little titanium. The chemistry of both the spherules and matrix is consistent with the chemistry of impact material associated with other meteorite impact sites and meteorite showers.

  4. Study on mechanical properties of warm compacted iron-base materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元元; 倪东惠; 肖志瑜; 张大童; 陈维平

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the warm compacted iron-base powder metallurgy materials were compared with those of conventional cold compacted materials. Factors such as compaction temperature, lubricant concentration and lubricant′s property were studied. A lubricant for warm compaction powder metallurgy was developed. An iron-based powder metallurgy material with a green density of 7.31 g/cm3 (a relative density of 92.5%) can be obtained by pressing the powder at 700 MPa and 175 ℃. The sintered materials have a density of 7.2 g/cm3, an elongation of 2.1% and a tensile strength of 751 MPa compared to 546 MPa using conventional cold compaction with the same lubricant and 655 MPa using warm compaction with other lubricant. Compact density and mechanical properties were influenced strongly by the compacting temperature. Although the best quality compacts can be obtained at 175 ℃, warm compaction within 165 to 185 ℃ can give high density compacts. Evidence shows that compact density depends on the friction coefficient of the lubricant.

  5. 3D analysis of functionally graded material plates with complex shapes and various holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yuan CAO; Shou-gao TANG; Guo-hua CHENG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the basic formulae for the semi-analytical graded FEM on FGM members are derived. Since FGM parameters vary along three space coordinates, the parameters can be integrated in mechanical equations. Therefore with the parameters of a given FGM plate, problems of FGM plate under various conditions can be solved. The approach uses 1D discretization to obtain 3D solutions, which is proven to be an effective numerical method for the mechanical analyses of FGM structures. Examples of FGM plates with complex shapes and various holes are presented.

  6. The process of nanostructuring of metal (iron) matrix in composite materials for directional control of the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Elena; Yurchuk, Denis; Smirnov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1-50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type "frame in the frame" that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  7. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zemtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1 preparation of porous metal matrix; (2 surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3 pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  8. Electromagnetic acceleration of material from a plate hit by a pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.

    1998-04-16

    An intense pulsed electron beam traversing a thin metal plate creates a volume of dense plasma. Current flows in this plasma as a result of the charge and magnetic field introduced by the relativistic electrons. A magnetic field may linger after the electron beam pulse because of the conductivity of the material. This field decays by both diffusing out of the conducting matter and causing it to expand. If the magnetized matter is of low density and high conductivity it may expand quickly. Scaling laws for this acceleration are sought by analyzing the idealization of a steady axisymmetric flow. This case simplifies a general formulation based on both Euler`s and Maxwell`s equations. As an example, fluid with conductivity {sigma} = 8 x 10{sup 4} Siemens/m, density {rho} = 8 x 10{sup -3} kg/m{sup 3}, and initially magnetized to B = 1 Tesla can accelerate to v = 10{sup 4} m/s within a distance comparable to L = 1 mm and a time comparable to {sigma}{mu}L{sup 2} = 100 ns, which is the magnetic diffusion time. If instead, {sigma} = 8 x 10{sup 3} Siemens/m and {rho} = 8 x 10{sup -5} kg/m{sup 3} then v = 10{sup 5} m/s with a magnetic diffusion time {sigma}{mu}L{sup 2} = 10 ns. These idealized flows have R{sub M} = {sigma}{mu}vL = 1, where R{sub M} is the magnetic Reynolds number. The target magnetizes by a thermal electric effect.

  9. Active vibration control of flexible cantilever plates using piezoelectric materials and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeljaber, Osama; Avci, Onur; Inman, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    The study presented in this paper introduces a new intelligent methodology to mitigate the vibration response of flexible cantilever plates. The use of the piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs for active control of plates is discussed. An intelligent neural network based controller is designed to control the optimal voltage applied on the piezoelectric patches. The control technique utilizes a neurocontroller along with a Kalman Filter to compute the appropriate actuator command. The neurocontroller is trained based on an algorithm that incorporates a set of emulator neural networks which are also trained to predict the future response of the cantilever plate. Then, the neurocontroller is evaluated by comparing the uncontrolled and controlled responses under several types of dynamic excitations. It is observed that the neurocontroller reduced the vibration response of the flexible cantilever plate significantly; the results demonstrated the success and robustness of the neurocontroller independent of the type and distribution of the excitation force.

  10. Rheological properties of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluids based on plate-like iron particles with application to a small-sized damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kruti; Xuan Phu, Do; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the rheological properties and an application of bi-dispersed magnetorheological fluid (MRF) based on plate-like iron particles are experimentally investigated. A bi-dispersed MR Fluid is prepared using two different micron-scale sizes of plate-like iron particles. In the absence of a magnetic field, the properties of the fluid are isotropic. Upon the application of a magnetic field, the magnetized particles form a chain aligned in the direction of the field, which promotes the appearance of a yield stress. The reversible transition from solid to liquid is the basic requirement of MR applications. Due to the anisotropy in the shape and formation of a less compact structure in the iron plate-like particles, weak sedimentation and good redispersibility of the proposed MR fluid are created. The physical properties of the proposed MR fluids are evaluated and applied to the design of a small-sized controllable MR vibration damper, which can be used for vibration control of a washing machine. The MR damper is a semi-active device that dissipates energy during vibration motion to increase the stability of the application system. Three different weight fractions of the bi-dispersed MR fluids are prepared, and their rheological properties are presented and discussed. Based on their rheological properties, the figures of merit of the proposed MR fluids are derived. A comparison of these figures of merit gives the nominal behavior of the MR fluids, which are important in the design of the application device. A stability test is also performed to check the settling rate of MR fluids per day. The change in damping force due to the problem of particles settling in the MRF and the field-dependent damping force are measured with the MR damper operated just after filling the MRF and with the MR damper operated after waiting for 48 h after filling. With basic rheological properties and outstanding mechanical properties, it is clearly demonstrated that the proposed MR

  11. Anti frictional materials iron-pig iron-brass manufacture using shaving waste products of pig-iron; Obtencion de materiales antifriccion hierro-arrabio-laton utilizando residuos de virutas de arrabio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasamov, S. N.; Krivij, N.; Gudenau, H. W.; Babich, A. I.; Garcia, L. L.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A.

    2003-07-01

    Parts based on iron and steel powders are widely used in the manufacture of automobile and domestic equipment. This work was done to study the anti-friction properties of iron-pig iron-brass compositions of materials which were obtained by pressing and sintering from a mix of iron powders and industrial by products of cast-iron turnings, brass, talc and technical sulphur. Experiments were performed using cold pressure technology in the flowing matrix of the powder composite without solid lubricants. The subsequent sintering was carried out at 1200 degree centigree under isothermal conditions in a nitrogen atmosphere in the sintering zone during 1 h. The physical-mechanical and anti-friction properties were almost double by the active drainage of the gases from the compression mould. The study of the microstructure of the sintered materials showed that free cementite existed between the particle limits and around the pores. large agglomerations of dark inclusions could be observed, consisting of graphite, zinc and iron oxides, which were points of tension in the materials that reduce its durability and, therefore, its wear resistance to dry friction. (Author) 34 refs.

  12. FTIR features of lithium-iron phosphates as electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Salah, A; Jozwiak, P; Zaghib, K; Garbarczyk, J; Gendron, F; Mauger, A; Julien, C M

    2006-12-01

    The essential structural features of lithium-metal phosphates (LMP) have been studied using FTIR spectroscopy which is a sensitive tool to probe the local environment in the solid materials. Various LMP materials where M is iron have been investigated including phospho-olivine LiFePO(4), diphosphate LiFeP(2)O(7), Nasicon-type phosphate Li(3)Fe(2)(PO(4))(3) and dihydrate FePO(4).2H(2)O. Vitreous and amorphous materials are also considered. Analysis of internal and external modes of vibration allows to distinguish between the different phases and the type of cationic environment in the framework. Results corroborate the contribution of the main factors which are responsible for the complexity of the spectra, i.e. departure from ideal symmetry, interactions between polyhedra, bridging atoms and lattice distortion.

  13. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials.

  14. Solid-State Thermal Reaction of a Molecular Material and Solventless Synthesis of Iron Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debasis; Roy, Madhusudan; Zubko, Maciej; Kusz, Joachim; Bhattacharjee, Ashis

    2016-09-01

    Solid-state thermal decomposition reaction of a molecular material {As}({C}6{H}5)4[{Fe}^{II}{Fe}^{III} ({C}2{O}4)3]}n has been studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) in an inert atmosphere. By analyzing the TG data collected at multiple heating rates in 300 K-1300 K range, the kinetic parameters (activation energy, most probable reaction mechanism function and frequency factor) are determined using different multi-heating rate analysis programs. Activation energy and the frequency factor are found to be strongly dependent on the extent of decomposition. The decomposed material has been characterized to be hematite using physical techniques (FT-IR and powder XRD). Particle morphology has been checked by TEM. A solid-state reaction pathway leading the molecular precursor to hematite has been proposed illustrating an example of solventless synthesis of iron oxides utilizing thermal decomposition as a technique using innocuous materials.

  15. 硅铝铁标准物质的研制%Development of reference materials of silicon-aluminium-iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤超; 周振华; 周晨旭

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the needs of reference materials of silicon-aluminum-iron in our country, two reference materials of silicon-aluminum-iron were prepared According to the requirements of technical standard of silicon-aluminum-iron alloy, the silicon-aluminum-iron alloy with different content and without air hole or impurities on surface was selected as raw materials. After removing outer skin and inclusions and serting, the samples were prepared in to block samples with diameter of 40-50 mm. Then, they were grinded to particles with size smaller than 2 mm by jaw crusher. After fully mixing, the samples were repeatedly grinded with sample preparation machine. All the samples were made to pass through 0.125 mm (120 grid) screen. The u-niformity and stability tests of prepared reference materials were performed. The results showed that the prepared reference material had good uniformity and stability. The characterisation analysis of three elements including silicon, aluminum and iron in reference material was performed by several laboratories. The analytical data were tested by Grubbs method, Cochran's theorem and Shapiro-wilks method. The results showed that the normality test values of prepared reference material were all higher than the value of 95 % confidence probability. The certified values exhibited normal distribution or approximately normal distribution.

  16. Compacted graphite iron-A material solution for modern diesel engine cylinder blocks and heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steve Dawson; SinterCast; Sweden

    2009-01-01

    The demands for improved fuel economy,performance and emissions continue to pose challenges for engine designers and the materials they choose. This is particularly true for modern diesel engines,where the primary path to achieving improved engine performance and emissions is to increase the Peak Firing Pressure in the combustion chamber. The resulting increase in thermal and mechanical loading has required a change from conventional grey cast iron to Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in order to satisfy durability requirements without increasing the size or the weight of the engines. With at least 75% higher tensile strength,45% higher stiffness and approximately double the fatigue strength of conventional grey cast iron,CGI satisfies durability requirements and also provides the dimensional stability required to meet emissions legislation throughout the life of the engine.Currently,there are no CGI diesel engines running on the roads in North America. This is set to change considerably as new commercial vehicle and pick-up SUV diesel engines are launched with CGI cylinder blocks in 2008 and 2009. These initial programs will provide over 2 million CGI diesel engines when ramped to mature volume,potentially accounting for 10%-15% of the North American passenger vehicle fleet within the next four years.

  17. Compacted graphite iron – A material solution for modern diesel engine cylinder blocks and heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Steve Dawson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The demands for improved fuel economy, performance and emissions continue to pose challenges for engine designers and the materials they choose. This is particularly true for modern diesel engines, where the primary path to achieving improved engine performance and emissions is to increase the Peak Firing Pressure in the combustion chamber. The resulting increase in thermal and mechanical loading has required a change from conventional grey cast iron to Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI in order to satisfy durability requirements without increasing the size or the weight of the engines. With at least 75% higher tensile strength, 45% higher stiffness and approximately double the fatigue strength of conventional grey cast iron, CGI satisfi es durability requirements and also provides the dimensional stability required to meet emissions legislation throughout the life of the engine. Currently, there are no CGI diesel engines running on the roads in North America. This is set to change considerably as new commercial vehicle and pick-up SUV diesel engines are launched with CGI cylinder blocks in 2008 and 2009. These initial programs will provide over 2 million CGI diesel engines when ramped to mature volume, potentially accounting for 10%–15% of the North American passenger vehicle fleet within the next four years.

  18. Nucleosynthetic molybdenum isotope anomalies in iron meteorites - new evidence for thermal processing of solar nebula material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Graeme M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Coles, Barry J.; Goldberg, Tatiana; Smith, Caroline L.

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated nucleosynthetic Mo isotope anomalies in 38 different bulk iron meteorites from 11 groups, to produce by far the largest and most precise dataset available to date for such samples. All magmatic iron groups were found to display deficits in s-process Mo isotopes, with essentially constant anomalies within but significant variations between groups. Only meteorites of the non-magmatic IAB/IIICD complex revealed terrestrial Mo isotopic compositions. The improved analytical precision achieved in this study enables two isotopically distinct suites of iron meteorites to be identified. Of these, the r=p suite encompasses the IC, IIAB, IIE, IIIAB, IIIE and IVA groups and exhibits relatively modest but 'pure' s-process deficits, relative to Earth. The second r>p suite includes groups IIC, IIIF and IVB. These iron meteorites show larger s-process deficits than the r=p suite, coupled with an excess of r-process relative to p-process components. Comparison of the results with data for other elements (e.g., Cr, Ni, Ru, Ti, Zr) suggests that the Mo isotope variability is most likely produced by thermal processing and selective destruction of unstable presolar phases. An updated model is proposed, which relates the iron meteorite suites to different extents of thermal processing in the solar nebula, as governed by heliocentric distance. In detail, the r=p suite of iron meteorite parent bodies is inferred to have formed closer to the Sun, where the extent of thermal processing was similar to that experienced by terrestrial material, so that the meteorites exhibit only small s-process deficits relative to Earth. In contrast, the r>p suite formed at greater heliocentric distance, where more subtle thermal processing removed a smaller proportion of r- and p-process host phases, thereby generating larger s-process deficits relative to the terrestrial composition. In addition, the thermal conditions enabled selective destruction of p- versus r-isotope carrier phases

  19. Materials processing threshold report: 2. Use of low gravity for cast iron process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankhouser, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Potential applications of a low gravity environment of interest to the commercial producers of cast iron were assessed to determine whether low gravity conditions offer potential opportunities to producers for improving cast iron properties and expanding the use of cast irons. The assessment is limited to the gray and nodular types of iron, however, the findings are applicable to all cast irons. The potential advantages accrued through low gravity experiments with cast irons are described.

  20. New Wear Resistant Iron-Base Matrix Materials For The Fabrication Of Sintered Diamond Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanty J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the use of inexpensive iron-base powders in the production of sintered diamond tools is again explored. Ball-milled Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-C and Fe-Mn-Cu-Sn-C powders were consolidated to a virtually pore-free condition by hot pressing at 900°C. The resultant materials are characterised by a combination of high Knoop hardness, 260-440 and yield strength, 780-1350 MPa, and resistance to abrasion. These properties can be significantly modified by changing the milling time.

  1. Iron losses evaluation in soft magnetic materials with a sinusoidal voltage supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelcu, Steluţa; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation method of for specific iron losses in non-oriented laminated steel suitable for electric motors and transformers in the case of a sinusoidal excitation. The model is based on the separation of loss contribution due to hysteresis, eddy currents and excess losses...... and it is proposing an identification procedure for the model coefficients from multi-frequency single sheet tests. The frequencies used are in the range 10 Hz and 150 Hz and with the values of magnetic flux density in the range 0.1 T and 1.4 T. The model was applied on six magnetic materials of different thicknesses...

  2. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, A.; Akhter, J. I.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Mahmood, M.; Ajmal, M.

    2009-07-01

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe 3C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  3. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulzar, A. [Materials Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhter, J.I. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, M., E-mail: maqomer@yahoo.com [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, G. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ajmal, M. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe{sub 3}C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  4. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation.Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O).Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit,the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution.Moreover,due to the photochemical properties,Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light.In addition,shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution,which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction,but also set the stage for Fe reduction.Aocording to the experimental results,we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction.

  5. Study of Nd:YAG laser annealing of electroless Ni-P film on spiegel-iron plate by Taguchi method and grey system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, 64, Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chien, W.T.; Jiang, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuehfu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.J., E-mail: chenwjau@yuntech.edu.t [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-09

    An electroless Ni-P film was first deposited on a spiegel-iron plate and then annealed by an Nd:YAG pulsed wave laser. In order to obtain the optimal laser annealing parameters for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films, the Taguchi method and grey system theory were used to analyze the experimental data. The electroless Ni-P film was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy for the morphology, and transmission electron microscopy for the microstructure and crystal structure. The results showed that the hardness and the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films can be, at the same time, improved to 50.8% and 68%, respectively, by the laser annealing with the optimal parameters.

  6. Iron Documents. Interdisciplinary studies on the technology of late medieval european plate armour production between 1350 and 1500

    OpenAIRE

    Goll, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find out details on the production of late medieval European plate-armour for the field-use. Therefore, the author first collected thousands of extant objects in a database. With this stock of data he then was able to cluster and to structure the armour parts by various typological and technological aspects. To ease the access to the topic, the author defined an understandable and standardized terminology and typology for the different variations of...

  7. A new iron calcium phosphate material to improve the osteoconductive properties of a biodegradable ceramic: a study in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchón, Angel; Hamdan Alkhraisat, Mohammad; Rueda-Rodriguez, Carmen; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Torres, Jesús; Lucas-Aparicio, Julia; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2015-10-20

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive and biodegradable material used in bone regeneration procedures, while iron has been suggested as a tool to improve the biological performance of calcium phosphate-based materials. However, the mechanisms of interaction between these materials and human cells are not fully understood. In order to clarify this relationship, we have studied the iron role in β-TCP ceramics. Iron-containing β-TCPs were prepared by replacing CaCO3 with C6H5FeO7 at different molar ratios. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the occurrence of β-TCP as the sole phase in the pure β-TCP and iron-containing ceramics. The incorporation of iron ions in the β-TCP lattice decreased the specific surface area as the pore size was shifted toward meso- and/or macropores. Furthermore, the human osteoblastlike cell line MG-63 was cultured onto the ceramics to determine cell proliferation and viability, and it was observed that the iron-β-TCP ceramics have better cytocompatibility than pure β-TCP. Finally, in vivo assays were performed using rabbit calvaria as a bone model. The scaffolds were implanted for 8 and 12 weeks in the defects created in the skullcap with pure β-TCP as the control. The in vivo behavior, in terms of new bone formed, degradation, and residual graft material were investigated using sequential histological evaluations and histomorphometric analysis. The in vivo implantation of the ceramics showed enhanced bone tissue formation and scaffold degradation for iron-β-TCPs. Thus, iron appears to be a useful tool to enhance the osteoconductive properties of calcium phosphate ceramics.

  8. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Rui; Newhauser, Wayne D [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas at Houston, 6767 Bertner, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Taddei, Phillip J [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 1202, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Fitzek, Markus M [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, 2425 Milo B Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)], E-mail: wnewhaus@mdanderson.org

    2010-05-07

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy.

  9. Irradiation creep analysis base on rate theory in iron based cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyeong-Geun; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Irradiation degradation mechanism of zirconium are well developed including growth, hardening, and creep. However, in the same times, irradiation behaviour of iron based materials was not systemically organised and mechanism is not well established when it is compared with zirconium based alloy. Therefore in this paper, our research goal is development the prediction model of irradiation behaviour of iron based cladding materials in SFR condition. In order to calculate irradiation creep, point defect, cluster number density, and radius was calculated. From point defect concentration, it could be recognized that steady state behavior of defect flux. However irradiation creep behavior show exponent tendency because cluster number density is not saturated. The radius of each type of sink was calculated using defect concentration and cluster number density. In the engineering point of view, radius is most important parameter because it can be compared with experimental result. In order to confirm mobile cluster effect on dislocation loop number density, cluster behavior will be more specifically demonstrated by grouping method in next research step.

  10. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-07

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy.

  11. Effect of sintering parameters on warm compacted iron-based material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元元; 肖志瑜; 倪东惠; 夏伟; 陈维平

    2003-01-01

    Iron-based powder metallurgy material was prepared by warm compaction at 125℃ using a compacting pressure of 700 Mpa.Sintering temperature ranging from 1100℃ to 1300℃ and sintering time ranging from 40min to 80 min were used to study the effects of sintering parameters on the compacts.Die wall lubrication polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)emulsion was also applied in combination with warm compaction in hope to increase the compact density and the mechanical properties of the sintered material.Green and sintered density,spring back effect and sinter shrinkage were measured.Mechanical properties of both as-sinter and heat treated samples were also measured.Results show that mechanical properties of the sintered compacts increase with the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time.Sample prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction always shows higher density and mechanical properties.

  12. Assessing degradation rates of chlorinated ethylenes in column experiments with commercial iron materials used in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Markus; Köber, Ralf; Parbs, Anika; Plagentz, Volkmar; Schäfer, Dirk; Dahmke, Andreas

    2006-03-15

    Multiple column experiments were performed using two commercial iron materials to evaluate the necessity and usefulness of preliminary investigations in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design for chlorinated organics. Experiments were performed with contaminated groundwater and involved fresh iron granules or altered iron material excavated from PRBs. The determination of first-order rate coefficients by global nonlinear least-squares fittings indicated a variability in rate coefficients on 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Geometric mean values of surface area normalized rate coefficients (in 10(-5) L m(-2) h(-1)) for fresh gray cast iron and iron sponge, respectively, are: tetrachloroethene (4.5, 2.6), trichloroethene (8.1, 3.3), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (3.1, 2.9), trans-1,2-dichloroethene (9.5, 5.3), 1,1-dichloroethene (4.0, 4.4), and vinyl chloride (1.6, 6.1). The increasing rate coefficients with decreasing grade of chlorination, which characterize degradation at iron sponge are linearly related to diffusion coefficients in water, suggesting diffusion limitation in the degradation process for this particular material, possibly due to a high inner surface. The variability in rate coefficients seems to be too high to use mean rate coefficients from published studies in the design procedure of PRBs, and variabilities cannot be related to groundwater characteristics, waterflow through the reactive cells, or secondary corrosion reactions.

  13. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  14. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the Impact Localization of a Passive Smart Composite Plate Fabricated Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. S. Dezfouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two passive smart composite plates are fabricated using one and two PZT patches that are cheaper than the PZT wafer. The composite plate is fabricated in low temperature through the hand lay-up method to avoid PZT patch decoupling and wire spoiling. The locus of the impact point is identified using the output voltage to identify the impact location using one sensor. The output voltages of the sensors are analyzed to identify the impact location using two sensors. The locations of the impacts are determined based on the crossing points of two circles and the origin of an intended Cartesian coordinate system that is concentric with one of the sensors. This study proposes the impact location identification of the passive smart composite using the low-cost PZT patch PIC155 instead of common embedded materials (wafer and element piezoelectric.

  16. Cr26MoWVTiRE Development and Application of Cast Alloy Iron Chute Lining Plate%Cr26MoWVTiRE合金铸铁溜槽衬板开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李固成

    2013-01-01

    针对钢铁企业高炉布料溜槽衬板所处的恶劣作业环境,研究开发出具有一定耐高温、耐腐蚀性的Cr26MoWVTiRE高铬合金铸铁材料.在经1 020,~1 050℃淬火+320~520℃回火,材料的硬度达到HRC 60~62,冲击韧度ak>5 J/cm2.Mo、W合金和V、Ti等强碳化物元素的复合加入,提高了溜槽衬板的硬韧性、红硬性和高耐磨性,衬板实际使用寿命超过18个月.与镶铸硬质合金溜槽衬板相比,该衬板具有生产工艺简单、成本低、性价比高等特点,有一定推广应用价值.%Aiming at the bad working environment of distributing chute for iron and steel enterprises furnace,Cr26MoWVTiRE high chromium alloy cast iron material was developed,which has high temperature resistance,corrosion resistance.After 1 020-1 050 ℃ quenching and 320-520 ℃ tempering,the material hardness reached HRC 60-62,and impact toughness ak 5 J/cm2.The hardness and toughness,red hardness,high-wearing feature were improved by composite addition ofMo,W alloy and V,Ti and other strong carbide elements,and the service life of lining plate was more than 18 months.Compared to the cast-in hard alloy chute lining plate,it has the advantages such as simple production process,low cost,high performance/cast ratio,and deserves popularization.

  17. Osteogenesis and cytotoxicity of a new Carbon Fiber/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Giles, Erica; El Sawi, Ihab; Amleh, Asma; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program to develop a new CF/Flax/Epoxy bone fracture plate to be used in orthopedic trauma applications. The purpose was to determine this new plate's in-vitro effects on the level of bone formation genes, as well as cell viability in comparison with a medical grade metal (i.e. stainless steel) commonly employed for fabrication of bone plates (positive control). Cytotoxicity and osteogenesis induced by wear debris of the material were assessed using Methyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 3 osteogenesis specific gene markers, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. Moreover, the Flax/Epoxy and CF/Epoxy composites were examined separately for their wettability properties by water absorption and contact angle (CA) tests using the sessile drop technique. The MTT results for indirect and direct assays indicated that the CF/Flax/Epoxy composite material showed comparable cell viability with no cytotoxicity at all incubation times to that of the metal group (p≥0.05). Osteogenesis test results showed that the expression level of Runx2 marker induced by CF/Flax/Epoxy were significantly higher than those induced by metal after 48 h (p=0.57). Also, the Flax/Epoxy composite revealed a hydrophilic character (CA=68.07°±2.05°) and absorbed more water up to 17.2% compared to CF/Epoxy, which reached 1.25% due to its hydrophobic character (CA=93.22°±1.95°) (p<0.001). Therefore, the new CF/Flax/Epoxy may be a potential candidate for medical applications as a bone fracture plate, as it showed similar cell viability with no negative effect on gene expression levels responsible for bone formation compared to medical grade stainless steel.

  18. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  19. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  20. Magnetic studies of mesoporous nanostructured iron oxide materials synthesized by one-step soft-templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Hines, William A; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Perry, David M; Poyraz, Altug S; Xia, Yan; Zaidi, Taha; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Suib, Steven L

    2015-07-14

    A combined magnetization and (57)Fe spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study has been carried out on mesoporous nanostructured materials consisting of the magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) phases. Two series of samples were synthesized using a recently developed one-step soft-templating approach with systematic variations in calcination temperature and reaction atmosphere. Nuclear magnetic resonance has been shown to be a valuable tool for distinguishing between the two magnetic iron oxide spinel phases, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3, on the nanoscale as well as monitoring phase transformation resulting from oxidation. For the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 phases, peaks in the NMR spectra are attributed to Fe in the tetrahedral (A) sites and octahedral (B) sites. The magnetic field dependence of the peaks was observed and confirmed the site assignments. Fe3O4 on a nanoscale readily oxidizes to form γ-Fe2O3 and this was clearly evident in the NMR spectra. As evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the porous mesostructure for the iron oxide materials is formed by a random close-packed aggregation of nanoparticles; correspondingly, superparamagnetic behavior was observed in the magnetic measurements. Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the spinel structure for the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 phases, unlike NMR, it is difficult to distinguish between the two phases with XRD. Nitrogen sorption isotherms characterize the mesoporous structures of the materials, and yield BET surface area values and limited BJH pore size distribution curves.

  1. Exploration of new superconductors and functional materials, and fabrication of superconducting tapes and wires of iron pnictides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Tanabe, Keiichi; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Nohara, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Fujitsu, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    This review shows the highlights of a 4-year-long research project supported by the Japanese Government to explore new superconducting materials and relevant functional materials. The project found several tens of new superconductors by examining ∼1000 materials, each of which was chosen by Japanese experts with a background in solid state chemistry. This review summarizes the major achievements of the project in newly found superconducting materials, and the fabrication wires and tapes of iron-based superconductors; it incorporates a list of ∼700 unsuccessful materials examined for superconductivity in the project. In addition, described are new functional materials and functionalities discovered during the project.

  2. Effect of Different Molding Materials on the Thin-Walled Compacted Graphite Iron Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, Marcin; Dańko, Rafał; Lelito, Janusz; Kawalec, Magdalena; Sikora, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the effects of six mold materials used for obtaining thin-walled compacted graphite iron castings with a wall thickness of 3 mm. During this research, the following materials were analyzed: fine silica sand, coarse silica sand, cerabeads, molohite and also insulated materials in the shape of microspheres, including low-density alumina/silica ceramic sand. Granulometric and SEM observations indicate that the sand matrix used in these studies differs in terms of size, homogeneity and shape. This study shows that molds made with insulating sands (microspheres) possess both: thermal conductivity and material mold ability to absorb heat, on average to be more than five times lower compared to those of silica sand. In addition to that, the resultant peak of heat transfer coefficient at the mold/metal interface for microspheres is more than four times lower in comparison with fine silica sand. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cooling rate of metal in the mold cavity which promotes the development of compacted graphite in thin-walled castings as well as ferrite fractions in their microstructure.

  3. Factors Affecting Energy Absorption of a Plate during Shock Wave Impact Using a Damage Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-07

    array according to the Taguchi method . An orthogonal array is generated to govern the arrangement of the five parameters in the 16 calculations... Taguchi method described in Chapter 3. Energy absorption of the plate was the response investigated and was calculated as strain energy at first... Taguchi method . Table 6.1 shows the energy absorbed by first element failure for each of the 16 simulations. Those results were placed in the

  4. Competing orders in strongly correlated systems. Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Laura

    2016-11-04

    In this work we address the collective phenomena appearing in interacting fermion systems due to the competition of distinct orders at the example of Dirac materials and iron-based superconductors. On the one hand we determine leading ordering tendencies in an unbiased way, when Fermi liquid instabilities are expected simultaneously in the particle-particle and particle-hole channel. In this context we analyze the impact of electron-phonon interactions on the many-body instabilities of electrons on the honeycomb lattice. Furthermore we investigate the interplay between superconductivity, magnetism and orbital order in five-pocket iron-based superconductors including the full orbital composition of low-energy excitations. On the other hand we study how the close proximity of different phases affects the structure of the phase diagram and the nature of transitions, as well as the corresponding quantum multicritical behavior. To this end we consider the semimetal-insulator transitions to an antiferromagnetic and a staggered-density state of low-energy Dirac fermions. To account for the decisive role of interactions and the various degrees of freedom in these models, modern renormalization group techniques are applied.

  5. Effects of beryllium and iron additions on iron-bearing phase in A357 aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhongwei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the most deleterious impurity in the Al-Si-Mg casting alloys and can easily form inter-metallic compounds that can significantly affect the subsequent behavior of material properties. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and microstructural analysis, how the Be and Fe additions affect the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloys was investigated. The results show that the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy comprises mainly the plate-like β-Al5FeSi and a small quantity of the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6; and that the plate-like β-Al5FeSi proportion increases with increasing iron content in the alloy. The iron-bearing phase is mostly transformed from the plate-like β-Al5FeSi to the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6 with the addition of Be in the alloy. The hardness of alloy samples was also tested. The results show that both the increasing iron content and Be content can increase the hardness of the alloy. This may be contributed to the change of morphology and distribution of the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy with the addition of iron or Be to the alloy.

  6. Evaluation of possibilities of using tetra - pak waste as a material to plate production for construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korniejenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetra-pak is a popular packing material, which is using as aseptic packaging of liquid food products, especially: fruit juice, beverages and milk. After single use a packing are throw out. Carton could not be reuse because the material has contact with food and must be aseptic. The paper describes the way of recycling tetra-pak waste in the world. It is focus on possibilities to optimize the mechanical properties of composite material and modifications of its property depending on the type and amount of added polyethylene and method of manufacture. Main physic-mechanical properties of plate made from tetra – pak waste are presented. This property can be interesting for the construction industry.

  7. Research on the Bonding and Strengthening Mechanism of Iron-based Alloy Plated Layers%合金镀铁层的结合和强化机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文仲; 阎军; 贾珊中; 刘勇; 董文胜; 董玉华

    2011-01-01

    铁元素资源丰富、价格便宜,推广镀铁技术符合国家可持续发展战略要求.合金镀铁技术是在无刻蚀镀铁工艺的基础上,在镀铁液中加入一定量的Ni和Co,沉积成含有Ni和Co的合金镀铁层.施镀工艺采用电压控制方式,镀前对基体金属表面进行对称交流活化,使基体金属表面形成"微融活化态",合金镀铁层与基体金属完全融为一体的金属键结合,其力学性能显著提高,结合强度可达460 MPa.能够满足在高速运转和高密度承载的条件下使用要求,并在大量工业应用中得到证实.在机电产品再制造中,合金镀铁具有广阔的应用前景.文中通过对合金镀铁层和单金属镀铁层用扫描电镜观察检验、法向拉力试验和耐磨性能试验,分析并讨论了合金镀铁层的结合和强化机理.%Ferrum is a kind of cheap and abundant resources, and popularizing iron plating technology to remanufacture mechanical and electrical products is up to the national strategy of sustainable development. Iron-based alloy plating remanufacture technology is a kind of technology which developed from iron plating without etching technology. In order to get iron-based alloy plating layers, nickle and cobalt were Added into the plating solution. Volt-control mode was adopted and the symmetrical AC activating procedure on the surface of metrix metal was finished before plating to get "Micro Melt Activation" which make the bond of the iron-based alloy plated layer and metallic matrix to a whole. Iron-based alloy plating layers with excellent mechanical properties is a good remanufacture technology. And the interface bonding strength could reach to 460 MPa. Plenty of applied cases in the remanufactured mechanical and electrical products proved that the iron-based alloy plating layers could completely satisfied the requirement under high running and high density loading conditions. The bonding and strengthening mechanism of the iron-based alloy

  8. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Iron Oxide Nanocomposite as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Eeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPy was reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO and iron oxide to achieve electrochemical stability and enhancement. The ternary nanocomposite film was prepared using a facile one-pot chronoamperometry approach, which is inexpensive and experimentally friendly. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM image shows a layered morphology of the ternary nanocomposite film as opposed to the dendritic structure of PPy, suggesting hybridization of the three materials during electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD profile shows the presence of Fe2O3 in the ternary nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry (CV analysis illustrates enhanced current for the nanocomposite by twofold and fourfold compared to its binary (PPy/RGO and individual (PPy counterparts, respectively. The ternary nanocomposite film exhibited excellent specific capacitance retention even after 200 cycles of charge/discharge.

  9. Viscoelastic material properties’ identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierron F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  10. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rochau, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub v}) notch ductility and tensile properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 C (550 F) irradiated (I), 288 C (550 F) irradiated + 454 C (850 F) - 168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 C (550 F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub v} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub v} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub v} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity were exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  11. Pressure-induced superconductivity in the iron-based ladder material BaFe2S3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Akira; Nambu, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Touru; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Kawakami, Takateru; Avdeev, Maxim; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Du, Fei; Kawashima, Chizuru; Soeda, Hideto; Nakano, Satoshi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Ueda, Yutaka; Sato, Taku J; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2015-10-01

    All the iron-based superconductors identified so far share a square lattice composed of Fe atoms as a common feature, despite having different crystal structures. In copper-based materials, the superconducting phase emerges not only in square-lattice structures but also in ladder structures. Yet iron-based superconductors without a square-lattice motif have not been found, despite being actively sought out. Here, we report the discovery of pressure-induced superconductivity in the iron-based spin-ladder material BaFe2S3, a Mott insulator with striped-type magnetic ordering below ∼120 K. On the application of pressure this compound exhibits a metal-insulator transition at about 11 GPa, followed by the appearance of superconductivity below Tc = 14 K, right after the onset of the metallic phase. Our findings indicate that iron-based ladder compounds represent promising material platforms, in particular for studying the fundamentals of iron-based superconductivity.

  12. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essehli, R., E-mail: essehli.rachid@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); ESECO SYSTEMS 270 rue Thomas Edison, Atelier Relais No 6, 34400 Lunel (France); El Bali, B. [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Faik, A. [CIC energigune, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Álava (Spain); Naji, M. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Benmokhtar, S. [LCPGM, Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Générale des Matériaux, Département de Chimie, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z. [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Synergetic Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Kim, J.; Kang, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Dusek, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Iron Titanium Phosphates as High-Specific-Capacity. • Electrode Materials for Lithium ion Batteries. • During the following cycles, good reversible capacity retention and better cyclabilit. • Ex-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge shows an amorphization of this anode material. -- Abstract: Two iron titanium phosphates, Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, were prepared, and their crystal structures and electrochemical performances were compared. The electrochemical measurements of Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} as an anode of a lithium ion cell showed that upon the first discharge down to 0.5 V, the cell delivered a capacity of 560 mA h/g, corresponding to the insertion of 5 Li’s per formula unit Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}. Ex-situ XRD reveals a gradual evolution of the structure during cycling of the material, with lower crystallinity after the first discharge cycle. By correlating the electrochemical performances with the structural studies, new insights are achieved into the electrochemical behaviour of the Fe{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} anode material, suggesting a combination of intercalation and conversion reactions. The Nasicon-type Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} consists of a three-dimensional network made of corners and edges sharing [TiO{sub 6}] and [FeO{sub 6}] octahedra and [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra leading to the formation of trimmers [FeTi{sub 2}O{sub 12}]. The first discharge of lithium ion cells based on Fe{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} materials showed electrochemical activity of Ti{sup 4+}/Ti{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 0} couples in the 2.5–1 V region. Below this voltage, the discharge profiles are typical of phosphate systems where Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is a product of the electrochemical reaction with lithium; moreover, the electrolyte solvent is reduced. An initial capacities as high as 1100 mA h g{sup −1} can be obtained at deep discharge. However, there is an irreversible capacity

  13. Dissimilar material welding of rapidly solidified foil and stainless steel plate using underwater explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, Kazuyuki [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: hokamoto@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Nakata, Kazuhiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Akihisa [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Shota [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Tsumura, Takuya [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-03-20

    Rapidly solidified amorphous and metallic glass thin foils clad on a stainless steel base plate is attempted by employing underwater shock wave assembly. The conditions of the explosive welding are numerically analyzed and discussed based on the earlier welding limits. The thin foils successfully welded along the length of 50 mm show clear waves typically found in explosively welded interface. The interfacial microstructure characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopes shows evidence of excessive melting generated due to the trapping of metal jet in limited area.

  14. Unfolding the role of iron in Li-ion conversion electrode materials by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado, Jose L., E-mail: iq1ticoj@uco.es; Lavela, Pedro; Perez Vicente, Carlos; Leon, Bernardo; Vidal-Abarca, Candela [Universidad de Cordoba, Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is particularly useful in the study of oxide and oxalate conversion anode materials for Li-ion batteries. After reduction in lithium test cells, all these materials showed Moessbauer spectra ascribable to iron atoms in two different environments with superparamagnetic relaxation. The spectra recorded at 12 K revealed the ferromagnetic character in agreement with particle sizes of ca. 5 nm. The two types of iron can be ascribed then to surface and core atoms. Core iron atoms play an important role to retain high faradic capacity values for a large number of cycles. These atoms are preserved from irreversible reactions with the electrolyte and hence they promote a high reversibility and rate capability.

  15. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zheng, Shuilin [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L. [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Xi, Yunfei, E-mail: y.xi@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were deposited onto acid-leached diatomite through centrifugation or rotary evaporation. The synthesis schematic diagram and morphology of the prepared nZVI/diatomite composites are shown in the illustration. The removal efficiency for herbicide simazine by nZVI/diatomite composites was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and the commercial iron powder. -- Highlights: • Diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite was synthesised. • The obtained composites were characterised by XRD, SEM–EDS, TEM and XPS. • The removal efficiency for simazine in water were studied. • The prepared composite showed potential prospects in environmental remediation. -- Abstract: A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero

  16. Implementation of an X ray image plate camera in characterisation and crystallisation studies of iron based alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Steer, W A

    2001-01-01

    Developed in the early 1980s, versatile X-ray storage phosphor screens have opened up new possibilities in diffraction instruments for crystallography. Originally adopted by high-pressure researchers using diamond-anvil cells and very small sample volumes, flat phosphor screens give great advantage because of their high intrinsic sensitivity. But less demanding applications still stand to benefit from increased throughput and enhanced count rates made possible by this technology. With this in mind the Curved Image Plate camera, a large radius (350mm and 185mm) Debye-Scherrer instrument primarily designed for use with capillary-contained powder samples had been devised. As a substantial part of this work, new software to pre-process the data, calibration procedures and modes of operation were developed to enable the full potential of the system to be realised. One particular application of the CIP camera is the comparative study of a large number of samples, for example as a function of heat treatment. Amorpho...

  17. Fibrous materials on polyhydroxybutyrate and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis: physical-chemical and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhov, A.; Lobanov, A.; Staroverova, O.; Tyubaeva, P.; Zykova, A.; Pantyukhov, P.; Popov, A.; Iordanskii, A.

    2017-02-01

    Ferric iron (III)-based complexes with porphyrins are the homogenous catalysts of auto-oxidation of several biogenic substances. The most perspective carrier for functional low-molecular substances is the polymer fibers with nano-dimensional parameters. Application of natural polymers, poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) or polylactic acid for instance, makes possible to develop fiber and matrice systems to solve ecological problem in biomedicine The aim of the article is to obtain fibrous material on poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) and ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins basis and to examine its physical-chemical and antibacterial properties. The work is focused on possibility to apply such material to biomedical purposes. Microphotographs of obtained material showed that addition of 1% wt. ferric iron (III)-based porphyrins to PHB led to increased average diameter and disappeared spindly structures in comparison with initial PHB. Biological tests of nonwoven fabrics showed that fibers, containing ferric iron (III)-based tetraphenylporphyrins, were active in relation to bacterial test-cultures. It was found that materials on polymer and metal complexes with porphyrins basis can be applied to production of decontamination equipment in relation to pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.

  18. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 {approx} 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic.

  19. Formulation of bipolar plates in composite materials; Realisation de plaques bipolaires en materiaux composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jousse, F.; Salas, J.F. [CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Icard, B.; Mosdale, R. [CEA/Grenoble, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    This work takes stock of the researches carried out in CEA/Le Ripault in the field of composite separating bipolar plates. These composites are formulated from conducting graphite powders and thermoplastic binder. The influence of the morphology of the graphite particles on the electric properties and on the gases permeation properties have been more particularly studied. An important improvement of the hydrogen impermeability has been observed for these composites by the use of a low amount of graphite of a very specific morphology developed at the CEA/Le Ripault. The electrochemical results obtained with these composites (polarization curves and and tests of 500 hours) carried out at the CEA/Grenoble are presented too. (O.M.)

  20. Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films with Very Low Damping Obtained by Recrystallization of Amorphous Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Christoph; Richter, Tim; Homonnay, Nico; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Qaid, Mohammad; Deniz, Hakan; Hesse, Dietrich; Sawicki, Maciej; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-02-10

    We have investigated recrystallization of amorphous Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) by annealing in oxygen atmosphere. Our findings show that well below the melting temperature the material transforms into a fully epitaxial layer with exceptional quality, both structural and magnetic. In ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) ultra low damping and extremely narrow linewidth can be observed. For a 56 nm thick layer a damping constant of α = (6.15 ± 1.50) · 10(-5) is found and the linewidth at 9.6 GHz is as small as 1.30 ± 0.05 Oe which are the lowest values for PLD grown thin films reported so far. Even for a 20 nm thick layer a damping constant of α = (7.35 ± 1.40) · 10(-5) is found which is the lowest value for ultrathin films published so far. The FMR linewidth in this case is 3.49 ± 0.10 Oe at 9.6 GHz. Our results not only present a method of depositing thin film YIG of unprecedented quality but also open up new options for the fabrication of thin film complex oxides or even other crystalline materials.

  1. Measurement on isolated lithium iron phosphate particles reveals heterogeneity in material properties distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael E.; Dayeh, Malak; Payne, Nicholas A.; Gervais, Simon; Mauzeroll, Janine; Schougaard, Steen B.

    2016-09-01

    We present herein localized galvanostatic and potentiodynamic measurements on lithium iron phosphate (LFP) particles, using the combination of a scanning micropipette contact method (SMCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proposed technique allows small substrate areas (∼10 μm in diameter) decorated with LFP particles to be probed within a lithium electrolyte solution in organic carbonate solvents (0.1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate in the present study). SEM images of the scanned area allow the correlation of each electrochemical response to the number, and volume of the probed particles. Under favorable conditions, single particles are found within the measurement areas, thus enabling the determination of single particle properties in an anaerobic environment without the additional complications arising from the presence of binders and electronically conductive fillers. The ability to analyze a material with complementary experimental techniques at the single particle level should create new opportunities for fundamental studies and for the quality control of granular materials.

  2. Experimental evidence of the influence of iron on pore water radiolysis in cement-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouniol, P., E-mail: pascal.bouniol@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d’Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91991 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Muzeau, B. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d’Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91991 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dauvois, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire de Radiolyse et de la Matière Organique, F-91991 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrated tricalcium silicate based cement pastes or mixes, with the addition or not of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide, were irradiated for 1 year in a closed system (γ radiation) with the aim of provoking radiolysis of the alkaline pore solution (pH > 13). The data collected (on-line monitoring of the total pressure and the H{sub 2} content in 500 cm{sup 3} mini-containers irradiated at 45 °C and 1.07 kGy/h with V{sub gas}/V{sub paste} ≈ 1) enable us to conclude that the addition of 1% of FeOOH{sub am} gives rise to about 26% of additional residual H{sub 2} after 1 year. This result appears to validate the hypothesis of a partial mobilisation of the e{sub aq}{sup -} and O{sup ·−} radicals in a continuous process of Fe(III) ↔ Fe(II) oxidation–reduction, at the expense of their action within the Allen type reaction chain that is responsible for the recycling of H{sub 2}. Despite the complexity of the porous material, the simulation of the experiment with the CHEMSIMUL application leads to a result that is quite close, and stresses the importance of the kinetic coupling between gas transport in the porous material and the reaction system.

  3. Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2002-12-01

    The modification of polymeric materials (polystyrene and polyHIPE) by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents (i.e. iron hydroxides) was investigated in the present work, in order to apply the modified media in the removal of inorganic arsenic anions from contaminated water sources. The method, termed adsorptive filtration, has been classified as an emerging technology in water treatment processes as it presents several advantages towards conventional technologies: the production of high amounts of toxic sludge can be avoided and it is considered as economically more efficient; whereas it has not yet been applied in full-scale treatment plants for low-level arsenic removal. The present experiments showed that both modified media were capable in removing arsenic from the aqueous stream, leading to residual concentration of this toxic metalloid element below 10 microg/L, which is the new maximum concentration limit set recently by the European Commission and imposed by the USEPA. Though, among the examined materials, polyHIPE was found to be more effective in the removal of arsenic, as far as it concerns the maximum sorptive capacity before the filtration bed reaches the respective breakthrough point.

  4. Study on dry friction and wear resistance of a WC-Co particle reinforced iron matrix composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to select a suitable material for the rolling mill guide application, the dry sliding friction and wear resistance of a tungsten carbide combining cobalt (WC-Co particle reinforced chromium cast iron composite material were studied. In particular, the wear resistance was discussed in detail. The results showed that the composite material demonstrates 25 times the wear resistance of high Cr cast iron, and 9 times the wear resistance of heat resistant steel. However, the average friction factor in the stable friction stage showed a relationship of μComposites/45 # steel > μHigh chromium cast iron/45 # steel > μHeat resistant steel/45 # steel. The wear resistance mechanism of the composite material was associated with the reinforcing particles, which protruded from the worn surface to bear the friction load when the matrix material surface was worn, thereby reducing the abrasive and adhesive wear. In addition, the matrix material possessed suitable hardness and toughness, providing a support to the reinforcements.

  5. An exact analysis of surface acoustic waves in a plate of functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liming; Wang, Ji; Zhong, Zheng; Du, Jianke

    2009-12-01

    Some traditional applications of structures and devices with homogeneous materials are being gradually replaced by functionally graded materials (FGM) with spatial variation of properties. The analysis of SAW propagating in FGM structures will be different primarily due to variations of material properties and resulting differential equations with variable coefficients. To provide an effective method and accurate results for the analysis of SAWs in FGM structures, we employed the Frobenius method as the only available method for a detailed analysis of SAW in materials with property variations in a linear pattern. Analytical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and the effect of FGM on changes of surface displacements in SAW propagation.

  6. Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide/Carbon Composite as Dielectric Material for Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide/carbon composite was synthesized using a liquid phase plasma process to be used as the electrode of supercapacitor. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with the size of 5~10 nm were dispersed uniformly on carbon powder surface. The specific capacitance of the composite increased with increasing quantity of iron oxide precipitate on the carbon powder up to a certain quantity. When the quantity of the iron oxide precipitate exceeds the threshold, however, the specific capacitance was rather reduced by the addition of precipitate. The iron oxide/carbon composite containing an optimum quantity (0.33 atomic % of iron oxide precipitate exhibited the smallest resistance and the largest initial resistance slope.

  7. Impact of nanoscale zero valent iron on geochemistry and microbial populations in trichloroethylene contaminated aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschling, Teresa L; Gregory, Kelvin B; Minkley, Edwin G; Lowry, Gregory V; Tilton, Robert D

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are a promising technology for reducing trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in the subsurface. Prior to injecting large quantities of nanoparticles into the groundwater it is important to understand what impact the particles will have on the geochemistry and indigenous microbial communities. Microbial populations are important not only for nutrient cycling, but also for contaminant remediation and heavy metal immobilization. Microcosms were used to determine the effects of NZVI addition on three different aquifer materials from TCE contaminated sites in Alameda Point, CA, Mancelona, MI, and Parris Island, SC. The oxidation and reduction potential of the microcosms consistently decreased by more than 400 mV when NZVI was added at 1.5 g/L concentrations. Sulfate concentrations decreased in the two coastal aquifer materials, and methane was observed in the presence of NZVI in Alameda Point microcosms, but not in the other two materials. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed significant shifts in Eubacterial diversity just after the Fe(0) was exhausted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed increases of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) and Archaeal 16s rRNA genes, indicating that reducing conditions and hydrogen created by NZVI stimulate both sulfate reducer and methanogen populations. Adding NZVI had no deleterious effect on total bacterial abundance in the microcosms. NZVI with a biodegradable polyaspartate coating increased bacterial populations by an order of magnitude relative to controls. The lack of broad bactericidal effect, combined with the stimulatory effect of polyaspartate coatings, has positive implications for NZVI field applications.

  8. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  9. Analysis of material characteristics for the construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam skin radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.br, e-mail: hyoriyas@ipen.br, e-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, e-mail: pacrisguian@usp.br; Furnari, Laura; Santos, Gabriela R. [Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com, e-mail: reis.gabby@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the - Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, shapes and dimensions most adequate on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations will be validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  10. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals:The High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials(HPCRM) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2007-07-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  11. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  12. Die wall lubricated warm compaction of iron-based powder metallurgy material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东惠; 陈维平; 肖志瑜; 温利平; 吴苑标

    2002-01-01

    Lubricant is harmful to the mechanical properties of the sintered materials. Die wall lubrication was applied on warm compaction powder metallurgy in the hope of reducing the concentration level of the admixed lubricant. Iron-based samples were prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction at 175℃, using a compacting pressure of 550MPa. Emulsified polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) was used as die wall lubricant. Admixed lubricant concentration ranging from 0 to 0.5% was tested. Extremely low admixed lubricant contents were used. Results show that in addition to the decrease in ejection forces, the green density of the compacts increases with the decrease of admixed lubricant content until it reaches the maximum at 0.06% of lubricant content, then decreases with the decrease of admixed lubricant content. The mechanical properties of the sintered compacts that contain more than 0.06% admixed lubricant are better than those of the samples that contain lesser lubricant. No scoring was observed in all die wall lubricated experiments.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of yttrium iron garnet (YIG nanoparticles - Microwave material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by sol–gel (SG and solid-state (SS reaction methods to elucidate the nanoscale size on the magnetic behavior of NPs. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. The average NP sizes prepared by SG and SS methods were calculated by Scherrer formula from XRD data. SEM images show the change in grain size for both types of NPs. The sintering temperature required to form pure garnet phase is 750°C for SG and 1000°C for SS NPs. The saturation magnetizations (Ms were 1070 Oe for SG and 1125 Oe for SS NPs, respectively. The coercivity (Hc of SS NPs are twice larger than SG NPs. This is due to the larger crystal sizes of the SS NPs, hence more crystal boundaries. Dynamic properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR technique in field-sweep and frequency-sweep mode at different fixed frequencies and at different fixed magnetic fields, respectively. Resonance field (Hr observed to increase linearly with frequency both for SS and SG NPs. The stop-band bandwidth (frequency linewidth is narrower for SG NPs in comparison to SS NPs. Microwave absorption property make this material as a strong candidate for microwave device applications.

  14. Yield point of iron materials in dependence of lattice binding and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, H.; Hildebrand, M. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallformung

    2001-11-01

    Ferritic/perlitic iron materials with {proportional_to}0.35% C and alloying elements of the groups III A/B to VIII of the periodic table (PT) showed that values of the yield point, measured statically by tension tests, do not only depend on the kind of alloying element or its content, but that they also depend on the microstructure (grain size and phase arrangement of the second phase M{sub 3}C) in polycrystals. In the same way that the minimum of lattice binding between two neighbouring atoms (or ions) of the same kind is at half distance between them and corresponds to the equilibrium, we can find the yield point of polycrystals at distinct grain sizes (after thermal treatment) as well. The yield point behaves like the Young modulus, which is an expression of lattice binding. It should be noted that added alloying elements can accelerate the grain growth, but there are also cases where these elements cause hindrance. To raise the yield point the non-equilibrium states on both sides of the determined minimum of yield point should be used, which depends on the grain size (and heat-treatment conditions). This is especially meaningful for the employment of steel sheets in the car industry. (orig.)

  15. Stability and Bifurcation for a Simply Supported Functionally Graded Material Plate with One-to-One Internal Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability and bifurcation behaviors for a model of simply supported functionally graded materials rectangular plate subjected to the transversal and in-plane excitations are studied by means of combination of analytical and numerical methods. The resonant case considered here is 1 : 1 internal resonances and primary parametric resonance. Two types of degenerated equilibrium points are studied in detail, which are characterized by a double zero and two negative eigenvalues, and a double zero and a pair of pure imaginary eigenvalues. For each case, the stability regions of the initial equilibrium solution and the critical bifurcation curves are obtained in terms of the system parameters which may lead to Hopf bifurcation and 2D torus. With both analytical and numerical methods, bifurcation behaviors on damping parameters and detuning parameters are studied, respectively. A time integration scheme is used to find the numerical solutions for these bifurcation cases, and numerical results agree with the analytic predictions.

  16. APPLICATION OF SECONDARY MATERIALS AT PRODUCTION OF DETAILS FROM CHROME CAST IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The groups of alloy steel scrap. suitable for wear-resistant synthetic chromium and iron grades ich18VN ich18VM are studied and defined. Found that the number of alloyed steel scrap in the charge for these irons can be more than 85%, and the price of the charge decreases from 30 to 45%.

  17. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: density functional theory plus U approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T(c)) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T(c) of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE(HL) and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T(c) by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T(c) of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T(c) of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  18. Deposition and disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on naturally occurring photoactive materials in a parallel plate chamber†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alicia A.; Chowdhury, Indranil; Gong, Amy S.; Cwiertny, David M.; Walker, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in combination with iron oxides has been shown to facilitate photochemical disinfection through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UV and visible light. However, due to the extremely short lifetime of these radicals, the disinfection effciency is limited by the successful transport of ROS to bacterial surfaces. This study was designed to quantitatively investigate three collector surfaces with various potentials to produce ROS [bare quartz, hematite (α-Fe2O3) coated quartz, and Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA)] and the effects of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) (full or partial coating) and solution chemistry (ionic strength, IS) on the interactions between bacteria and the ROS-producing substrates. With few exceptions, bacterial deposition studies in a parallel plate (PP) flow chamber have revealed increasing cell adhesion with IS. Furthermore, interactions between collector surfaces and cells can be explained by electrostatic forces, with negatively charged SRHA reducing and positively charged α-Fe2O3 enhancing bacterial deposition significantly. Increased deposition was also observed with full EPS content, indicating the ability of EPS to facilitate interaction between cells and surfaces in the aquatic environment. In complementary disinfection studies conducted with simulated light, viability loss was observed for cells fully coated with EPS when attached to α-Fe2O3 under all IS conditions. Based upon our prior study in which EPS was found to not inhibit hydroxyl radical activity toward bacteria, we proposed that EPS might therefore promote disinfection by facilitating cell attachment to ROS-producing surfaces where higher concentrations of ROS are expected at closer proximities to reactive substrates (e.g., SRHA and α-Fe2O3). Our findings on the mechanism and controlling factors of cell interactions with photoactive substrates provide insight as to the role of ionic strength in photochemical disinfection

  19. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  20. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-12-15

    A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Xingchao; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Chunliang; Liu, Hulin; Chen, Ping; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Tian, Liping; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui

    2016-12-01

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  2. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.

  3. 纳米材料绿色制版技术的版材研究%Research on the Printing Plate of Green Plate Making Technology Based on Nano-Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海华; 刘云霞; 宋延林

    2012-01-01

    Plate making is one of the key technologies in printing industry. So far there are mainly two technologies for plate making include laser phototypesetting technology and computer to plate technology. These technologies are based on photosensitive imaging principle, and need chemical treatment processes such as development, fixing etc. Green plate making technology based on nano-materials has many advantages such as pollution free and low cost, as it abandons the i- dea of sensitization imaging. The special nano and micro-structure of the plate will greatly influence the quality of printing products. In this paper, the research on the print plate is briefly introduced. Through optimizing the preparation process of the printing plate, the resolution and printability are greatly improved.%制版技术是印刷产业的关键技术之一。目前的印刷制版技术主要有激光照排制版技术和计算机直接制版技术。这两项制版技术是基于感光成像原理,需要显影、冲洗等化学处理过程。基于纳米材料的绿色制版技术无需感光成像,省略了显影、冲洗等化学处理过程,是一项环境友好、低成本的制版技术。其中,版材的纳微米结构对印刷质量有重要影响。简要介绍具有纳微米结构的版材的制备过程,通过优化版基制备条件,可以有效提高印版的分辨率和印刷适应性。

  4. Progress in development of coated indexable cemented carbide inserts for machining of iron based work piece materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czettl, C.; Pohler, M.

    2016-03-01

    Increasing demands on material properties of iron based work piece materials, e.g. for the turbine industry, complicate the machining process and reduce the lifetime of the cutting tools. Therefore, improved tool solutions, adapted to the requirements of the desired application have to be developed. Especially, the interplay of macro- and micro geometry, substrate material, coating and post treatment processes is crucial for the durability of modern high performance tool solutions. Improved and novel analytical methods allow a detailed understanding of material properties responsible for the wear behaviour of the tools. Those support the knowledge based development of tailored cutting materials for selected applications. One important factor for such a solution is the proper choice of coating material, which can be synthesized by physical or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Within this work an overview of state-of-the-art coated carbide grades is presented and application examples are shown to demonstrate their high efficiency. Machining processes for a material range from cast iron, low carbon steels to high alloyed steels are covered.

  5. Hydrothermal titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit: temporal constraints on iron mineralization, and its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Li, Jian-Wei; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Uranium-lead isotopes and trace elements of titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit (Daye district, Eastern China), located along the contact zones between Triassic marine carbonates and an early Cretaceous intrusive complex consisting of granite and quartz diorite, were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to provide temporal constraints on iron mineralization and to evaluate its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb geochronology. Titanite grains from mineralized endoskarn have simple growth zoning patterns, exhibit intergrowth with magnetite, diopside, K-feldspar, albite and actinolite, and typically contain abundant primary two-phase fluid inclusions. These paragenetic and textural features suggest that these titanite grains are of hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal titanite is distinct from the magmatic variety from the ore-related granitic intrusion in that it contains unusually high concentrations of U (up to 2995 ppm), low levels of Th (12.5-453 ppm), and virtually no common Pb. The REE concentrations are much lower, as are the Th/U and Lu/Hf ratios. The hydrothermal titanite grains yield reproducible uncorrected U-Pb ages ranging from 129.7 ± 0.7 to 132.1 ± 2.7 Ma (2σ), with a weighted mean of 131.2 ± 0.2 Ma [mean standard weighted deviation (MSWD) = 1.7] that is interpreted as the timing of iron skarn mineralization. This age closely corresponds to the zircon U-Pb age of 130.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.7) determined for the quartz diorite, and the U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite (130.1 ± 1.0 Ma and 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma) in the granite, confirming a close temporal and likely genetic relationship between granitic magmatism and iron mineralization. Different hydrothermal titanite grains have virtually identical uncorrected U-Pb ratios suggestive of negligible common Pb in the mineral. The homogeneous textures and U-Pb characteristics of Chengchao hydrothermal titanite suggest that the mineral might be a

  6. Characteristics of iron corrosion scales and water quality variations in drinking water distribution systems of different pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manjie; Liu, Zhaowei; Chen, Yongcan; Hai, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze micromorphology and chemical composition of corrosion scales. In bench testing, water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, color, Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+), were determined. Scale analysis and bench-scale testing results demonstrated a significant effect of pipe materials on scale characteristics and thereby water quality variations in WDS. Characteristics of corrosion scales sampled from different pipe segments show obvious differences, both in physical and chemical aspects. Corrosion scales were found highly amorphous. Thanks to the protection of zinc coatings, GIP system was identified as the best water quality stability, in spite of high zinc release potential. It is deduced that the complicated composition of corrosion scales and structural break by the weld result in the diminished water quality stability in HP system. Measurement results showed that iron is released mainly in ferric particulate form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  8. Plate/shell structure topology optimization of orthotropic material for buckling problem based on independent continuous topological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the buckling problem with plate/shell topology optimization of orthotropic material. A model of buckling topology optimization is established based on the independent, continuous, and mapping method, which considers structural mass as objective and buckling critical loads as constraints. Firstly, composite exponential function (CEF) and power function (PF) as filter functions are introduced to recognize the element mass, the element stiffness matrix, and the element geometric stiffness matrix. The filter functions of the orthotropic material stiffness are deduced. Then these filter functions are put into buckling topology optimization of a differential equation to analyze the design sensitivity. Furthermore, the buckling constraints are approximately expressed as explicit functions with respect to the design variables based on the first-order Taylor expansion. The objective function is standardized based on the second-order Taylor expansion. Therefore, the optimization model is translated into a quadratic program. Finally, the dual sequence quadratic programming (DSQP) algorithm and the global convergence method of moving asymptotes algorithm with two different filter functions (CEF and PF) are applied to solve the optimal model. Three numerical results show that DSQP&CEF has the best performance in the view of structural mass and discretion.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance for the quantification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel F Gamarra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lionel F Gamarra1,2, Antonio J daCosta-Filho3, Javier B Mamani1, Rita de Cassia Ruiz4, Lorena F Pavon1, Tatiana T Sibov1, Ernanni D Vieira3, André C Silva1, Walter M Pontuschka5, Edson Amaro Jr1,21Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, IIEPAE, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Instituto de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil; 4Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present work is the presentation of a quantification methodology for the control of the amount of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs administered in biological materials by means of the ferromagnetic resonance technique (FMR applied to studies both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study consisted in the analysis of the elimination and biodistribution kinetics of SPIONs after intravenous administration in Wistar rats. The results were corroborated by X-ray fluorescence. For the in vitro study, a quantitative analysis of the concentration of SPIONs bound to the specific AC133 monoclonal antibodies was carried out in order to detect the expression of the antigenic epitopes (CD133 in stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. In both studies FMR has proven to be an efficient technique for the SPIONs quantification per volume unit (in vivo or per labeled cell (in vitro.Keywords: quantification, FMR, ferrofluid, biodistribution, nanoparticles

  10. Photon albedo for water, concrete, and iron at normal incidence, and dependence on the thickness of reflecting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total number and angular albedo were calculated for commonly used shielding materials, water, concrete, and iron, for photons with initial energies from 10 keV up to 10 MeV and normal incident angle. Influence of material thickness on total number albedo was also investigated. Double differential albedo was determined from simulation of photon transport through materials by using PENELOPE and MCNP software. Backscattered photons were scored and grouped in equal intervals of energy and angle. Analytical expressions for angular and total number albedo as a function of initial energy were obtained. It was shown that angular albedo can be determined with the same formula for three examined materials. Corresponding analytical expressions for number albedo as a function of material thickness were presented in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171021

  11. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  12. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  13. Iron-sulfides, iron-oxides and aqueous processing of organic materials in CM and CI meteorites and IDPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, F. J.

    Why do CM meteorites have such a rich variety of organics? D/H isotope ratios prove an interstellar component of the organic matter in CM and CI carbonaceous meteorites wherein the complex ``organics'' could in part be due to Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) processes and processing of organic precursors on Fe-sulfide, Fe-oxide or clay catalysts. ``Origin of Life'' scenarios refer to the richly varied organics in CM (Murchison) meteorites as the precursor materials delivered to the Earth 4.2-3.9 Gyrs ago. Aggregate interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have more carbon, incl. an interstellar component, than CI and CM meteorites but their original ``organics'' and amounts are modified by pyrolysis during atmospheric entry. Here, I will assume that anhydrous aggregate IDPs formed the originally anhydrous CI and CM matrix. These IDPs contain submicron CHON, mixed and `silicate' principal components (PCs), e.g. Fe-rich serpentine dehydroxylate, (Mg,Fe)3Si2O7, PCs [Fe/(Mg+Fe)(fe) = 0.3-0.8], and micron-size Fe-sulfides, olivine and pyroxenes. In a Mg-Fe-Si diagram with an Fe-apex, these PC compositions plot on a serpentine, (Mg,Fe)/Si line. The hydrated CI matrix compositions also define a straight line that, anchored at serpentine, fe = 0.3, is rotated towards higher (Mg,Fe)/Si ratios with increasing serpentine fe-ratio when during hydration of an initially ``serpentine dehydroxylate PC'' CI matrix reacted with Fe-sulfide, Fe-oxide, or both. The straight line defining hydrated CM matrix compositions is rotated even more towards higher (Mg,Fe)/Si ratios when hydrated CI-like material continued reacting with Fe-oxide and Fe-sulfide and formed tochilinite, a mineral unique to CM meteorites. Continuous hydration of IDP-like material with an ample supply of Fe-minerals acting as catalysts for formation and processing ``organics'' would have affected the redox conditions of a buffered C-H-O-S aqueous fluid during the time ``organics' were modified to the unique mélanges of CM

  14. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloy plate and sheet materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications, FY 1983/1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to fabricate and evaluate PM 2124 Al alloy plate and sheet materials according to NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Previous research has indicated the outstanding strength-toughness relationship available with PM 2124 Al-Zr modified alloy compositions in extruded product forms. The range of processing conditions was explored in the fabrication of plate and sheet gage materials, as well as the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties. The PM composition based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.60 wt. pct. Zr was selected. Flat rolled material consisting of 0.250 in. thick plate was fabricated using selected thermal mechanical treatments (TMT). The schedule of TMT operations was designed to yield the extreme conditions of grain structure normally encountered in the fabrication of flat rolled products, specifically recrystallized and unrecrystallized. The PM Al alloy plate and sheet materials exhibited improved strength properties at thin gages compared to IM Al alloys, as a consequence of their enhanced ability to inhibit recrystallization and grain growth. In addition, the PM 2124 Al alloys offer much better combinations of strength and toughnessover equivalent IM Al. The alloy microstructures were examined by optical metallographic texture techniques in order to establish the metallurgical basis for these significant property improvements.

  15. A self-tunable Titanium Sapphire laser by rotating a set of parallel plates of active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, Ignacio; Azkargorta, Jon; Fernandez, Joaquín; Balda, Rolindes; Del Río Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Illarramendi, M Asunción; Aramburu, Ibon

    2009-03-02

    In a recent work, the authors reported the experimental demonstration of wavelength tuning in a single birefringent plate of Ti:sapphire crystal based on its own birefringence properties. In that device, the thickness of the active plate, limited by the width of the single order tuning spectral region, imposed a strong constraint in the power performance of the laser. The aim of this work is to overcome this limitation by using a set of several identical birefringent plates so that the wavelength tuning of the laser is obtained by synchronously rotating the plates in their own plane. A discussion about the laser performance is presented.

  16. Structures and Properties of Nanometer Size Materials Ⅲ. Structures and Physical Properties of Iron Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小华; 马美华

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been carded out to study the structure and physical properties of iron nanoparticles with 331 to 2133 Fe atoms or with diameter from 2.3 to 4.3 nm. The core of liquid nanodroplets has the similar structure of the bulk molten iron liquid that has an average coordination number around 10.5 and the packing density around 0.45, although the closest Fe-Fe distance is slightly longer in the bulk liquid. Most of the iron nanoparticles formed from the cooling of molten nanodroplets have the same body center cubic crystal structure as it was observed in the bulk under the normal temperature and pressure. Lattice contraction was observed for iron nanoparticles. An amorphous solid and an HCP like solid were obtained accidentally during the quenching runs on Fe331 nanoparticles. The physical properties of iron nanoparticles such as molar volume, density, thermal expansion coefficient, melting point, heat of fusion, heat capacity and diffusion coefficient were estimated based on the results obtained from this simulation. The dependence of physical properties on the nanoparticle sizes was addressed.

  17. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asedegbega-Nieto, Esther; Pérez-Cadenas, María; Carter, Jonathan; Anderson, James A; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio

    2011-04-20

    Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT) and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT). All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized) underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS), iron(III) phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4"-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  18. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT. All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS, iron(III phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4""-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  19. Characterizing cosmochemical materials with genetic affinities to the Earth: Genetic and chronological diversity within the IAB iron meteorite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    The IAB iron meteorite complex consists of a main group (MG) and five chemical subgroups (sLL, sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH). Here, mass-independent Mo and radiogenic 182W isotope compositions are reported for IAB complex meteorites to evaluate the genetics and chronology, respectively, of the MG and subgroups. Osmium isotopes are used to correct for cosmic ray exposure effects on isotopes of Mo and W. The MG and three subgroups (i.e., sLL, sLM, and sLH), characterized by low Au abundances, have the same Mo isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainty, consistent with a common genetic origin. These meteorites, together with winonaites, are the only cosmochemical materials yet identified with Mo isotopic compositions that are identical to Earth. The Mo isotopic compositions of two subgroups characterized by higher Au abundances (sHL and sHH) are identical to one another within uncertainty, but differ from the low Au subgroups, indicating derivation from genetically distinct materials. The MG has a 182W, post calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) formation model age of 3.4 ± 0.7 Ma. One of the low Au subgroups (sLM) is ∼1.7 Ma younger, whereas the high Au subgroups are ∼1.5-3 Ma older. The new Mo-W data, coupled with chemical data, indicate that the MG and the low Au subgroups formed in different impact-generated melts, some of which evidently formed on a chemically disparate, but genetically identical parent body. The high Au subgroups likely formed via core-formation processes on separate, internally-heated parent bodies from other IAB subgroups. The IAB complex meteorites fall on a linear trend defined by 94Mo/96Mo vs. 95Mo/96Mo, along with most other iron meteorite groups. Variation along this line was caused by mixing between at least two nebular components. One component was likely a pure s-process enriched nucleosynthetic carrier, and the other a homogenized nebular component. Sombrerete, currently classified as an sHL iron, has a Mo isotopic composition that

  20. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  1. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  2. Numerical Study of Solidification in a Plate Heat Exchange Device with a Zigzag Configuration Containing Multiple Phase-Change-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilun Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES plays an important role in the advocation of TES in contrast to sensible energy storage because of the large storage energy densities per unit mass/volume possible at a nearly constant thermal energy. In the current study, a heat exchange device with a zigzag configuration containing multiple phase-change-materials (m-PCMs was considered, and an experimental system was built to validate the model for a single PCM. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed using the ANSYS Fluent 14.0 software program. The energy fractions method was put forward to calculate the average Ste number and the influence of Re and Ste numbers on the discharge process were studied. The influence of phase change temperature among m-PCMs on the solidification process has also been studied. A new boundary condition was defined to determine the combined effect of the Re and Ste numbers on the discharging process. The modelling results show that for a given input power, the Ste (or Re number has a significant impact on the discharging process; however, the period value of inlet velocity has almost no impact on it. Besides, the zigzag plate with m-PCMs has a good impact on the temperature shock as “filter action” in the discharging process.

  3. Nonlinear oscillations of laminated plates using an accurate four-node rectangular shear flexible material finite element

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gajbir Singh; G Venkateswara Rao

    2000-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the large amplitude vibratory behaviour of unsymmetrically laminated plates. For this purpose, an efficient and accurate four-node shear flexible rectangular material finite element(MFE) with six degrees offreedom per node (three displacements $(u;v;w)$ along the $x, y$ and axes, two rotations ($\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$) about and axes and twist $(\\theta_{xy})$) is developed. The element assumes bi-cubic polynomial distribution with sixteen generalized undetermined coefficients for the transverse displacement. The fields for section rotations $\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$, and in-plane displacements and are derived using moment-shear equilibrium and in-plane equilibrium equations of composite strips along the - and -axes. The displacement field so derived not only depends on the element coordinates but is a function of extensional, bending-extensional coupling, bending and transverse shear stiffness as well. The element stiffness and mass matrices are computed numerically by employing 3 × 3 Gauss-Legendre product rules. The element is found to be free of shear locking and does not exhibit any spurious modes. In orderto compute the nonlinearfrequencies, linear mode shape corresponding to the fundamental frequency is assumed as the spatial distribution and nonlinear finite element equations are reduced to a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. This equation is solved by employing the direct numerical integration method. A series of numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed element.

  4. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions.

  5. Magnetic control of electrochemical processes at electrode surface using iron-rich graphene materials with dual functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Metal-doped graphene hybrid materials demonstrate promising capabilities in catalysis and various sensing applications. There also exists great interest for on-demand control of the selectivity of many electrochemical processes. In this work, an iron-doped thermally reduced graphene oxide (Fe-TRGO) was prepared and used to investigate the possibility of a reproducible, magnetically controlled method to modulate electrochemical reactivities through a scalable method. We made use of the presence of both magnetic and electrocatalytic properties in the Fe-TRGOs to induce attraction and removal of the Fe-TRGO material onto and off the working electrode surfaces magnetically, thereby controlling the electrochemical oxidation and reduction processes. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the Fe-TRGO material was evident, with enhanced current signals and lower peak potentials observed upon magnetic activation. Reversible and reproducible cycles of activation and deactivation were obtained as the peak heights and peak potentials remained relatively consistent with no apparent carryover between every step. Both components of Fe-TRGO play an electrocatalytic role in the electrochemical sensing. In the cases of the oxygen reduction reaction and reduction of cumene hydroperoxide, the iron oxide plays the role of an electrocatalyst, while in the cases of ascorbic acid, the enhanced electroactivity originates from the high surface area of the graphene portion in the Fe-TRGO hybrid material. The feasibility of this magnetically switchable method for on-demand sensing and energy production thus brings about potential developments for future electrochemical applications.

  6. Thin Wall Austempered Ductile Iron (TWADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of thin walled castings made of ductile iron is considered. It is shown that thin wall austempered ductile iron can be obtained by means of short-term heat treatment of thin wall castings without addition of alloying elements. Metallographic examinations of 2 mm thin walled castings along with casting with thicker wall thickness (20x28 mm after different austempring conditions are presented. It has been proved that short-term heat treatment amounted 20 minutes of austenitizing at 880 oC followed by holding at 400 oC for 5 minutes causes ausferrite matrix in 2 mm wall thickness castings, while casting with thicker wall thickness remain untransformed and martensite is still present in a matrix. Finally there are shown that thin wall ductile iron is an excellent base material for austempering heat treatments. As a result high mechanical properties received in thin wall plates made of austempered ductile iron.

  7. Innovative neutron shielding materials composed of natural rubber-styrene butadiene rubber blends, boron oxide and iron(III) oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpee, C.; Wongsawaeng, D.

    2015-05-01

    Optimized flexible and lightweight neutron shielding materials were designed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. Thicknesses of 10 mm and 100 mm were tested for neutron shielding performances. Simulation results indicated that the 10 mm shielding material of natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blend (1:1) with 60 part per hundred rubber (phr) boron oxide (B2O3) and 100 mm shielding material with four alternating layers of NR with 100 phr iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) and of NR and SBR blend (1:1) with 10 phr B2O3 were most suitable for thermal neutron shielding and all-energy neutron shielding, respectively. Experimental results verified the shielding efficiency of these optimal designs and ease of fabrication.

  8. Material Characterization of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by a Sustainable Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Selecting a suitable manufacturing process is one way of achieving sustainability of a product by diminishing energy consumption during its production cycle and improving material efficiency. The article attempts to explore the new processing technology for direct manufacturing of lightweight austempered ductile iron (ADI) casting in a permanent mold. The new processing technology is based on the innovative integrated approach toward casting and heat-treatment process. In this technology, the ductile iron samples obtained using the permanent mold are first austenized immediately after solidification process followed by austempering heat treatment in the fluidized bed and then air cooled at room temperature to obtain ADI material. The influence of austempering time on the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and strain-hardening behavior of ADI was studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructural characteristics. It was observed that the mechanical properties of resulting ADI samples were influenced by the microstructural transformations and varied retained austenite volume fractions obtained due to different austempering time. The results indicate that the strain-hardening behavior of the ADI material is influenced by the carbon content of retained austenite.

  9. Iron Disilicide as High-Temperature Reference Material for Traceable Measurements of Seebeck Coefficient Between 300 K and 800 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard

    2016-09-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide (β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.

  10. Iron Disilicide as High-Temperature Reference Material for Traceable Measurements of Seebeck Coefficient Between 300 K and 800 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide ( β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.

  11. Properties of magnetic iron oxides used as materials for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, E; Predescu, A; Predescu, A [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Science and Engineering Materials, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E, E-mail: ecaterina.matei@ecomet.pub.ro [METAV CD, 31 C.A. Rosetti Street, 020011, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-06

    The paper describes the properties of some nanopowders obtained by coprecipitation and used as adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders were obtained using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents. D-sorbitol was used to prevent the agglomeration between the nanoparticles. The particle size and distribution were detected using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with dispersive analyze system in X radiation energy (EDS). The structure of the iron oxide nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Thus, the nanoparticles were characterized and compare in terms of particle size and chemical composition and used for adsorption studies in order to removal hexavalent chromium from waste waters.

  12. A study of cytocompatibility and degradation of iron-based biodegradable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Giretová, Mária; Medvecký, L'ubomír; Kupková, Miriam; Hrubovčáková, Monika; Maskal'ová, Iveta; Macko, Ján; Kal'avský, František

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable metallic implants are of significant importance in the replacement of bones or the repair of bone defects. Iron-phosphate-coated carbonyl iron powder (Fe/P) was prepared by the phosphating method. Moreover, Fe/P-Mn alloy was produced by sintering the Fe/P powder mixed with manganese powder. Bare carbonyl iron samples and the Fe/P and Fe/P-Mn sintered samples were evaluated for their microstructure, cytotoxicity, and hemocompatibility. The microstructure of the sintered samples was examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopic analysis. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization in Hank's solution. The in vitro biocompatibilities were investigated by cytotoxicity and hemolysis tests. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition of Mn resulted in higher surface inhomogeneity, porosity and roughness as well as in increased cytotoxicity. The phosphate coating has a moderately negative effect on the cytotoxicity. The corrosion rates determined from Tafel diagrams were ordered in the following sequence: Fe/P-Mn, Fe, Fe/P from high to low. The hemocompatibility of experimental samples was ordered in the following sequence: Fe/P, Fe/P-Mn, Fe from high to low. All samples were found to be hemocompatible.

  13. Impacts of Iron Core Materials of Measuring Current Transformers on Residual Magnetism%测量用电流互感器铁芯材料对剩磁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于泳; 汪良坤; 连涛; 樊世伟

    2013-01-01

      Aiming at residual magnetism problem, this paper analyzed the residual magnetism and its influence caused by transformers. Dif-ferent materials (silicon steel plate, permalloy, super micro crystal alloy) were taken to make iron core for simulation moulding in EMTP-ATP software, so as to get current waveform diagram. Current waveform at secondary side was guided into RMS module in Simulation of Matlab to carry out calculation and to make comparison of difference for the three materials. Simulation results show that permalloy is the minimum in error and silicon steel plate is the maximum in error.%  针对剩磁问题分析了电流互感器产生剩磁的原因和剩磁所造成的影响,分别采用不同材料(硅钢片、坡莫合金、超微晶合金)做铁芯在EMTP-ATP中建模仿真,得出电流波形图。将有无剩磁情况下的二次侧电流波形分别导入MATLAB/SIMULINK软件的RMS模块进行计算,比较三种材料的相差和比差。仿真结果表明,坡莫合金误差最小,硅钢片误差最大。

  14. 铁基超导体材料和物理研究%Iron-Based Superconducting Materials and Pairing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻海虎

    2015-01-01

    自2008年初在铁砷/铁卤(FeAs/FeSe)基材料中发现高温超导电性以来,已经有至少7种结构类型的材料被合成出来了。其中在“1111”体系中,电阻和磁化测量得到的超导转变温度可达56 K,而且有迹象表明超导转变温度有可能会继续升高。在铁基超导体的正常态,有很多非常规电子特性,如反铁磁性和四方-正交结构相变等也被观察到。铁基超导体是典型的多带超导体,具有较长的相干长度、近三维的电子特性、很高的上临界磁场及不可逆磁场和很强的磁通钉扎能力等物理性质,因此它们在强磁场方面有很好的应用前景。简单综述了铁基超导材料的结构类型,针对几种主要结构类型的性质进行了描述,对电子配对的机理问题作了比较详尽的阐述,结合临界电流和临界磁场行为,展望了铁基超导体的应用前景。%Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictide /chalcogenide materials,at least seven related structural types have been fabricated.In the 1 1 1 1 system,the highest superconducting transition tem-perature (Tc )measured by resistivity and magnetization can reach 56 K.There are some hints that the Tc can be in-creased to higher values.The iron-based superconductors have multiband feature.Many unconventional electronic proper-ties in the normal state of iron-based superconductors have been discovered.The iron based superconductors have relative-ly longer coherence length,more three dimensional electronic property,higher upper critical field and irreversibility field, very strong flux pinning,therefore they have the great potential for applications for producing high magnetic field.In this short overview,we will give a brief survey about the development of materials and physics of iron-based superconductors. We give detailed descriptions on the properties for several kinds of materials with the major structures

  15. 聚酯材料表面化学镀镍的研究%Research on Electroless Nickel Plating on Surface of Polyester Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建升

    2014-01-01

    研究了聚酯材料表面化学镀镍的实验操作方法、工艺控制条件,讨论了各种因素对镀层质量的影响,确定了聚酯材料表面化学镀镍的工艺流程和最佳实验条件。实验结果表明,聚酯材料经过预处理及敏化、活化处理后,化学镀镍溶液的pH值控制在5.5,镀镍温度在45℃,反应时间25min,可以得到较好的聚酯材料化学镀镍镀层。%The operating methods and condition of electroless nickel plating on surface of the polyester material were studied,influ-ence factors of nickel-plating on the surface of the polyester material were discussed.Then the combination strength between chemi-cal coating and polyester material was tested,the best process and optimum conditons were finally determined. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as followed:pH=5.5,the nickel plating temperature 45℃and the reaction time 10~20min. Under the above conditions,good nickel-plating coating on surface polyester material after pretreatment,sensitization and activation could be gained.

  16. Multi-Instrument Characterization of the Surfaces and Materials in Microfabricated, Carbon Nanotube-Templated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates. An Analogy to ‘The Blind Men and the Elephant’

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Hancock, Jared M.; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael A.; Vanfleet, Richard; Shutthanandan, V.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-08-08

    Herein we apply a suite of surface/materials analytical tools to characterize some of the materials created in the production of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates. Techniques used include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band spectroscopy, static time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in both positive and negative ion modes, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and helium ion microscopy (HIM). Materials characterized include: the Si(100) substrate with native oxide: Si/SiO2, alumina (35 nm) deposited as a diffusion barrier on the Si/SiO2: Si/SiO2/Al2O3, iron (6 nm) thermally evaporated on the Al2O3: Si/SiO2/Al2O3/Fe, the iron film annealed in H2 to make Fe catalyst nanoparticles: Si/SiO2/Al2O3/Fe(NP), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown from the Fe nanoparticles: Si/SiO2/Al2O3/Fe(NP)/CNT. The Fe thin films and nanoparticles are found in an oxidized state. Some of the analyses of the CNTs/CNT forests reported appear to be unique: the CNT forest appears to exhibit an interesting ‘channeling’ phenomenon by RBS, we observe an odd-even effect in the ToF-SIMS spectra of Cn- species for n = 1 – 6, with ions at even n showing greater intensity than the neighboring signals, and ions with n ≥ 6 showing a steady decrease in intensity, and valence band characterization of CNTs using X-radiation is reported. The information obtained from the combination of the different analytical tools provides a more complete understanding of our materials than a single technique, which is analogous to the story of ‘The Blind Men and the Elephant’. (Of course there is increasing emphasis on the use of multiple characterization tools in surface and materials analysis.) The raw XPS and ToF-SIMS spectra from this study will be submitted to Surface Science Spectra for archiving.

  17. Powder metallurgical processing of magnetostrictive materials based on rare earth-iron intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, M.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for fabrication of high density rare earth-iron magnetostrictive compounds by powder metallurgical techniques. The fabrication involves a sequence of steps which includes preparing the pre-alloyed compounds, pulverizing them into a fine powder, compacting in suitable sizes and shapes, and sintering. Samples prepared by these procedures are carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and magnetic measurements. Process steps are found to exert important influences upon densities, microstructure and magnetic properties attained after densification. Investigations on a number of these process steps, including milling time and medium, sintering, and magnetic powder alignment are described.

  18. Application of a New Material for Cleaner Gold Plating in Gold Plating Technology%清洁镀金新材料在镀金工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 胡文成; 马默雷; 张勇强

    2011-01-01

    A new material for cleaner gold plating was introduced. The gold coating was subjected to tests of compactness, solderability, salt spray test, moisture test and thermal shock test, and the testing results all accorded with China National Military Standard and U. S. A. Military Standard. This nonhazardous material can be directly dosed and keep stable performance、 easy maintenance 、low cost of the bath,also can meet governmental regulation of wastewater discharge . So it's a good substitute for KAu(CN)2 in gold plating.%介绍了一种清洁镀金新材料,采用该新材料配制成镀液所得镀金及其合金镀层镀金件在测试的致密性、可焊性、盐雾试验,潮湿及高低温冲击等项目均符合国家军用标准和美国军用标准,镀金液中可直接加入该物质,镀液稳定,易维护,管理成本低、废水可达到国家排放标准,产品不属危险化学品等.完全可替代氰化亚金钾用于镀金及其合金工艺.

  19. UTILIZATION OF BENTONITE AS AN ADSPRPENT MATERIAL IN THE REMOVAL OF IRON (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan M. N.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study an Egyptian Bentonite clay has been used for the adsorption of iron salts from aqueous solutions over a concentration range of 50–100 mg/l, shaking time of 5–120 min, stirring rate from 50-200 r.p.m, adsorbent dosage from 0.1to 0.5 g, pH range(3-7, and temperature range from 25 C to 80 C. The experiments were carried out for the analysis of adsorption equilibrium capacities using a batch equilibrium technique. The process of uptake follows both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and also the second-orderkinetics. The maximum removal of iron (100% was observed with initial concentration of 40 mg/l and 0.5 g of bentonite, speed rate of 200 r.p.m. with 30 min time of contact and temperature of 25C. The paper also discusses the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption (the Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.

  20. MOF-derived iron as an active energy storage material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide iron-air redox batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Huang, Kevin

    2017-09-21

    We here demonstrate that the iron derived from an iron-based metal-organic framework (MOF), with exposed high-density Fe-atom planes, exhibits improved reduction activity, enabling good rechargeability of solid oxide iron-air redox batteries at 500 °C. The discharge mass specific energies are 226.5 W h kg(-1)-Fe and 214.8 W h kg(-1)-Fe at C/4 and C/3, respectively, at a constant Fe-utilization of 20%.

  1. Leading research on supermetals. Part 1. Bulky material (iron system); Supermetal no sendo kenkyu. 1. Ogata sozai (tetsukei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For further improvement of iron system materials, supermetals with ultimate characteristics were researched. Since their strength and toughness have been improved with grain refinement by thermomechanical treatment, improvement of single-phase steel is nearly completed, and the study on ultra-fine multi-phase steel is indispensable. Bulky materials are also restrained from grain refinement because of the capability of existing processing facilities. Making a breakthrough in such restraint requires a challenge to high-speed rolling, repeated shear deformation and ultra-high strain rate process beyond conventional technologies. Further improvement of microstructure and dynamic characteristics requires other energies such as magnetism as well as mechanical energy. {gamma}-{alpha} phase transition important for structure control of steel materials is dependent on magnetism. The study on structure control and characteristics improvement under ferromagnetic field is essential in the future. Material improvement such as reduction of impurities and circulating elements, environmental measures, and mechanical alloying remain as issues to be studied. 224 refs., 176 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Effects of different iron sources on the performance of LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Olivine LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials were synthesized by a solid state method in N2 + 5vo1% H2 atmosphere.The effects of different iron sources,including Fe(OH)3 and FeC2O4·2H2O,on the performance of as-synthesized cathode materials were investigated and the causes were also analyzed.The crystal structure,the morphology,and the electrochemical performance of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),laser particle-size distribution measurement,and other electrochemical techniques.The results demonstrate that the LiFePO4/C materials obtained from Fe(OH)3 at 800℃ and FeCeO4·2H2O at 700℃ have the similar electrochemical performances.The initial discharge capacities of LiFePO4/C synthesized from Fe(OH)3 and FeC2O4·2H2O are 134.5 mAh·g-1 and 137.4 mAh.g-1 at the C/5 rate,respectively.However,the tap density of the LiFePO4/C materials obtained from Fe(OH)3 are higher,which is significant for the improvement of the capacity of the battery.

  3. Iron porphyrin-modified PVDF membrane as a biomimetic material and its effectiveness on nitric oxide binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Faruk; Demirci, Osman Cahit; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Erhan, Elif; Arslan, Leyla Colakerol; Ergenekon, Pınar

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas well-known as an air pollutant causing severe environmental problems. NO is also an important signaling molecule having a strong affinity towards heme proteins in the body. Taking this specialty as a model, a biomimetic membrane was developed by modification of the membrane surface with iron-porphyrin which depicts very similar structure to heme proteins. In this study, PVDF membrane was coated with synthesized (4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphyrin iron(III) chloride (FeCTPP) to promote NO fixation on the surface. The coated membrane was characterized in terms of ATR-IR spectra, contact angle measurement, chemical composition, and morphological structure. Contact angle of original PVDF first decreased sharply after plasma treatment and surface polymerization steps but after incorporation of FeCTPP, the surface acquired its hydrophobicity again. NO binding capability of modified membrane surface was evaluated on the basis of X-ray Photoelectron. Upon exposure to NO gas, a chemical shift of Fe+3 and appearance of new N peak was observed due to the electron transfer from NO ligand to Fe ion with the attachment of nitrosyl group to FeCTPP. This modification brings the functionality to the membrane for being used in biological systems such as membrane bioreactor material in biological NO removal technology.

  4. Study on Properties of Cast Iron Materials for Machine Tool%机床用铸铁材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符特

    2013-01-01

    综述了机床用铸铁(灰铸铁、球墨铸铁和蠕墨铸铁)材料的性能.分析了化学成分,力学佳能,应用领域和失效方式,并且介绍了提高其耐磨性的机理研究和工艺方法等方面取得的进展.这能为机床选材和制造提供依据.%The properties of cast iron, such as gray cast iron, vermicular cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron for machine tool, were reviewed. The chemical composition, mechanical property, application and failure mode were analyzed. And the recent progress of the mechanism research and process method about improving its wear resistance was introduced. This can provide the basis for choosing materials and manufacturing of machine tool.

  5. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C.

  6. Hybridized reactive iron-containing nano-materials for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.

    for interaction with the aqueous pollutant. This study employed a synthetic organo-functionalized magnesium-based aminoclay (MgAC) for this exact purpose. By varying the ratio of MgAC to nZVI and monitoring the change in physical characteristics and reactivity, a composite material was formed that improved...... as extremely efficient carriers of nZVI for maintaining colloidal stability. In one case, the COP used (COP-19) increased the colloidal stability of nZVI by two orders of magnitude. Building on the application of these composite materials, investigating how best to handle the synthesized materials can prolong...... more difficult to analyze compounds in real-world sources. Ultimately, the primary goal of this PhD study was to develop a robust nanocomposite material containing nZVI for water treatment systems. Taking the lessons learned from initial composite work using MgAC and COPs, the final material combined...

  7. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qunting; Feng, Xinliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Yang, Shubin [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rate at RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g{sup -1}), high energy density (85 Wh kg{sup -1}), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L{sup -1} LiOH solution. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. The Hydrothermal System at Home Plate in Gusev Crater, Mars: Formation of High Silica Material by Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Yen, A.; Clark, B. C.; Gnaff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit measured three targets on or adjacent to Home Plate in Gusev Crater that have unusually high SiO2 concentrations (68% to 91%), unusually low FeO concentrations (1% to 7%, with total Fe as FeO), and unusually high TiO2/FeO ratios (0.2 to 1.2 by weight) [1]. Two targets (Kenosha Comets and Lefty Ganote) are located on high albedo soil (Gertrude Weise) that was exposed by the rover wheels, and one target is a float rock called Fuzzy Smith. Kenosha Comets has the highest SiO2 concentration, lowest FeO concentration, and highest TiO2/FeO ratio. Mineralogical evidence from the MER Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) suggests that the SiO2 is present as amorphous (noncrystalline) SiO2 at Gertrude Weise and nearby targets [2,3]. Mini-TES data were not acquired for Fuzzy Smith. Home Plate is considered to have an explosive volcanic origin, resulting when basaltic magma came into contact with ground water or ice [4]. Within 50 m to 1 km of Home Plate are sulfate rich soil deposits (Paso Robles class soils with 22-35% SO3) which are considered to be probable fumarolic and/or hydrothermal deposits associated with the volcanism [5]. We develop the model here, suggested by [5], that the high-silica materials are another manifestation of acid-sulfate processes associated with fumarolic and hydrothermal activity at Home Plate. This is done by analogy with basaltic materials altered by acid sulfate processes on the Island of Hawaii.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Iron-bearing Minerals and Other Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other material

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Density functional theory study of phase stability and defect thermodynamics in iron-oxyhydroxide mineral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Nathan Douglas

    Due to their high surface area and reactivity toward a variety of heavy metal and oxyanion species of environmental concern, Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials play an important role in the geochemical fate of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in soils, aquifers and surface water environments worldwide. In this research, ab initio simulations describe the bulk structure, magnetic properties, and relative phase stability of major Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials, including hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite.These bulk models are employed in further studies of point defect and alloy/dopant thermodynamics in these materials, allowing construction of a phase stability model that better replicates the structure and composition of real materials. Li + adsorption at the predominant goethite (101) surface is simulated using ab initio methods, offering energetic and structural insight into the binding mechanisms of metal cations over a range of surface protonation conditions.

  15. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  16. Development of a portable PEM fuel cell system with bipolar plates consisting an electronically conductive thermoplastic Compound material; Entwicklung eines portablen PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems mit Bipolarplatten aus einem elektronisch leitfaehigen thermoplastischen Compound-Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemzig, O.C.

    2005-07-18

    In order to meet the cost targets of PEM fuel cells for commercialization significant cost reductions of cell stack components like membrane/electrode assemblies and bipolar plates have become key aspects of research and development. Central topics of his work are the bipolar plates and humidification for portable applications. Best results concerning conductivity of an extensive screening of a variety of carbon polymer compounds with polypropylene as matrix could be achieved with the carbon black/graphite/polypropylene-base system. Successful tests of this material in a fuel cell stack could be performed as well as the proof of suitability concerning material- and manufacturing costs. Dependent on application a decrease of material cost to 2 Euro/kg to 1,8 Euro/kW seems to be possible. Finally bipolar plates consisting of a selected carbon polymer compound were successfully integrated and tested in a 20-cell stack which was implemented in a portable PEFC-demonstrator unit with a power output between 50 and 150 W. (orig.)

  17. A Study of Teacher Opinions and Evaluations Concerning Selected Free Printed Materials Provided by the American Iron and Steel Institute to Individuals Throughout the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, Charles R.; And Others

    The focus of this study was teacher assessment of several factors relating to selected materials provided by the American Iron and Steel Institute. The design and rationale, instrumentation, methodology, and questionnaire mailing are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter II reviews the related literature, including the historic nature of free and…

  18. Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Behavior of a Zigzag Plate Containing a Phase Change Material for Combustion Heat Recovery and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a numerical analysis of the melting process of phase change materials (PCMs within a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES system employing zigzag plate. The numerical model used NaCl-MgCl2 mixture as PCMs and hot air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. An experimental system was built to validate the model, and the experimental data agrees reasonably well with the simulation results. The simulation results revealed the effects of the Reynolds and Stefan numbers and the surface topography of the zigzag plate on the charging process. Besides, the effect of the relationship between Reynolds and Stefan numbers on the charging process under a new boundary condition employing a fixed input power was studied. It is found that by modifying the shape of the zigzag plate surface it is feasible to enhance the heat transfer of the LHTES unit remarkably. The melting rate of PCMs increases with the value of Ste or Re numbers with only one of them changing; however, the melting rate of PCMs decreases with the increasing Ste (or decreasing Re in a fixed input power condition.

  19. Removal of Iron Impurity in Acidic Zinc Plating Bath Using Potassium Hexacyanoferrate%采用铁氰化钾去除酸性镀锌液中的铁杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 李建强

    2011-01-01

    A method for treatment of ferrous ions in the acidic zinc plating bath with the use of potassium hexacyanoferrate was tested. Potassium hexacyanoferrate solution was added to the acidic zinc plating solution. Fe2 + ions in the solution reacted with K3 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] forming K4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] and Fe3+ ions. The K4 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] reacted with Zn2+ ions to produce Zn2 [ Fe(CN) 6 ] precipitates. The Fe3+ ions hydrolysed forming Fe ( OH ) 3 precipitates. The excessive K3 [Fe ( CN ) 6 ] reacted with Zn2 + inos and forming Zn3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] precipitates. Experiments indicate that the utilization ratio of K3 [Fe (CN) 6 ] ranging from 65.9% to 87.6% when treating iron impurities in the acidic zinc plating bath with this method.%采用铁氰化钾处理酸性镀锌溶液中二价铁杂质的方法为:向镀液中加铁氰化钾,Fe2+离子与铁氰化钾反应生成亚铁氰化钾和三价铁,亚铁氰化钾与锌离子反应生成亚铁氰化锌沉淀,三价铁水解生成氢氧化铁,过量的铁氰化钾与锌离子生成铁氰化锌.实验表明,用这种方法处理酸性镀锌液中的铁杂质,铁氰化钾的利用率为65.9%~87.6%.

  20. SUBSTITUTED IRON OXIDES FOR THE GRANT ENTITLED LASER PROCESSING OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica Sorescu

    2004-03-01

    Structural and morphological characteristics of (1-x){alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xSnO{sub 2} (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles obtained under hydrothermal conditions have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). On the basis of the Rietveld structure refinements of the XRD spectra at low tin concentrations, it was found that Sn{sup 4+} ions partially substitute for Fe{sup 3+} at the octahedral sites and also occupy the interstitial octahedral sites which are vacant in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} corundum structure. A phase separation of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SnO{sub 2} was observed for x {ge} 0.4: the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure containing tin decreases simultaneously with the increase of the SnO{sub 2} phase containing substitutional iron ions. The mean particle dimension decreases from 70 nm to 6 nm, as the molar fraction x increases up to x = 1.0. The estimated solubility limits in the nanoparticle system (1-x){alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xSnO{sub 2} synthesized under hydrothermal conditions are: x {le} 0.2 for Sn{sup 4+} in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and x {ge} 0.7 for Fe{sup 3+} in SnO{sub 2}. These findings are in press in the Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids.

  1. Hybrid functional calculations of potential hydrogen storage material: Complex dimagnesium iron hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-06-01

    By employing the state of art first principles approaches, comprehensive investigations of a very promising hydrogen storage material, Mg 2FeH6 hydride, is presented. To expose its hydrogen storage capabilities, detailed structural, elastic, electronic, optical and dielectric aspects have been deeply analysed. The electronic band structure calculations demonstrate that Mg2FeH6 is semiconducting material. The obtained results of the optical bandgap (4.19 eV) also indicate that it is a transparent material for ultraviolet light, thus demonstrating its potential for optoelectronics application. The calculated elastic properties reveal that Mg2FeH6 is highly stiff and stable hydride. Finally, the calculated hydrogen (H2) storage capacity (5.47 wt.%) within a reasonable formation energy of -78 kJ mol-1, at room temperature, can be easily achievable, thus making Mg2FeH6 as potential material for practical H2 storage applications. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  3. Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could

  4. Novel Materials & Multi-scale Analysis of the Superconducting State in Iron Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefat, Athena S.

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the fundamental nature of a material's superconducting state is of crucial importance, if superconductors are to fulfill their promise for widespread use in energy-related needs. Our research applies multi-scale characterization techniques to study and probe the nuclear, electronic, and magnetic details of single crystals. The importance of such broad investigative work is demonstrated in our recent publication on praseodymium-doped BaFe2As2 for which non-uniform local distortions through isolated Pr atoms do not provide percolation path superconductivity. For CaFe2As2, it is found that large Fermi-surface reconstruction in the non-magnetic phase causes a non-superconducting ground state, while different crystalline domains with varying lattice parameters are identified. For Cu-doped BaFe2As2 it is found that orthorhombic distortion below Ts leads to magnetically ordered state of FeAs planes, hence no superconductivity. Studies of this nature can yield groundbreaking results by demonstrating that many parameters can compete in a bulk material and even be spatially and electronically non-homogenous on nanometers. This work was primarily supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  5. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 50-1 Takeshita, Hitotugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  6. Cocos Plate Seamounts offshore NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua: Implications for large-scale distribution of Galápagos plume material in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrich, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard; Hauff, Folkmar; Bogaard, Paul v. d.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The origin of intraplate volcanism not directly part of a hotspot track, such as diffuse seamount provinces, and the extent of mantle plume influence on the upper mantle remain enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar age data and geochemical (major and trace-element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic) data from seamounts on the Cocos Plate presently located offshore of NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua. The seamounts (~ 7-24 Ma) require mixing of an enriched ocean island basalt composition, similar to that of the Northern Galápagos Domain, with two depleted components. One of the depleted components is similar to East Pacific Rise normal mid-ocean ridge basalt and the other has more depleted incompatible elements, either reflecting secondary melting of MORB or a depleted Galápagos plume component. Seamounts with ages significantly younger than the ocean crust formed in an intraplate setting and can be explained by northward transport of Galápagos plume material along the base of the Cocos Plate up to 900 km away from the hotspot and 250-500 km north of the Galápagos hotspot track. We propose that melting occurs due to decompression as the mantle upwells to shallower depth as it flows northwards, either due to changes in lithospheric thickness or as a result of upwelling at the edge of a viscous plug of accumulated plume material at the base of the lithosphere. The tholeiitic to alkaline basalt compositions of the Cocos Plate Seamounts compared to the more silica under-saturated compositions of Hawaiian rejuvenated and arch (alkali basalts to nephelinites) lavas are likely to reflect the significant difference in age (< 25 vs ~ 90 Ma) and thus thickness of the lithosphere on which the lavas were erupted.

  7. Preparative treatment with NaOH to selectively concentrate iron oxides of a Chilean volcanic soil material to produce effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, Valentina; Pizarro, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.pizarro@usach.cl; Rubio, Maria Angelica [USACH, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia (Chile); Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte [UFMG, Departamento de Quimica-ICEx (Brazil); Garg, Vijayendra Kumar [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [UFMG, Departamento de Quimica-ICEx (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    A Chilean volcanic Ultisol material was first size-fractionated so as to obtain the fraction with mean particle sizes {phi} < 53 {mu}m. This sample was then sequentially treated three or five times with 5 mol L{sup - 1} NaOH, in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the selective chemical dissolution to concentrate iron oxides, as a preparation procedure before using the materials as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. The effects of those treatments on the iron oxides mineralogy were monitored with Moessbauer spectroscopy. The NaOH-treated samples were tested as catalysts towards the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. Three or five sequential NaOH treatments were found to be comparably effective, by concentrating nearly the same proportion of iron oxides in the remaining solid phase (25.1 {+-} 0.4 and 23.3 {+-} 0.2 mass%, respectively). 298 K-Moessbauer patterns were similar for both samples, with a central (super)paramagnetic Fe{sup 3 + } doublet and a broad sextet, assignable to several closely coexisting magnetically ordered forms of iron oxides. Despite of this nearly similar effect of the two treatments, the Ultisol material treated three times with NaOH presents higher heterogeneous catalytic efficiency and is more suitable to decompose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} than that with five treatments.

  8. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Bayham, Samuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The proposed Clean Power Plan requires CO2 emission reductions of 30% by 2030 and further reductions are targeted by 2050. The current strategies to achieve the 30% reduction targets do not include options for coal. However, the 2016 Annual Energy Outlook suggests that coal will continue to provide more electricity than renewable sources for many regions of the country in 2035. Therefore, cost effective options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel power plants are vital in order to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets beyond 2030. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metal-oxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections. The solid material that is used to transport oxygen is called an oxygen carrier material. The cost, durability, and performance of this material is a key issue for the CLC technology. Researchers at the NETL R&IC have developed an oxygen carrier material that consists of copper, iron, and alumina. This material has been tested extensively using lab scale instruments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical attrition (ASTM D5757), and small fluidized bed reactor tests. This report will describe the results from a realistic, circulating, proof-of-concept test that was

  9. Iron losses evaluation in soft magnetic materials with a sinusoidal voltage supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelcu, Steluţa; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    and it is proposing an identification procedure for the model coefficients from multi-frequency single sheet tests. The frequencies used are in the range 10 Hz and 150 Hz and with the values of magnetic flux density in the range 0.1 T and 1.4 T. The model was applied on six magnetic materials of different thicknesses...... (between 0.35 mm and 0.65 mm) and alloy compositions. Hysteresis and eddy currents loss coefficients have been considered as dependent on the frequency. For curve fitting of these coefficients third and fourth polynomials were employed, with good result for all the frequencies and magnetic flux density...

  10. Microwave synthesis of copper network onto lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for improved electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te, E-mail: cthsieh@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Liu, Juan-Ru [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Juang, Ruey-Shin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Herein reported is an efficient microwave-assisted (MA) approach for growing Cu network onto LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) powders as cathode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The MA approach is capable of depositing highly-porous Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. The electrochemical performance of Cu-coated LFP cathodes are well characterized by charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Cu network acts as the key role in improving the specific capacity, rate capability, electrode polarization, as compared to fresh LFP cathode without the Cu coating. The EIS incorporated with equivalent circuit reveals that the completed Cu network obviously suppresses the charge transfer resistance. This result can be attributed to the fact that the Cu network ensures the LFP crystals to get electron easily, alleviating the electrode polarization in view of one-dimensional Li{sup +} ion mobility in the olivine crystals. Based on the analysis of Randles plots, the relatively higher Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient reflects the more efficient Li{sup +} pathway in the LFP powders through the aid of porous Cu network. - Highlights: • An efficient route was used to prepare Cu/LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) hybrid as cathode material. • The Cu/LFP cathodes exhibit an improved performance as compared to fresh LFP one. • The microwave approach can deposit Cu network, fully covered the LFP powders. • The Cu network ensures LFP to get electrons, alleviating electrode polarization.

  11. Processing and physical utilisation of waste materials relevant to iron and steel manufacture; Aufarbeitung und stoffliche Nutzung eisen- und stahlrelevanter Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G.; Schmidt, B.; Sucker, D. [Betriebsforschungsinstitut VDEh-Institut fuer Angewandte Forschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    A part of the waste materials arising in iron and steel manufacture is utilised physically, either internally for the recovery of iron or externally for the production of cement and nonferrous metals. Most of these materials can be used without prior processing. Iron and steel-relevant waste materials which at present are still landfilled or disposed of as hazardous wastes are not immediately suitable for physical recycling as secondary raw material. These waste materials have to be processed without exception before they can be used again in the existing steel and iron manufacturing plants. The results of the authors` own studies have clearly shown that the cupola furnace is suited for the use of a wide variety of waste materials. [Deutsch] Ein Teil der bei der Eisen- und Stahlerzeugung anfallenden Abfallstoffe werden entweder intern zur Rueckgewinnung des Eisens oder extern in der Zement- bzw. Nichteisenmetallgewinnung stofflich verwertet. Dabei handelt es sich ueberwiegend um Materialien, die ohne weitere Aufbereitung verwertbar sind. Die bislang noch deponierten oder als Sonderabfall entsorgten eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffe sind ohne weiteres als Sekundaerrohstoff nicht stofflich verwertbar. Die Aufarbeitung dieser Abfallstoffe ist fuer den Wiedereinsatz in den vorhandenen Anlagen zur Gewinnung von Eisen und Stahl zwingend erforderlich. Die Ergebnisse der eigenen Untersuchungen haben klar gezeigt, dass der Kupolofen fuer die Nutzung einer grossen Vielfalt an Abfallstoffen geeignet ist. Zur Erhoehung der spezifischen Einsatzmenge an eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffen untersuchen wir derzeit den Einsatz von oxidischen Materialien als sogenannte selbstgaengige Briketts zusammen mit den ueblichen Eisentraegern fuer die Erzeugung von fluessigem Giessereieisen. Selbstgaengig heisst hierbei, dass der Reduktionskohlenstoff und auch die notwendigen Legierungselemente insbesondere Silizium als SiC in den Briketts eingebunden werden. Fuer die Aufbereitung

  12. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J; Saw, C; Haslem, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2009-03-16

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  13. Treatment of dispersed iron-bearing raw materials and modeling of the protection systems against air-pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Anđić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the non-standard iron-bearing raw materials treatment process and the results of real composition measurements of the flue gas, the study of hazards by identification of harmful substances that occur in the accident, as well as the modeling of the system of protection against air-pollution due to the cancellation of work the bag filter was carried out. Applying the model (Aloha software package provides an overview of possible developments of events and zones of propagation of the precipitated particulate matter through the share of cadmium (Cd in them. In the case of malfunction of filter system, emissions of particulate matter enormously exceed the permitted values. In the conditions of the simulated accident, particle velocity of flue gases was amounted E≈738mg/s or 2657g/h of dust. The propagation of the precipitated particulate matter in the lower layer of the atmosphere, downwind, given trough the share of Cd in them, is 100m from the source of pollution for the characteristic density of 5mg/m2×day and 140m for the characteristic density of 2mg/m2×day, in the stable state of the atmosphere, i.e. 870m and 1100m, respectively, in the neutral state of the atmosphere.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of the Molten Oxide Electrolysis Method for Oxygen and Iron Production from Simulated Lunar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT).

  15. Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: the effect of sulfuric, acetic, and oxalic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-09-17

    Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron (Fe) mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids, but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, respectively. The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. The relative capacities of these three acids in Fe dissolution are in the order of oxalic acid > sulfuric acid > acetic acid. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing. The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface.

  16. Adsorption of Azo-Dye Orange II from Aqueous Solutions Using a Metal-Organic Framework Material: Iron- Benzenetricarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rojas García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Metal-Organic Framework (MOF, iron-benzenetricarboxylate (Fe(BTC, has been studied for the adsorptive removal of azo-dye Orange II from aqueous solutions, where the effect of various parameters was tested and isotherm and kinetic models were suggested. The adsorption capacities of Fe(BTC were much higher than those of an activated carbon. The experimental data can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.997 and revealed the ability of Fe(BTC to adsorb 435 mg of Orange II per gram of adsorbent at the optimal conditions. The kinetics of Orange II adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption, with intra-particle diffusion being the rate controlling step. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of Orange II was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process (−25.53 kJ·mol−1. The high recovery of the dye showed that Fe(BTC can be employed as an effective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of Orange II from aqueous solutions and showed the economic interest of this adsorbent material for environmental purposes.

  17. Adsorption of Azo-Dye Orange II from Aqueous Solutions Using a Metal-Organic Framework Material: Iron- Benzenetricarboxylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas García, Elizabeth; López Medina, Ricardo; May Lozano, Marcos; Hernández Pérez, Isaías; Valero, Maria J.; Maubert Franco, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    A Metal-Organic Framework (MOF), iron-benzenetricarboxylate (Fe(BTC)), has been studied for the adsorptive removal of azo-dye Orange II from aqueous solutions, where the effect of various parameters was tested and isotherm and kinetic models were suggested. The adsorption capacities of Fe(BTC) were much higher than those of an activated carbon. The experimental data can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.997) and revealed the ability of Fe(BTC) to adsorb 435 mg of Orange II per gram of adsorbent at the optimal conditions. The kinetics of Orange II adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption, with intra-particle diffusion being the rate controlling step. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of Orange II was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process (−25.53 kJ·mol−1). The high recovery of the dye showed that Fe(BTC) can be employed as an effective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of Orange II from aqueous solutions and showed the economic interest of this adsorbent material for environmental purposes. PMID:28788289

  18. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  19. Determination of the local chemistry of iron in inorganic and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Clair C. [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.c.calvert@sheffield.ac.uk; Brown, Andy [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The systematic EELS analysis of a series of naturally occurring, synthetic and biological samples has provided a framework from which Fe valence of unknown materials can be determined and the relative ratios of the valences present can be calculated. The quantification of the relative ratios of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} is possible via the fitting of Gaussian or Voigt (with 89.3% Gaussian contribution) line profiles to the Fe L{sub 3}-edge. The ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe is determined from the areas under the fitted peaks. The method is robust and has an error in the range of <10% on Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe for samples with >2 atom% Fe. We present applications of this method including the investigation of polaron hopping in calcic amphibole, the quantification of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe in clay minerals from deep water sediments, quantification of Fe valence in human liver tissue and the determination of Fe valence in airborne particulate matter.

  20. Are allogenic or xenogenic screws and plates a reasonable alternative to alloplastic material for osteosynthesis--a histomorphological analysis in a dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, C; Obwegeser, J A

    2010-12-01

    Despite invention of titanium and resorbable screws and plates, still, one of the main challenges in bone fixation is the search for an ideal osteosynthetic material. Biomechanical properties, biocompatibility, and also cost effectiveness and clinical practicability are factors for the selection of a particular material. A promising alternative seems to be screws and plates made of bone. Recently, xenogenic bone pins and screws have been invented for use in joint surgery. In this study, screws made of allogenic sheep and xenogenic human bone were analyzed in a vital and dynamic sheep-model and compared to conventional titanium screws over a standard period of bone healing of 56 days with a constant applied extrusion force. Biomechanical analysis and histomorphological evaluation were performed. After 56 days of insertion xenogenic screws made of human bone showed significantly larger distance of extrusion of on average 173.8 μm compared to allogenic screws made of sheep bone of on average 27.8 and 29.95 μm of the titanium control group. Severe resorption processes with connective tissue interposition were found in the histomorphological analysis of the xenogenic screws in contrast to new bone formation and centripetal vascularization of the allogenic bone screw, as well as in processes of incorporation of the titanium control group. The study showed allogenic cortical bone screws as a substantial alternative to titanium screws with good biomechanical properties. In contrast to other reports a different result was shown for the xenogenic bone screws. They showed insufficient holding strength with confirmative histomorphological signs of degradation and insufficient osseointegration. Before common clinical use of xenogenic osteosynthetic material, further evaluation should be performed.

  1. Material simulation for scatter and degrader plates construction;Simulacao de materiais para construcao de folhas espalhadoras e degradadoras de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Antunes, Paula C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Furnari, Laura; Reis, Gabriela S. [Hospital das Clinicas da USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    There are many radiosensitive diseases associated to the skin such as mycosis fungoids and the syndrome of Sezary that are part of a sub-group of cutaneous diseases type T-cell lymphoma. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary a very large field size radiation beam, and also, it should deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report nr. 23 of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), the present study will develop an energy scattering and degrading plates, supplying subsidies for a future installation for skin treatment at the 'Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo'. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built the design of the plates has been performed analyzing several materials, on the basis of radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulations was validated with experimental measurements using copper and aluminum. (author)

  2. First-principles modelling of lithium iron oxides as battery cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catti, Michele; Montero-Campillo, Merced

    Starting from published charge/discharge curves and X-ray data on Pmmn-LiFeO 2 and LiFe 5O 8 as cathode materials vs. Li anode, a scheme of electrochemical reactions is proposed to explain the unclear electrode functionality of the 'corrugated layer' LiFeO 2 phase. The scheme was validated by quantum-mechanical calculations (CRYSTAL09 code, hybrid B3LYP Hamiltonian) on a number of structural models for Li 1- xFeO 2, LiFe 5O 8, and Li 3Fe 5O 8. Magnetic interactions were taken into account, finding antiferromagnetic (Li 1- xFeO 2) and ferrimagnetic (LiFe 5O 8 and Li 3Fe 5O 8) orderings as stable states. At variance with spinel-like LiFe 5O 8, Li 3Fe 5O 8 displays a rocksalt-type superstructure. The computed energies for reactions (I) 4LiFeO 2 → 4Li 0.75FeO 2 + Li, (II) 4Li 0.75FeO 2 + Li → 4/5LiFe 5O 8 + 8/5Li 2O, and (III) 1/2LiFe 5O 8 + Li ↔ 1/2Li 3Fe 5O 8 are 4.44, -3.62, and -2.10 eV, respectively. Such values compare satisfactorily with the average charge/discharge voltages observed for positive electrodes made up of Pmmn-LiFeO 2 and of LiFe 5O 8.

  3. 填充超弹性材料夹层板的抗爆性能研究%Research on anti-shock capability of sandwich plate with hyperelastic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈攀

    2016-01-01

    夹层板是一种比刚度大、比强度高的结构形式,根据文献将典型加筋板等效为最优夹层板,采用非线性数值方法,对爆炸冲击波作用下方形蜂窝夹层板及填充超弹性材料的方形蜂窝夹层板响应进行数值计算,分析填充超弹性材料夹层对夹层板各部位加速度、速度及位移响应的影响,对比不同爆距下夹层板响应,并分析填充超弹性材料对夹层板吸能的影响。从计算结果可知填充超弹性材料可有效减小爆炸载荷作用下夹层板的响应,减小夹层板面、背板间相对变形。%Sandwich plate is a new structural style with high specific stiffness and specific strength, the optimal square hole honeycomb sandwich plate was come from traditional ship stiffened plate according to reference method, the response of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material inside under blast loading were computed by non-linear numerical analysis, the acceleration, velocity and deformation response of of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material were analyzed, the response of sandwich plate under different blast distances were compared, and energy absorption of sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material also were analyzed. Sandwich plate has low response under blast loading with hyperelastic material inside, and has low relative deformation between front panel and back panel.

  4. The research of anti-shock capability of sandwich plate with hyperelastic Material%填充超弹性材料夹层板的抗爆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈攀

    2016-01-01

    夹层板是一种比刚度大、比强度高的结构形式,根据文献将典型加筋板等效为最优夹层板,采用非线性数值方法,对爆炸冲击波作用下方形蜂窝夹层板及填充超弹性材料的方形蜂窝夹层板响应进行数值计算,分析填充超弹性材料夹层对夹层板各部位加速度、速度及位移响应的影响,对比不同爆距下夹层板响应,并分析填充超弹性材料对夹层板吸能的影响。从计算结果可知填充超弹性材料可有效减小爆炸载荷作用下夹层板的响应,减小夹层板面、背板间相对变形。%Sandwich plate is a new structural style with high specific stiffness and specific strength, the optimal square hole honeycomb sandwich plate was come from traditional ship stiffened plate according to reference method, the response of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material inside under blast loading were computed by non-linear numerical analysis, the acceleration, velocity and deformation response of of square hole honeycomb sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material were analyzed, the response of sandwich plate under different blast distances were compared, and energy absorption of sandwich plate with or without hyperelastic material also were analyzed. Sandwich plate has low response under blast loading with hyperelastic material inside, and has low relative deformation between front panel and back panel.

  5. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  6. Material dependence of Casimir interaction between a sphere and a plate: First analytic correction beyond proximity force approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Teo, L P

    2013-01-01

    We derive analytically the asymptotic behavior of the Casimir interaction between a sphere and a plate when the distance between them, $d$, is much smaller than the radius of the sphere, $R$. The leading order and next-to-leading order terms are derived from the exact formula for the Casimir interaction energy. They are found to depend nontrivially on the dielectric functions of the objects. As expected, the leading order term coincides with that derived using the proximity force approximation. The result on the next-to-leading order term complements that found by Bimonte, Emig and Kardar [Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{100}, 074110 (2012)] using derivative expansion. Numerical results are presented when the dielectric functions are given by the plasma model or the Drude model, with the plasma frequency (for plasma and Drude models) and relaxation frequency (for Drude model) given respectively by 9eV and 0.035eV, the conventional values used for gold metal. It is found that if plasma model is used instead of Drude...

  7. 钢铁企业原材料采购决策探讨%On the Raw Material Purchasing Decisions of Iron and Steel Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨向阳

    2014-01-01

    2011年以后,钢铁的价格不断降低,使得钢铁行业不能够盈利或者盈利太低,当然这其中也有成本侵蚀和银行涨息的因素。随着信贷危机的不断发生,银行对于钢铁行业不再信任,甚至翻脸不认人,使得钢铁行业贷款的难度系数不断增加,所需要的成本也不断增加。所以钢铁行业要想继续赢得利润抵御风险、提高生存能力,运用科学合理的方法降低钢铁原材料的成本就显得尤为重要,这就必须对原材料的采购过程进行科学决策,以降低原材料成本,进而提高钢铁企业的盈利和生产能力。%Since 2011, the prices of iron and steel are falling, making the iron and steel industry can not be profitable or the profit is too low, of course, there are the factors of cost erosion and bank interest rates rising. As the credit crisis occurs continuously, banks no longer trust iron and steel industry and even decide to turn their backs on iron and steel industry, making the steel industry loan difficulty coefficient increase and the required costs rise. So it is particularly important to reduce the cost of iron and steel raw materials using scientific and reasonable method for the iron and steel industry to continue to win profits, resist risks and improve the survival ability. Thus the procurement of raw materials must be carried on the scientific decisions, to reduce the cost of raw materials, and improve the iron and steel enterprises' profit and production capacity.

  8. A Methodology to Predict Uniform Material Fatigue Life of Cast Iron: Law for Cast Iron%A Methodology to Predict Uniform Material Fatigue Life of Cast Iron: Law for Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinan Korkmaz

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical, physical and manufacturing properties of east iron make it attractive for many fields of application, such as cranks and cylinder holds. As in design of all metals, fatigue life prediction is an intrinsic part of the design process of structural sections that are made of cast iron. A methodology to predict high-cycle fatigue life of cast iron is proposed. Stress amplitude-strain amplitude, strain amplitude-number of loading cycles relationships of cast iron are investigated. Also, fatigue life prediction in terms of Smith, Watson and Topper parameter is carried out using the proposed method. Results indicate that the analytical outcomes of the proposed methodology are in good accordance with the experimental data for the two studied types of cast iron: EN-GJS-400 and EN-GJS-600.

  9. 30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...

  10. Fabrication of RF Circuit Structures on a PCB Material Using Inkjet Printing-Electroless Plating and the Substrate Preparation Therefor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Perik, M.A.; Reiding, J.; Dijk, van D.J.; Akkerman, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the optimisation of the surface characteristics of a high-frequency substrate material widely used in the PCB (printed circuit board) industry by means of CF4/O2 plasma etching, in order to make it suitable for the fabrication of RF (radio frequency) circuit structures by a comb

  11. Synthesis of nanostructured iron oxides dispersed in carbon materials and in situ XRD study of the changes caused by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Gustavo R.; Schettino, Miguel A. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil); Morigaki, Milton K. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Nunes, Evaristo; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Emmerich, Francisco G. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil); Passamani, Edson C. [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Magnetometry and Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Department of Physics (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa [Brazilian Center for Physical Research (CBPF) (Brazil); Freitas, Jair C. C., E-mail: jairccfreitas@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of Espírito Santo, Laboratory of Carbon and Ceramic Materials, Department of Physics (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Carbon-based magnetic nanocomposites are of large interest for applications in catalysis, magnetic separation, water cleaning, and magnetic resonance imaging, among others. This work describes the synthesis of nanocomposites consisting of iron oxides dispersed into a char (obtained from the carbonization at 700 °C of a lignocellulosic precursor) and the study of the thermal transformations occurring in these materials as a consequence of heat treatments. The materials were prepared by impregnation of the char with iron nitrate in the presence of ammonium hydroxide in aqueous suspension. X-ray diffraction experiments performed using synchrotron radiation and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared material was composed of amorphous Fe{sup 3+} oxides. Scanning electron microscopy images combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicated a homogeneous dispersion of iron oxides and of silica particles (naturally present in the lignocellulosic precursor) throughout the char. X-ray diffractograms recorded in situ during the heat treatment of the as-prepared material showed the presence of small hematite crystallites (average size ∼22 nm) starting from ca. 300 °C. Further heating caused a progressive growth of the hematite crystallites up to ca. 500 °C, when the conversion to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) started to take place. At higher temperatures, wüstite (Fe{sub 1−x}O) was detected as an intermediate phase and austenitic iron (γ-Fe) became the dominant phase at temperatures from 900 °C. A steep weight loss was observed in the TG curve accompanying this last reduction stage; upon cooling, γ-Fe was converted into α-Fe (ferrite), which was the dominant phase at room temperature in this heat-treated sample.

  12. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  13. A low cost synthesis method for functionalised iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia from readily available materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joseph C; Yu, Bin; Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; McNaughter, Paul D; Southern, Paul; Mafina, Marc-Krystelle; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of iron oxide nanocrystals from reagents taken from high street sources using thermal decomposition of an iron-fatty acid precursor in a high boiling point solvent in the presence of surfactants is presented. The nanocrystals were characterised using a variety of techniques including: electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and magnetometry. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is also used to compare the decomposition behaviour of iron oleate and iron palmitate, our nanoparticle precursors. The nanoparticles also exhibit shape anisotropy when prepared under optimum conditions. We show that these nanoparticles have potential in magnetic hyperthermia after transfer to aqueous media via an amphiphilic polymer.

  14. Evaluation of Iron Bioavailability in Caco-2 cell Culture Model: Modification of the Original Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Nikooyeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the original in vitro method for evaluation of iron bioavailability using caco-2 cell model, ferritin formation by cells is considered as a functional indicator of both absorption and utilization of iron. However, as iron is measured in the tested material and then ferritin concentration is measured in caco-2 cell lysate, it is almost impossible to have a concrete measure of iron bioavailability because the percent of absorbable iron cannot be calculated by the concentration of iron in caco-2 cell lysate. To overcome this problem, the original method was modified by using ferrous sulfate tablet as a standard and also including blank well in the cell culture plate to subtract the baseline ferritin concentration from the ferritin concentration of other wells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate iron bioavailability in this model, one kind of Iranian traditional breads (Sangak was used. Standard curve was plotted using iron concentration and ferritin/protein ratio in the X and Y axes, respectively. Results: The standard curve showed a linear equation: Ferritin (ng/protein (mg = (5.96 × bread Fe+ 11.55, R2=0.989. Using this equation, the bioavailability of iron from the tested bread was 79.76 ± 11.5% of ferrous sulfate. Considering that the reported iron bioavailability from ferrous sulfate is about 10%, bioavailability of iron from the bread could be regarded 8%. Conclusions: This data can be potentially usable to adjust the amount of absorbable iron in the target population for fortification programs. Keywords: Iron, Bioavailability, Caco-2 cell

  15. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETITE (Fe3O4CATALYST FROM IRON SANDS ON DESORPTION TEMPERATURE OF MgH2 HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulinda Maulinda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the future technologies for a safe hydrogen storage media is  metal hydrides. Currently, Mg-based metal hydride has a safety factor and efficient for vehicle applications. However, the thermodynamic properties of magnesium hydride (MgH2 found a relatively high temperature. High desorption temperatures caused MgH2 high thermodynamic stability resulting desorption enthalpy is also high. In this study, natural mineral (iron ore has been extracted from iron sand into powder of magnetite (Fe3O4 and used as a catalyst in an effort to improve the desorption properties of MgH2. Magnetie has been successfully extracted from iron sand using precipitation method with a purity of 85 % , where the purity of the iron sand before extracted was 81%. Then, MgH2-Fe3O4 was milling using mechanical alloying method with a variety of catalysts and milling time. The observation by XRD showed the material was reduced to nanocrystalline scale. MgH2 phase appears as the main phase. DSC test results showed with the addition of Fe3O4, the desorption temperature can be reduced up to 366oC, compared to pure pure MgH2 reached by 409o C. Furthermore, based on gravimetric test, the hydrogen release occurs at a temperature of 388o C, weight loss  of 0.66 mg during 16 minutes.

  16. Theoretical Analyses and Experimental Investigations of Selective Carbothermal Reactions of Vanadium-Bearing Titanomagnetite Concentrates for Preparation of Iron-Based Wear-Resistant Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Feng, Keqin; Yue, Huifang

    2016-09-01

    Based on FACTSage® software, this paper focuses on the thermodynamic calculations of selective carbothermal reactions of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates for preparing iron-based wear-resistant material directly from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates. The calculations show that it was most likely to generate metallic iron, titanium carbide and vanadium carbide among all possible carbothermal reactions of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates in a vacuum of 10 Pa. The equilibrium composition calculations indicate that Fe3O4 can be reduced to metallic iron by carbon above 400°C, FeTiO3 can be converted into TiC by carbon above 800°C and V2O5 can be converted into VC by carbon above 600°C in a vacuum of 10 Pa. The investigations demonstrated that the percentage of ferrous oxides reduced to metallic iron was about 96%, the conversion percentage of FeTiO3 into TiC was about 75% and the conversion percentage of V2O5 into VC was about 94% after the selective carbothermal reactions of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates at 1300°C for 3 h in a vacuum of 10 Pa.

  17. Degradation and in vitro cell–material interaction studies on hydroxyapatite-coated biodegradable porous iron for hard tissue scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizzati Mohd Daud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes degradation and cell–material interaction studies on hydroxyapatite (HA-coated biodegradable porous iron proposed for hard tissue scaffolds. Porous iron scaffolds are expected to serve as an ideal platform for bone regeneration. To couple their inherent mechanical strength, pure HA and HA/poly(ε-caprolactone (HA/PCL were coated onto porous iron using dip coating technique. The HA/PCL mixture was prepared to provide a more stable and flexible coating than HA alone. Degradation of the samples was evaluated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation. Human skin fibroblast (HSF and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC were put in contact with the samples and their interaction was observed. Results showed that coated samples degraded ∼10 times slower (0.002 mm/year for HA/PCL-Fe, 0.003 mm/year for HA-Fe than the uncoated ones (0.031 mm/year, indicating an inhibition effect of the coating on degradation. Both HSF and hMSC maintained high viability when in contact with the coated samples (100–110% control for hMSC during 2–5 days of incubation, indicating the effect of HA in enhancing cytocompatibility of the surface. This study provided early evidence of the potential translation of biodegradable porous iron scaffolds for clinical use in orthopedic surgery. However, further studies including in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary.

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  19. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  20. Stabilization of nickel by aluminum- and iron-rich ceramic materials: Reaction pathways and product leaching behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge with commonly available ceramic precursors was investigated. Nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O 4) was the immobilization phase produced when NiO was sintered with aluminum-rich precursors, including gamma-Al2O3, corundum, kaolinite and mullite. Analogously, nickel ferrite spinel (NiFe2O 4) was the stable phase produced by firing NiO with hematite, as an iron-rich precursor. By using gamma-Al2O3 as the precursor, the NiAl2O4 formation mechanism was a reaction between NiO and gamma-Al2O3 at lower temperatures (990°C), while the reaction was between NiO and corundum at higher temperatures. When sintering NiO with kaolinite, nickel can be efficiently incorporated in NiAl2O4 by two mechanisms: (i) a low temperature reaction with a defect spinel, and (ii) a high temperature reaction with mullite. Nickel-incorporation efficiency was quantitatively estimated by powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. With 3-hours sintering, NiFe2O 4 (trevorite) formation took place above 600°C with more than 95% nickel incorporation efficiency achieved above 1000°C; while NiAl 2O4 crystallized above 1000°C with an efficiency >90% above 1250°C. In using kaolinite and mullite as precursors, nickel is not incorporated in any silicon-containing phase. The kinetic factors responsible for nickel incorporation efficiency from different precursors were revealed through investigation of product microstructures. Moreover, four raw material mixing procedures were compared, with the ball-milled slurries demonstrating the highest nickel incorporation efficiency. Prolonged leach tests of NiO, NiAl2O4, NiFe 2O4 and sintered kaolinite + NiO samples were carried out using the TCLP extraction fluids #1 and #2 to evaluate the durability of sintered products. Over longer leaching periods, spinel proved superior to NiO for immobilization of nickel, although NiFe2O4 appears slightly more leachable than NiAl2O4. With TCLP extraction fluid #1 (pH 4.9), the

  1. Modelling of spall damage in ductile materials and its application to the simulation of the plate impact on copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Feng-Guo; Zhou Hong-Qiang; Hu Jun; Shao Jian-Li; Zhang Guang-Ca; Hong Tao; He Bin

    2012-01-01

    A statistical model of dynamic spall damage due to void nucleation and growth is proposed for ductile materials under intense loading,which takes into account inertia,the elastic-plastic effect,and initial void size.To some extent,void interaction could be accounted for in this approach.Based on this model,the simulation of spall experiments for copper is performed by using the Lagrangian finite element method.The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for the free surface velocity profile,stress record behind copper target,final porosity,and void concentrations across the target. The influence of elastic-plastic effect upon the damage evolution is explored.The correlation between the damage evolution and the history of the stress near the spall plane is also analyzed.

  2. Optimized design on multi-layer iron fiber electromagnetic shielding materials%铁纤维多层电磁屏蔽材料优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲兆明; 王庆国; 秦思良; 胡小锋

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between shielding effectiveness of iron fiber multi-layer electromagnetic shielding materials and dimension, concentration of filler and thickness of each layer was presented based on strong fluctuation theory and electromagnetic field theory. Three-layer iron fiber composite was optimized using genetic algorithms from 8GHz to 12GHz and the optimization parameters of every layer were presented under the targets of shielding effectiveness not below 35dB and the total thickness not exceeding 5mm. The feasibility of design on broadband, thin-layer iron fiber electromagnetic shielding materials was verified by the example.%应用强扰动理论及电磁场理论建立了填充铁纤维多层电磁屏蔽材料屏蔽效能与填料尺寸、浓度及各层厚度的关系.基于遗传算法对频带8~18GHz内填充铁纤维三层屏蔽复合材料进行了优化设计,在屏蔽效能不小于35dB、总厚度不超过5mm的优化目标下,得到了各层材料的最佳结构参数配比.算例分析验证了填充铁纤维实现宽带薄层电磁屏蔽材料的可行性.

  3. Sputtering and surface damage of TFTR protective plate materials (Mo, TZM, graphite) by energetic D/sup +/ ion irradiation. Final report for Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Dusza, P.

    1978-03-01

    Studies have been conducted in accordance with a service request from the Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) of Princeton University to determine the total sputtering yields and the surface damage of molybdenum (a candidate material for the neutral beam injector protective plate for Princeton's Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR)) caused by the impact of D/sup +/ ions at 120-keV, 60-keV and 40-keV at fluxes and total doses agreed upon between PPPL and ANL. The irradiations have been conducted in a specified pulsed mode as well as in a dc mode. The material TZM (a molybdenum alloy) was included in some tests of surface damage, but not for the full complement of doses planned for molybdenum. According to a request by PPPL the target temperature was not to be controlled (targets were allowed to reach a temperature determined by the beam power deposition and the conductive and radiative heat losses), but the target temperature was to be monitored. The irradiations were conducted at pressures ranging from 4 x 10/sup -9/ torr to 2 x 10/sup -8/ torr.

  4. Failure analysis and material selection of jaw plate of compound pendulum jaw crusher%复摆颚式破碎机颚板失效分析及材料选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红萍

    2012-01-01

    颚板是复摆颚式破碎机的主要工作构件,在破碎物料的过程中经受物料的严重磨损和激烈的冲击作用,颚板的寿命成为工程上关注的重点问题。通过对颚式破碎机颚板的运动进行分析,结合破碎腔内物料的运动受力分析、颚板失效后的表面微观状态等情况,对颚式破碎机颚板的失效进行了分析,从而得出破碎机在进行破碎时颚板失效的原因,并寻求更合理的颚板材料,以提高其使用寿命。%Jaw plate is a main work component of the jaw crusher.During crushing course,material withstands severe wear and f ierce impact.The lifespan of the jaw plate becomes the focus in projects.After analyzing the movement of the jaw plate of the jaw crusher,and in combination with the analysis of the force status of material in crushing camber and the surface microstructure of failure jaw plate,the paper analyzed the failure of the jaw plate.At last,the failure causes of the jaw plate were found out,which offered foundation for looking for more reasonable material for the jaw plate so as to enhance its service lifespan.

  5. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  6. 中国汽车行业钢铁物质流代谢研究%Iron and Steel Material Flow Metabolism in China Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁宁; 陈定江; 王韬; 胡山鹰

    2013-01-01

    As the booming of automobile industry in China, the consumption of steel is growing rapidly.The study of iron and steel material flow metabolism in China automobile industry is of great significance to the development of resource recycling industry and remanufacturing industry.The system dynamics model and empirical model were integrated, and the change trend of passenger cars in use per 1 000 people in the world's main automobile production counties was studied by using Gompertz model, and coefficient from the model was used as an important reference in the study of China case.The system dynamic model of steel metabolism was used for analysis of critical flows and stocks of vehicle products and those, of iron and steel materials.Scenario analysis was presented by setting different cars in use and life distribution parameter in the system dynamic model, in which the change trends of scraped automobile, steel plate and parts consumption of steel output were studied, and effects of parts remanufacturing and light weight vehicles developing were also discussed.The medium scenario was chosen for analysis during 2011 to 2050, in which the cars in use were 260 per 1 000 people.Study showed that the ratio of steel in scrapped cars to automotive industry's annual consumption would keep rising and eventually reached 1.2.Re-manufacturing industry has great potential, that the number of re-manufactured parts would be nearly 800 million.If vehicle life spans increase 4 years, the number of scrapped cars would be reduced by nearly one half.The lightening of cars would reduce steel consumption by 18%, and results in the cumulative reduction of over 100 million tons, leading to great resource reduction and bringing about significant economic and environmental benefits.%汽车行业在我国发展迅速,汽车行业的钢铁物质流代谢在整个国民经济的钢铁物质流代谢系统中的影响已不可忽视.研究中国汽车行业钢铁物质流代谢对再生资源利

  7. The detection of iron protoporphyrin (heme b) in phytoplankton and marine particulate material by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry – comparison with diode array detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, Martha, E-mail: m.gledhill@geomar.de

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of heme b in biological material. • Optimal conditions involved selective reactant monitoring of the heme b product ion. • The isotopic signature for this iron tetrapyrrole further improved selectivity. • Mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry were compared for heme b analysis. • Combining techniques made a powerful tool for analysis of heme in marine microbes. - Abstract: A mass spectrometric (MS) method for the identification of iron protoporphyrin (IX) (FePTP, heme b) in marine particulate material and phytoplankton is described. Electrospray ionisation of FePTP produced the molecular Fe(III)PTP{sup +} ion (m/z = 616) or the pseudomolecular [Fe(II)PTP + H]{sup +} ion (m/z = 617), depending on the oxidation state of the central iron ion. Collision induced dissociation (CID) in the ion trap mass spectrometer resulted in a single detected product ion (m/z = 557) indicative of loss of ethanoic acid from a carboxylic acid side chain. Widening the isolation width to 616 ± 3 resulted in production of a mass spectrum demonstrating the distinctive isotopic ratio of the iron containing fragment, further increasing the specificity of the analysis. Selective reactant monitoring (SRM) of the fragment ion (m/z = 557) was applied to the detection of FePTP after chromatography of ammoniacal OGP extracts of marine samples. The detection limit for FePTP analysed by SRM after chromatography was 1.2 ± 0.5 fmol. For phytoplankton samples, reasonably good agreement was achieved between results obtained with SRM and those obtained by monitoring absorbance at λ = 400 nm using a diode array detector (DAD). Use of SRM for analysis of particulate material obtained from the high latitude North Atlantic allowed for the analysis of FePTP in the presence of a co-eluting compound that interfered with detection by DAD. Simultaneous collection of mass spectra from m/z = 300 to 1500 resulted in identification of the

  8. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  9. The anticorrosion ability of titanium nitride (TiN) plating on an orthodontic metal bracket and its biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Ding, Shinn-Jyh; Chen, Yu-Chih; Huang, Tsui-Hsien

    2002-01-01

    Typically, an orthodontic metal bracket is made from stainless steel. It has been shown that such metal may corrode in an acid- and chloride-rich environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate a titanium nitride (TiN) ion-plated stainless steel orthodontic bracket's anticorrosion properties and compare its biocompatibility with that of non-TiN-plated brackets. The stainless-steel brackets studied here were tested in acidic artificial saliva. The plated metal bracket was produced by the titanium nitride (TiN) ion-plating method. The TiN-plating on the bracket surface was demonstrated to be successful by EDX analysis. The quantity of metallic-ion release under test immersion solutions was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Both TiN- and non-TiN-plated brackets may release detectable ions into the test solution, including nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and iron (ferric). The anticorrosion ability of the plated bracket was analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The results revealed that the TiN-plated metal bracket did not increase the anticorrosion ability of the standard bracket. The biocompatibility of the TiN plating versus the standard bracket material resulting from bracket immersion in the test solution revealed no toxicity on U2OS cells using a methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Clearly, the search for an improved technique for enhancing the anticorrosion ability of the normal metal orthodontic bracket should be continued. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Explicit Nonlinear Analysis of Bird Striking Material Composite Plate Based md.nastran%运用md.nastran的鸟撞复合材料板显示非线性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏兴; 高明宝; 胡醒醒

    2011-01-01

    For the bird strike frequently, such as the high-rise building glass, the flying plane, etc, bird and material composite plate are consiste of a simplified model by Software MSC md.patran. By setting parameters, the md. nastran analysis file is submited to, and then got in to see the result files. In the end,the deformation of material composite plate at the moment and the stress distribution of material composite plate can be seen. The stress and displacement curve of bird strike are plotted also, which provides theory basis for material composite plate structure strength design.%针对鸟撞事件的频频发生,比如高层建筑物的玻璃,空中飞行的飞机等,通过msc.md.patran软件对鸟撞复合材料板建立简化模型,并得出提交到md.nastran中分析文件.进而得到结果文件,从而查看鸟撞时各个时刻复合材料板的变形,以及查看复合材料板的应力分布.并且可以绘制出应力与位移的时间历程曲线,为复合材料板结构强度设计提供理论依据.

  11. New Fe-immobilized natural bentonite plate used as photo-Fenton catalyst for organic pollutant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bahamón, Luis Ferney; Hoyos, Diego Fernando; Benítez, Norberto; Pulgarín, César

    2011-02-01

    Novel photo-Fenton catalysts were prepared by immobilizing iron species on commercial bentonite plates via two methods: (1) ion exchange reaction (Fe(3+) vs. Na(+)) by aqueous suspension powder-clay/FeCl(3) followed by plate preparation, and (2) forced hydrolysis of Fe(NO(3))(3) onto a prefabricated clay plate. The last method led to a more photo-active Fe-oxide/bentonite plate. This material allowed, at a non-adjusted initial pH of 5.5 and in the presence of H(2)O(2), the total degradation of resorcinol and 55% mineralization in 80 and 100 min of irradiation, respectively. The reached degradation percentages were correlated to the presence of dissolved iron, demonstrating that in these processes, the homogeneous photo-Fenton reactions were mainly responsible for the resorcinol elimination. Likewise, in slurry system, where clay has normally an increased surface area, there was no increase in activity because of a reduced leached iron probably due to the diminished light penetration in the suspension. Despite the lower surface area, in comparison to that of the slurry, the clay plates have the advantage, as heterogeneous photo-catalysts, that separation of the reaction media after treatment is not needed, and thus, a potential use for batch and continuous reaction systems is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Graduated characterization method using a multi-well microplate for reducing reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Salatas, Apostolos; Mines, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Even though nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been intensively studied for the treatment of a plethora of pollutants through reductive reaction, quantification of nZVI reactivity has not yet been standardized. Here, we adapted colorimetric assays for determining reductive activity of n...

  13. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of iron pnictide wires and bulk materials through the powder-in-tube method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China); Gao Zhaoshun; Qi Yanpeng; Zhang Xianping; Wang Lei; Zhang Zhiyu; Wang Dongliang [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-05-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors with very high upper critical fields presents a new possibility for practical applications, but fabricating fine-wire is a challenge because of mechanically hard and brittle powders and the toxicity and volatility of arsenic. In this paper, we report the synthesis and the physical characterization of iron pnictide wires and bulks prepared by the powder-in-tube method (PIT). A new class of high-T{sub c} iron pnictide composite wires, such as LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}, SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} and Sr{sub 1-x}K{sub x}FeAs, has been fabricated by the in situ PIT technique using Fe, Ta and Nb tubes. Microscopy and X-ray analysis show that the superconducting core is continuous, and retains phase composition after wire drawing and heat treatment. Furthermore, the wires exhibit a very weak J{sub c}-field dependence behavior even at high temperatures. The upper critical field H{sub c2}(0) value can exceed 100 T, surpassing those of MgB{sub 2} and all the low temperature superconductors and indicating a strong potential for applications requiring very high field. These results demonstrate the feasibility of producing superconducting pnictide composite wire. We also applied the one-step PIT method to synthesize the iron-based bulks, due to its convenience and safety. In fact, by using this technique, we have successfully discovered superconductivity at 35 K and 15 K in Eu{sub 0.7}Na{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and SmCoFeAsO compounds, respectively. These clearly suggest that the one-step PIT technique is unique and versatile and hence can be tailored easily for other rare earth derivatives of novel iron-based superconductors.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of iron pnictide wires and bulk materials through the powder-in-tube method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanwei; Gao, Zhaoshun; Qi, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongliang

    2009-05-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors with very high upper critical fields presents a new possibility for practical applications, but fabricating fine-wire is a challenge because of mechanically hard and brittle powders and the toxicity and volatility of arsenic. In this paper, we report the synthesis and the physical characterization of iron pnictide wires and bulks prepared by the powder-in-tube method (PIT). A new class of high- Tc iron pnictide composite wires, such as LaFeAsO 1-xF x, SmFeAsO 1-xF x and Sr 1-xK xFeAs, has been fabricated by the in situ PIT technique using Fe, Ta and Nb tubes. Microscopy and X-ray analysis show that the superconducting core is continuous, and retains phase composition after wire drawing and heat treatment. Furthermore, the wires exhibit a very weak Jc-field dependence behavior even at high temperatures. The upper critical field Hc2(0) value can exceed 100 T, surpassing those of MgB 2 and all the low temperature superconductors and indicating a strong potential for applications requiring very high field. These results demonstrate the feasibility of producing superconducting pnictide composite wire. We also applied the one-step PIT method to synthesize the iron-based bulks, due to its convenience and safety. In fact, by using this technique, we have successfully discovered superconductivity at 35 K and 15 K in Eu 0.7Na 0.3Fe 2As 2 and SmCoFeAsO compounds, respectively. These clearly suggest that the one-step PIT technique is unique and versatile and hence can be tailored easily for other rare earth derivatives of novel iron-based superconductors.

  16. Model operation to improve energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Demonstration study (investigation project) on material preheating equipment for an electric furnace (using reduced iron as a raw material); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi (kangen tetsu genryo) ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu (chosa jigyo) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Investigations were given on a device technology that can obtain energy saving and environment preserving effects in electric furnace iron making using reduced iron as a raw material. The effects can be obtained by continuously charging into an electric furnace the reduced iron supplied from an iron ore reducing plant while the iron is kept hot. The investigations were carried by sending survey groups to India and Mexico who are producing reduced iron, and Egypt and Malaysia who possess iron reducing technologies, and by analyzing the actual conditions of reduced iron manufacturing equipment and electric furnace facilities. In addition, retrieval, collection and analysis were performed on technical data and information on reduced iron available inside and outside the country. As a result, a proposal was made to select India as a site to execute the demonstration study on the hot reduced iron insertion technology. The reasons for the selection are: India has a large number of steel mills that have iron reducing facilities and electric furnaces; the country is geographically convenient for Japanese research institutes to implement the demonstration study; the country`s DRI production is the largest in the south-eastern Asia; and electric power cost is high. 92 refs., 49 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Characterization and performance of UNS S63019 (21-4N) as bipolar plate material in a simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew G.; Wang, Heli; Cowley, Scott W.; Turner, John A.

    The austenitic stainless steel UNS S63019 was evaluated regarding its potential as bipolar plate material in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environment. Segregated grains of niobium carbide (NbC x) were identified in polished cross-sections of the alloy, offering a possible pathway for enhanced electrical conductivity through the passive surface oxide. Additionally, the alloy was tested for corrosion resistance in a simulated PEMFC environment. It was considered that perhaps the elevated nitrogen concentration in the alloy would provide some benefit for corrosion resistance. Results for interfacial contact resistance (ICR) testing of the air-formed surface film on UNS S63019 showed decreased electrical conductivity as compared to UNS S30400. Niobium carbide particles did not improve film conductivity due to a non-conductive niobium oxide layer that formed on the surface. Corrosion resistance of the alloy was also poor as compared with UNS S30400, demonstrating that elevated nitrogen concentration in the alloy was not adequate in itself to enhance corrosion resistance. Poor corrosion resistance was attributed primarily to high carbon content in the alloy which combined with a significant amount of chromium to form carbides.

  18. Microstructure, Impact Fatigue Resistance and Impact Wear Resistance of Wear Resistant Low Cr-Si Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A great amount of iron and steel has been consumed in impact wear resistance parts such as grinding balls and lining plates in tube mills. Under this working conditions, the failure of wear resistant white irons is generally caused by fatigue spalling. The martensitic high chromium cast iron (WCr=15 %) has good wear resistance, but its cost is higher. The impact wear resistance of low chromium cast iron sometimes is not good. In the present paper ,a new wear resistant material-low Cr-Si cast iron was introduced. The influence of microstructure of cast iron on impact fatigue resistance and impact wear resistance was discussed. The ball-on-ball impact fatigue test, the high stress impact wear test and the field test of the grinding balls have been carried out. The results showed that the impact fatigue resistance (IFR) and impact wear resistance (IWR) of low Cr-Si cast iron are superior to typical low chromium cast irons and close to the martensitic high chromium cast iron. The main reasons are: ① The as-cast matrix of the low Cr-Si cast iron with stress released is pearlite with better plasticity and toughness; ② The high Si content improves the morphology of eutectic carbide, and has no secondary carbide resulting in less crack sources. All these factors are beneficial to the improvement of impact fatigue spalling resistance and impact wear resistance.

  19. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Serum Iron; Serum Fe Formal name: Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor ... I should know? How is it used? Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) , and/or ...

  20. Control of Electric Furnace Iron and Steel Material Consumption%电炉钢铁料消耗的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑辉; 付宪强; 郭李波

    2015-01-01

    通过采用6 Sigma工具对各种影响因素进行分析,采取各种管理措施及技术手段将钢铁料消耗降低至目标范围内。%The various influence factors are analyzed by using 6 Sigma tools, and various management measures and technical means are adopted to reduce the consumption of iron and steel in the target range.

  1. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P. Jr.; Boerstler, R.W.; Steinbeck, J.; Winn, D.R.

    2000-04-04

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  2. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  3. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  4. Corrosion of separator plate constituents in molten carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Jack

    To improve the corrosion resistance of the separator plates, insight in the corrosion behavior of the materials used is necessary. Especially, a detailed knowledge of the dissolution and passivation mechanisms as a function of the electrode potential will be useful. It is very difficult to unravel the corrosion mechanism of commercially available materials because it depends on several factors. Therefore, to obtain a first insight, the corrosion mechanism of pure metals and binary model alloys has been investigated and described in this thesis. The pure metals investigated are gold, nickel and chromium. The alloys that were investigated in this thesis are nickel-chromium, nickel-iron and nickel-aluminium alloys. Some commercially available materials have been investigated as a first attempt to understand the corrosion and passivation mechanisms of more complicated alloys.

  5. Molecular characterization of natural biofilms from household taps with different materials: PVC, stainless steel, and cast iron in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-09-01

    Microorganism in drinking water distribution system may colonize in biofilms. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversities were analyzed in both water and biofilms grown on taps with three different materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and cast iron) from a local drinking water distribution system. In total, five clone libraries (440 sequences) were obtained. The taxonomic composition of the microbial communities was found to be dominated by members of Proteobacteria (65.9-98.9 %), broadly distributed among the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Other bacterial groups included Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Moreover, a small proportion of unclassified bacteria (3.5-10.6 %) were also found. This investigation revealed that the bacterial communities in biofilms appeared much more diversified than expected and more care should be taken to the taps with high bacterial diversity. Also, regular monitor of outflow water would be useful as potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected. In addition, microbial richness and diversity in taps ranked in the order as: PVC steel iron. All the results interpreted that PVC would be a potentially suitable material for use as tap component in drinking water distribution system.

  6. 热处理对铁基复合材料性能的影响%Effects of Heat Treatment on Properties of Iron-based Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 安宁; 付拴拴; 贺一为

    2012-01-01

    为了提高铁基表面复合材料的使用寿命,使其具有较高的表面硬度和耐磨性的同时,使其心部具有较好的塑性和韧性.本实验对铁基复合材料的热处理工艺进行了研究.结果表明:在980℃油淬保温2h加上200℃回火4h的热处理工艺下可以使基体组织得到了进一步强化,基体硬度可提高9%,韧性提高11%;而热处理对复合硬化层的硬度基本没有影响.%In order to improve the life of composite material on iron-based surface, with a high surface hardness and wear resistance, good plasticity and toughness, effects of heat treatment process on iron-based composite materials were studied. The results show that: after oil quenched at 980 ℃ , 180 ℃, tempered 4 h at 200 ℃, the matrix structure is strengthened, the hardness increases by 9%, and toughness increases by 11%. Heat treatment has no effects on the hardness of composite layer.

  7. Directional thermal conductivity of stator winding, endwinding, and iron core of small induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, K.P. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Kauh, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Stator winding and endwinding are hot spots of a induction motor, and their temperature are heavily affected by the thermal conductivity of stator winding, endwinding and iron core. Hence, thermal conductivity evaluation of those materials is very important and the present study proposed prediction schemes for directional thermal conductivity of stator winding, endwinding, and iron core of a small induction motor. Longitudinal thermal conductivity of stator winding is evaluated by serial model, and transversal thermal conductivity is by Lewis and Nielson's model. Thermal conductivity of endwinding can be obtained by rotational transform of thermal conductivity tensor. And thermal conductivity of iron core is evaluated by serial model and parallel model. In the evaluation of the thermal conductivity of iron core, it was assumed that the contact resistance between the core plates plays 80% role in total resistance. This requires more detailed analysis. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  9. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 贵金属铑电镀液的研究进展%Research progress of precious metal material rhodium plating solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛飞; 白晓军; 向雄志; 汤有正; 张苏嫚

    2011-01-01

    对贵金属铑电镀液的组分、制备、应用方向、镀覆条件及镀铑废液回收等方面研究现状进行了综述,探讨了影响镀液性质的主要因素,并对今后的研究方向提出了建议,以期得到性能更好的铑镀层.%In this paper, the research status of the following aspects on rhodium plating solution were reviewed,such as the application direction, composition formula, bath preparation, plating conditions, rhodium-plated waste recycling and etc.. The factors which influence the features of the bath were discussed, and the recommendations for future research were made to get rhodium plating with even better performance.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the processes of estimating reserves of iron ore raw materials in conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Nekrasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This article proposed to estimate the technological parameters of mining and metallurgical industry (iron ore stocks, given the fuzzy set values in conditions of uncertainty using the balance sheet and industrial methods of calculation of reserves of ore. Due to the fact that the modeling of the processes of extraction of ore is associated with parameters of the equations that contain variables with different nature of uncertainty, it is better to provide all the information on a single formal language of fuzzy set theory. Thus, the proposed model calculation and evaluation of reserves of iron ore by different methods in conditions of uncertainty geological information on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets. In this case the undefined values are interpreted as intentionally "fuzzy", since this approach largely corresponds to the real industrial situation than the interpretation of such quantities in terms of random. Taken into account the fact that the application of the probabilistic approach leads to the identification of uncertainty with randomness, but in practice, the basic nature of uncertainty in the calculation of reserves of iron ore is unclear. Under the proposed approach, each fuzzy parameter is a corresponding membership function, to determine which proposed using a General algorithm, as the result of algebraic operations on arbitrary membership function of the inverse numerical method. Because of the existence of many models describing the same production process in different methods (for example, the balance model or industrial model and under different assumptions proposed to coordinate such models on the basis of the model of aggregation of heterogeneous information. For matching this kind of information, its generalization and adjustment of the outcome parameters, it is expedient to use the apparatus of fuzzy set theory that allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of imprecisely specified parameters and make the

  12. The detection of iron protoporphyrin (heme b) in phytoplankton and marine particulate material by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry - comparison with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Martha

    2014-09-02

    A mass spectrometric (MS) method for the identification of iron protoporphyrin (IX) (FePTP, heme b) in marine particulate material and phytoplankton is described. Electrospray ionisation of FePTP produced the molecular Fe(III)PTP(+) ion (m/z=616) or the pseudomolecular [Fe(II)PTP + H](+) ion (m/z=617), depending on the oxidation state of the central iron ion. Collision induced dissociation (CID) in the ion trap mass spectrometer resulted in a single detected product ion (m/z=557) indicative of loss of ethanoic acid from a carboxylic acid side chain. Widening the isolation width to 616±3 resulted in production of a mass spectrum demonstrating the distinctive isotopic ratio of the iron containing fragment, further increasing the specificity of the analysis. Selective reactant monitoring (SRM) of the fragment ion (m/z=557) was applied to the detection of FePTP after chromatography of ammoniacal OGP extracts of marine samples. The detection limit for FePTP analysed by SRM after chromatography was 1.2±0.5fmol. For phytoplankton samples, reasonably good agreement was achieved between results obtained with SRM and those obtained by monitoring absorbance at λ=400nm using a diode array detector (DAD). Use of SRM for analysis of particulate material obtained from the high latitude North Atlantic allowed for the analysis of FePTP in the presence of a co-eluting compound that interfered with detection by DAD. Simultaneous collection of mass spectra from m/z=300 to 1500 resulted in identification of the pseudomolecular ion for the interfering compound. The CID fragmentation pattern and UV-visible mass spectra indicated that the interfering compound was a previously unidentified chlorin type compound. Comparison of FePTP determined by SRM and DAD on samples where this compound could not be detected showed that results collected using the two methods correlated. The use of both MS and DAD results in a powerful tool for quantifying this important biogenic component of the

  13. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Iron Sulfide-Carbon Core-Shell Nanorods as a Conversion-Type Battery Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    to prepare carbon-encapsulated ploy iron sulfide through solid-state chemical sulfurizing. The resulting core-shell nanorods consisting of approximately 13% carbon and 87% Fe7S8 have a hierarchically porous structure and a very high specific surface area of 277 m2g-1. When tested for use in fabrication...... of systematic structural analysis and microscopic mapping, we discuss the charge-discharge mechanisms and the crucial factors associated with the stability and structural changes upon charge-discharge cycling....

  14. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  15. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  17. Scalable Dry Production Process of a Superior 3D Net-Like Carbon-Based Iron Oxide Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Du, Haoran; Kuai, Long; Huang, Kuangfu; Xia, Yuanyuan; Geng, Baoyou

    2017-10-02

    Carbon-based transition-metal oxides are considered as an appropriate anode material candidate for lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple and scalable dry production process is developed to produce carbon-encapsulated 3D net-like FeOx /C materials. The process is simply associated with the pyrolysis of a solid carbon source, such as filter paper, adsorbed with ferrite nitrate. The carbon derived from filter paper induces a carbothermal reduction to form metallic Fe, the addition of carbon and iron increase the conductivity of this material. As expected, this 3D net-like FeOx /C composite delivers an excellent charge capacity of 851.3 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1) as well as high stability and rate performance of 714.7 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 1 A g(-1) . Superior performance, harmlessness, low costs, and high yield may greatly stimulate the practical application of the products as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Separation of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates constructed of conventional and composite materials with applications for prediction of interior noise paths in propeller driven aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems and use of composite materials in primary structure is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptability high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a primer obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method which permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on plates constructed of both conventional and composite materials. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method can be applied to a variety of aircraft materials, could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available. The study has also revealed that the noise radiation of vibrating plates in the low frequency regime due to combined airborne and structureborne inputs possesses a strong synergistic nature. The large influence of the interaction between the airborne and structureborne terms has been hitherto ignored by researchers of aircraft interior noise problems.

  19. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  20. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  1. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  2. Optimization of MRR in EDM Process with Different Job Material i.e Stainless Steel and Cast Iron by Taguchi Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D.C. Roy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro discharge machining (EDM has been recognized as an efficient method of producing dies and machining of hard material such as ceramics and high strength metal matrix composites for the modern metal industry (1. In this process the metal are remove through melting or vaporization of job metal by high frequency spark discharge. Although in this process the metal removal rate is lower than the other nonconventional machining process. But the dimensional accuracy is higher than the other process and more complex shape can be produce generally composite material are fascinated as thy exhibit exceptional mechanical and physical properties such as high strength, high hardness, and high density at elevated temperature. For this extra ordinary behavior it has wide range of application on the metal industries like aerospace, dies or mould making industries, automobiles industries etc. The metal removal rate (M.R.R. and surface smoothness not only depend on the selection of tool material also depend on the number of input parameter (such-input current, voltage, spindle speed, duty factor, dielectric medium, job metal property (conductivity ,hardness, strength, density etc.,machine condition and machining condition(machine performances, temperature, depth of cut or area of cut etc.. It is most difficult to select machining condition for optimal performances due to large number of parameters and inherent complexity of material removal mechanism taking place in EDM process. In the present work, the experiments were conducted using Taguchi L9 orthogonal approach, to ascertain the effect of EDM process parameters on material removal rate (MRR of stain less steel and cast iron by using tool material such copper and graphite.

  3. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  4. Adsorptive removal of methyl orange and methylene blue from aqueous solution with a metal-organic framework material, iron terephthalate (MOF-235).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Jun, Jong Won; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2011-01-15

    An iron terephthalate (MOF-235), one of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), has been used for the removal of harmful dyes (anionic dye methyl orange (MO) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB)) from contaminated water via adsorption. The adsorption capacities of MOF-235 are much higher than those of an activated carbon. The performance of MOF-235 having high adsorption capacity is remarkable because the MOF-235 does not adsorb nitrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature. Based on this study, MOFs, even if they do not adsorb gases, can be suggested as potential adsorbents to remove harmful materials in the liquid phase. Adsorption of MO and MB at various temperatures shows that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process and that the entropy increases (the driving force of the adsorption) with adsorption of MO and MB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar to that continuing on Earth - although on much smaller length- and timescales - with melting of the metal and silicates, differentiation into core, mantle, and crust, and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth and other terrestrial planets. This fact has been recognized since the work of Chladni (1794), who argued that stony-iron meteorites must have originated in outer space and fallen during fireballs and that they provide our closest analogue to the material that comprises our own planet's core. This chapter deals with our current knowledge of these meteorites. How did they form? What can they tell us about the early evolution of the solar system and its solid bodies? How closely do they resemble the materials from planetary interiors? What do we know and don't we know?Iron and stony-iron meteorites constitute ˜6% of meteorite falls (Grady, 2000). Despite their scarcity among falls, iron meteorites are our only samples of ˜75 of the ˜135 asteroids from which meteorites originate ( Keil et al., 1994; Scott, 1979; Meibom and Clark, 1999; see also Chapter 1.05), suggesting that both differentiated asteroids and the geologic processes that produced them were common.Despite the highly evolved nature of iron and stony-iron meteorites, their chemistry provides important

  6. Silica and Pyroxene in IVA Irons; Possible Formation of the IVA Magma by Impact Melting and Reduction of L-LL-Chondrite Materials Followed by Crystallization and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.; Matsunami, Yoshiyuki; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Group IVA is a large magmatic group of iron meteorites. The mean DELTA O-17 (= delta O-17 - 0.52(raised dot) delta O-18) of the silicates is approx. plus or minus 1.2%o, similar to the highest values in L chondrites and the lowest values in LL chondrites; delta O-18 values are also in the L/LL range. This strongly suggests that IVA irons formed by melting L-LL parental material, but the mean Ni content of IVA irons (83 mg/g) is much lower than that of a presumed L-LL parent (approx. 170 mg/g) and the low-Ca pyroxene present in two IVA meteorites is Fs13, much lower than the Fs20-29 values in L and LL chondrites. Thus, formation from L-LL precursors requires extensive addition of metallic Fe, probably produced by reduction of FeS and FeO. Group IVA also has S/Ni, Ga/Ni, and Ge/Ni ratios that are much lower than those in L-LL chondrites or any chondrite group that preserves nebular compositions, implying loss of these volatile elements during asteroidal processing. We suggest that these reduction and loss processes occurred near the surface of the asteroid during impact heating, and resulted partly from reduction by C, and partly from the thermal dissociation of FeS and FeO with loss of O and S. The hot (approx. 1770 K) low-viscosity melt quickly moved through channels in the porous asteroid to form a core. Two members of the IVA group, Sao Joao Nepomuceno (hereafter, SJN) and Steinbach, contain moderate amounts of orthopyroxene and silica, and minor amounts of low-Ca clinopyroxene. Even though SJN formed after approx. 26% crystallization and Steinbach formed after approx. 77% Crystallization of the IVA core, both could have originated within several tens of meters of the core-mantle interface if 99% of the crystallization occurred from the center outwards. Two other members of the group (Gibeon and Bishop Canyon) contain tabular tridymite, which we infer to have initially formed as veins deposited from a cooling SiO-rich vapor. The silicates were clearly introduced

  7. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  8. Investigation on Artificial Reefs Materials made From Qidashan Iron Tailings%齐大山铁尾矿制作人工鱼礁材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 倪文; 陈勇; 刘佳; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    The performance and mechanism of the concrete of artificial reefs preparedby Qidashan iron tailings as main raw materials were studied. The research showed that when the additional ratio of iron tailings was 70% , the compres-sive and flexible strength of concrete for 28 days of standard curing were up to 47. 3 MPa and 8. 6 MPa, respectively. The i-ron tailings powder with the specific surface of 720 m /kg, has a certain of pozzolanic activity, which plays excellent filling effects in the concrete of artificial reefs. During the early period of seawater immersion of artificial reefs blocks, a small a-mount of OH- was dissolved out of the surface,resulting in the pH value of leaching solution rising from fresh seawater 8. 0 to 8. 5,but back to normal value after 69 d. Test results of heavy metal ion released indicated that the leaching solution could meet up the national water quality standard for fisheries. Hence, concrete of artificial reefs with high content of iron tailings not only have good mechanical performance, but also have low-alkali and non-pollution properties, which meet the demands of artificial reels. It shows good marine adaptability, and makes comprehensive utilization of iron tailings and marine fishery proliferation possible.%以齐大山铁尾矿为主要原料制备了人工鱼礁混凝土,并进行了性能与机理研究.结果表明,铁尾矿掺加量为70%的鱼礁混凝土,标准养护28 d的抗压强度达到47.3 MPa,抗折强度达到8.6 MPa;比表面积达到720m2/kg的铁尾矿球磨细粉具有一定的火山灰活性,在人工鱼礁混凝土中能起到良好的活性粉末填充作用;人工鱼礁材料试块海水浸泡初期,表层有少量OH-溶出,使浸泡液pH值由新鲜海水的8.0升至8.5,但69d后恢复到正常值;重金属离子溶出检测结果表明,浸泡试样的海水水质符合渔业水质国家标准.因此,大比例掺加齐大山铁尾矿制备的人工鱼礁混凝土不仅具

  9. Numerical solution of the free vibration of functionally graded material moderately thick circular plates by shooting method%FGM中厚圆板轴对称自由振动的打靶法求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清禄; 张靖华; 李世荣

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration of FGMmoderately thick circular plates was investigated.A FGM plate consisting of metal and ceramic was considered in the study.Based on the geometric equation,physical equation and equilibrium equation of thick plates,taking into account the transverse shearing deformation,the free vibration equation of axisymmetric FGM thick circular plates was derived in terms of the middle surface angles of rotation and lateral displacement.The material properties of the plate were assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction according to a power law.By using the shooting method to solve the coupled ordinary differential equations with different boundary conditions,the natural frequencies of FGMthick circular plates were obtained numerically.The effects of material gradient property,thickness ratio and boundary conditions on the natural frequencies were discussed in detail.%研究了由陶瓷和金属两种材料组成的功能梯度材料(FGM)中厚圆板的自由振动问题。基于考虑横向剪切变形中厚板的几何方程、物理方程及平衡方程,建立了以中面转角和横向位移为基本未知量的功能梯度中厚圆板轴对称自由振动问题的控制方程;假定功能梯度中厚圆板的材料性质方向按照幂函数连续变化规律;采用打靶法数值求解所得非线性两点边值问题出,获得了多种边界下功能梯度中厚圆板的无量纲自然频率以及振动模态。讨论了材料梯度指数、板的厚度以及边界条件对自然频率的影响。

  10. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  11. The influence of titanium and iron oxides on the coloring and friability of the blue fired aluminum oxide as an abrasive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Passos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of abrasive grains is crucial to increase the lifespan of roughing, polishing and cutting tools. The purpose of the work herein was to evaluate the variables of the blue fired aluminum oxide heat treatment process. This heat treatment process improves the physical properties of the brown fused aluminum oxide and results in a blue coloring, which uniquely identifies it within the abrasives industry. The work herein includes information beginning with the electro-fusion process of bauxite (the manufacturing of the brown fused aluminum oxide to the Blue Fired process. It also compares the fracture resistance index between these materials. This index is the inverse of the friability. Besides the content of titanium and iron oxides, process variables such as time, temperature and atmospheric conditions are important to monitor in order to reach standard requirements. Experimental evidence measuring these parameters is presented in the article herein. The blue coloring of this aluminum oxide is explained by the optical phenomena of electron transition, and not by the formation of aluminum titanate, as some technical literature has stated. Furthermore, it was proved that the coloring of blue fired material should not be used exclusively as an indicator of the optimal abrasive characteristics of this class of aluminum oxide.

  12. Removal of yellow 5 by a zeolitic material conditioned with iron; Remocion de amarillo 5 por un material zeolitico acondicionado con hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara C, A.

    2010-07-01

    The waste waters are at the present time a serious problem because are contaminated by diverse industrial wastes among which are azo dyes used to dye a lot of products, and although there are various methods for the removal of these colorants do not are effective sufficiently, so that diverse techniques more sophisticated have been proposed, such as the elimination by sorption processes. Zeolites are materials found in various regions of Mexico and due to have a good sorption capacity are used to remove metals. In this paper a zeolitic material of the Chihuahua State was conditioned with FeCl{sub 3} and used for remove yellow 5 (tartrazine) in aqueous solutions, also the sorption capacity of modified zeolite with FeCl{sub 3} was examined for the azo dy yellow 5 in aqueous solutions. The sorption kinetics results was adapted to the pseudo second order model, indicating that the process is chemisorption, the sorption isotherms at different temperatures were adjusted to the Langmuir-Freundlich model, which usually it is adapt to systems with heterogeneous adsorbents. On the other hand, the ph value of the aqueous solutions does not affect on the sorption of this dye by the zeolitic material. (Author)

  13. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  14. Mössbauer study of iron-based perovskite-type materials as potential catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneva, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Velinov, N.; Kolev, H.; Kozhukharov, V.; Tsoncheva, T.; Mitov, I.

    2010-03-01

    La-Sr-Fe perovskite-type oxides were prepared by the nitrate-citrate method. The basic object of this study is layered Ruddlesden-Popper phase LaSr3Fe3O10. The phase composition and structural properties of the obtained materials are investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The preliminary catalytic tests show a high potential of these materials for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) elimination as they possess high conversion ability and selectivity to total oxidation of ethyl acetate. Catalytic performance of LaSr3Fe3O10 is depended on the stability of structure and Fe4+-oxidation state.

  15. Development of an Iron-Based Hardfacing Material Reinforced with Fe-(TiW)C Composite Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, E. O.; Alcantara, N. G.; Tecco, D. G.; Kumar, R. V.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the correlation of microstructure with wear resistance in a hardfacing material reinforced with Fe-(TiW)C composite powder particles. This material was designed for cladding components subjected to highly abrasive conditions and was deposited on a low-carbon steel substrate by open arc welding. The theoretical and experimental work undertaken includes solidification study, microstructural characterization, and abrasive wear testing. Microstructural analysis of the hardfaced top layer of the alloy showed the presence of TiWC carbide particles and TiNbC carbides randomly distributed in a eutectic mixture matrix γ/M7C3 containing primary austenite dendrites. Microstructural examinations also showed that hard and fine spherulitic carbides, in which a Ti-rich MC carbide core was encircled by MC carbide enriched with Nb and W, were homogeneously distributed in the matrix. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of spherulitic carbides showed that the any added Nb replaced a significant part of W in the Fe-(TiW)C powder, and W preferentially partitioned into other carbides and matrix during solidification. Abrasion test results showed that the preceding carbides improve the wear resistance of the hardfacing material in comparison with conventional Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Cr-C-Nb alloys, especially under high stress conditions.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A...

  2. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, B.; Thiele, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

  3. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  4. A high performance layered transition metal oxide cathode material obtained by simultaneous aluminum and iron cationic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mofid, Wassima; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Konkin, Alexander; Bund, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The method of self-combustion synthesis was applied to prepare double Al- and Fe-substituted LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.15Al0.025Fe0.025O2 (NMCAF) and non-substituted LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC-3:1:1) cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The novel NMCAF structure obtained by simultaneous cationic substitution showed an improved capacity and high stability during electrochemical cycling. X-ray diffraction patterns proved that both materials have a layered α-NaFeO2 type structure with a good hexagonal ordering. It was found that NMCAF has increased a and c lattice parameters due to a structural expansion caused by Al and Fe ion substitution. Rietveld refinement analysis revealed a significant decrease of the cationic mixing after the metal substitution, suggesting a structural stabilization. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy showed that Al and Fe substitution markedly influenced the EPR spectrum of NMC-(3:1:1). The EPR spectral lines of both materials are attributed to Mn4+ and Ni2+ present in the structure. The change in the Ni2+ line after the metal substitution suggests a redistribution of the Ni ions in the structure, which can be related to the diminished cation mixing in the NMCAF. The improved electrochemical behavior of NMCAF is closely connected to the stabilization of the layered structure and the reduction of the cation mixing after metal substitution.

  5. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  6. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  7. Development of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers for INO

    CERN Document Server

    Bheesette, Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50kton magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to study atmospheric neutrinos and to make precision measurements of the parameters related to neutrino oscillations. Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of about 2m X 2m in size are going to be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. We have fabricated a large number of glass RPC prototypes of 1m X 1m in size and have studied their performance and long term stability. In the process, we have developed and produced a number of materials and components required for fabrication of RPCs. We have also designed and optimised a number of fabrication and quality control procedures for assembling the gas gaps. In this paper we will review our activities towards development of glass RPCs for the INO ICAL detector and will present results of the characterisation studies of the RPCs.

  8. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayham, Sanuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metaloxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections.

  9. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  10. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber......-based plate shells and outlines needs, methods and effects of controlling cable stresses for secured capacity, form and function of plate tensegrity....

  11. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid.

  12. Iron-regulated proteins (IRPS of leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritharan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been shown to induce the expression of siderophores and their receptors, the iron-regulated membrane proteins in a number of bacterial systems. In this study, the response of Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I to conditions of iron deprivation was assessed and the expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two methods were used for establishing conditions of iron deprivation. One method consisted of addition of the iron chelators ethylenediamine-N, N′-diacetic acid (EDDA and ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHPA and the second method involved the addition of iron at 0.02 µg Fe/mL. Alternatively, iron sufficient conditions were achieved by omitting the chelators in the former method and adding 4 µg Fe/mL of the medium in the latter protocol. Triton X-114 extraction of the cells was done to isolate the proteins in the outer membrane (detergent phase, periplasmic space (aqueous phase and the protoplasmic cylinder (cell pellet. The proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis. RESULTS: In the presence of the iron-chelators, four iron-regulated proteins (IRPs of apparent molecular masses of 82, 64, 60 and 33 kDa were expressed. The 82-kDa protein was seen only in the aqueous phase, while the other three proteins were seen in both the aqueous and detergent fractions. These proteins were not identified in organisms grown in the absence of the iron chelators. The 64, 60 and the 33 kDa proteins were also demonstrated in organisms grown in media with 0.02 µg Fe/mL. In addition, a 24 kDa protein was found to be down-regulated at this concentration of iron as compared to the high level of expression in organisms grown with 4 µg Fe/mL. The blue CAS agar plates with top agar containing 0.02µg Fe/mL showed a colour change to orange-red. CONCLUSION: The expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins under conditions of iron deprivation

  13. Tribological characteristics of gold films deposited on metals by ion plating and vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    The graded interface between an ion-plated film and a substrate is discussed as well as the friction and wear properties of ion-plated gold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and microhardness depth profiling were used to investigate the interface. The friction and wear properties of ion-plated and vapor-deposited gold films were studied both in an ultra high vacuum system to maximize adhesion and in oil to minimize adhesion. The results indicate that the solubility of gold on the substrate material controls the depth of the graded interface. Thermal diffusion and chemical diffusion mechanisms are thought to be involved in the formation of the gold-nickel interface. In iron-gold graded interfaces the gold was primarily dispersed in the iron and thus formed a physically bonded interface. The hardness of the gold film was influenced by its depth and was also related to the composition gradient between the gold and the substrate. The graded nickel-gold interface exhibited the highest hardness because of an alloy hardening effect. The effects of film thickness on adhesion and friction were established.

  14. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation

  15. Reduced Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in the presence of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Si-Feng; Jia, Jing-Fu; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Chen, De-Sheng; Guo, Yong-Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Long

    Staphylococcus aureus can adhere to most foreign materials and form biofilm on the surface of medical devices. Biofilm infections are difficult to resolve. The goal of this in vitro study was to explore the use of chitosan-coated nanoparticles to prevent biofilm formation. For this purpose, S. aureus was seeded in 96-well plates to incubate with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in order to study the efficiency of biofilm formation inhibition. The biofilm bacteria count was determined using the spread plate method; biomass formation was measured using the crystal violet staining method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the biofilm formation. The results showed decreased viable bacteria numbers and biomass formation when incubated with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles at all test concentrations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased dead bacteria and thinner biofilm when incubated with nanoparticles at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles inhibited biofilm formation in polystyrene plates. Future studies should be performed to study these nanoparticles for anti-infective use.

  16. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...

  17. Progress in Research of Iron Oxide Composite Anode Materials for Li-ion Battery%氧化铁基锂离子电池负极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田嘉铭; 王静; 杨金萍; 赵清清

    2014-01-01

    铁氧化物负极材料具有理论容量高、放电平台低、合成方法简单、对环境友好等特点,受到研究者的关注。综述了铁氧化物负极材料在锂离子电池中的应用、制备方法等方面的最新研究进展,介绍了提高铁氧化物材料电化学性能的方式,提出铁氧化物负极材料可望提高锂离子电池的综合性能。%The more attention has been paid to the iron oxide anode materials for lithium ion battery due to their special characteristics such as higher theoretical capacity, low discharge potential, simple synthesis methods and friendly to the environment.Recent progress was reviewed on the applications, preparation methods of iron oxide anode materials in lithium ion batteries.The method of increasing the electrochemical performance was introduced.The iron oxide anode materials is hopeful to increase the gen-eral performances of lithium ion battery materials.

  18. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  19. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  20. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  1. 标准加入原子吸收法连续测定光亮镀镍液中铜、锌、铬、铅、铁杂质的含量%Continuous determination of copper, zinc, chromium, lead,and iron impurities in bright nickel plating baths by standard atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀香; 王旭珍; 于丽; 张曰秋

    2001-01-01

    在相同的光亮镀镍液中分别加入浓度依次递增的铜、锌、铁、铬、铜的标准溶液。用原子吸收光谱法连续测定镀液中铜、锌、铁、铬、铅杂质的含量,优选出最佳的仪器工作条件,讨论了共存元素的干扰及消除。该方法简单,准确度和精密度高,具有使用价值。%Increasing amount of copper, zinc, iron, chromium and leadstandard solutions were separately added in the same nickel plating baths, subsequently, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and lead impurities were continuously determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Operating parameters of the analytical apparatus were optimized. Interference of coexisting elements was discussed. This method is simple, accurate, and has good application value.

  2. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...

  3. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF QUADRATIC SANDWICH PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMAR Dr. Imre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show the optimal design of the three-layered sandwich plates. The objective function contains the material and fabrication costs. The design constraints are the maximal stresses, the deflection of plates and damping of vibrations. The unknown is the thickness of the filling foam. By the mathematical method, we define the minima of the cost function and the optimal thickness of the filling layer of foam. The active constraint is the deflection, so we calculate of the costs of the sandwich plate with the homogeneous plate.

  4. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in ad...

  5. System and method for producing metallic iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  6. System and method for producing metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  7. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  9. Final Report - Novel investigation of iron cross sections via spherical shell transmission measurements and particle transport calculations for material embrittlement studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven M. Grimes; Thomas N. Massey; Allan D. Carlson; James M. Adams; Alireza Haghighat; Michael T. Wenner; Shane R. Gardner

    2003-04-25

    OAK B204 We have been pursuing a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to study neutron scattering interactions in iron. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the well-known deficiency that exists for reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence determinations. Specifically, we are using the spherical-shell transmission method, employing iron shells with different thicknesses, and neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the scattered neutrons, in an effort to precisely determine specific energy regions over which deficiencies in the non-elastic scattering cross section for neutron scattering in iron appear to exist.

  10. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Muller, Lisette; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-05-04

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS) as a surface as compared to polystyrene (PS). For a selection of strains, the total CFU and spore counts in biofilms were determined and showed a good correlation between CFU counts and total biomass of these biofilms. Sporulation was favoured in the biofilm over the planktonic state. To substantiate whether iron availability could affect B. cereus biofilm formation, the free iron availability was varied in BHI by either the addition of FeCl3 or by depletion of iron with the scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Addition of iron resulted in increased air-liquid interface biofilm on polystyrene but not on SS for strain ATCC 10987, while the presence of Bipyridine reduced biofilm formation for both materials. Biofilm formation was restored when excess FeCl3 was added in combination with the scavenger. Further validation of the iron effect for all 23 strains in microtiter plate showed that fourteen strains (including ATCC10987) formed a biofilm on PS. For eight of these strains biofilm formation was enhanced in the presence of added iron and for eleven strains it was reduced when free iron was scavenged. Our results show that stainless steel as a contact material provides more favourable conditions for B. cereus biofilm formation and maturation compared to polystyrene. This effect could possibly be linked to iron availability as we show that free iron availability affects B. cereus biofilm formation.

  11. Technology of Iron Carbide Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Bahgat

    2006-01-01

    Iron carbides are very promising metallurgical products and can be used for steelmaking process, where it plays as an alternative raw material with significant economic advantages. Also it has many other applications,e.g. catalysts, magnets, sensors. The present review investigates the different properties and uses of the iron carbides. The commercial production and the different varieties for the iron carbides synthesis (gaseous carburization, mechanochemical synthesis, laser pyrolysis, plasma pyrolysis, chemical vapor deposition and ion implantation) were reviewed. Also the effect of different factors on the carburization process like gas composition, raw material, temperature, reaction time, catalyst presence and sulfur addition was indicated.

  12. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  13. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  14. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  15. An insight into crystal, electronic, and local structures of lithium iron silicate (Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}) materials upon lithium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon-in, O. [School of Ceramic Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhonratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Klysubun, W. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhonratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission of Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Limphirat, W. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhonratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srilomsak, S. [School of Ceramic Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhonratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Meethong, N., E-mail: nonmee@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2013-05-01

    Recently, orthosilicate, Li{sub 2}MSiO{sub 4} (where M=transition metal) materials have been attracting considerable attention for potential use as a new generation cathode for Li-ion batteries due to their safety, low toxicity, and low cost characteristics. In addition, the presence of two Li{sup +} ions in the molecule offers a multiple electron-charge transfer (M{sup 2+}/M{sup 3+} and M{sup 3+}/M{sup 4+} redox couples), thus allowing a high achievable capacity of more than 320 mA h/g per M unit. Good electrochemical properties of Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} have been reported through several approaches such as downsizing of the particles, carbon-coating, etc. However, in addition to electrochemical performance, fundamental understanding regarding crystal, electronic and local structure changes during charge/discharge processes is also important and needs more rigorous investigation. In this work, lithium iron silicates (Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C) in space group of Pnma: a=10.6671(3) Å, b=6.2689(2) Å, and c=5.0042(2) Å have been prepared by solid-state reaction. The synthesized as well as chemical delithiated samples have been characterized by XRD, HRTEM, AAS and XAS techniques. We will show the results focusing on Fe K-edge XANES, EXAFS, HRTEM and XRD of the Li{sub 2−x}FeSiO{sub 4} samples and discuss how the crystal, electronic, and local structure changes upon Li{sup +} de-intercalation.

  16. Multiphase equation of state for iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, G I

    1993-02-01

    The PANDA code is used to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) table for iron. Separate EOS tables were first constructed for each of the individual phases. The phase diagram and multiphase EOS were then determined from the Helmholtz free energies. The model includes four solid phases ([alpha],[gamma], [delta], and [var epsilon]) and a fluid phase (including the liquid, vapor, and supercritical regions). The model gives good agreement with experimental thermophysical data, static compression data, phase boundaries, and shock-wave measurements. Contributions from thermal electronic excitation, computed from a quantum-statistical-mechanical model, were found to be very important. This EOS covers a wide range of densities (0--1000 g/cm[sup 3]) and temperatures (0--1.2[times]10[sup 7] K). It is also applicable to RHA steel. The new EOS is used in hydrocode simulations of plate impact experiments, a nylon ball impact on steel, and the shaped charge perforation of an RHA plate. The new EOS table can be accessed through the SNL-SESAME library as material number 2150.

  17. Oil quenched malleable iron, the strength of an old material in a “green cast” development and a new future

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelis J. van Ettinger

    2010-01-01

    Malleable iron lost the interest and the development stopped in the turbulent seventies of tremendous developments of new technologies. The personal computer, emission spectrometer, thermal analysis, cold-box core system and automatic vertical moulding were introduced into the foundry industry. Experience shows that these new technologies do not always match up with malleable iron. Solidification and mould filling simulation programs are not always capable to handle a low carbon equivalent ir...

  18. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating

  19. Simulation of Armor-piercing Explosive Projectile on Penetration Target Plate with Different Material%穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖振东

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the simulation of armor-piercing explosive projectile on penetration target plate with different material,based on ANSYS/ls-dyna finite element analysis software,to the thickness of the target board variable parameters for simulation,armor blasting and target plate model, numerical simulation, the penetration process. The target state stress nephogram, explosive projectile wearing by stress conditions and residual velocity of projectile wearing a target such as conclusion, provide the basis for armor-piercing explosive projectile design of the penetration.%为获得穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻情况,基于ANSYS/LS-DYNA有限元分析软件,以靶板的厚度参数为仿真变量,建立穿甲爆破弹及靶板模型,进行数值模拟,再现了侵彻过程。得到了弹丸穿靶状态受力云图、炸药所受应力情况和弹丸穿靶的剩余速度等结论,为半穿甲弹结构的设计提供了依据。

  20. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  1. One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegeya, Claude; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Hatert, Frédéric; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na+ and presence of vacancies in A(2)', Na+ and small amounts of Mn2+ in A(1), Mn2+ in M(1), 0.5 Mn2+ and Fe cations (Mn2+,Fe2+ and Fe3+) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na2Mn(Mn0.5Fe1.5)(PO4)3. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 h at 220 °C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220 °C for 6 h. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 h, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of the reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mA h g-1 for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99% during 50 cycles.

  2. Optical and electrical characteristics of chromium- and iron-doped zinc selenide thin film and bulk materials for optically and electrically pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallian, Andrew

    This work is devoted to evaluating new laser systems based upon chromium and iron doped ZnSe structures. These systems are based upon new materials and pumping schemes. These topics can be broken down into three major subgroups: new materials based upon Cr2+:ZnSe, Fe2+:ZnSe lasers and pump sources, and electrically pumped Cr2+:ZnSe systems. Both hot-pressed ceramic and thin film Cr2+:ZnSe samples were evaluated for their potential as laser gain media. This work entailed spectroscopic analysis of both their absorption and emission spectra as well as characterizing their lifetime of luminescence. For hot-pressed ceramic Cr2+:ZnSe the samples were tested in a laser cavity and proven to be the first laser system in the mid-IR to be demonstrated based upon hot-pressed Cr2+:ZnSe. Thin film Cr2+:ZnSe was determined to have different spectroscopic characteristics for luminescence compared to reference bulk samples. This difference is attributed to the location of all of the optical centers within a Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the film surface and the wafer on which it was deposited. Fe2+:ZnSe laser demonstration at room temperature is presented. This laser operates in a spectral region of great interest for spectroscopy. To develop this laser system new pumping systems were required. Such systems as passively Q-switched Er:YSGG and Stokes Stimulated Raman Scattering from a D2 cell are described in great depth. Electrically pumped Transition Metal 2+:II-VI systems are ideal for small portable spectroscopic and scientific tools. The elimination of an optical pump source removes many complications of other systems including, complications due to having a second laser. This work was approached by modeling electrically motivated transitions with sub-band optical excitation. Lasing of Cr 2+:ZnSe was achieved using a 532 nm pump source. This result, in combination with photo-current and photo-Hall measurements, led to the development of some theories explaining possible

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  6. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  7. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  12. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  13. The comparative study for the isotropic and orthotropic circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Tomescu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic circular plate using analytical method i.e. Classical Plate Theory, Finite Element software ANSYS and experimental methods. The diameter of circular plate, material properties, like modulus of elasticity (E), poissons ratio (µ) and intensity of loading is assumed at the initial stage of research work. In comparison with this plane plate we analyze a plate of same dimensions and charge, but having ribs, to see the advantage of the rigidify. The two plates are fixed supported subjected to uniformly distributed load.

  14. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  15. Synthesis of Submicron Hexagonal Plate-Type SnS2 and Band Gap-Tuned Sn1−xTixS2 Materials and Their Hydrogen Production Abilities on Methanol/Water Photosplitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SnS2 and Sn1−xTixS2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mol materials were designed using solvothermal method with the aim to enhance hydrogen production from water/methanol water photosplitting. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hexagonal plates with one side, 3.0 μm in length, in the SnS2 materials. Pure SnS2 showed absorption band edges of above 660 nm, and the absorption was shifted to low wavelengths with the insertion of Ti ions. The evolution of H2 from MeOH/H2O (1 : 1 photosplitting over SnS2 hexagonal plates in the photocatalytic liquid system was 0.016 mL h−1 g−1, and the evolutions were enhanced in Sn1−xTixS2. In particular, 0.049 mL h−1 g−1 of H2 gas was produced in Sn0.7Ti0.3S2 without electrolytes and it increased significantly to more than 90.6% (0.47 mL h−1 g−1 evolutions at higher pH using 0.1 M of KOH. Based on the UV-visible absorption spectra, the high photocatalytic activity of Sn1−xTixS2 was attributed to the existence of an appropriate band-gap state that retarded recombination between the electrons and holes.

  16. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  18. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  20. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  1. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  2. Recent Development of lithium ion Battery Cathode Material lithium iron Phosphate%锂离子电池磷酸铁锂正极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶焕英

    2016-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate olivine structure of security is very high,and is excellent in cycle performance at high temperatures can also be used,is the most promising battery cathode material.Lithium iron phosphate longer life cycle,and its discharge performance of other ion batteries can not be compared,at a high temperature stability is better,so that became the lithium iron phosphate battery cathode materials commonly used.However,the conductivity of lithium iron phosphate is not particularly desirable,and less than the diffusion coefficient of lithium ions at low temperatures can not play good results,so have some limitations. By analyzing the structure of lithium iron phosphate,performance,etc.,to a certain extent,can improve the performance of lithium iron phosphate.%橄榄石结构的磷酸铁锂的安全性非常高,而且其循环性能优异,在高温下也可以使用,是最有发展前景的电池正极材料。磷酸铁锂的循环寿命较长,而且其放电性能是其他的离子电池不能比的,在高温下稳定性比较好,使磷酸铁锂成为电池正极常用的材料。但是,磷酸铁锂的电导率并不是特别的理想,而且锂离子的扩散系数不足,在低温下不能发挥较好的效果,所以产生一定的局限性。通过分析磷酸铁锂的结构、性能等,在一定程度上可以完善磷酸铁锂的性能。

  3. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  4. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  5. Characterisation of poly(methyl methacrylate) film deposited on iron powder particles by electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriňák, Andrej; Oriňáková, Renáta; Heile, Andreas; Talian, Ivan; Terhorst, Markus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.

    2007-09-01

    Iron powder microparticles were coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film by electropolymerization in a fluidised bed reactor. The formation of a PMMA coating on the microparticles' surface was studied with pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC) fingerprinting as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). While Py-GC can provide information about PMMA bulk formation and quick information about PMMA deposition on iron microparticles, TOF-SIMS can give detailed information about particle surface PMMA coatings. A TOF-SIMS study was performed in both, positive and negative ion modes with Bi + and Bi3+ primary ions. Static TOF-SIMS macroscans of powder microparticle surface resulted in the identification of the regions with species related to the PMMA fragments in the negative ion region (Bi3+). TOF-SIMS results confirmed that PMMA coating on the iron powder microparticle surface formed an incoherent and inhomogeneous film. PMMA coating was somewhere very thin to supply a sufficient positive charged secondary ion signal. Plating of metallic powder particles by polymeric coating enables the modification of surface and structural properties of materials used in powder metallurgy. PMMA coated iron powder microparticles can be innovative as lubricants in such a way that, when they are subjected to pressure, they burst and release carbon to metal powder. The main aim of this research work is to characterise PMMA coatings deposited by electropolymerization on the surface of iron powder microparticles.

  6. Investigating Convective Heat Transfer with an Iron and a Hairdryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I.; Lucio, Jesus H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental set-up to study free and forced convection in undergraduate physics laboratories is presented. The flat plate of a domestic iron has been chosen as the hot surface, and a hairdryer is used to generate an air stream around the plate. Several experiments are proposed and typical numerical results are reported. An analysis and…

  7. Solidification of Hypereutectic Thin Wall Ductile Cast Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    Hypereutectic ductile iron was cast in green sand moulds with four plates with thickness of 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 mm in each mould. Temperatures were measured in the 3 and 4 mm plate. The temperature curves showed that eutectic solidification was divided into two stages: primary and secondary eutectic...

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the dinuclear iron center in methane monooxygenase and the sulfure and chlorine centers in photographic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The dinuclear iron center of the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporiwn has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the Fe K-edge EXAFS revealed that the first shell coordination of the Fe(HI)Fe(IH) oxidized state of the hydroxylase from M. capsulatus consists of approximately 6 N and 0 atoms at an average distance of 2.04 {Angstrom}. The Fe-Fe distance was determined to be 3.4 {Angstrom}. No evidence for the presence of a short oxo bridge in the iron center of the oxidized hydroxylase was found, suggesting that the active site of MMO is significantly different from the active sites of the dinuclear iron proteins hemery and ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, the results of the first shell fits suggest that there are more oxygen than nitrogen donor ligands.

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the dinuclear iron center in methane monooxygenase and the sulfure and chlorine centers in photographic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The dinuclear iron center of the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporiwn has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the Fe K-edge EXAFS revealed that the first shell coordination of the Fe(HI)Fe(IH) oxidized state of the hydroxylase from M. capsulatus consists of approximately 6 N and 0 atoms at an average distance of 2.04 [Angstrom]. The Fe-Fe distance was determined to be 3.4 [Angstrom]. No evidence for the presence of a short oxo bridge in the iron center of the oxidized hydroxylase was found, suggesting that the active site of MMO is significantly different from the active sites of the dinuclear iron proteins hemery and ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, the results of the first shell fits suggest that there are more oxygen than nitrogen donor ligands.