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Sample records for iron nuggets produced

  1. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  2. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  3. Small quarks make big nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligeorges, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief recall on the classification of subatomic particles, this paper deals with quark nuggets, particle with more than three quarks, a big bag, which is called ''nuclearite''. Neutron stars, in fact, are big sacks of quarks, gigantic nuggets. Now, physicists try to calculate which type of nuggets of strange quark matter is stable, what has been the influence of quark nuggets on the primordial nucleosynthesis. At the present time, one says that if these ''nuggets'' exist, and in a large proportion, they may be candidates for the missing mass [fr

  4. R&D Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSS Archive Videos XML DOE R&D Accomplishments DOE R&D Accomplishments searchQuery × Find searchQuery x Find DOE R&D Acccomplishments Navigation dropdown arrow The Basics dropdown arrow Home About &D Nuggets Database dropdown arrow Search Tag Cloud Browse Reports Database Help Finding Aids

  5. System and method for producing metallic iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  6. Evaluation of a modified pH-shift process to reduce 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in spiked catfish and produce a consumer acceptable fried catfish nugget-like product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T M; Cerruto-Noya, C A; Schrader, K K; Kleinholz, C W; DeWitt, C A Mireles

    2012-10-01

    Muddy and/or musty off-flavors in farmed-raised catfish occur as a result of the absorption of geosmin (GEO) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), compounds produced by algae. Previous research suggests the acid pH-shift method may be able to reduce off-flavors to produce a consumer acceptable product. The objective of this research was to evaluate application of the acid pH-shift method using a shaker sieve for protein recovery and to evaluate consumer acceptability of a resultant batter-coated fried nugget-like catfish product. Farm-raised catfish were either allowed to depurate (control) or treated with 1 ppb GEO or MIB. Fillets from each replicate were collected and ground and treated by the acid pH-shift process. Samples from all treatments and replicates were evaluated for residual GEO and MIB. In addition, batter-coated fried catfish samples were prepared for a consumer sensory evaluation. Results demonstrated that the pH-shift process decreased moisture, ash, and collagen content of catfish fillet tissue (P evaluated for removing off-flavors from catfish. Difficulties were encountered with regard to protein recovery using the sieve and suggestions are made to, perhaps, make the process more applicable for a sieve-based recovery step. The process as described reduced off-flavors, but only 2-fold suggesting the process would work best on catfish near or just over off-flavor thresholds. Results also indicated the pH-shift process could be used to improve texture of a fried catfish product designed to be similar to chicken nuggets. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Deactivation of iron oxide used in the steam-iron process to produce hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.; Veringa, H.J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the steam-iron process pure hydrogen can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock by using a redox cycle of iron oxide. One of the main problems connected to the use of the iron oxide is the inherent structural changes that take place during oxygen loading and unloading leading to severe

  8. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (−20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content...... storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again...... not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46–3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable...

  9. Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test.

  10. QCD pairing in primordial nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.

  11. Method for producing dysprosium-iron-boron alloy powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, F.E.; Wooden, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a dysprosium-iron alloy adapted for use in the manufacture of rare-earth element containing, iron-boron permanent magnets, the method including providing a particle mixture comprising dysprosium oxide, iron and calcium, compacting the particle mixture to produce a consolidated article, heating the article for a time at temperature to form a metallic compound comprising dysprosium and iron and to form calcium oxide, producing a particle mass of -35 mesh from the compact, washing the particle mass with water at a temperature no greater than 10 0 C to react to the calcium and to the calcium oxide therewith to form a calcium hydroxide, while preventing oxidation of the particle mass, and removing the calcium hydroxide from the particle mass

  12. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  13. A new method to produce nanoscale iron for nitrate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-S.; Hsu, H.-D.; Li, C.-W.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes a novel technology combining electrochemical and ultrasonic methods to produce nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI). With platinum placed in the cathode and the presence of the dispersion agent, 0.2g/l cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cation surfactant, in the solution, the nanoscale iron particle was successfully produced with diameter of 1-20 nm and specific surface area of 25.4m 2 /g. The produced NZVI was tested in batch experiments for nitrate removal. The results showed that the nitrate reduction was affected by pH. Al low pH, nitrate was shown faster decline and more reduction in term of g NO 3 - -N/g NZVI. The reaction was first order and kinetic coefficients for the four pHs were directly related to pH with R 2 >0.95. Comparing with microscale zero-valent iron (45μm, 0.183m 2 /g), microscale zero-valent iron converted nitrate to ammonia completely, but NZVI converted nitrate to ammonia partially from 36.2 to 45.3% dependent on pH. For mass balance of iron species, since the dissolved iron in the solution was very low ( 2 O 3 was recognized. Thus the reaction mechanisms can be determined

  14. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  15. Penggunaan Bahan Pengisi terhadap Mutu Nugget Vegetarian Berbahan Dasar Tahu dan Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Rohaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare different sources of flours and protein sources based on soya bean products in producing vegetarian nugget. Factorial experimental design with three replications was employed where wheat, sweet potato, sago and banana flour as one factor, and tempeh and tofu as another factor. Moisture and raw protein content of vegetarian nuggets produced in this study was in accordance with the Indonesia Standard (SNI. Moisture was less than 60 percent and raw protein was above 12 percent. The highest organoleptic test was obtained from the nugget made of the combination of sago as filler and tofu as protein source. The nugget contained 60.00, 14.89, 28.89 and 2.00 percent of moisture, raw protein, raw fat and ash content, respectively. The organoleptic scores were 2.70, 3.58, 3.50, 3.53 and 3.62 for color, aroma, taste, texture and springiness, respectively. Keywords: nugget, vegetarian nugget, filler

  16. Charges on Strange Quark Nuggets in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, V.; Bhatia, A.; Abers, E.; Dicus, D.; Repko, W.; Rosenbaum, D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work done in calculations to find ZN such that the rate of ambient photons ionize the strange quark nuggets (SQNs) Electrons are equal to the rate of ambient e's to replace them.

  17. Detection of magnetized quark-nuggets, a candidate for dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevender, J Pace; VanDevender, Aaron P; Sloan, T; Swaim, Criss; Wilson, Peter; Schmitt, Robert G; Zakirov, Rinat; Blum, Josh; Cross, James L; McGinley, Niall

    2017-08-18

    Quark nuggets are theoretical objects composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are also called strangelets and nuclearites. They have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter, which constitutes ~85% of the universe's mass and which has been a mystery for decades. Previous efforts to detect quark nuggets assumed that the nuclear-density core interacts directly with the surrounding matter so the stopping power is minimal. Tatsumi found that quark nuggets could well exist as a ferromagnetic liquid with a ~10 12 -T magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field produces a magnetopause with surrounding plasma, as the earth's magnetic field produces a magnetopause with the solar wind, and substantially increases their energy deposition rate in matter. We use the magnetopause model to compute the energy deposition as a function of quark-nugget mass and to analyze testing the quark-nugget hypothesis for dark matter by observations in air, water, and land. We conclude the water option is most promising.

  18. Influence of quark nuggets on primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Audouze, J.

    1985-03-01

    There are many indications that the baryonic content of the universe is rather low. This has been suggested that small droplets, ''nuggets'', of quark matter could exist and be stable or at least metastable with respect to their decay into ordinary nucleons or nuclei. This hypothesis is discussed here

  19. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  20. ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the new 10 ppb arsenic standard. One of the treatment options is co-precipitation of arsenic with iron. This tre...

  1. The influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, M.M.; Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops. The influence of aqueous solutions of iron coordination compounds with anions of acetic and ethylen diamin disuccinic acids on germinative energy and germination of cotton crops and grapes was studied in laboratory conditions. The conducted researches shown that application of iron coordination compounds improves the growth, fruiting and the quality of studied crops.

  2. Isotopes produced by galactic cosmic rays in iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birck, J.L.; Allegre, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The elements Li, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr have been investigated in the iron meteorites Grant and Carbo. Their isotopic ratios show clearly the effects of spallation by galactic cosmic rays. Our experimental technique allows us to determine the concentration of spallation products with a precision close to 1 per mil for a number of isotopes. The effects of shielding are clearly evidenced in the calcium data and the exposure ages are calculated by using the 40 K measurements

  3. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  4. Technology for producing synthetic cast iron for nuclear power station parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blozhko, N.K.; Kurochkin, V.S.; Narkevich, E.A.; Nikitin, L.A.; Petrov, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technology was developed and implemented for producing grades SCh-30 through SCh-40 synthetic cast iron in industrial-frequency induction melting furnaces. Alternative innoculations with ferrosilicon and silicocalcium and alloying with chrome and nickel were studied. The mechanical properties and structure of cast irons produced by various technological methods were studied. The research showed that the sector's plants, equipped with industrial-frequency induction furnaces, can produce high-quality synthetic cast irons containing flake graphite for nuclear-power-station casting, without the use of expensive innoculants. Careful observance of the melting and innoculating technologies makes it possible to produce SCh 40 cast iron, without cementite inclusions, by innoculating with FS 75 ferrosilicon in the amount of 0.7% of the total melt weight. Using an innoculant mixture of 0.2% FS 75 and 0.5% SK 30 and low alloying with nickel and chromium, the cast-iron strength can be increased to 440-450 MPa, although the danger of cementite inclusions increase

  5. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05 decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  6. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter—nuggets—synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  7. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  8. Studi Pemanfaatan Jantung Pisang dan Ikan Gabus dalam Pembuatan Nugget

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Lisma; ', Yusmarini; Harun, Noviar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of research is to identify the ratio influence of the banana's heart and the gabus fish concerning the result of nugget quality and the best formulation in making process of the banana's heart and the gabus fish nugget. This research was carried out experimentally by using Completely Randomized Design consisting of 5 treatments with 3 replications. The treatments consist of JI1 = (banana's heart 10 : gabus fish 90), JI2 = (banana's heart 15 : gabus fish 85), JI3 = (banana's heart ...

  9. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  11. Moessbauer and EXAFS studies of amorphous iron produced by thermal decomposition of carbonyl iron in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Ujihira, Yusuke; Takahashi, Tamotu; Uchida, Yasuzo

    1990-01-01

    Decomposition of iron carbonyl Fe(CO) 5 and Fe 2 (CO) 9 in liquid phase gave amorphous and crystalline iron powders in the absence and presence of catalyst, respectively. The hyperfine fields were large in amorphous phases prepared from Fe(CO) 5 than from Fe 2 (CO) 9 . Crystalline iron, iron carbide and a trace amount of Fe 3 O 4 were detected in the decomposition products of the amorphous phase prepared from Fe(CO) 5 , and iron carbide was mainly included in the decomposition products of the amorphous phase prepared from Fe 2 (CO) 9 . (orig.)

  12. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  13. Refractory metal nuggets in different types of cosmic spherules.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Plane, J.M.C.; Berg, T.; Feng, W.; Balgar, S.

    a fremdling-like object in a cosmic spherule which has a nugget encased in Fe–Ni and sulfide phases, similar to those typically observed in CAIs of CV or CO chondrites. The atmospheric entry for this rare cosmic spherule appears to have taken place...

  14. Beyond WIMPs: the Quark (Anti Nugget Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitnitsky Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review a testable dark matter (DM model outside of the standard WIMP paradigm. The model is unique in a sense that the observed ratio Ωdark ≃ Ωvisible for visible and dark matter densities finds its natural explanation as a result of their common QCD origin when both types of matter (DM and visible are formed during the QCD phase transition and both are proportional to single dimensional parameter of the system, Λqcd. We argue that the charge separation effect also inevitably occurs during the same QCD phase transition in the presence of the CP odd axion field a(x. It leads to preferential formation of one species of nuggets on the scales of the visible Universe where the axion field a(x is coherent. A natural outcome of this preferential evolution is that only one type of the visible baryons (not anti- baryons remain in the system after the nuggets complete their formation. Unlike conventional WIMP dark matter candidates, the nuggets and anti-nuggets are strongly interacting but macroscopically large objects. The rare events of annihilation of the anti-nuggets with visible matter lead to a number of observable effects. We argue that the relative intensities for a number of measured excesses of emission from the centre of galaxy (covering more than 11 orders of magnitude are determined by standard and well established physics. At the same time the absolute intensity of emission is determined by a single new fundamental parameter of the theory, the axion mass, 10−6eV ≲ ma ≲ 10−3eV. Finally, we comment on implications of these studies for the axion search experiments, including microwave cavity and the Orpheus experiments.

  15. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, E.F., E-mail: ericafa@las.inpe.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Resende, V.G. de; Mengui, U.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.B.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91.501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Massi, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N{sub 2} or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  16. TiC Reinforcement Composite Coating Produced Using Graphite of the Cast Iron by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a TiC-reinforced composite coating was produced to improve the wear resistance of a pearlite matrix grey iron using a pre-placed Ti powder by laser cladding. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS confirmed that the coating was composed of TiC particles and two kinds of α-Fe phase. The fine TiC particles were only a few microns in size and uniformly distributed on the matrix phase in the composite coating. The microstructure characteristic of the composite coating resulted in the microhardness rising to about 1000 HV0.3 (China GB/T 4342-1991 and the wear resistance significantly increased relative to the substrate. In addition, the fine and homogeneous solidification microstructure without graphite phase in the transition zone led to a good metallurgical bonding and transition between the coating and the substrate. It was of great significance for the cast iron to modify the surface and repair surface defects or surface damage.

  17. TiC Reinforcement Composite Coating Produced Using Graphite of the Cast Iron by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhui; Qu, Weicheng; Su, Yu

    2016-09-30

    In this study, a TiC-reinforced composite coating was produced to improve the wear resistance of a pearlite matrix grey iron using a pre-placed Ti powder by laser cladding. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the coating was composed of TiC particles and two kinds of α -Fe phase. The fine TiC particles were only a few microns in size and uniformly distributed on the matrix phase in the composite coating. The microstructure characteristic of the composite coating resulted in the microhardness rising to about 1000 HV0.3 (China GB/T 4342-1991) and the wear resistance significantly increased relative to the substrate. In addition, the fine and homogeneous solidification microstructure without graphite phase in the transition zone led to a good metallurgical bonding and transition between the coating and the substrate. It was of great significance for the cast iron to modify the surface and repair surface defects or surface damage.

  18. The North American iron ore industry: a decade into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, John D.; Perez, A. A

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen another period of transformation, with the failure of a number of steel companies and with consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are changing rapidly. Consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures, divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes to ensure availability of feedstocks all played a role in recent developments in the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and U.S. iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream production, although isolated, must also be considered within the context of the changing global economy. Projects using new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96-98% iron content and other projects designed to produce steel at minesites may once again change the face of the iron ore industry. Social and environmental issues related to sustainable development have had a significant effect on the North American iron ore industry.

  19. Cosmological axion and a quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuailiang; Liang, Xunyu; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2018-02-01

    We study a dark matter (DM) model offering a very natural explanation of two (naively unrelated) problems in cosmology: the observed relation ΩDM˜Ωvisible and the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe, known as the "baryogenesis" problem. In this framework, both types of matter (dark and visible) have the same QCD origin, form at the same QCD epoch, and are proportional to one and the same dimensional parameter of the system, ΛQCD, which explains how these two naively distinct problems could be intimately related, and could be solved simultaneously within the same framework. More specifically, the DM in this model is composed by two different ingredients: the (well-studied) DM axions and the (less-studied) quark nuggets made of matter or antimatter. We focus on the quantitative analysis of the relation between these two distinct components contributing to the dark sector of the theory determined by ΩDM≡[ΩDM(nuggets)+ΩDM(axion)] . We argue that the nuggets' DM component always traces the visible matter density, i.e., ΩDM(nuggets)˜Ωvisible , and this feature is not sensitive to the parameters of the system such as the axion mass ma or the misalignment angle θ0. It should be contrasted with conventional axion production mechanisms due to the misalignment when ΩDM(axion) is highly sensitive to the axion mass ma and the initial misalignment angle θ0. We also discuss the constraints on this model related to the inflationary scale HI, nonobservation of the isocurvature perturbations and the tensor modes. We also comment on some constraints related to various axion search experiments.

  20. Stability of tris-1,10-phenanthroline iron (II) complex in biomineral particles produced by Klebsiella oxytoca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, L.V.; Balasoiu, M.; Lazar, D.M.; Ishchenko, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of composites has a huge impact on the stability of tris-1,10-phenanthroline iron (II) complex during the determination of total iron content. The subject of this work is the determination of the stability of tris-1,10-phenanthroline iron (II) complex in samples of biominerals produced by bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca. The stability of this complex was monitored in the time period of 0-60 min. The aim of this work is to determine the concentration of the biogenic ferrihydrite in the samples and the time interval in which the absorbance of the complex is highest. The UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was used for the determination. Obtained results indicate that for more exact estimations of the concentration of biogenic ferrihydrite, absorbance of tris-1,10-phenanthroline iron (II) complex should be measured within 25 min from the moment ortho-phenanthroline was added

  1. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  2. Microstructure, microbial profile and quality characteristics of high-pressure-treated chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh; Anurag, Rahul; Jaganath, Bindu; Rao, Srinivasa

    2015-10-01

    High-pressure processing (300 MPa for 5 min) as a non-thermal post-processing intervention was employed to improve the shelf life and qualities of cooked refrigerated chicken nuggets. Pomegranate peel extract (1%) was also used as a source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial in chicken nuggets. Microstructure, microbial profile, instrumental colour, texture profile and lipid oxidation were evaluated. High-pressure treatment and pomegranate peel extract did not influence significantly the colour and textural properties of cooked chicken nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values significantly (p chicken nuggets were the major spoilage bacteria. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  4. Influence of tool pin profile on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AA2219 Al–Cu alloy friction stir weld nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkata Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the problems of fusion welding of aluminium alloys, the friction stir welding (FSW is recognized as an alternative joining method to improve the mechanical and corrosion properties. Tool profile is one of the important variables which affect the performance of the FS weld. In the present work, the effect of tool profile on the weld nugget microstructure and pitting corrosion of AA2219 aluminium–copper alloy was studied. FSW of AA2219 alloy was carried out using five profiles, namely conical, square, triangle, pentagon and hexagon. The temperature measurements were made in the region adjacent to the rotating pin. It was observed that the peak temperature is more in hexagonal tool pin compared to the welds produced with other tool pin profiles. It is observed that the extensive deformation experienced at the nugget zone and the evolved microstructure strongly influences the hardness and corrosion properties of the joint during FSW. It was found that the microstructure changes like grain size, misorientation and precipitate dissolution during FSW influence the hardness and corrosion behaviour. Pitting corrosion resistance of friction stir welds of AA2219 was found to be better for hexagon profile tool compared to other profiles, which was attributed to material flow and strengthening precipitate morphology in nugget zone. Higher amount of heat generation in FS welds made with hexagonal profile tool may be the reason for greater dissolution of strengthening precipitates in nugget zone.

  5. Morphology and Phase Composition of Particles Produced by Electro-Discharge-Machining of Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, E. D.; Pasqualini, E. E.; Lopez, M.; Cirilo, D.; Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Towards producing metallic particles of controlled size and spherical shape, which are of technological importance, we have collected in the filters of an electro-discharge-machine (EDM) the material ejected from the surface of EDM iron pieces. The conditions of machining were varied for kerosene and water as dielectrics, using a discharge current of 25 A and duration times of 16 and 3072 μs for kerosene and of 32, 384 and 768 μs for water, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the effect of the time of discharge on the size of the particles. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that for kerosene EDM particles only cementite-like carbides of diverse stoichiometry were formed. While no oxide was found for kerosene spheres, the analyses showed that besides the main fraction of α-Fe, a small percentage of wuestite (and traces of hematite for the 384 μs sample) formed on the water EDM ones

  6. Morphology and Phase Composition of Particles Produced by Electro-Discharge-Machining of Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanillas, E. D.; Pasqualini, E. E.; Lopez, M.; Cirilo, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes (Argentina); Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2001-05-15

    Towards producing metallic particles of controlled size and spherical shape, which are of technological importance, we have collected in the filters of an electro-discharge-machine (EDM) the material ejected from the surface of EDM iron pieces. The conditions of machining were varied for kerosene and water as dielectrics, using a discharge current of 25 A and duration times of 16 and 3072 {mu}s for kerosene and of 32, 384 and 768 {mu}s for water, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the effect of the time of discharge on the size of the particles. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that for kerosene EDM particles only cementite-like carbides of diverse stoichiometry were formed. While no oxide was found for kerosene spheres, the analyses showed that besides the main fraction of {alpha}-Fe, a small percentage of wuestite (and traces of hematite for the 384 {mu}s sample) formed on the water EDM ones.

  7. Microscopic and Macroscopic Structures of Carbon Nanotubes Produced by Pyrolysis of Iron Phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaoming; Dai Liming

    2002-01-01

    By pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), either in a patterned or non-patterned fashion, under an Ar/H 2 atmosphere, we have demonstrated the large-scale production of aligned carbon nanotubes perpendicular to the substrate surface useful for building devices with three-dimensional structures. Depending on the particular pyrolytic conditions used, carbon nanotubes with a wide range of microscopic structures having curved, helical, coiled, branched, and tube-within-tube shapes have also been prepared by the pyrolysis of FePc. This, coupled with several microfabrication methods (photolithography, soft-lithography, self-assembling, micro-contact transfer, etc.), has enabled us to produce carbon nanotube arrays of various macroscopic architectures including polyhedral, flower-like, dendritic, circular, multilayered, and micropatterned geometries. In this article, we summarize our work on the preparation of FePc-generated carbon nanotubes with the large variety of microscopic and macroscopic structures and give a brief overview on the perspectives of making carbon nanotubes with tailor-made microscopic/macroscopic structures, and hence well-defined physicochemical properties, for specific applications

  8. USE OF HIGH-STRENGTH BAINITIC CAST IRON FOR PRODUCING GEAR WHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages and drawbacks of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure are reviewed basing on the authors’ own experience in the production of critical partsfrom this material and on the analysis of world trends. A possibility of the replacement of alloy steels by bainitic cast iron in manufacturing critical machine parts is discussed.

  9. Mössbauer study of iron carbide nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagasa, S., E-mail: B115608@ed.tus.ac.jp; Nishida, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [The University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering (Japan); Yamada, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron carbide nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation of iron in alcohols (methanol and ethanol). A new cell, designed to allow the ablation to be conducted in a flowing solvent, enabled separation and collection of the nanoparticles immediately after production, thus preventing further photochemical reactions of the colloids. The nanoparticles were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. In methanol, they consisted of α-iron, γ-iron, iron carbide, and amorphous paramagnetic iron carbides, whereas in ethanol they consisted of iron carbides and amorphous paramagnetic iron carbides. The difference in products depending on the alcohol was attributed to the different carbon supplies for methanol and ethanol. For both solvents, the average particle size was found to be 16 nm, and the nanoparticles were dispersed in amorphous carbon. We also examined the effect of further laser irradiation of the colloids using stagnant solvent, and the particle size was found to increase and a very small amount of carbonization was observed.

  10. Measurements of Neutron Spectra Produced from a Thick Iron Target Bombarded with 1.5-GeV Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke; Arima, Hidehiko; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Numajiri, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally shows good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20 to 80 MeV for iron, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy-nuclides such as lead and tungsten

  11. Quark nugget dark matter: no contradiction with 511 keV line emission from dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then it is possible that a similar spectral feature may be observed in association with nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects are believed to be strongly dark matter dominated and present a relatively clean observational target. Recently INTEGRAL observations have provided new constraints on the 511 keV flux from nearby dwarf galaxies [1] motivating further investigation into the mechanism by which this radiation may arise. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued that this type of interaction is not strongly constrained by the flux limits reported in [2].

  12. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity.

  13. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  14. Hydrogen production by ethanol partial oxidation over nano-iron oxide catalysts produced by chemical vapour synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Wael Ahmed Abou Taleb Sayed

    2011-01-13

    This work presents the experimental results of the synthesis of unsupported and supported SiC iron oxide nanoparticles and their catalytic activity towards ethanol partial oxidation. For comparison, further unsupported iron oxide phases were investigated towards the ethanol partial oxidation. These {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase catalysts were prepared by the CVS method using Fe(CO){sub 5} as precursor, supplied by another author. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles were prepared by the CVS method using a home made hot wall reactor technique at atmospheric pressure. Ferrocene and tetramethylsilane were used as precursor for the production process. Process parameters of precursor evaporation temperature, precursor concentration, gas mixture velocity and gas mixture dilution were investigated and optimised to produce particle sizes in a range of 10 nm. For Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC catalyst series production, a new hot wall reactor setup was used. The particles were produced by simultaneous thermal decomposition of ferrocene and tetramethylsilane in one reactor from both sides. The production parameters of inlet tube distance inside the reactor, precursor evaporation temperature and carrier gas flow were investigated to produce a series of samples with different iron oxide content. The prepared catalysts composition, physical and chemical properties were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, BET surface area, FTIR, XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The catalytic activity for the ethanol gas-phase oxidation was investigated in a temperature range from 260 C to 290 C. The product distributions obtained over all catalysts were analysed with mass spectrometry analysis tool. The activity of bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles was compared with prepared nano-iron oxide phase catalysts. The reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature and O{sub 2}/ethanol ratio were investigated. The catalysts

  15. Quantification of Microtexture at Weld Nugget of Friction Stir-Welded Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Md M.; Sarkar, R.; Pal, T. K.; Ghosh, M.; Prabhu, N.

    2017-05-01

    Friction stir welding of C-Mn steel was carried out under 800-1400 rpm tool rotation. Tool traversing speed of 50 mm/min remained same for all joints. Effect of thermal state and deformation on texture and microstructure at weld nugget was investigated. Weld nugget consisted of ferrite + bainite/Widmanstatten ferrite with different matrix grain sizes depending on peak temperature. A texture around ( ϕ 2 = 0°, φ = 30°, ϕ 2 = 45°) was developed at weld nugget. Grain boundary misorientation at weld nugget indicated that continuous dynamic recrystallization influenced the development of fine equiaxed grain structure. Pole figures and orientation distribution function were used to determine crystallographic texture at weld nugget and base metal. Shear texture components D1, D2 and F were present at weld nugget. D1 shear texture was more prominent among all. Large number of high-angle grain boundaries ( 60-70%) was observed at weld nugget and was the resultant of accumulation of high amount of dislocation, followed by subgrain formation.

  16. Actionable nuggets: knowledge translation tool for the needs of patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets' effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Forty-nine primary care physicians. Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants' opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. With Actionable Nuggets, participants' knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians' practices was 72%. Participants' awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian Medical Association to approximately 50,000 primary care physicians in Canada, in both

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the regulations. One of the treatment options is iron co-precipitation. This treatment is attractive because ars...

  18. Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@physics.ubc.ca

    2013-07-09

    Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation.

  19. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ωdark ~ Ωvisible when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter ΛQCD. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like "nanoflares" in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.

  20. Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation

  1. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  2. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1990-05-15

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  3. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  4. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  5. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  6. The Effects of Using Seaweed (E. Cottonii on Physical Quality and Organoleptic of Chicken Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was experimental method with Completely Random Design.  Seaweed used to chicken nuggets in the vary concentration, namely: 0% (F0, 10% (F1, 20% (F2, 30% (F3, 40% (F4. The observed variables were texture, water holding capacity (WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality of chicken nuggets. Collected data were analyzed using analisys variation method and followed by Duncan analysis if the result on the previous analysis showed significant difference. The  result  showed  that  chicken  nuggets  using  seaweed  gave highly significant effect  (P<0.01 on  texture, WHC, pH, and   organoleptic quality. The best result was chicken nuggets made with used of seaweed  10%;  7.97 N of texture; 4.50% of WHC; 6.16 of pH; 6.98 of texture organoleptic score; and 6.26 of taste organoleptic score. The conclusion of this research was the using of seaweed to chicken nuggets gave a significant effect on  texture, WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality. Based on the result, it suggested that using 10% of seaweed to make chicken nugeets.   Keyword : water holding capacity, chicken nuggets, seaweed

  7. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes which are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found the NMTC/JAM generally shows in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20-80 MeV, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy nuclide target such as lead and tungsten target. (author)

  8. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  9. PYOMELANIN IS PRODUCED BY SHEWANELLA ALGAE BRY AND EFFECTED BY EXOGENOUS IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Frank Caccavo, F; Jr., J; Louis S. Tisa, L

    2006-11-29

    Melanin production by S. algae BrY occurred during late/post-exponential growth in lactate-basal-salts liquid medium supplemented with tyrosine or phenylalanine. The antioxidant ascorbate inhibited melanin production, but not production of the melanin precursor, homogentisic acid. In the absence of ascorbate, melanin production was inhibited by the 4-hydroxyplenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, sulcotrione and Fe(II) (>0.2mM). These data support the hypothesis that pigment production by S. algae BrY was a result the conversion of tyrosine or phenylalanine to homogentisic acid which was excreted, auto-oxidized and self-polymerized to form pyomelanin. The inverse relationship between Fe(II) concentration and pyomelanin production has implications that pyomelanin may play a role in iron assimilation under Fe(II) limiting conditions.

  10. The gold nuggets of the lower Pliocene Alhambra Formation (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Roberta; Bonvegna, Piero; Sanchez-Navas, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The present research was devoted to the geochemical and textural characterization of gold nuggets extracted from auriferous siliciclastic deposits of the lower Pliocene continental Alhambra Formation (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain). This Formation is mainly composed of metamorphic lithoclasts deriving both by the erosion of the Mulhacen Unit of the Nevado-Filabride Complex and the reworking of the upper Tortonian marine Dudar-Pinos Genil Formation, on its turn previously formed by erosion of the Veleta Unit of the Nevado-Filabride Complex. Particularly, the studied gold nuggets were separated from 1m3 of auriferous conglomerates sampled along the right side of the Genil River, in the abandoned Lancha de Cenes Mine, exploited since Roman time for gold mining. The recovered gold nuggets were 24 for a total weight of 0.125 g/m3. Textural analysis of gold nuggets was made by means mechanical sieving and visual comparison of roundness and form. They are sand-sized rounded to sub-rounded grains with spheroidal and cubic form. Surface analyses of the nuggets by SEM-EDS indicated that external portions show textures more porous than in the nuggets nuclei. Chemical analyses by EMPA indicated that they are constituted by pure gold with Ag and Hg as trace elements. The gold mine capacity of the studied auriferous deposits is at least of 0.125 g/m3 (lower than 0.5 g/m3; minimum value to be gold mine economically exploitable). Notwithstanding this value, the auriferous conglomerates of the Alhambra Formation reveal to be interesting under a gold mine exploitation point of view because of the gold high pureness degree. Finally, under a geological point of view, considering that the Alhambra Formation is mainly composed of lower Pliocene alluvial fan conglomerates and sandstones formed during the uplift of the Sierra Nevada, the selected gold nuggets are secondary deposits originally derived from primary deposits related to hydrothermal gold-bearing quartz veins included in

  11. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  12. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ω{sub dark} ∼ Ω{sub visible} when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter Λ{sub QCD}. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like 'nanoflares' in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.

  13. Critical charges on strange quark nuggets and other extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, Duane A.; Repko, Wayne W.; Teplitz, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the critical charge for spontaneous pair production, Z C , defined as the charge at which the total energy of a K-shell electron is E=-m e , as a function of the radius R of the charge distribution. Our approach is to solve the Dirac equation for a potential V(r) consisting of a spherically symmetrical charge distribution of radius R and a Coulomb tail. For a spherical shell distribution of the type usually associated with color-flavor locked strange quark nuggets, we confirm the relation Z C =0.71R (fm) for sufficiently large R obtained by Madsen, who used an approach based on the Thomas-Fermi model. We also present results for a uniformly charged sphere and again find that Z C ∼R for large enough R. Also discussed is the behavior of Z C when simple ad hoc modifications are made to the potential for 0≤r< R.

  14. Enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzyme modification on starch as an effective oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets. Various native starches were hydrolyzed by amyloglucosidase to a hydrolysis degree of 20% to 25% and plated with 50% (w/w, starch dry basis) with canola oil to create a starch-oil matrix. This matrix was then blended into a dry ingredient blend for batter and breader components. Nuggets were prepared by coated with predust, hydrated batter, and breader, and the coated nuggets were steam-baked until fully cooked and then frozen until texture and sensory analyses. The enzyme-modified starches showed a significant decrease in pasting viscosities for all starch types. For textural properties of nuggets, no clear relationship was found between peak force and starch source or amylose content. Sensory attributes related to fried foods (for example, crispness and mouth-coating) did not significantly differ between bake-only nuggets formulated using the enzyme-modified starches and the partially fried and baked ones. The present findings suggest that enzyme-modified starches can deliver sufficient quantity of oil to create sensory attributes similar to those of partially fried chicken nuggets. Further study is needed to optimize the coating formulation of bake-only chicken nugget to become close to the fried one in sensory aspects. The food industry has become increasingly focused on healthier items. Frying imparts several critical and desirable product functionalities, such as developing texture and color, and providing mouth-feel and flavor. The food industry has yet to duplicate all of the unique characteristics of fried chicken nuggets with a baking process. This study investigated the application of enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system in bake-only chicken nugget formulation in attempts to provide characteristics of fried items. This information is useful to improve the nutritional value of fried food by eliminating the

  15. Guava ( L. Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L. powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I and 1.0% (Treatment II and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%, phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05 in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05 in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05 due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  16. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w.  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle difference test were analyzed. The results showed that oxidation level of nugget was higher than meatball.  Free fatty acid content increased in nugget by increasing fortification level, but it was decrease in meatball. Texture of both was relatively unchanged, with a tendency to increase in nugget and decrease in meatball. Lightness (L of meatball surface was higher than nugget surface. Lightness did not significantly change by increasing fortification level. Redness (+a and yellowness (+b of meatball and nugget changed significantly by fortification. Difference test showed that fortification level of 2% was the highest level of fortification that taste and odor could not be distinguished with control by panelists. Best level of fish oil fortification was 2%. At 2% fortification, EPA was 2.85% for meatball, and 2.22% for nugget.  Sharp decline was occured in EPA and the decrease washigher in nugget than meatball.

  17. Quality and storability of chicken nuggets formulated with green banana and soybean hulls flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Biswas, Ashim Kumar; Sahoo, Jhari; Chatli, Manish Kumar; Sivakumar, S

    2013-12-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of green banana (GBF) and soybean hulls flours (SHF) on the physicochemical characteristics, colour, texture and storage stability of chicken meat nuggets. The addition of GBF and SHF in the nugget formulations was effective in sustaining desired cooking yield and emulsion stability besides nutritional benefits. Protein and fat contents were decreased (p > 0.05), but fibers and ash contents was increased (p  0.05%) than control and treatments. Lipid oxidation products, however, unaffected (p > 0.05) but increased in all samples over storage time. Flour treatments showed a positive impact in respect to microbiological quality, however, sensory evaluation indicated comparable scores for all attributes at all times. So, incorporation of GBF and SHF in the formulation could improve the quality and storage stability of chicken nuggets.

  18. Effect on spot welding variables on nugget size and bond strength of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charde, Nachimani

    2012-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) has revolutionized mechanical assembly in the automotive industry since its introduction in the early 1970s. Currently, one mechanical assembly in five is welded using spot welding technology, with welding of stainless steel sheet becoming increasingly common. Consequently, this research paper examines the spot welding of 2 mm thick 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet. The size of a spot weld nugget is primarily determined by the welding parameters: welding current, welding time, electrode force and electrode tip diameter However, other factors such as electrode deformation, corrosion, dissimilar materials and material properties also affect the nugget size and shape. This paper analyzes only the effects of current, weld time and force variations with unchanged electrode tip diameter. A pneumatically driven 75kVA spot welder was used to accomplish the welding process and the welded samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterize the size and shape of the weld nugget and the bond strength.

  19. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  20. The impact of cooking methods on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Albuquerque, Tânia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Cristina Bento, Ana; Costa, Helena S

    2016-06-15

    The impact of cooking methods (industrial pre-frying, deep-fat frying and baking) on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nugget samples from supermarket and commercial brands was evaluated. The changes in the quality characteristics (nutritional composition, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and salt) of the fried food and frying oil, after ten consecutive frying operations, were evaluated. The total fat content of nuggets varied between 10.9 and 22.7 g per 100 g of edible portion and the salt content ranged from 0.873 to 1.63 g per 100 g. Taking into account one portion of nuggets, the daily intake of salt can reach 49%, which can have a significant impact on the health of those who regularly consume this type of food, especially considering the prevalence of hypertension around the world. The analysed chicken breaded nuggets are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which have been related with potential health benefits, namely regarding cardiovascular diseases. The cholesterol content of baked samples was two times higher when compared with the fried ones. The trans fatty acids and polar compounds contents of the frying oil used for frying significantly increased, but the values were still away from the maximum recommended by legal entities for its rejection. From a nutritional point of view, it is possible to conclude that the applied cooking methods can significantly influence the nutritional quality and safety of the analysed chicken breaded nuggets. This study will contribute to important knowledge on how the applied cooking methods can change the nutritional quality and safety of foods, namely of chicken nuggets, and can be very useful for dietary recommendations and nutritional assessment.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bernie's Odyssey: Denver Nuggets' General Manager Bernie Bickerstaff's Basketball Roots in Harlan County, Ky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    Bernie Bickerstaff discusses how growing up as an African-American athlete in rural Kentucky prepared him to become the general manager of the Denver Nuggets. Triumphing over the area's racial segregation, poverty, and mining perils gave him a sense of strength that enabled him to overcome barriers in advancing his career. (LP)

  3. Data Nuggets: Bringing Real Data into the Classroom to Unearth Students' Quantitative & Inquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Elizabeth H.; Kjelvik, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Current educational reform calls for increased integration between science and mathematics to overcome the shortcomings in students' quantitative skills. Data Nuggets (free online resource, http://datanuggets.org) are worksheets that bring data into the classroom, repeatedly guiding students through the scientific method and making claims…

  4. Vitamin E Contents and Oxidative Stability of Red Palm Oils Blended Chicken Nuggets during Frozen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurkhuzaiah Kamaruzaman; Abdul Salam Babji; Wan Rosli Wan Ismail; Peng, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Oil (RPO) has a high oxidative stability and contains high levels of natural antioxidants, such as vitamin E and carotenoids. In this study, Vitamin E contents and lipid oxidation of chicken nuggets blended with red palm oil consist of NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 were compared against the control chicken fat treatment, each containing 10 % fat. Vitamin E contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide values (PV) for all samples were measured throughout 4 months of storage at -18 degree Celsius. All the vitamin E homologues were decreased. α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol decreased faster meanwhile δ-tocopherol decreased slower than other homologues. Besides that, Vitamin E content in NVRO and NVRO-100 was significantly decreased (p<0.05) from 767.15 to 482.14 μg/ g and 842.73 to 672.36 μg/ g respectively. TBA and PV values for all samples chicken nuggets increased throughout 3 months of frozen storage but started to decrease thereafter. However, chicken nuggets formulated with NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 significantly reduced (p<0.05) TBA and PV values compared with chicken fat treatments. This study showed that frozen storage influence vitamin E stability and the potential of utilization of red palm oils in improving nutritional quality and reducing lipid oxidation of chicken nugget. (author)

  5. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganism in Chicken Nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempffer R, Daniela; Espinoza B, Juan; Maier N, Liliana; Torres, Ximena; Zarate S, Herman

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine an effective treatment of ionizing energy on chicken nuggets a study was developed so as to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The experiment included 3 types of analyses: aerobic plate count, organoleptic evaluation and chemical analyses. A total of 144 frozen nuggets (-18 o C )were analyzed and divided into two equal groups for proceeding with artificial contamination.Each nugget -weighting 25 g -was put into sealed polietilene bags.The two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella enteritidis strain ATCC 1833-99 ISP. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0,3;0,6 and 0,9 kGy,except for one group (control) which was not irradiated, and stored for 24 hours, 30 and 60 days post radiation. The D 10 values mid-point were found for the Escherichia coli to be 0,242 kGy and 0,295 kGy for the Salmonella enteritidis. A third group, composed by 9 randomly selected nuggets without sterilization was chosen to determine the total aerobic plate counts, resulting in an initial count of 6,15x 10 4 ufc/g. The sensory analysis of nuggets was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0,75 and 1,5 kGy and those of the control group non irradiated. Each person tasted the whole sample (25 g)and evaluated: appearance, color, odor, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p≤0.05)between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the nugget acceptability was qualified as very good. The chemical analysis of nuggets was done in two groups: A control group and an irradiated group with 1.5 kGy. It evaluated the percentage of proteins, fats, ashes, humidity and carbohydrates. Statistically, none of the nutrients showed significant

  6. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK FORMULA NUGGET BERBASIS TEPUNG TEMPE DAN TEPUNG RICEBRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiati Bintanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Di Indonesia terjadi perubahan pola penyakit dari infeksi dan kekurangan gizi ke degeneratif dan kanker akibat perubahan gaya hidup dan pola makan  tinggi lemak dan rendah serat serta modernisasi pola hidup. Tempe kedelai merupakan bahan makanan yang dapat menurunkan trigliserida, kolesterol total, kolesterol LDL, serta meningkatkan kolesterol HDL. Bekatul juga merupakan bahan makanan yang dapat menurunkan kadar lemak darah karena mengandung oryzanol, tokoferol, dan asam felurat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menyeleksi formula nugget berdasarkan karakteristik fisik, kimia dan organoleptik serta aktifitas antioksidan. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian diskriptif dengan perlakuan formulasi tepung tempe dan tepung ricebran sebanyak 10 formula. Analisis komposisi kimia dilakukan terhadap bahan mentah dan nugget meliputi analisis protein (mikro kjedhl, lemak (soxhlet, air (oven, karbohidrat (Luff Schoorl l, penetapan kadar Vitamin E (Alfa-Tokoferol, analisa aktivitas anti bakteri metode difusi agar. Pengujian organoleptik menggunakan metode scoring. Hasil menunjukkan nugget dengan formula tepung tempe 50% dan tepung bekatul 50% (formula A7, mempunyai komposisi kimia terbaik yaitu protein 19,5g%, lemak 18.33g%, air 35.59%, abu 1,62%, serat kasar 9,57g%, Karbohidrat 25,41 g%, Vitamin E 148,92 µg/g, aktifitas antioksidan 197,1 µg/ml. Hasil pengujian organoleptik terhadap warna, rasa, aroma maupun tekstur yang paling disuka pada formula A7. Kesimpulan: Optimasi tepung tempe dan rice bran yang diterima berdasarkan sifat fisik, organoleptik dan analisa zat gizi adalah dengan perlakuan sangrai 20 menit. Formula nugget yang optimum A7 dengan perbandingan tepung tempe dan rice bran 50:50 g. Kata Kunci: Komposisi Kimia, Organoleptik, Formula Nugget, Tepung Tempe, Ricebran Abstract In Indonesia, there has been a changing disease pattern from infectious and food deficiency diseases to degenerative and cancerous diseases. Soy bean cake

  7. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  8. Identification of the Thickness of Nugget on Worksheet Spot Welding Using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Effect of Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Badruzzaman, B.; Endramawan, T.

    2018-02-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process of connecting between two worksheet with thermomechanical loading process, RSW is widely used in automotive industry, the quality of splicing spot welding is influenced by several factors. One of the factors at the time of the welding process is pressure. The quality of welding on the nuggets can be determined by undertaking non-destructive testing by using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Ultrasonic Test. In the NDT test is done by detecting the thickness of the nugget area, the purpose of research conducted to determine the effect of pressure to welding quality with Nugget thickness gauge measurement with Non Destructive Test method and manual measurement with micrometer, Experimental welding process by entering the welding parameters that have been specified and pressure variables 1 -5 bars on the worksheet thickness of 1 mm. The results of testing with NDT show there is addition of thickness in nugget superiority after compare with measurement result of thickness of nugget with micrometer which slightly experience thickness in nugget area, this indicates that the welding results have a connection between worksheet 1 and worksheet 2.

  9. PCR-RFLP Using BseDI Enzyme for Pork Authentication in Sausage and Nugget Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erwanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP using BseDI restriction enzyme had been applied for identifying the presence of pork in processed meat (beef sausage and chicken nugget including before and after frying. Pork sample in various levels (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 25 % was prepared in a mixture with beef and chicken meats and processed for sausage and nugget. The primers CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish existence of porcine species, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. The PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of porcine species. It is a potentially reliable technique for pork detection in animal food processed products for Halal authentication.

  10. Compositional studies on Transylvanian gold nuggets: Advantages and limitations of PIXE-PIGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugoi, Roxana; Cojocaru, Viorel; Constantinescu, Bogdan; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Roehrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Minute fragments from nine gold nuggets from Transylvania - two belonging to placer deposits and seven to primary deposits - were analyzed by PIXE and PIGE at the AGLAE tandem accelerator of the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF) with a 3 MeV proton beam extracted into air. This study was triggered by some archaeological provenance issues for which the elemental characterization of the Transylvanian gold source, exploited from the Antiquity, was required. All analyzed Transylvanian gold nuggets are characterized by a consistently high amount of Ag (18% on average). Au and Ag add up to roughly 99%, the other elements - Cu, Fe, Te, Pb - being detected only at a trace level. The obtained results are in good agreement with the previous analyses of Transylvanian gold

  11. Using the Moon As A Low-Noise Seismic Detector For Strange Quark Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Chui, Talso; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Herrin, Eugene T.; Nakamura, Yosio; Paik, Ho Jung; Penanen, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Doris; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Young, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Strange quark matter made of up, down and strange quarks has been postulated by Witten [1]. Strange quark matter would be nearly charge neutral and would have density of nuclear matter (10(exp 14) gm/cu cm). Witten also suggested that nuggets of strange quark matter, or strange quark nuggets (SQNs), could have formed shortly after the Big Bang, and that they would be viable candidates for cold dark matter. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [2], an SQN may pass through a celestial body releasing detectable seismic energy along a straight line. The Moon, being much quieter seismically than the Earth, would be a favorable place to search for such events. We review previous searches for SQNs to illustrate the parameter space explored by using the Moon as a low-noise detector of SQNs. We also discuss possible detection schemes using a single seismometer, and using an International Lunar Seismic Network.

  12. Weld nugget formation in resistance spot welding of new lightweight sandwich material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagüés Tanco, J.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    Weldability of a new lightweight sandwich material, LITECOR®, by resistance spot welding is analyzed by experiments and numerical simulations. The spot welding process is accommodated by a first pulse squeezing out the non-conductive polymer core of the sandwich material locally to allow metal......–metal contact. This is facilitated by the use of a shunt tool and is followed by a second pulse for the actual spot welding and nugget formation. A weldability lobe in the time-current space of the second pulse reveals a process window of acceptable size for automotive assembly lines. Weld growth curves...... with experimental results in the range of welding parameters leading to acceptable weld nugget sizes. The validated accuracy of the commercially available software proves the tool useful for assisting the choice of welding parameters....

  13. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  14. Estimation of weld nugget temperature by thermography method in resistance projection welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Roa, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jaya Raj, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    In the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel manufacturing, zirconium alloy appendages like spacer and bearing pads are welded to the thin wall zirconium alloy fuel tubes by using resistance projection welding process. Out of many joining processes available, resistance-welding process is reliable, environment friendly and best suitable for mass production applications. In the fuel assembly, spacer pads are used to get the required inter-element spacing and Bearing pads are used to get the required load-bearing surface for the fuel assembly. Performance of the fuel assembly in the reactor is greatly influenced by these weld joint's quality. Phase transformation from α to β phase is not acceptable while welding these tiny appendages. At present only destructive metallography test is available for this purpose. This can also be achieved by measuring weld nugget temperature where in the phase transformation temperature for zirconium alloy material is 853 o C. The temperature distribution during resistance welding of tiny parts cannot be measured by conventional methods due to very small space and short weld times involved in the process. Shear strength, dimensional accuracy and weld microstructures are some of the key parameters used to measure the quality of appendage weld joints. Weld parameters were optimized with the help of industrial experimentation methodology. Individual projection welding by split electrode concept, and during welding on empty tube firm support is achieved on inner side of the tube by using expandable pneumatic mandrel. In the present paper, an attempt was made to measure the weld nugget temperature by thermography technique and is correlated with standard microstructures of zirconium alloy material. The temperature profiles in the welding process are presented for different welding conditions. This technique has helped in measuring the weld nugget temperature more accurately. It was observed that in the present appendage welding

  15. Iron Isotope Fractionation during Fe(II) Oxidation Mediated by the Oxygen-Producing Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanner, E. D.; Bayer, T.; Wu, W.; Hao, L.; Obst, M.; Sundman, A.; Byrne, J. M.; Michel, F. M.; Kleinhanns, I. C.; Kappler, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2017-04-11

    In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε56Fe) values determined from fitting the δ56Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2.15‰) and the δ56Feppt (2.44‰ and 2.98‰) data trends from two replicate experiments. Additional Fe(II) and Fe(III) phases were detected using microscopy and chemical extractions and likely represent Fe(II) and Fe(III) sorbed to minerals and cells. The iron desorbed with sodium acetate (FeNaAc) yielded heavier δ56Fe compositions than Fe(II)aq. Modeling of the fractionation during Fe(III) sorption to cells and Fe(II) sorption to Feppt, combined with equilibration of sorbed iron and with Fe(II)aq using published fractionation factors, is consistent with our resulting δ56FeNaAc. The δ56Feppt data trend is inconsistent with complete equilibrium exchange with Fe(II)aq. Because of this and our detection of microbially excreted organics (e.g., exopolysaccharides) coating Feppt in our microscopic analysis, we suggest that electron and atom exchange is partially suppressed in this system by biologically produced organics. These results indicate that cyanobacteria influence the fate and composition of iron in sunlit environments via their role in Fe(II) oxidation through O2 production, the capacity of their cell surfaces to sorb iron, and the interaction of secreted organics with Fe(III) minerals.

  16. Using the Moon and Mars as Giant Detectors for Strange Quark Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Strayer, Don; Banerdt, Bruce; Tepliz, Vigdor; Herrin, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    On the Earth, the detectability of small seismic signals is limited by pervasive seismic background noise, caused primarily by interactions of the atmosphere and oceans with the solid surface. Mars, with a very thin atmosphere and no ocean is expected to have a noise level at least an order of magnitude lower than the Earth, and the airless Moon is even quieter still. These pristine low-vibration environments are ideal for searching for nuggets of "strange quark matter." Strange quark matter was postulated by Edward Witten [Phys. Rev. D30, 272, 1984] as the lowest possible energy state of matter. It would be made of up, down, and strange quarks, instead of protons and neutrons made only of up and down quarks. It would have nuclear densities, and hence be difficult to detect. Micron-sized nuggets would weigh in the ton range. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [Nature 312 (5996): 734, 1984], a massive strange quark nugget can generate a trail of seismic waves, as it traverses a celestial body. We discuss the mission concept for deploying a network of sensitive seismometers on Mars and on the Moon for such a search.

  17. The Challenge to Scavenge IRON from Tailings Produced By FLOTATION A New Approach: The Super-WHIMS & the BigFLUX Magnetic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pancrácio Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Tailings recovery has been a constant challenge for most engineers. Along more than five years, GAUSTEC joined major players in the mining Industry to scavenge Iron from tailings produced by flotation making use of WHIMS (Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separation. In the early 1980s, in USA, the US 4,192,738 patent was granted with promising results. Despite this, thirty years have passed with no significant application worldwide. One main reason is reported: the market missed a really high feed capacity WHIMS in order to avoid the huge number of the WHIMS that were available at that time (such projects would typically require more than 20 WHIMS to scavenge iron from tailings produced by flotation plants. Such a huge asset to scavenge low grade iron tailings would not payback. The Mega sized WHIMS launched by GAUSTEC in 2014, the GHX-1400, improved by the Super-WHIMS Technology (18.000 Gauss and BigFlow Magnetic Matrixes (Gaps smaller than 1.5 mm, faced this challenge. Specially designed ancillary equipment described here also played a decisive role in the scene.

  18. Measurements of attenuation lengths through concrete and iron for neutrons produced by 800-MeV proton on tantalum target at ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunomiya, T; Wright, P; Nakamura, T; Kim, E; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, S; Sasaki, M; Iwase, H; Uwamino, Y; Shibata, T; Ito, S; Perry, D R

    2002-01-01

    A deep penetration experiment through a thick bulk shield was performed at an intense spallation neutron source facility, ISIS, of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom. ISIS is a 800 MeV-200 mu A proton accelerator facility. Neutrons are produced from a tantalum target, and are shielded with approximately 3-m thick steel and 1-m thick ordinary concrete. On top of the shield, we measured the neutron flux attenuation through concrete and iron shields, which were additionally placed up to 120-cm and 60-cm thickness, respectively, using activation detectors of graphite and bismuth. The attenuation lengths of concrete and iron for high-energy neutrons above 20 MeV were obtained from the sup 1 sup 2 C(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 1 C reaction of graphite.

  19. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT. All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS, iron(III phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4""-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  20. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asedegbega-Nieto, Esther; Pérez-Cadenas, María; Carter, Jonathan; Anderson, James A.; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT) and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT). All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized) underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS), iron(III) phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4""-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  1. Structural and optical properties of amorphous oxygenated iron boron nitride thin films produced by reactive co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essafti, A.; Abouelaoualim, A.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Ech-chamikh, E.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous oxygenated iron boron nitride (a-FeBN:O) thin films were prepared by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering, from hexagonal boron nitride chips placed on iron target, under a total pressure of a gas mixture of argon and oxygen maintained at 1 Pa. The films were deposited onto silicon and glass substrates, at room temperature. The power of the generator RF was varied from 150 to 350 W. The chemical and structural analyses were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive of X-ray and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). The optical properties of the films were obtained from the optical transmittance and reflectance measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared wavelengths range. XPS reveals the presence of boron, nitrogen, iron and oxygen atoms and also the formation of different chemical bonds such as Fe-O, B-N, B-O and the ternary BNO phase. This latter phase is predominant in the deposited films as observed in the B 1s and N 1s core level spectra. As the RF power increases, the contribution of N-B bonds in the as-deposited films decreases. The XRR results show that the mass density of a-FeBN:O thin films increases from 2.6 to 4.12 g/cm 3 with increasing the RF power from 150 to 350 W. This behavior is more important for films deposited at RF power higher than 150 W, and has been associated with the enhancement of iron atoms in the film structure. The optical band gap decreases from 3.74 to 3.12 eV with increasing the RF power from 150 to 350 W.

  2. The Influence of Welding Parameters on the Nugget Formation of Resistance Spot Welding of Inconel 625 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Ashtiani, Hamid Reza; Zarandooz, Roozbeh

    2015-09-01

    A 2D axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to investigate the effect of current intensity, welding time, and electrode tip diameter on temperature distributions and nugget size in resistance spot welding (RSW) process of Inconel 625 superalloy sheets using ABAQUS commercial software package. The coupled electro-thermal analysis and uncoupled thermal-mechanical analysis are used for modeling process. In order to improve accuracy of simulation, material properties including physical, thermal, and mechanical properties have been considered to be temperature dependent. The thickness and diameter of computed weld nuggets are compared with experimental results and good agreement is observed. So, FE model developed in this paper provides prediction of quality and shape of the weld nuggets and temperature distributions with variation of each process parameter, suitably. Utilizing this FE model assists in adjusting RSW parameters, so that expensive experimental process can be avoided. The results show that increasing welding time and current intensity lead to an increase in the nugget size and electrode indentation, whereas increasing electrode tip diameter decreases nugget size and electrode indentation.

  3. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  4. Update of ENDF/B-V Mod 3 iron: neutron-producing reaction cross sections and energy-angle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1986-07-01

    An update of the ENDF/B-V Mod-3 evaluation for natural iron is described. The cross sections of (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions are revised. Energy-angle correlations in the secondary (n,n') neutrons are introduced in the ENDF/B-V formats. Anisotropic angular distributions are provided for the secondary neutrons in (n,2n), (n,np), and (n,nα) reactions. Revelant integral results, microscopic data, and nuclear model calculations that influence the revised results are summarized. 54 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    2016-06-10

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  6. Study on the Formulation of Squid (Loligosp) Nugget Added with Yellow Pumpkin (Curcubitamoschata) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Nurharyati, Lisa; ', Suparmi; Sari, N Ira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the squid nugget formulation with the addition of pumpkin flour. It was evaluated for the organoleptic value and the proximate composition. The method used was an experimental method and designed as non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were addition of pumpkin flour into the mix, consisting of four levels, namely: N0 (without the addition of pumpkin flour), N1 (pumpkin flour 50 g), N2 (pumpkin flour 75 g) and N3 (pumpkin flour 100 g).B...

  7. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shaohua; Zhang Yifei; Zhang Yi; Xue Peiyi; Wang Yihui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The extraction fractions of various valuable metals during NH 4 Cl leaching are very high. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. → The process can detoxified the hazardous elements such as Pb, As, Cd thoroughly. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. → The final residue contains about 55 wt% Fe, and have the potential to be used as iron concentrate. - Abstract: A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650 o C for 1 h. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55 wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration.

  8. Evaluation of the nugget diameter in spot welded joints between two steel sheets by means of a potential drop technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Ikarashi, Hidetomo; Matsui, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Obara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A potential drop technique which utilizes the electrical circuit used in resistance spot welding is reported. Spot welded samples comprising two steel sheets were inserted between the two Cu electrodes and a constant direct current was supplied between the electrodes. The potential drop between two points, one on each electrode, was determined by analysis for various values of nugget diameter and various values of the contact resistance between the Cu electrodes and the steel sheet sample. The nugget diameter of the spot welded joint could be quantitatively evaluated from the measured potential drop and the equation obtained from the analysis. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of the nugget diameter in spot welded joints between two steel sheets by means of a potential drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Ikarashi, Hidetomo; Matsui, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Obara, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    A potential drop technique which utilizes the electrical circuit used in resistance spot welding is reported. Spot welded samples comprising two steel sheets were inserted between the two Cu electrodes and a constant direct current was supplied between the electrodes. The potential drop between two points, one on each electrode, was determined by analysis for various values of nugget diameter and various values of the contact resistance between the Cu electrodes and the steel sheet sample. The nugget diameter of the spot welded joint could be quantitatively evaluated from the measured potential drop and the equation obtained from the analysis.

  10. Development and evaluation of chicken nuggets with partial replacement of meat and fat by pea fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jorge POLIZER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a chicken nugget formulation with partial substitution of the meat or fat by pea fibre. Three formulations were developed: Control (C – commercial formulation, Fibre Less Meat (FLM – reduction of 10% of meat and addition of 2% of pea fibre and Fibre Less Fat (FLF – reduction of 10% of fat and addition of 2% pea fibre. The products were characterized for their pH value, instrumental colour, texture, cooking loss (frying, proximate composition, and sensory properties (acceptance test. The control treatment presented lower (p0.05 amongst the treatments. The texture analysis showed no significant differences amongst the treatments for elasticity and cohesiveness, although the FLF batch was firmer than the others (p0.05 amongst the three treatments for aroma, texture, flavour or overall acceptability. One can conclude that it is possible to partially replace meat and fat by pea fibre in chicken nuggets, without compromising most of the physicochemical characteristics and without altering the sensory acceptance.

  11. The Behaviour of Some Vegetable-Based Materials Used as Edible Coating on Chicken Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Kılınççeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chicken nuggets were predusted with zein or soy protein isolate (SPI as the first coating. Next they were coated with 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 % carboxymethylcellulose (CMC batters as the second coating, and then breaded with bread crumbs. Finally, they were fried at 190 °C for 2, 4 or 6 min. Predusting materials were found to enhance some physical, chemical and sensorial properties of nuggets after frying. In particular, using SPI was more advantageous than zein. It increased penetrometer values and sensorial scores as it decreased moisture loss. The performance values of batter materials were improved compared to the control. Also, the yield, moisture rate, penetrometer and general appearance values decreased as the frying time increased. During this period, frying loss and fat absorption increased. Results showed that the best coating process was using SPI as predusting material, 0.1 % CMC for batter, and 2 to 4 min of frying time.

  12. Effect of Carbon Content on the Properties of Iron-Based Powder Metallurgical Parts Produced by the Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rolling densification process has become increasingly widely used to strengthen powder metallurgy parts. The original composition of the rolled powder metallurgy blank has a significant effect on the rolling densification technology. The present work investigated the effects of different carbon contents (0 wt. %, 0.2 wt. %, 0.45 wt. %, and 0.8 wt. % on the rolling densification. The selection of the raw materials in the surface rolling densification process was analyzed based on the pore condition, structure, hardness, and friction performance of the materials. The results show that the 0.8 wt. % carbon content of the surface rolling material can effectively improve the properties of iron-based powder metallurgy parts. The samples with 0.8 wt. % carbon have the highest surface hardness (340 HV0.1 and the lowest surface friction coefficient (0.35. Even if the dense layer depth is 1.13 mm, which is thinner than other samples with low carbon content, it also meets the requirements for powder metallurgy parts such as gears used in the auto industry.

  13. Rapid bacterial mineralization of organic carbon produced during a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obernosterer, Ingrid; Christaki, Urania; Lefèvre, Dominique; Catala, Philippe; Van Wambeke, France; Lebaron, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The response of heterotrophic bacteria ( Bacteria and Archaea) to the spring phytoplankton bloom that occurs annually above the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean) due to natural iron fertilization was investigated during the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS) cruise in January-February 2005. In surface waters (upper 100 m) in the core of the phytoplankton bloom, heterotrophic bacteria were, on an average, 3-fold more abundant and revealed rates of production ([ 3H] leucine incorporation) and respiration (bacterial metabolic activities were attributable to high-nucleic-acid-containing cells that dominated (≈80% of total cell abundance) the heterotrophic bacterial community associated with the phytoplankton bloom. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 14% and 20% inside the bloom and were bacterial activity, due to the stimulation by phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter. Within the Kerguelen bloom, bacterial carbon demand accounted for roughly 45% of gross community production. These results indicate that heterotrophic bacteria processed a significant portion of primary production, with most of it being rapidly respired.

  14. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea ( L. Hull Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40% common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01. Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01. All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01. Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  15. Micrometer- and nanometer-sized platinum group nuggets in micrometeorites from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Parashar, K.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    We examined 378 micrometeorites collected from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean of which 175, 180, and 23 are I-type, S-type, and G-type, respectively. Of the 175 I-type spherules, 13 contained platinum group element nuggets (PGNs...

  16. Evaluation of the proximate quality of the combination of Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nugget is a processed meat product which has great market demand but need variations to increase its nutritional content. Tuna is rich in omega-3 protein, vitamins, and minerals. White oyster mushrooms have high nutritional content which are about 23-33% protein, 36-68 % carbohydrates and 12-22 % amino acids. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chemical quality of Tuna nugget (Thunnus albacores) with combination of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Complete Randomized Design (RAL) with parameters of Tuna and white oyster mushroom formulation, TJ1 (70 % Tuna: 30 % white oyster mushroom), TJ2 (50 % Tuna: 50 % white oyster mushroom), TJ3 (30 % Tuna: 70 % white oyster mushroom), and Control or K Treatment (100 % Tuna) is used. Results of Tuna nuggets with white oyster mushroom combination showed the highest value of water content in TJ3 50.14 %, protein K 19.6 %, fat TJ3 22.98 %, ash K 3.99 % and 2.47 % crude fiber. From these results, there is a need for further research on fat, ash and coarse fiber content that is used in the manufacture of fish nuggets combined with oyster mushrooms because it failed to meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI).

  17. Nugget Structure Evolution with Rotation Speed for High-Rotation-Speed Friction-Stir-Welded 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yu, T.; Wu, Z. Q.

    2018-03-01

    High-rotation-speed friction stir welding (HRS-FSW) is a promising technique to reduce the welding loads during FSW and thus facilitates the application of FSW for in situ fabrication and repair. In this study, 6061 aluminum alloy was friction stir welded at high-rotation speeds ranging from 3000 to 7000 rpm at a fixed welding speed of 50 mm/min, and the effects of rotation speed on the nugget zone macro- and microstructures were investigated in detail in order to illuminate the process features. Temperature measurements during HRS-FSW indicated that the peak temperature did not increase consistently with rotation speed; instead, it dropped remarkably at 5000 rpm because of the lowering of material shear stress. The nugget size first increased with rotation speed until 5000 rpm and then decreased due to the change of the dominant tool/workpiece contact condition from sticking to sliding. At the rotation speed of 5000 rpm, where the weld material experienced weaker thermal effect and higher-strain-rate plastic deformation, the nugget exhibited relatively small grain size, large textural intensity, and high dislocation density. Consequently, the joint showed superior nugget hardness and simultaneously a slightly low tensile ductility.

  18. Indentation Creep Behavior of Nugget Zone of Friction Stir Welded 2014 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayashree; Robi, P. S.; Sankar, M. Ravi

    2018-04-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the creep behavior of the nugget zone of friction welded 2014 Aluminum alloy by indentation creep tests. Impression creep testing was carried out at different temperatures of 300°C, 350°C and 400 °C with stress 124.77MPa, 187.16MPa, 249.55 MPa using a 1.0 mm diameter WC indenter. Experiments were conducted till the curve enters the steady state creep region. Constitutive modeling of creep behavior was carried out considering the temperature, stress and steady state creep rate. Microstructural investigation of the crept specimen at 400°C temperature and 187.16 MPa load was carried out and found that the small precipitates accumulate along the grain boundaries at the favorable conditions of the creep temperature and stress, new precipitates evolve due to the ageing. The grains are broken and deformed due to the creep phenomena.

  19. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    KAUST Repository

    Kleiber, William; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  20. Effect of almond on technological, nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics of goat meat nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P Product with 2.5 % almond had higher (P products, whereas expressible water was lower. Emulsion and products pH values increased with the addition of almond. Emulsion and products with almond had higher (P products did not differ significantly. Percent SFAs decreased (P products. Almond incorporation can be a very good approach to enhance nutritional profile of the meat products without affecting acceptability.

  1. Evaluation of process parameters in the industrial scale production of fish nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of experimental design for the assessment of the effects of process parameters on the production of fish nuggets in an industrial scale environment. The effect of independent factors on the physicochemical and microbiological parameters was investigated through a full 24 experimental design. The studied factors included the temperature of fish fillet and pulp in the mixer, the temperature of the added fat, the temperature of water and the ratio of protein extraction time to emulsion time. The physicochemical analyses showed that the higher temperature of the pulp and fillet of fish, the lower the protein in the final product. Microbiological analyses revealed that the counting of Staphylococcus coagulase positive, total and thermo-tolerant coliforms were in accordance with the current legislation.

  2. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    KAUST Repository

    Kleiber, William

    2012-11-29

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  3. Dark Matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: quark nuggets and newtorites

    CERN Document Server

    Bassan, M; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than $10^{-5}$ g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another examp...

  4. Consumer attitudes and behaviours--key risk factors in an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12 infection sourced to chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, B; Hall, R; Cameron, S

    1999-04-01

    To identify the source and intervention methods for an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 12 in South Australia. Ten cases of S. Typhimurium phage type (PT) 12 infection were notified in South Australia in a four-week period from 7 May 1998. Nine cases and 27 controls were included in a case control study to test the hypothesis that illness was associated with the consumption of chicken nuggets. A significant association between illness and the consumption of one brand of chicken nuggets was determined, odds ratio undefined (95% CI undefined; p = undefined). Nine of nine cases and one of 27 controls reported eating these chicken nuggets. S. Typhimurium PT 12 was isolated from an opened sample of this particular brand of nuggets which had been retrieved from the home of one case. The implicated nuggets were essentially a raw product which had been 'flash fried' in contrast with other brands which were fully cooked. The investigation highlighted issues of inadequate labelling and consumer responses to labelling information which affect food safety. A media release to highlight to the consumer the need to cook frozen food properly and a voluntary recall of the 'flash fried' product was instigated as a result of these conclusions. Further action is needed to eliminate the potential hazard that consumers will perceive and handle 'flash fried' nuggets as if they are a cooked chicken product.

  5. Very High Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation Mechanism in Nugget Zone of AA 7075 Friction Stir Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high cycle fatigue behavior of nugget zone in AA 7075 friction stir welded joint was experimentally investigated using ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz to clarify the crack initiation mechanism. It was found that the fatigue strength of nugget zone decreased continuously even beyond 107 cycles with no traditional fatigue limits. Fatigue cracks initiated from the welding defects located at the bottom side of the friction stir weld. Moreover, a special semicircular zone could be characterized around the crack initiation site, of which the stress intensity factor approximately equaled the threshold of fatigue crack propagation rate. Finally, a simplified model was proposed to estimate the fatigue life by correlating the welding defect size and applied stress. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Special grain boundaries in the nugget zone of friction stir welded AA6061-T6 under various welding parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wang [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yong, Zou, E-mail: yzou@sdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Xuemei, Liu [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Matsuda, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    The age hardenable AA6061-T6 plate was butt welded by friction stir welding. The total heat input, generated by friction between the tool and work piece and plastic deformation, results in a consumption of meta-stable phases in the nugget zone. Precipitation phenomena were closely related to the diffusion of the solute atoms. The existence of special grain boundaries like Σ1a and Σ3 will increase the difficulty in diffusion, which will improve the hardness in the nugget zone. Furthermore, the formation of Σ3 grain boundaries can result from an impingement of re-crystallized grains coming from texture components in twin relationship already. An appropriate strain level may benefit the development of the twin components with a similar intensity. The welding parameters have an effect on heat source mode and the strain level. Then, the type of dynamic re-crystallization and distribution of the special grain boundaries was altered by changing the parameters.

  7. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the quantification of canine DNA in chicken nugget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Bhassu, Subha; Rashid, Nur Raifana Abdul; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a short-amplicon-based TaqMan probe quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the quantitative detection of canine meat in chicken nuggets, which are very popular across the world, including Malaysia. The assay targeted a 100-bp fragment of canine cytb gene using a canine-specific primer and TaqMan probe. Specificity against 10 different animals and plants species demonstrated threshold cycles (Ct) of 16.13 ± 0.12 to 16.25 ± 0.23 for canine DNA and negative results for the others in a 40-cycle reaction. The assay was tested for the quantification of up to 0.01% canine meat in deliberately spiked chicken nuggets with 99.7% PCR efficiency and 0.995 correlation coefficient. The analysis of the actual and qPCR predicted values showed a high recovery rate (from 87% ± 28% to 112% ± 19%) with a linear regression close to unity (R(2) = 0.999). Finally, samples of three halal-branded commercial chicken nuggets collected from different Malaysian outlets were screened for canine meat, but no contamination was demonstrated.

  9. Pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater using a combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jinyou; Ou, Changjin; Zhou, Zongyuan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Kexiong; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Lianjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ZVI-Fenton process was conducted for DNAN producing wastewater pretreatment. • Transformation of nitro to amino group by ZVI overcomes the oxidative hindrance. • Subsequent Fenton process is efficient for the removal of aromatic compounds. • ABR-MBBR process is efficient for the polishing of ZVI-Fenton effluent. -- Abstract: A combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process was tested for the pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater. Operating conditions were optimized and overall performance of the combined process was evaluated. For ZVI process, almost complete reduction of nitroaromatic compounds was observed at empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8 h. For Fenton process, the optimal pH, H 2 O 2 to Fe(II) molar ratio, H 2 O 2 dosage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were found to be 3.0, 15, 0.216 mol/L and 5 h, respectively. After pretreatment by the combined ZVI-Fenton process under the optimal conditions, aromatic organic compound removal was as high as 77.2%, while the majority of COD remained to be further treated by sequent biological process. The combined anaerobic-aerobic process consisted of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated for 3 months, fed with ZVI-Fenton effluent. The results revealed that the coupled ZVI-Fenton-ABR-MBBR system was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly aromatic compounds concentration, COD concentration, color and acute toxicity. These results indicate that the combined ZVI-Fenton process offers bright prospects for the pretreatment of wastewater containing nitroaromatic compounds

  10. BOWIEITE: A NEW RHODIUM-IRIDIUM-PLATINUM SULFIDE IN PLATINUM-ALLOY NUGGETS, GOODNEWS BAY, ALASKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Criddle, Alan J.

    1984-01-01

    Bowieite (Rh,Ir,Pt)//2S//3, a new mineral species, is found in three nuggets of platinum from Goodnews Bay, Alaska. In linearly polarized reflected light, and compared to the host, higher reflecting white platinum-iridium alloy, bowieite is pale gray to pale gray-brown; neither bireflectance nor reflectance pleochroism is apparent. With polars crossed, its anisotropic rotation tints vary from gray to dark brown. Luminance values (relative to the CIE illuminant C) for R//1 and R//2, computed from full spectral data for the most bireflectant grain, are 45. 8% and 48. 2% in air, and 30. 5% and 33. 0% in oil, respectively. VHN//1//0//0 1288 (858 to 1635). Bowieite is orthorhombic, space group Pnca, with a 8. 454(7) -8. 473(8), b 5. 995(1)-6. 002(7), c 6. 143(1)-6. 121(8) A, Z equals 4. Some grains that are 2. 6 to 3. 8 atomic % metal-deficient occur as an optically coherent rim on bowieite; the rim and the bowieite grain are not optically continuous.

  11. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the

  12. Digging for red nuggets: discovery of hot halos surrounding massive, compact, relic galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, N.; Lakhchaura, K.; Canning, R. E. A.; Gaspari, M.; Simionescu, A.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of Chandra X-ray observations of the isolated, massive, compact, relic galaxies MRK 1216 and PGC 032873. Compact massive galaxies observed at z > 2, also called red nuggets, formed in quick dissipative events and later grew by dry mergers into the local giant ellipticals. Due to the stochastic nature of mergers, a few of the primordial massive galaxies avoided the mergers and remained untouched over cosmic time. We find that the hot atmosphere surrounding MRK 1216 extends far beyond the stellar population and has an 0.5-7 keV X-ray luminosity of LX = (7.0 ± 0.2) × 1041 erg s-1, which is similar to the nearby X-ray bright giant ellipticals. The hot gas has a short central cooling time of ˜50 Myr and the galaxy has a ˜13 Gyr old stellar population. The presence of an X-ray atmosphere with a short nominal cooling time and the lack of young stars indicate the presence of a sustained heating source, which prevented star formation since the dissipative origin of the galaxy 13 Gyrs ago. The central temperature peak and the presence of radio emission in the core of the galaxy indicate that the heating source is radio-mechanical AGN feedback. Given that both MRK 1216 and PGC 032873 appear to have evolved in isolation, the order of magnitude difference in their current X-ray luminosity could be traced back to a difference in the ferocity of the AGN outbursts in these systems. Finally, we discuss the potential connection between the presence of hot halos around such massive galaxies and the growth of super/over-massive black holes via chaotic cold accretion.

  13. Management of the pig iron Si and slag CaO/SiO2 technological indicators in order to produce pig iron with a titanium content below 0,02 %Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kolmasiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article present the developed method for production of pig iron with a very low titanium content of Ti 2 basicity, to obtain pig iron with a [Ti] content below 0,02 %. Based on the data from the preliminary test, proper tests were carried out with a pig iron Si content in the range from 1,0 % to 1,6 % and a slag CaO/SiO2 basicity in the range from 0,96 to 1,10. Data obtained from those tests enabled a statistical model to be established in the form of regression planes of two independent variables, [Si] and (CaO/SiO2. The regression equation of the first degree, [Ti] = f[(Si, (CaO/SiO2], defined the plane that gave the process engineer the answer to the question of how to manage the [Si] and (CaO/SiO2 indicators so as to obtain pig iron with the desired [Ti] content below 0,02 %.

  14. Fortification of Sardine Fish Oil from By-product of Canning Processing into Beef Meatball and Chicken Nugget

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih; Endang Trowulan; Widya Dwi Rukmi

    2017-01-01

    One source of ω-3 fatty acids is a by-product of lemuru canning processing that can be used for fortification.  Generally, fortification uses fish oil microcapsule but it is more expensive than direct fortification.  In this study, fish oil from a by-product of lemuru canning processing was directly fortified into beef meatball and chicken nugget at concentration of 0, 2, 4, and 6% (w/w).  Oxidation level, free fatty acid content, colour, lightness, texture, and sensory acceptance by triangle...

  15. Preparative treatment with NaOH to selectively concentrate iron oxides of a Chilean volcanic soil material to produce effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Valentina; Pizarro, Carmen; Rubio, María Angélica; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-01-01

    A Chilean volcanic Ultisol material was first size-fractionated so as to obtain the fraction with mean particle sizes φ   − 1 NaOH, in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the selective chemical dissolution to concentrate iron oxides, as a preparation procedure before using the materials as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. The effects of those treatments on the iron oxides mineralogy were monitored with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The NaOH-treated samples were tested as catalysts towards the H 2 O 2 decomposition. Three or five sequential NaOH treatments were found to be comparably effective, by concentrating nearly the same proportion of iron oxides in the remaining solid phase (25.1 ± 0.4 and 23.3 ± 0.2 mass%, respectively). 298 K-Mössbauer patterns were similar for both samples, with a central (super)paramagnetic Fe 3 +  doublet and a broad sextet, assignable to several closely coexisting magnetically ordered forms of iron oxides. Despite of this nearly similar effect of the two treatments, the Ultisol material treated three times with NaOH presents higher heterogeneous catalytic efficiency and is more suitable to decompose H 2 O 2 than that with five treatments.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that ...

  17. Crystallography of refractory metal nuggets in carbonaceous chondrites: A transmission Kikuchi diffraction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Luke; Bland, Phil A.; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Forman, Lucy V.; Saxey, David W.; Reddy, Steven M.; Fougerouse, Denis; Rickard, William D. A.; Trimby, Patrick W.; Moody, Steve; Yang, Limei; Liu, Hongwei; Ringer, Simon P.; Saunders, Martin; Piazolo, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) is a relatively new technique that is currently being developed for geological sample analysis. This technique utilises the transmission capabilities of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to rapidly and accurately map the crystallographic and geochemical features of an electron transparent sample. TKD uses a similar methodology to traditional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), but is capable of achieving a much higher spatial resolution (5-10 nm) (Trimby, 2012; Trimby et al., 2014). Here we apply TKD to refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) which are micrometre to sub-micrometre metal alloys composed of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) found in primitive carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. TKD allows us to analyse RMNs in situ, enabling the characterisation of nanometre-scale variations in chemistry and crystallography, whilst preserving their spatial and crystallographic context. This provides a complete representation of each RMN, permitting detailed interpretation of their formation history. We present TKD analysis of five transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae containing RMNs coupled with EBSD and TEM analyses. These analyses revealed textures and relationships not previously observed in RMNs. These textures indicate some RMNs experienced annealing, forming twins. Some RMNs also acted as nucleation centres, and formed immiscible metal-silicate fluids. In fact, each RMN analysed in this study had different crystallographic textures. These RMNs also had heterogeneous compositions, even between RMNs contained within the same inclusion, host phase and even separated by only a few nanometres. Some RMNs are also affected by secondary processes at low temperature causing exsolution of molybdenite. However, most RMNs had crystallographic textures indicating that the RMN formed prior to their host inclusion. TKD analyses reveal most RMNs have been affected by processing in the protoplanetary disk. Despite this

  18. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation on surfaces covered by fabrication produced films. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This work describes the assays aimed to passivate the steel carbon of the process pipings. This steel is marked by the ASTM A 333 G6 and is chemically similar to those of isotopic exchange towers which corrode in contact with in-water hydrogen sulfide solutions forming iron sulfide protective layers. The differences between both materials lie in the surface characteristics to be passivated. The steel of towers has an internal side covered by paint which shall be removed prior to passivation. The steel's internal side shall be covered by a film formed during the fabrication process and constituted by calcinated wastes and iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and wustite). This film interferes in the formation process of passivating layers of pyrrhotite and pyrite. The possibility to passivate the pipes in their actual state was evaluated since it would result highly laborious and expensive to eliminate the film. (Author) [es

  19. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  20. Use of ionizing radiation in elaborated products of chicken (nuggets) for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonella enteriditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempffer Ramirez, Daniela Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The application of ionizing energy in Chicken's Nugget of a trade mark, was studied by the University Santo Tomas in conjunction with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, in addition to 9 nuggets without sterilize select for RAM. Furthermore, to search the organoleptic characteristic and to Almost Chemist Analysis by means of determined doses. A total of 144 frozen Nuggets (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into two equal groups for artificially contamination. Each Nuggets - weighting 25 g - was put into sealed polyetilene bags. The two sample groups were sterilized with an irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella enteritidis strain ATCC 1833-99 ISP. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 0.3,0.6 and 0.9 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 nd 60 days post radiation. D 10 values mid-point were found with a 0,242 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0,295 kGy for the Salmonella enteritidis. The storage time did not time exert any influence on the D 10 values. The storage time don't showed meaningful differences between the days 1, 30 and 60, in the results obtained in the mid-point D 10 value. The sensory analysis of Nugget was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0; 0.75 and 1,5 kGy. Each person tasted the complete sample (25 g.) and evaluated; appearance, color, odor, , bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p≤0.05) between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the Nugget acceptability was qualified as very good. The Almost Chemist Analysis of Nugget was done to two groups: A control Group (without to irradiate) and a irradiated group with 1.5 kGy. It's evaluated Proteins, Fats

  1. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  2. Measurements of activation reaction rates in transverse shielding concrete exposed to the secondary particle field produced by intermediate energy heavy ions on an iron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Morev, M.N.; Iimoto, T.; Kosako, T.

    2012-01-01

    Reaction rate distributions were measured inside a 60-cm thick concrete pile placed at the lateral position of a thick (stopping length) iron target that was bombarded with heavy ions, 400 MeV/u C and 800 MeV/u Si. Foils of aluminum and gold, as well as gold, tungsten and manganese covered with cadmium were inserted at various locations in the concrete pile to serve as activation detectors. Features of reaction rate distribution, such as the shape of the reaction rate profile, contribution of the neutrons from intra-nuclear cascade and that from evaporation to the activation reactions are determined by the analysis of measured reaction rates. The measured reaction rates were compared with those calculated with radiation transport simulation codes, FLUKA and PHITS, to verify their capability to predict induced activity. The simulated reaction rates agree with the experimental results within a factor of three in general. However, systematic discrepancies between simulated reaction rates and measured reaction rates attributed to the neutron source terms are observed.

  3. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  4. A method for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wang, Li-na; Chen, De-sheng; Wang, Wei-jing; Liu, Ya-hui; Zhao, Hong-xin; Qi, Tao

    2018-02-01

    An innovative method for recovering valuable elements from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite is proposed. This method involves two procedures: low-temperature roasting of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite and water leaching of roasting slag. During the roasting process, the reduction of iron oxides to metallic iron, the sodium oxidation of vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium vanadate, and the smelting separation of metallic iron and slag were accomplished simultaneously. Optimal roasting conditions for iron/slag separation were achieved with a mixture thickness of 42.5 mm, a roasting temperature of 1200°C, a residence time of 2 h, a molar ratio of C/O of 1.7, and a sodium carbonate addition of 70wt%, as well as with the use of anthracite as a reductant. Under the optimal conditions, 93.67% iron from the raw ore was recovered in the form of iron nugget with 95.44% iron grade. After a water leaching process, 85.61% of the vanadium from the roasting slag was leached, confirming the sodium oxidation of most of the vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium vanadate during the roasting process. The total recoveries of iron, vanadium, and titanium were 93.67%, 72.68%, and 99.72%, respectively.

  5. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  6. Texture analysis of a friction stir welded ultrafine grained Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamanian, Morteza, E-mail: shamanian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Aluminum matrix composite was successfully bonded using friction stir welding. • After welding process the fraction of low angle boundary area rapidly decreases. • The grain growth in the NZ is related the increase of temperature during the FSW. • The aluminum matrix composite has a strong Rotated Cube texture. • The weld nugget has a Rotated Cube and shear texture. - Abstract: In recent years, several studies have been focused on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys, and some researchers have also been reported on welding of aluminum-based composites. In the present research, ultrafine grained sheets of aluminum matrix composite (Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The aluminum composite sheets were then joined by friction stir welding. The present work describes the effect of the FSW process on the microstructure and crystallographic textures in the base metal and weld nugget. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results demonstrated the existence of different grain orientations within the weld nugget as compared to the base metal. Al composite plates have a Rotated Cube texture component. Moreover, in the nugget, grain structure with Rotated Cube and shear texture developed. Friction stir welding coarsened the grain size in the weld zone from the original grain size of 3–17 μm.

  7. Texture analysis of a friction stir welded ultrafine grained Al–Al2O3 composite produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamanian, Morteza; Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum matrix composite was successfully bonded using friction stir welding. • After welding process the fraction of low angle boundary area rapidly decreases. • The grain growth in the NZ is related the increase of temperature during the FSW. • The aluminum matrix composite has a strong Rotated Cube texture. • The weld nugget has a Rotated Cube and shear texture. - Abstract: In recent years, several studies have been focused on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys, and some researchers have also been reported on welding of aluminum-based composites. In the present research, ultrafine grained sheets of aluminum matrix composite (Al–Al 2 O 3 ) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The aluminum composite sheets were then joined by friction stir welding. The present work describes the effect of the FSW process on the microstructure and crystallographic textures in the base metal and weld nugget. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results demonstrated the existence of different grain orientations within the weld nugget as compared to the base metal. Al composite plates have a Rotated Cube texture component. Moreover, in the nugget, grain structure with Rotated Cube and shear texture developed. Friction stir welding coarsened the grain size in the weld zone from the original grain size of 3–17 μm

  8. Deep Learning Identifies High-z Galaxies in a Central Blue Nugget Phase in a Characteristic Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lapiner, S.; Ceverino, D.; Simons, R. C.; Snyder, G. F.; Bernardi, M.; Chen, Z.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Lee, C. T.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Tuccillo, D.

    2018-05-01

    We use machine learning to identify in color images of high-redshift galaxies an astrophysical phenomenon predicted by cosmological simulations. This phenomenon, called the blue nugget (BN) phase, is the compact star-forming phase in the central regions of many growing galaxies that follows an earlier phase of gas compaction and is followed by a central quenching phase. We train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with mock “observed” images of simulated galaxies at three phases of evolution— pre-BN, BN, and post-BN—and demonstrate that the CNN successfully retrieves the three phases in other simulated galaxies. We show that BNs are identified by the CNN within a time window of ∼0.15 Hubble times. When the trained CNN is applied to observed galaxies from the CANDELS survey at z = 1–3, it successfully identifies galaxies at the three phases. We find that the observed BNs are preferentially found in galaxies at a characteristic stellar mass range, 109.2–10.3 M ⊙ at all redshifts. This is consistent with the characteristic galaxy mass for BNs as detected in the simulations and is meaningful because it is revealed in the observations when the direct information concerning the total galaxy luminosity has been eliminated from the training set. This technique can be applied to the classification of other astrophysical phenomena for improved comparison of theory and observations in the era of large imaging surveys and cosmological simulations.

  9. The investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordered alominide-iron (boron) nanostructures produced by mechanical alloying and sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S.; Akbari, Gh.; Janghorban, K.; Ghaffari, M.

    In this study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-50Al, Fe-49.5Al-1B, and Fe-47.5Al-5B (at.%) alloy powders and mechanical properties of sintered products of the as-milled powders were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the addition of B caused more crystallite refinement compared to the B-free powders. To consider the sintering and ordering behaviors of the parts produced from cold compaction of the powders milled for 80 h, sintering was conducted at various temperatures. It was found that the sintering temperature has no meaningful effect on the long-range order parameter. The transformation of the disordered solid solution developed by MA to ordered Fe-Al- (B) intermetallics was a consequence of sintering. Also, the nano-scale structure of the samples was retained even after sintering. The microhardness of pore-free zones of the nanostructured specimens decreased by increasing the sintering temperature. Moreover, the sintering temperature has no effect on the compressive yield stress. However, the fracture strain increased by increasing the sintering temperature. The samples containing 1 at.% B showed more strain to fracture compared with the B-free and 5 at.% B samples.

  10. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  11. The Effect Of Local Coal And Smelting Sponge Iron On Iron Content Of Pig Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oediyani, Soesaptri; Juwita Sari, Pramita; Hadi P, Djoko

    2018-03-01

    The new regulation on mineral resources was announced by Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (ESDM) of Indonesia at 2014 which it called Permen ESDM No 1/2014. Therefore, this research was conducted to add the value of local iron ores by using smelting technology. The objective of the research is to produce pig iron that meet the requirement of the new regulation of mineral resources such as 90% Fe. First, iron ores and coal mixed together with lime as a flux, then smelted in a Electric Arc Furnace at 1800°C. The process variables are (1; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2.0) and the composition of coal (0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%). The type of coal that used in this research was bituminous coal from Kalimantan and also the iron ores from Kalimantan. The products of the smelting technology are Pig iron and slag. Both pig iron and slag then analyzed by SEM-EDS to measure the iron content. The result shows that the maximum iron content on pig iron is about 95.04% meanwhile the minimum iron content on slag is about 3.66%. This result achieved at 1.6% coal and 2.0.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  13. You can't "nudge" nuggets: An investigation of college late-night dining with behavioral economics interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevet, Samuel; Niles, Meredith T; Pope, Lizzy

    2018-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate and improve the "late-night dining" options in a university dining hall. Surveys assessed student desires for late-night offerings, and evaluated students' habits and motivations during late-night dining. Two interventions were implemented to see if students could be "nudged" into different choice patterns. In the first, a "veggie-heavy" entrée was added at the beginning of the entrée line, so that students would substitute an entrée containing vegetables for the alternatives. In the second, a snack-food bar was set up to cater to students who didn't want to stand in the long entrée line, and preferred a snack. Data on food choice was collected during the interventions. Survey responses showed significant differences in the reasons females and males utilized late-night dining (p<0.001). We also found that students at late-night dining had a lower emphasis on health than the general student population. Even students at late-night who reported being health-conscious showed no difference in food selections from students who said health was not important (p = 0.883). Veggie-heavy entrées had mild success in increasing vegetable selection. However, veggie-heavy entrées were largely ignored when the other option was chicken nuggets. The snack bar was very popular. Entrée placement and convenience lines may have mild impacts on food selection in a late-night dining environment.

  14. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  15. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  16. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  17. 浅谈超白压延光伏玻璃常见的成形缺陷%Causes and Solutions of Common Defects in Low- iron Photovoltaic Glass Produced by Rolled Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贵明; 赵海雪; 魏会元; 张建萍:

    2011-01-01

    The high speed development of solar energy industry brings the rapid growth of photovoltaic glass . Ultra-clear photovoltaic glass used as the cover material for solar energy setup is more popular and worldwide . The production of PV-glass is high in technological content and the manufacture process is difficult to control . Any little defect will affect the quality and processed performance. Therefore the causes of defect in low-iron photovoltaic glass produced by rolled process and the corresponding steps were described in this paper.%太阳能产业的高速发展带来光伏玻璃的快速增长,超白压延玻璃作为太阳能装置首选的盖板材料越发潮流化。超白压延玻璃生产科技含量高、生产难度大,任何一个细微的成型缺陷都有可能影响玻璃的质量等级与加工性能,本文对超白压延玻璃成形缺陷产生的原因进行了分析,并提出了合理的解决措施。

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  20. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  8. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  11. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  14. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  16. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of polyphase sintered iron-cobalt-iron boride cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, J.; Pieczonka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Sintering of iron, cobalt and boron powders has been analysed. As a result iron-iron boride, Fe-Fe 2 B and iron/cobalt boride with a slight admixture of molybdenum, Fe - Co - (FeMoCo) 2 B cermets have been produced. Iron was introduced to the mixture as the Astalloy Mo Hoeganaes grade powder. Elemental amorphous boron powder was used, and formation of borides occurred both during heating and isothermal sintering periods causing dimensional changes of the sintered body. Dilatometry was chosen to control basic phenomena taking place during multiphase sintering of investigated systems. The microstructure and phase constituents of sintered compacts were controlled as well. The cermets produced were substituted to: metallographic tests, X-ray analysis, measurements of hardness and of microhardness, and of wear in the process of sliding dry friction. Cermets are made up of two phases; hard grains of iron - cobalt boride, (FeCo) 2 B (1800 HV) constituting the reinforcement and a relatively soft and plastic eutectic mixture Fe 2 B - Co (400-500 HV) constituting the matrix. (author)

  18. Golden News Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article provides snapshots of recent events and programs at colleges and universities in the state of California: (1) A graduate student in kinesiology at California State University, Chico, is talking the talk and walking the walk to promote physical fitness; (2) First-generation Latino students enrolled in nutrition science and health…

  19. Iron aluminide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneibel, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Iron aluminides with the B2 structure are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant. They are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as TiC, WC, TiB 2 , and ZrB 2 . In addition, liquid iron aluminides wet these ceramics very well. Therefore, FeAl/ceramic composites may be produced by techniques such as liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures, or pressureless melt infiltration of ceramic powders with liquid FeAl. These techniques, the resulting microstructures, and their advantages as well as limitations are described. Iron aluminide composites can be very strong. Room temperature flexure strengths as high as 1.8 GPa have been observed for FeAl/WC. Substantial gains in strength of elevated temperatures (1,073 K) have also been demonstrated. Above 40 vol.% WC the room temperature flexure strength becomes flaw-limited. This is thought to be due to processing flaws and limited interfacial strength. The fracture toughness of FeAl/WC is unexpectedly high and follows a rule of mixtures. Interestingly, sufficiently thin (<1 microm) FeAl ligaments between adjacent WC particles fracture not by cleavage, but in a ductile manner. For these thin ligaments the dislocation pile-ups formed during deformation are not long enough to nucleate cleavage fracture, and their fracture mode is therefore ductile. For several reasons, this brittle-to-ductile size transition does not improve the fracture toughness of the composites significantly. However, since no cleavage cracks are nucleated in sufficiently thin FeAl ligaments, slow crack growth due to ambient water vapor does not occur. Therefore, as compared to monolithic iron aluminides, environmental embrittlement is dramatically reduced in iron aluminide composites

  20. Fine tuning of dwelling time in friction stir welding for preventing material overheating, weld tensile strength increase and weld nugget size decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After successful welding, destructive testing into test samples from Al 2024-T351 friction stir butt welds showed that tensile strength of the weld improve along the joint line, while dimensions of the weld nugget decrease. For those welds, both the base material and the welding tool constantly cool down during the welding phase. Obviously, the base material became overheated during the long dwelling phase what made conditions for creation of joints with the reduced mechanical properties. Preserving all process parameters but varying the dwelling time from 5-27 seconds a new set of welding is done to reach maximal achievable tensile strength. An analytical-numerical-experimental model is used for optimising the duration of the dwelling time while searching for the maximal tensile strength of the welds

  1. In vitro evaluation of iron solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants and of iron-fortified milk products targeted for infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P iron was higher (P iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.

  2. On the collapse of iron stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkat, Z.; Rakavy, G.; Reiss, Y.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The collapse of iron stellar cores is investigated to see whether the outward shock produced by the bounce at neutron star density is sufficient to burn appreciable amounts of the envelope around the iron core. Several models were tried, and in all cases no appreciable burn took place; hence no explosion results from the collapse of these models

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  7. Direct Reduction of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, M.

    1981-04-01

    In the search for a pure, available iron source, steelmakers are focusing their attention on Directly Reduced Iron (DRI). This material is produced by the reaction of a low gangue iron ore with a hydrocarbonaceous substance. Commercially, DRI is generated in four different reactors: shaft (moving-bed), rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and retort (fixed-bed). Annual worldwide production capacity approaches 33 million metric tons. Detailed assessments have been made of the uses of DRI, especially as a substitute for scrap in electric furnace (EF) steelmaking. DRI is generally of a quality superior to current grades of scrap, with steels produced more efficiently in the EF and containing lower levels of impurities. However, present economics favor EF steel production with scrap. But this situation could change within this decade because of a developing scarcity of good quality scrap.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  17. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  5. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  9. Bioavailability of iron to rats from processed soybean fractions determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Nelson, N.; Elliott, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques were used to measure iron bioavailability from soybean fractions (isolated soy protein, defatted flour, soy hulls, insoluble material and whey) by iron-depleted and non-iron-depleted rats. As expected, absorption of iron was higher in the iron-depleted than in the non-iron-depleted rats. In the iron-depleted group, significantly more iron was absorbed from soy whey than from other fractions. No other significant difference in iron absorption associated with iron source was observed. The higher absorption rate of iron from whey by the iron-depleted rats probably was related to a lower quantity of food consumed during the test meal by this group. Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques produced similar assessments of bioavailability of iron

  10. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  13. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  14. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  15. Microcapillary Features in Silicon Alloyed High-Strength Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Hasanli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study explores features of silicon micro capillary in alloyed high-strength cast iron with nodular graphite (ductile iron produced in metal molds. It identified the nature and mechanism of micro liquation of silicon in a ductile iron alloyed with Nickel and copper, and demonstrated significant change of structural-quality characteristics. It was concluded that the matrix of alloyed ductile iron has a heterogeneous structure with cross reinforcement and high-silicon excrement areas.

  16. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  19. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  20. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  3. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  4. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  5. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-01-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe +2 ) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron

  6. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-01-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe +2 ) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron

  7. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  9. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  10. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal

  11. Modern iron replacement therapy: clinical and pathophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Domenico; Ugolini, Sara; Busti, Fabiana; Marchi, Giacomo; Castagna, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is extremely frequent worldwide, representing a major public health problem. Iron replacement therapy dates back to the seventeenth century, and has progressed relatively slowly until recently. Both oral and intravenous traditional iron formulations are known to be far from ideal, mainly because of tolerability and safety issues, respectively. At the beginning of this century, the discovery of hepcidin/ferroportin axis has represented a turning point in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iron metabolism disorders, ushering a new era. In the meantime, advances in the pharmaceutical technologies are producing newer iron formulations aimed at minimizing the problems inherent with traditional approaches. The pharmacokinetic of oral and parenteral iron is substantially different, and diversities have become even clearer in light of the hepcidin master role in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Here we review how iron therapy is changing because of such important advances in both pathophysiology and pharmacology.

  12. The Influence of Friction Stir Weld Tool Form and Welding Parameters on Weld Structure and Properties: Nugget Bulge in Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Brendel, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Although friction stir welding (FSW) was patented in 1991, process development has been based upon trial and error and the literature still exhibits little understanding of the mechanisms determining weld structure and properties. New concepts emerging from a better understanding of these mechanisms enhance the ability of FSW engineers to think about the FSW process in new ways, inevitably leading to advances in the technology. A kinematic approach in which the FSW flow process is decomposed into several simple flow components has been found to explain the basic structural features of FSW welds and to relate them to tool geometry and process parameters. Using this modelling approach, this study reports on a correlation between the features of the weld nugget, process parameters, weld tool geometry, and weld strength. This correlation presents a way to select process parameters for a given tool geometry so as to optimize weld strength. It also provides clues that may ultimately explain why the weld strength varies within the sample population.

  13. Effects of microstructure and local mechanical fields on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of a friction stir welded aluminum–copper–lithium 2050 nugget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, Matthieu; Aubert, Isabelle; Saintier, Nicolas; Olive, Jean Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Applied stress changes the corrosion mode from pitting to intergranular cracking. • Residual stresses are sufficient to induce intergranular stress corrosion cracking. • Effect of crystallographic texture on the development of IGSCC evidenced by EBSD. • Cubic elasticity drives the local orientation of the intergranular cracking. • Tomography observations show the 3D nature of the corrosion development. - Abstract: The effects of the microstructure and mechanical fields on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the nugget zone of heat treated welds obtained by friction stir welding in the AA2050 aluminum alloy have been investigated at different scales. At low strain rate, in 1.0 NaCl aqueous solution, IGSCC develops in the microstructure, whereas only pitting corrosion is observed without any mechanical stress. Based on surface observations, EBSD analysis and X-ray tomography, the key role of sub-millimetric textured bands (induced by the welding process) on the IGSCC is demonstrated. Analyses at a more local scale show the grain boundary (low angle boundary, special coincident site lattice boundary or high angle boundary) do not have a significant effect on crack initiation. Crystal plasticity finite element calculations show that the threshold normal stress at grain boundaries for IGSCC development is about 80% of the macroscopic stress. It is also highlighted by crystal plasticity calculations that there is a drastic effect of the local stress field on the shape of cracks. Finally, it is shown that plasticity induced residual stresses are sufficient for the formation of IGSCC

  14. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  15. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.-M.M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-01-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment

  16. Determination of metallic iron in sponge-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    The amount of metallic iron in sponge-iron is a parameter of major interest in the evaluation of the performance of the ore-reduction process and in the determination of the composition of the load of the electric furnace used to produce the steel. Moessbauer effect offers the promise of a simple and elegant analysis method, capable of competing directly with the usually time-consuming chemical procedures. The applicability of the method is considered and the possible sources of error are analyzed, resulting in the design of an instrument that is reasonably accurate and simple to use. Detailed electronic circuity required to produce a direct-reading digital instrument is shown [pt

  17. Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO 3 , were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive 55 FeCl 3 (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10π 5 M), ferrichrome (10 -5 M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of 55 Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium

  18. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  19. Very heavy iron-punching concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1966-01-01

    The present report deals with all the heavy iron-punching concretes, metallic wastes produced by the transformation industry. After a detailed description of the physical properties of metallic aggregates, a classification of heavy mortars is given, into three main categories: steel-shot grouts d = 5,3 - 6; steel-shot grouts mixed with a mineral d = 3,7 - 4,2; injection heavy grouts d = 3,5 - 4. The following chapter describes iron-punching concretes the most used in the atomic industry: iron-punching concretes mixed with cast-iron - iron-punching concretes mixed with magnetite; iron-punching concretes mixed with barite; iron-punching concretes mixed with limonite; iron-punching concretes mixed with boron. The compositions of these concretes are given together with their physical and mechanical characteristics. Numerous diagrams make it possible to find rapidly the proportions of the constituents of these concretes as a function of the required density. Technical advice and specifications are given in an appendix together with a bibliography of these heavy concretes. (author) [fr

  20. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  1. Rare earth-iron-boron premanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendehari, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnets containing added rare earth oxide, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a particulate alloy containing at least one rare earth metal, iron, and boron with at least one particulate rare earth oxide; (b) aligning magnetic domains of the mixture in a magnetic field; (c) compacting the aligned mixture to form a shape; and (d) sintering the compacted shape

  2. Contribution of Hfe expression in macrophages to the regulation of hepatic hepcidin levels and iron loading

    OpenAIRE

    Makui, Hortence; Soares, Ricardo J.; Jiang, Wenlei; Constante, Marco; Santos, Manuela M.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), an iron overload disease associated with mutations in the HFE gene, is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and consequent deposition of excess iron, primarily in the liver. Patients with HH and Hfe-deficient (Hfe−/−) mice manifest inappropriate expression of the iron absorption regulator hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver in response to iron loading. In this study, we investigated the contribution of Hfe expression in macrophag...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  19. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  20. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  8. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  9. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  17. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  18. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  19. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  2. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  11. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  14. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact.

  15. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  16. Aceitação sensorial de reestruturados empanados elaborados com filé de peito de galinhas matrizes de corte e poedeiras comerciais Sensory acceptance of nuggets prepared with broiler breeder and spent layer hens breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pacheco Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, no Brasil, o alojamento de galinhas poedeiras comerciais e de matrizes de corte somados foi de 109 milhões de cabeças, sendo que um número próximo a este deve ter sido descartado no mesmo período. Este grande número de galinhas descartadas contrasta com a falta de mercado consumidor e o baixo valor comercial alcançado por estas aves. A utilização da carne de galinhas na elaboração de produtos de conveniência poderia agregar valor e ampliar o consumo desta matéria-prima. Diante do exposto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar produtos empanados tipo nuggets, utilizando carne de galinhas de descarte (matrizes de corte e poedeiras comercias brancas e avaliar a aceitação pelo consumidor destes produtos, em comparação com nuggets elaborados com carne de frango. Os produtos desenvolvidos foram avaliados por análise sensorial, utilizando testes de aceitação e de intenção de compra em localização central (400 provadores. Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 na aceitação sensorial nem na intenção de compra entre os três diferentes produtos avaliados. Concluiu-se que a elaboração de produtos empanados pode representar uma boa alternativa para a utilização de filés de peito de galinhas, agregando maior valor a estas aves ao final do ciclo de postura.In Brazil, the flock size of layer and broiler breeder hens housed in 2005 was 109 million. A similar number of hens might be spent in this period. This great number of spent hens contrasts with the absence of consumer market and the low commercial value reached by these birds. The manufacture of convenience products using spent hens meat could add value and elevate the consumption of this raw material. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop nuggets made with spent hens (white layers and broiler breeders meat and evaluate the consumer acceptance of these products in comparison to nuggets elaborated with broiler meat. Sensory evaluation of acceptance

  17. Iron(III) species formed during iron(II) oxidation and iron-core formation in bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, C.; Treffry, A.; Mackey, J.; Williams, J.M.; Andrews, S.C.; Guest, J.R.; Harrison, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation and storage of Fe(III) in the bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli (EcBFR). Using Moessbauer spectroscopy to examine the initial oxidation of iron by EcBFR it is confirmed that this ferritin exhibits 'ferroxidase' activity and is shown that dimeric and monomeric iron species are produced as intermediates. The characteristics of ferroxidase activity in EcBFR is compare d with those of human H-chain ferritin (HuHF) and discuss the different Moessbauer parameters of their dimeric iron with reference to the structures of their di-metal sites. In addition, it is presented preliminary findings suggesting that after an initial 'burst', the rate of oxidation is greatly reduced, possibly due to blockage of the ferroxidase centre by bound iron. A new component, not found in HuHF and probably representing a small cluster of Fe(III) atoms, is reported

  18. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Ray, Richard I.; Little, Brenda J.; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with three culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media. PMID:24093730

  19. A study by internal friction of defects produced in iron and nickel irradiated at very low temperatures; Etude au moyen du frottement interne des defauts crees par irradiation a tres basse temperature dans le fer et le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating-Hart, G de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work represents a contribution to the study of point defects in metals. After a brief review of the theory of internal friction we will discuss some technical innovations aimed at increasing the flexibility of the apparatus at our disposal. These innovations have allowed us to extend our range of measurements down to 20 deg. K. We will then discuss our experimental results. Firstly, we describe preliminary experiments on electron irradiated iron and the evidence for a laminar structure. Secondly, we present and account of the first measurements on nickel after neutron irradiation at 27 deg. K. We will compare the results with those obtained by other methods in this laboratory. Essentially we have observed transitory peaks at low temperature due to close Frenkel pairs and we have noticed the absence of a peak which would correspond to the magnetic after effect band of stage I{sub E}. An attempt is made to explain the disappearance of the observed peaks upon the application of an internal saturating magnetic field. (author) [French] Ce memoire constitue une contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux. Apres un bref apercu theorique sur le frottement interne, nous presenterons quelques realisations techniques destinees a accroitre les possibilites des instruments qui nous ont ete confies. Ces dernieres nous ont permis d'etendre la gamme des mesures jusqu'a 20 deg. K. Nous parlerons ensuite de nos resultats experimentaux. En premier lieu, ceux obtenus au cours de premieres experiences, sur le fer irradie aux electrons mettent en evidence des structures de laminage. En second lieu, nous exposerons les premieres mesures realisees sur du nickel irradie aux neutrons; nous comparerons ces resultats avec ceux obtenus par d'autres moyens experimentaux dans le laboratoire. Nous avons observe essentiellement des pics fugitifs a basse temperature dus aux paires proches de Frenckel et nous avons constate l'absence d'un pic correspondant a la bande de tramage

  20. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 – 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  1. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    hydroxide planar layer were preserved during the oxidation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. The high positive charge in the hydroxide layer produced by the oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) is partially compensated by the deprotonation of hydroxy groups, as shown by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy...... between the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecanoate anions play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and hindering the collapse of the iron(II)–iron(III) (hydr)oxide structure during oxidation. This is the first report describing the formation of a stable planar layered octahedral iron......(III) (hydr)oxide. oxGRC12 shows promise as a sorbent and host for hydrophobic reagents, and as a possible source of single planar layers of iron(III) (hydr)oxide....

  2. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-06-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  3. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  6. [Susceptibility of enterococci to natural and synthetic iron chelators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecki, Paweł; Mikucki, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    A total of 79 strains of enterococci belonging to 10 species were tested for susceptibility to natural and synthetic iron chelators. All strains produced siderophores. These enterococci were susceptible to three synthetic iron chelators only: 8-hydroxyquinoline, disodium versenate (EDTA) and o-phenanthroline. They were resistant to all other synthetic chelators: ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), nitrilotriacetate, 2,2'-bipiridyl, salicylic acid, 8-hydroxy-5-sulphonic acid and to all natural chelators: ovotransferrine, human apotransferrine, horse apoferritine, desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome and rhodotorulic acid. The relations between susceptibility/resistance, iron assimilation and structure and stability constants of iron chelators were discussed.

  7. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  8. Report on development of super metal technology and on result of innovative technologies for producing material for controlling iron-based mesoscopic structure; 1999 nendo super metal no gijutsu kaihatsu tetsukei mesoscopic soshiki seigyo zairyo sosei gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    R and D was conducted for the purpose of 'establishing innovative technologies for producing microstructure steel having a grain size of approximately 1 {mu}m or less and a thickness of 1 mm through the formation of uniform multi-phase structure steel', with the results for fiscal 1999 summarized. In the subject year, a multi-functional integrated test rolling mill was introduced, with possibility validated for grain ultra-refinement by three types of large strain deformation, and with the effect of deforming conditions confirmed. As for the theoretical understanding of the mechanism of grain ultra-refinement and the establishment of its guiding principle, a progress was made in clarifying the ultra-refinement mechanism particularly by the strain-induced ultra-low-temperature diffusional transformation, revealing for example that micro-bands formed in deformed austenitic substructures provided the nucleation sites for ultra-fine ferrite. In the evaluation of properties on medium size samples prepared by the multi-functional integrated test rolling mill, remarkable improvement was confirmed in yield strength and tensile strength in martensitic steel or tempered martensitic steel as well as in ferritic steel. (NEDO)

  9. Genomic insights into microbial iron oxidation and iron uptake strategies in extremely acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S

    2012-07-01

    This minireview presents recent advances in our understanding of iron oxidation and homeostasis in acidophilic Bacteria and Archaea. These processes influence the flux of metals and nutrients in pristine and man-made acidic environments such as acid mine drainage and industrial bioleaching operations. Acidophiles are also being studied to understand life in extreme conditions and their role in the generation of biomarkers used in the search for evidence of existing or past extra-terrestrial life. Iron oxidation in acidophiles is best understood in the model organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, recent functional genomic analysis of acidophiles is leading to a deeper appreciation of the diversity of acidophilic iron-oxidizing pathways. Although it is too early to paint a detailed picture of the role played by lateral gene transfer in the evolution of iron oxidation, emerging evidence tends to support the view that iron oxidation arose independently more than once in evolution. Acidic environments are generally rich in soluble iron and extreme acidophiles (e.g. the Leptospirillum genus) have considerably fewer iron uptake systems compared with neutrophiles. However, some acidophiles have been shown to grow as high as pH 6 and, in the case of the Acidithiobacillus genus, to have multiple iron uptake systems. This could be an adaption allowing them to respond to different iron concentrations via the use of a multiplicity of different siderophores. Both Leptospirillum spp. and Acidithiobacillus spp. are predicted to synthesize the acid stable citrate siderophore for Fe(III) uptake. In addition, both groups have predicted receptors for siderophores produced by other microorganisms, suggesting that competition for iron occurs influencing the ecophysiology of acidic environments. Little is known about the genetic regulation of iron oxidation and iron uptake in acidophiles, especially how the use of iron as an energy source is balanced with its need to take up

  10. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅳ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  11. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 4: Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  13. High solubility pathway for the carbon dioxide free production of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Wang, Baohui

    2010-10-07

    We report a fundamental change in the understanding of iron oxide thermochemistry, opening a facile, new CO(2)-free route to iron production. The resultant process can eliminate a major global source of greenhouse gas emission, producing the staple iron in molten media at high rate and low electrolysis energy.

  14. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. HFE mRNA expression is responsive to intracellular and extracellular iron loading: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kosha J; Farnaud, Sebastien; Patel, Vinood B

    2017-10-01

    In liver hepatocytes, the HFE gene regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by modulating cellular iron-uptake and producing the iron-hormone hepcidin in response to systemic iron elevation. However, the mechanism of iron-sensing in hepatocytes remain enigmatic. Therefore, to study the effect of iron on HFE and hepcidin (HAMP) expressions under distinct extracellular and intracellular iron-loading, we examined the effect of holotransferrin treatment (1, 2, 5 and 8 g/L for 6 h) on intracellular iron levels, and mRNA expressions of HFE and HAMP in wild-type HepG2 and previously characterized iron-loaded recombinant-TfR1 HepG2 cells. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and intracellular iron was measured by ferrozine assay. Data showed that in the wild-type cells, where intracellular iron content remained unchanged, HFE expression remained unaltered at low holotransferrin treatments but was upregulated upon 5 g/L (p HFE and HAMP expressions were elevated only at low 1 g/L treatment (p HFE (p HFE mRNA was independently elevated by extracellular and intracellular iron-excess. Thus, it may be involved in sensing both, extracellular and intracellular iron. Repression of HAMP expression under simultaneous intracellular and extracellular iron-loading resembles non-hereditary iron-excess pathologies.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your ... very young red blood cells. Peripheral smear to see if your red blood ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...

  7. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those ... environments Children who have lead in ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...

  16. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  2. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  7. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Root excretions in tobacco plants and possible implications on the Iron nutrition of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A

    1969-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that riboflavin produced in roots and perhaps other compounds produced either in roots or in microorganisms can facilitate either or both the absorption and translocation of iron in higher plants. Riboflavin production and increased iron transport are characteristic of iron-deficient plants, both are decreased by nitrogen deficiency, both evidently can be regulated by a microorganism. When large amounts of iron was transported in the xylem exudate of tobacco, riboflavin was also. An excess of the chelating agent, EDTA, without iron seems to increase the iron uptake from an iron chelate, EDDHA. All these effects are probably related and knowledge of them may help solve iron deficiency problems in horticultural crops.

  9. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  10. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron signatures in Planetary Regoliths: The Moon as Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, L. A.; Clark, P. E.; Basu, A.

    1998-09-01

    We consider the distribution of iron in the lunar crust by combining two complementary remote sensing techniques, Apollo Gamma-ray (AGR) spectroscopy and Clementine reflectance spectroscopy (CRS). Both maps were compared in areas of overlap controlled by Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. The CRS map was scaled to the same lower spatial resolution (200 km) as AGR using the same color map in a mercator projection. Both AGR and CRS maps show bimodal distributions of iron abundance and have large scale similarities, but there are quantitative and significant differences. Maria account for the high iron peak and highlands, the low iron peak. CSR-derived Fe has a greater overall range, very narrow modal peaks and greater separation between high and low modes compared to AGR Fe values. If both techniques measure total iron in the regolith then both approaches should agree, their residuals should be zero. After failure to explain the differences in a systematic manner, we recalibrated the CSR iron map to the iron abundance in the pyroxene component of Apollo landing site soils, an approach consistent with crystal field theory and the algorithm used to produce the CSR map. The difference between total iron measured by AGR and iron in pyroxene now measured by CSR gives a map of the non-pyroxene iron component of the lunar crust and its distribution. We now see a correlation with lunar morphology and an anti-correlation with age of mare basins and their iron abundance, the younger basins having a higher component of non-pyroxene iron than the older ones. These results can be checked with Lunar Prospector data on other areas of the Moon. Combining remote sensing data sets has promise for determining the distribution of iron in different oxidation states on Eros with data from the NEAR mission.

  12. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  13. Characterization and uranium bioleaching performance of mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizers versus iron-oxidizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Li; Jing Sun; Dexin Ding; Qingliang Wang; Wenge Shi; Eming Hu; Xiaoyu Jiang; University of South China, Hengyang; Xingxing Wang

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop and apply mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizers in uranium bioleaching, the characteristics of a mixed iron- and sulfur-oxidizing consortium (Consortium ISO) were comparatively investigated versus an iron-oxidizing consortium (Consortium IO). The results showed, the Consortium ISO exerted stronger oxidative ability and acid-producing ability than Consortium IO did. The synergy of sulfur-oxidizers and iron-oxidizers could change the structure and properties of the passivation substance, and work positively for eliminating the accumulation of passivation substance. In the bioleaching process, the uranium bioleaching experiments showed the recovery percentage of uranium reached 99.5% with Consortium ISO, 6.3% more than that of Consortium IO. (author)

  14. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  15. Effective Processing of the Iron Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Vadim; Kuskova, Yana; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Effective technology for a complex wasteless processing of the iron ores has been designed and includes three main components (plats): comminution plant, briquette plant, pigment plant. The comminution is done per energy effective technology. Using of briquetting for ores clotting enables the costs cut and brings to a higher level of environmental safety of the process. Briquette formation can be done as a regular pressing, as an extrusion. Developed technology allows to produce high quality competitively products for metallurgy industry and red iron oxide pigments. The whole production line impacts the environment in a minimal manner.

  16. Effective Processing of the Iron Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective technology for a complex wasteless processing of the iron ores has been designed and includes three main components (plats: comminution plant, briquette plant, pigment plant. The comminution is done per energy effective technology. Using of briquetting for ores clotting enables the costs cut and brings to a higher level of environmental safety of the process. Briquette formation can be done as a regular pressing, as an extrusion. Developed technology allows to produce high quality competitively products for metallurgy industry and red iron oxide pigments. The whole production line impacts the environment in a minimal manner.

  17. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  18. Mechanisms of iron sensing and regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa; Perea-García, Ana; Puig, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    Iron is a redox active element that functions as an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways, including respiration, DNA synthesis and translation. While indispensable for eukaryotic life, excess iron can lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Therefore, living organisms have developed sophisticated strategies to optimally regulate iron acquisition, storage and utilization in response to fluctuations in environmental iron bioavailability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription factors Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 regulate iron metabolism in response to low and high iron levels, respectively. In addition to producing and assembling iron cofactors, mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster biogenesis has emerged as a central player in iron sensing. A mitochondrial signal derived from Fe/S synthesis is exported and converted into an Fe/S cluster that interacts directly with Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 proteins to regulate their transcriptional function. Various conserved proteins, such as ABC mitochondrial transporter Atm1 and, for Aft1/Aft2, monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 are implicated in this iron-signaling pathway. The analysis of a wide range of S. cerevisiae strains of different geographical origins and sources has shown that yeast strains adapted to high iron display growth defects under iron-deficient conditions, and highlighted connections that exist in the response to both opposite conditions. Changes in iron accumulation and gene expression profiles suggest differences in the regulation of iron homeostasis genes.

  19. Potential of Phytase-Mediated Iron Release from Cereal-Based Foods: A Quantitative View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via enzyme-catalysed dephosphorylation of phytate, indicating the potential of this strategy for preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia. Despite the immense promise of this strategy and the prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide, the number of human studies elucidating the significance of phytase-mediated improvements in iron absorption and ultimately in iron status in particularly vulnerable groups is still low. A more detailed understanding of (1) the uptake mechanism for iron released from partially dephosphorylated phytate chelates, (2) the affinity of microbially derived phytases towards insoluble iron phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects. PMID:23917170

  20. Aspergillus niger Secretes Citrate to Increase Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560

  1. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  2. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron supplements ... warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell your doctor if you have any new ...

  14. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

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  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate current research into improved health for people with iron- ...

  3. Characterization of plasma nitrided layers produced on sintered iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fontes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a thermo-physical-chemical treatment process, which promotes surface hardening, caused by interstitial diffusion of atomic nitrogen into metallic alloys. In this work, this process was employed in the surface modification of a sintered ferrous alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, and wear and microhardness tests were performed on the samples submitted to ferrox treatment and plasma nitriding carried out under different conditions of time and temperature. The results showed that the nitride layer thickness is higher for all nitrided samples than for ferrox treated samples, and this layer thickness increases with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature is a more significant variable. The XRD analysis showed that the nitrided layer, for all samples, near the surface consists in a mixture of γ′-Fe4N and ɛ-Fe3N phases. Both wear resistance and microhardness increase with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature influences both the characteristics the most.

  4. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    including: acid -cleaned filters, filters rinsed with un-amended trace-metal clean seawater, and filters rinsed with the oxalate solution followed by...greatly influenced by the sources of iron to the marine environment, which include riverine input, hydrothermal upwelling, and atmospheric...deposition (Jickells et al, 2005). While the amount of iron introduced to the oceans from riverine and hydrothermal sources is high, precipitation occurs

  5. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  6. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  7. Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Evolución del Patrón Respiratorio, Enzimático y de Etileno del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget en los Últimos Cuatro Estadios Secuenciales de Madurez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Undurraga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709, color break (BBCH 801, yellow (BBCH 807, and orange (BBCH 809. The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, polygalacturonase (PG, and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in the respiratory rate. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme increased from the green stage to color break, while the enzymes PME, cellulase, and PG showed a constant reduction from the green to the orange stage, and PPO showed no change over the four stages studied. With regards to quality, from color break onwards soluble solids increased to 11.8 °Brix and titratable acidity dropped from 0.67 to 0.28 g L-1 malic acid. Based on these results, the conclusion is that towards the end of its development loquat cv. Golden Nugget evidence enzymatic and ethylene behavior similar to that of climacteric fruits.Existe controversia sobre el patrón respiratorio del níspero (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Con el fin de aportar información sobre este aspecto, frutos del cv. Golden Nugget entre 50-70 g, fueron cosechados en cuatro estadios de madurez; verde (BBCH 709, quiebre de color (BBCH 801, amarillo (BBCH 807, y anaranjado (BBCH 809. Los parámetros evaluados en cada estadio fueron: sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, relación sólidos solubles acidez, respiración, generación de etileno y la actividad de las enzimas pectin metil esterasa (PME, peroxidasa, polifenoloxidasa (PPO, poligalacturonasa

  8. Magnetodielectric coupling in multiferroic holmium iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malar Selvi, M.; Chakraborty, Deepannita; Venkateswaran, C.

    2017-01-01

    Single phase magneto-electric multiferroics require a large magnetic or electric field for producing magneto-electric (ME) and magnetodielectric (MD) effects. For utilizing these effects in devices investigations on the room temperature and low field MD studies are necessary. Recently, efforts have been largely devoted to the investigation of rare earth iron garnets. In the physical method, the preparation of rare earth iron garnet requires high sintering temperature and processing time. To solve these problems, ball milling assisted microwave sintering technique is used to prepare nanocrystalline holmium iron garnets (Ho_3Fe_5O_1_2). Magnetic and dielectric properties of the prepared sample are investigated. These properties get enhanced in nanocrystalline form when compared to the bulk. The MD coupling of the prepared sample is evident from the anomaly in the temperature dependent dielectric constant plot and the ME coupling susceptibility is derived from the room temperature MD measurements. - Highlights: • Formation of single phase Holmium iron garnet reported. • Ball milling assisted microwave sintering reduces the sintering temperature and time. • Holmium iron garnet shows enhanced magnetic and dielectric properties. • Pyromagnetic and pyroelectric measurements confirm the magnetoelectric coupling. • Room temperature magnetodielectric measurements show the nonlinear behaviour.

  9. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: a quantitative view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Tetens, Inge; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The major part of iron present in plant foods such as cereals is largely unavailable for direct absorption in humans due to complexation with the negatively charged phosphate groups of phytate (myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate). Human biology has not evolved an efficient mechanism...... to naturally release iron from iron phytate complexes. This narrative review will evaluate the quantitative significance of phytase-catalysed iron release from cereal foods. In vivo studies have shown how addition of microbially derived phytases to cereal-based foods has produced increased iron absorption via...... phytate complexes, and (3) the extent of phytate dephosphorylation required for iron release from inositol phosphates is warranted. Phytase-mediated iron release can improve iron absorption from plant foods. There is a need for development of innovative strategies to obtain better effects....

  10. X-ray emission spectroscopy study of iron silicate catalyst FeZSM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csencsits, R.; Lyman, C.E.; Gronsky, R.

    1988-03-01

    Iron silicate analogs of the zeolite ZMS-5 may be directly synthesized from iron silicate gels in a manner which differs slightly from the alumino-silicate ZSM-5. The resultant white, crystalline iron silicate is referred to as FeZSM-5 in the as-synthesized form. Thermal treatment removes the organic crystal-directing agent and moves some of the framework iron into non-framework sites producing the calcined form of the molecular sieve FeZSM-5. Homogeneity in the distribution of catalytic iron throughout the particles is desired in an optimal catalyst. Distribution of the iron throughout the framework in the as-synthesized forms would affect the final distribution of catalytic iron in the calcined and steamed forms; thus, the iron distribution throughout the as-synthesized and calcined forms of FeZSM-5 were studied using the high spatial resolution on the analytical electron microscope. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1-2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  12. The influence of extracellular superoxide on iron redox chemistry and bioavailability to aquatic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide, the one-electron reduced form of dioxygen, is produced in the extracellular milieu of aquatic microbes through a range of abiotic chemical processes and also by microbes themselves. Due to its ability to promote both oxidative and reductive reactions, superoxide may have a profound impact on the redox state of iron, potentially influencing iron solubility, complex speciation and bioavailability. The interplay between iron, superoxide and oxygen may also produce a cascade of other highly reactive transients in oxygenated natural waters. For microbes, the overall effect of reactions between superoxide and iron may be deleterious or beneficial, depending on the organism and its chemical environment. Here I critically discuss recent advances in understanding: (i sources of extracellular superoxide in natural waters, with a particular emphasis on microbial generation; (ii the chemistry of reactions between superoxide and iron; and (iii the influence of these processes on iron bioavailability and microbial iron nutrition.

  13. Bioavailability of elemental iron powders to rats is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and predicted by iron solubility and particle surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James H; Newman, Samuel M; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-11-01

    Foods are fortified with elemental forms of iron to reduce iron deficiency. However, the nutritional efficacy of current, commercially produced elemental iron powders has not been verified. We determined the bioavailability of six commercial elemental iron powders and examined how physicochemistry influences bioavailability. Relative biological value (RBV) of the iron powders was determined using a hemoglobin repletion/slope ratio method, treating iron-deficient rats with repletion diets fortified with graded quantities of iron powders, bakery-grade ferrous sulfate or no added iron. Iron powders were assessed physicochemically by measuring iron solubility in hydrochloric acid at pH 1.0 and 1.7, surface area by nitrogen gas adsorption and surface microstructure by electron microscopy. Bioavailability from the iron powders, based on absolute iron intake, was significantly less than from FeSO4 (100%; P Electrolytic (54%; A-131, U.S.) > Electrolytic (46%; Electrolytic Iron, India) > H-Reduced (42%; AC-325, U.S.) > Reduced (24%; ATOMET 95SP, Canada) > CO-Reduced (21%; RSI-325, Sweden). Solubility testing of the iron powders resulted in different relative rankings and better RBV predictability with increasing time at pH 1.7 (R2 = 0.65 at 150 min). The prediction was improved with less time and lower pH (R2 = 0.82, pH 1.0 at 30 min). Surface area, ranging from 90 to 370 m2/kg, was also highly predictive of RBV (R2 = 0.80). Bioavailability of iron powders is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and varies up to three times among different commercial forms. Solubility at pH 1.0 and surface area were predictive of iron bioavailability in rats.

  14. Superoxide scavenging activity of pirfenidone-iron complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoshihiro; Sato, Keizo; Muramoto, Yosuke; Karakawa, Tomohiro; Kitamado, Masataka; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Nabeshima, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ishida, Kazuhiko; Sasamoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Pirfenidone (PFD) is focused on a new anti-fibrotic drug, which can minimize lung fibrosis etc. We evaluated the superoxide (O 2 ·- ) scavenging activities of PFD and the PFD-iron complex by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay, and cytochrome c reduction assay. Firstly, we confirmed that the PFD-iron complex was formed by mixing iron chloride with threefold molar PFD, and the complex was stable in distillated water and ethanol. Secondary, the PFD-iron complex reduced the amount of O 2 ·- produced by xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine without inhibiting the enzyme activity. Thirdly, it also reduced the amount of O 2 ·- released from phorbor ester-stimulated human neutrophils. PFD alone showed few such effects. These results suggest the possibility that the O 2 ·- scavenging effect of the PFD-iron complex contributes to the anti-fibrotic action of PFD used for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  15. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, W; Gutierrez Mañero, F J; Algar, E; Lucas García, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos Solano, B

    2013-09-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved tomato plants. For this purpose, siderophore production in MM9 medium by two selected bacterial strains was quantified, and the best was used for biological assay. Bacterial culture media free of bacteria (S) and with bacterial cells (BS), both supplemented with Fe were delivered to 12-week-old plants grown under iron starvation in hydroponic conditions; controls with full Hoagland solution, iron-free Hoagland solution and water were also conducted. Treatments were applied twice along the experiment, with a week in between. At harvest, plant yield, chlorophyll content and nutritional status in leaves were measured. Both the bacterial siderophore treatments significantly increased plant yield, chlorophyll and iron content over the positive controls with full Hoagland solution, indicating that siderophores are effective in providing Fe to the plant, either with or without the presence of bacteria. In summary, siderophores from strain Chryseobacterium C138 are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants by the roots, either with or without the presence of bacteria. Based on the amount of siderophores produced, an effective and economically feasible organic Fe chelator could be developed.

  16. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  17. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  18. Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lipiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways – heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S] – is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  19. [Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Paweł; Starzyński, Rafał R; Styś, Agnieszka; Gajowiak, Anna; Staroń, Robert

    2014-01-02

    Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways--heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S])--is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis) as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  20. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  1. Iron oxides, divalent cations, silica, and the early earth phosphorus crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C.; Nomosatryo, S.; Crowe, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    As a nutrient required for growth, phosphorus regulates the activity of life in the oceans. Iron oxides sorb phosphorus from seawater, and through the Archean and early Proterozoic Eons, massive quantities of iron oxides precipitated from the oceans, producing a record of seawater chemistry...... that is preserved as banded iron formations (BIFs) today. Here we show that Ca2+, Mg2+, and silica in seawater control phosphorus sorption onto iron oxides, influencing the record of seawater phosphorus preserved in BIFs. Using a model for seawater cation chemistry through time, combined with the phosphorus...... waters shifted from phosphorus to iron limiting....

  2. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  3. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  4. In vitro studies on interactions of iron salts and complexes with food-stuffs and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, P

    1990-07-01

    It has been shown in the present study that food components such as phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin, sodium alginate, choline and choline salts, vitamins A, D3 and E, soy oil and soy flour, do not undergo any interactions with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (Ferrum Hausmann). Phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin and sodium alginate, however, react with iron(II) or iron(III)-salts at pH values of 3.0, 5.5 and 8.0, giving rise to iron complexes. Trimethylamine-N-oxide, which is present in fish meal, reacts with iron(II)-sulphate to produce iron(III) reaction products; it does not react with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. Special soybean flours show no irreversible adsorption or precipitation with iron(III)-hydroxyide polymaltose complex over the pH range 3.0-8.0, in contrast to iron(II)-sulphate. Antacids containing aluminium hydroxide, talc, ion exchange resins or other unabsorbable, insoluble components absorb iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex in the pH range 3.0-8.0 in a reversible manner, while the strong adsorption or precipitation observed with iron(II)-sulphate at pH 8.0 is irreversible. No interaction was observed between the steroid hormones studied and iron(II)-sulphate or iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. On the basis of the measured compatibilities, iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex can be administered orally simultaneously with many other drugs, without prejudicing the absorption of iron or of the other drug as is often seen with iron(II) and iron(III) salts.

  5. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  7. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), an innovative hydrogen production process based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets is presented. In the oxidation stage of the RESC, hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets, hence oxidizing the iron. In the reduction stage, synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas is used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and/or magnetite) back into iron again. A mathematical model of the complete RESC was developed and verified with experimental data. The model is based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and Sponge Iron Reactor (SIR). The current model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures and variations of the respective throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, determining the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream was subsequently optimized in order to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. (author)

  8. Studies on effect of Microbial Iron Chelators on Candida Albican

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, Fouzia S.; Milicent, S.; Zaheer-Uddin

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential for the life of all microbe cells. It generally exists in the oxidized form Fe(III). Even under anaerobic reducing condition the metal appear to be taken up as Fe(III). Thus free-living microorganisms require specific and effective ferric ion transport system to cope with low availability of the metal. In iron deficient environment they produce a low molecular weight specific chelators called siderphores or microbial iron chelators. Siderphores compete for limited supplied of iron. These compounds came out of the cell but can not re-enter without iron due to high affinity of these siderphores often have more than one catechol/hydroxamate functions and are multidentate (usually hexadentate ligands). The aim of the present research is to check the effect of iron chelators, namely gallic acid and salisyl hydroxamate on the growth of Candida albican in vitro. C. albican is the opportunistic paltogen present as the normal flora inside human body. In vivo the growth of C. albican is distributed by the use of antibiotics and immuno suppressers. In cases of iron over-dosage in human being, the patients are treated with certain a-iron chelators. Hence an attempt is made to notice the effect that might be inhibition or enhancement of the organism in vitro. (author)

  9. Amorphous structure of iron oxide of bacterial origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Fujii, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Asaoka, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kusano, Yoshihiro [Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, Kurashiki, Okayama 712-8505 (Japan); Ikeda, Yasunori [Research Institute for Production Development, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0805 (Japan); Nakanishi, Makoto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Benino, Yasuhiko; Nanba, Tokuro [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takada, Jun, E-mail: jtakada@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2012-12-14

    In nature, there are various iron oxides produced by the water-habitant bacterial group called 'iron-oxidizing bacteria'. These iron oxides have been studied mainly from biological and geochemical perspectives. Today, attempts are made to use such iron oxides as novel functional materials in several applications. However, their quantitative structural characteristics are still unclear. We studied the structure of iron oxide of microtubular form consisting of amorphous nanoparticles formed by an iron-oxidizing bacterium, Leptothrix ochracea, using a combination of high-energy X-ray diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo simulation. We found that its structure consists of a framework of corner- and edge-sharing distorted FeO{sub 6} octahedral units, while SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral units are isolated in the framework. The results reveal the atomic arrangement of iron oxide of bacterial origin, which is essential for investigating its potential as a functional material. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amorphous structure of bacterial iron oxide was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure was simulated by high-energy X-ray diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure was constructed of a framework of corner- and edge-sharing distorted FeO{sub 6} octahedral units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral units were distributed isolatedly in the framework of FeO{sub 6} octahedral units.

  10. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O. [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria). Inst. for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials Christian Doppler Pilot-Lab. for Fuel Cell Systems

    2003-07-01

    An innovative hydrogen production process called the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets, was mathematically modeled. The hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets in the oxidation stage, resulting in the oxidation of the iron. Synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas was used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and-or magnetite) in the reduction stage, leading once more to iron . Once the mathematical model was developed, it was verified utilizing experimental data. Based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and sponge iron reactor (SIR), the model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures, and variations of them throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, which determines the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream, was optimized to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  12. Reduction experiment of iron scale by adding waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    The special features of waste plastics in China are huge in total amount, various in type and dispersive in deposition. Therefore, it is necessary to try some new ways that are fit to Chinese situation for disposing waste plastics as metallurgical raw materials more effectively and flexibly. Owing to its high ferrous content and less impurity, the iron scale became ideal raw material to produce pure iron powder. One of the methods to produce pure iron powder is Hoganas Method, by which, after one or multistage of reduction steps, the iron scale can be reduced pure iron powder. However, combining utilization of waste plastics and iron powder production, a series of reduction experiments were arranged and investigated, which is hoped to take use of both thermal and chemical energy contained in waste plastics as well as to improve the reducing condition of iron scale, and hence to develop a new metallurgical way of disposing waste plastics. The results show that under these experimental conditions, the thermal-decomposition of water plastics can conduce to an increase of porosity in the reduction systems. Moreover, better thermodynamics and kinetics conditions for the reduction of scale can be reached. As a result, the reduction rate is increased.

  13. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  14. Absorption of medicamental iron and iron from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Carlmark, B.; Ehn, L.; Forsberg, K.; Hoeglund, S.; Terpstra, T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the measurement of iron absorption. The chemical balance method has been almost entirely supplanted by radioisotope methods, which include notably whole-body counting and measurement of incorporation of radioiron into red cells. A survey is also given of the various conditions that influence iron absorption, including chemical form of iron, amount of iron, accompanying diet. Absorption tests must be conducted under relevant conditions. (author)

  15. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from hemoglobin and myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyad, Arshad S; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ci, Lijie; Kabbani, Ahmad T; Vajtai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2–5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications. (paper)

  16. The Tendencies of Piece Casting from Modified Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca Ionel Lupinca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the metalographic studies made on the grey cast irons treated with complex modifying substances, type FeSiMgRE (Mg alloy and their influence on the compactness degree of graphite separations. For research and experiments, a melt of grey iron was produced in an induction furnace of a capacity of 5to, starting with a metallic charge made from 100% synthetic pig iron. We realized eight practical charge made modification, by using different combinations of modifying substance and in different concentrations. The addition of carbon to the melt was performed using electrode graphite powder in the metallic charge.

  17. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  18. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  19. The effects of iron fortification and supplementation on the gut microbiome and diarrhea in infants and children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Daniela; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    In infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is common, and many complementary foods are low in bioavailable iron. In-home fortification of complementary foods using iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) and oral iron supplementation are both effective strategies to increase iron intakes and reduce IDA at this age. However, these interventions produce large increases in colonic iron because the absorption of their high iron dose (≥12.5 mg) is typically iron supplements and iron fortification with MNPs on the gut microbiome and diarrhea. Iron-containing MNPs and iron supplements can modestly increase diarrhea risk, and in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that this occurs because increases in colonic iron adversely affect the gut microbiome in that they decrease abundances of beneficial barrier commensal gut bacteria (e.g., bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) and increase the abundance of enterobacteria including entropathogenic Escherichia coli These changes are associated with increased gut inflammation. Therefore, safer formulations of iron-containing supplements and MNPs are needed. To improve MNP safety, the iron dose of these formulations should be reduced while maximizing absorption to retain efficacy. Also, the addition of prebiotics to MNPs is a promising approach to mitigate the adverse effects of iron on the infant gut. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. A finite difference model of the iron ore sinter process

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, J.; de Vries, T.L.; Dippenaar, B.A.; Vreugdenburg, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Iron ore fines are agglomerated to produce sinter, which is an important feed material for blast furnaces worldwide. A model of the iron ore sintering process has been developed with the objective of being representative of the sinter pot test, the standard laboratory process in which the behaviour of specific sinter feed mixtures is evaluated. The model aims to predict sinter quality, including chemical quality and physical strength, as well as key sinter process performance parameters such ...