WorldWideScience

Sample records for iron meteorites yamato-790724

  1. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  2. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  3. Preferential occupation of pyroxene sites by iron in diogenite meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H. C.; Tewari, V. C.; Paliwal, B. S.; Tripathi, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Three diogenite meteorites ALHA77256-121, Tatahounie and Bilanga are studied using Moessbauer spectroscopy to look at the iron occupancy in the two inequivalent pyroxene sites. Though the three meteorites belong to three different conditions, one is an Antarctica find, one is 75 years old fall and one is a recent fall, the iron occupancy in pyroxene sites is very similar. Fe 2+ occupies only the less distorted site and hence a single sharp doublet is observed in the Moessbauer spectra of all these samples. In contrast eucrites show a distribution of iron ions in the two sites of pyroxenes.

  4. Indigenous Amino Acids in Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the organic content of meteorites and the potential delivery of molecules relevant to the origin of life on Earth is an important area of study in astrobiology. There have been many studies of meteoritic organics, with much focus on amino acids as monomers of proteins and enzymes essential to terrestrial life. The majority of these studies have involved analysis of carbonaceous chondrites, primitive meteorites containing approx. 3-5 wt% carbon. Amino acids have been observed in varying abundances and distributions in representatives of all eight carbonaceous chondrite groups, as well as in ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary and R chondrites, ureilites, and planetary achondrites [1 and references therein].

  5. Nucleation of the Widmanstatten Pattern in Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    The Widmanstatten pattern develops at low temperatures during the evolution of the asteroids. We have studied the origin of the Widmanstatten pattern in order to obtain metallographic cooling rates in the temperature range (approx. 700 to 300 deg C). This paper summarizes our recent evaluation of the various mechanisms for the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern. All chemical groups of the iron meteorites are considered. We also propose a new mechanism for the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern in the low P metal phase of iron, stony-iron and stony meteorites. The results of this evaluation enables us to more accurately determine metallographic cooling rates particularly when incorporated with other recent advances in Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni (P saturated) phase diagrams and interdiffusion coefficients.

  6. Isotopes produced by galactic cosmic rays in iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birck, J.L.; Allegre, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The elements Li, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr have been investigated in the iron meteorites Grant and Carbo. Their isotopic ratios show clearly the effects of spallation by galactic cosmic rays. Our experimental technique allows us to determine the concentration of spallation products with a precision close to 1 per mil for a number of isotopes. The effects of shielding are clearly evidenced in the calcium data and the exposure ages are calculated by using the 40 K measurements

  7. Structural Characterization of Iron Meteorites through Neutron Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caporali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we demonstrate the use of neutron tomography for the structural characterization of iron meteorites. These materials prevalently consist of metallic iron with variable nickel content. Their study and classification is traditionally based on chemical and structural analysis. The latter requires cutting, polishing and chemical etching of large slabs of the sample in order to determine the average width of the largest kamacite lamellae. Although this approach is useful to infer the genetical history of these meteorites, it is not applicable to small or precious samples. On the base of different attenuation coefficient of cold neutrons for nickel and iron, neutron tomography allows the reconstruction of the Ni-rich (taenite and Ni-poor (kamacite metallic phases. Therefore, the measure of the average width of the largest kamacite lamellae could be determined in a non-destructive way. Furthermore, the size, shape, and spatial correlation between kamacite and taenite crystals were obtained more efficiently and accurately than via metallographic investigation.

  8. Magnetic particles extracted from manganese nodules: Suggested origin from stony and iron meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe data, spherical and ellipsoidal particles extracted from manganese nodules were divided into three groups. Group I particles are believed to be derived from iron meteorites, and Group II particles from stony meteorites. Group III particles are believed to be volcanic in origin.

  9. Iron sulfide (troilite) inclusion extracted from Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite: Composition, structure and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M.I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Petrova, E.V.; Grokhovsky, V.I. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Shtoltz, A.K. [Department of Electrophysics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, A.A. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Felner, I. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (Hungary); Semionkin, V.A. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    Iron sulfide (troilite) inclusion extracted from Sikhote-Alin IIAB iron meteorite was examined for its composition, structure and magnetic properties by means of several complementary analytical techniques such as: powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The applied techniques consistently indicated the presence of daubréelite (FeCr{sub 2}S{sub 4}) as a minority phase beside troilite proper (FeS). As revealed by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, the Fe atoms in troilite were in different microenvironments associated with either the ideal FeS structure or that of a slightly iron deficient Fe{sub 1–x}S. Phase transitions of troilite were detected above room temperature by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A novel analysis of 295 and 90 K {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra was carried out and the hyperfine parameters associated with the ideal structure of troilite were determined by considering the orientation of the hyperfine magnetic field in the eigensystem of the electric field gradient at the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. - Highlights: • The presence of daubréelite in iron sulfide inclusion in Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite. • The presence of the ideal FeS and iron deficient Fe{sub 1–x}S in iron sulfide inclusion. • New way of the iron sulfide Mössbauer spectrum approximation.

  10. Tungsten isotopic compositions of iron meteorites: Chronological constraints vs. cosmogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, A.; Quitté, G.; Halliday, A. N.; Kleine, T.

    2006-02-01

    High-precision W isotopic compositions are presented for 35 iron meteorites from 7 magmatic groups (IC, IIAB, IID, IIIAB, IIIF, IVA, and IVB) and 3 non-magmatic groups (IAB, IIICD, and IIE). Small but resolvable isotopic variations are present both within and between iron meteorite groups. Variations in the 182W/ 184W ratio reflect either time intervals of metal-silicate differentiation, or result from the burnout of W isotopes caused by a prolonged exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Calculated apparent time spans for some groups of magmatic iron meteorites correspond to 8.5 ± 2.1 My (IID), 5.1 ± 2.3 My (IIAB), and 5.3 ± 1.3 My (IVB). These time intervals are significantly longer than those predicated from models of planetesimal accretion. It is shown that cosmogenic effects can account for a large part of the W isotopic variation. No simple relationship exists with exposure ages, compromising any reliable method of correction. After allowance for maximum possible cosmogenic effects, it is found that there is no evidence that any of the magmatic iron meteorites studied here have initial W isotopic compositions that differ from those of Allende CAIs [ ɛ182W = - 3.47 ± 0.20; [T. Kleine, K. Mezger, H. Palme, E. Scherer and C. Münker, Early core formation in asteroids and late accretion of chondrite parent bodies: evidence from 182Hf- 182W in CAIs, metal-rich chondrites and iron meteorites, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (in press)]. Cosmogenic corrections cannot yet be made with sufficient accuracy to obtain highly precise ages for iron meteorites. Some of the corrected ages nevertheless require extremely early metal-silicate segregation no later than 1 My after formation of CAIs. Therefore, magmatic iron meteorites appear to provide the best examples yet identified of material derived from the first planetesimals that grew by runaway growth, as modelled in dynamic simulations. Non-magmatic iron meteorites have a more radiogenic W isotopic composition than magmatic

  11. Superheavy-element fission tracks in iron meteorites, and reply by Bull, R.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runcorn, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Comment is made on the lack of superheavy element (SHE) fission tracks observed in silicates from the class IA Odessa iron meteorite by Bull (Nature; 282:393 (1979)). Two explanations are suggested. Firstly, a thermal history for Odessa can be constructed in which the meteorite reaches track retention temperatures only after a time corresponding to many half lives for the SHEs (taken to be approximately 100 Myr) has elapsed and secondly that the IA irons never took up many SHEs. These suggestions are discussed in a reply by Bull. (U.K.)

  12. Iron Isotopic Compositions of Troilite (FeS) Inclusions from Iron Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David L.; Schönbächler, Maria, E-mail: david.cook@erdw.ethz.ch [Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie, ETH Zürich, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    We report non-mass-dependent Fe isotopic data for troilite (FeS) inclusions from 10 iron meteorites, representing both non-magmatic (IAB) and magmatic groups (IIAB, IIIAB, IVA). No resolvable variations are present in the most neutron-rich isotope ({sup 58}Fe), but small deficits (≈−0.1 ε ) in {sup 56}Fe were observed in several inclusions. With the exception of several Ca–Al-rich inclusions in primitive meteorites, these are the first reported non-mass-dependent variations in Fe isotopes for material formed in the early solar system. Nucleosynthetic variations in Ni isotopes were previously reported in these same samples. The effects in Fe isotopes are not correlated with those in Ni, which suggests that the origins of the isotopic variations are decoupled from one another. The {sup 56}Fe deficits may represent incomplete mixing of the precursor dust in the protoplanetary disk. Alternatively, a parent body process (e.g., irradiation by galactic cosmic rays) may have modified the Fe isotopic compositions of some inclusions, which initially had homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions.

  13. Genealogy of Iron and Pallasite Meteorites as Revealed by Cr Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, M.; Yin, Q. Z.; Ziegler, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    The parent bodies and/or chemical reservoirs from which iron and stony-iron meteorites originated are not very well understood. It is unclear if particular groups of iron or stony-iron meteorites originated from melting of already known chondritic parent bodies or are representating new chemical reservoirs. Potential connections between iron meteorites and pallasites and known parent bodies have been suggested based on oxygen isotopes. Proposed genetic relationships include the IVA irons with ordinary chondrites1 and the anomalous pallasite Eagle Station with the CV chondrites2. Here, we use the power of Cr isotopes to further resolve potential connections between IVA irons and pallasites and specific parent bodies. Our new measurements of Cr isotopic composition of silicate inclusions from two IVA irons, Steinbach and São João Nepomuceno, are shown to be indistinguishable from that of the ordinary chondrites. Coupling Cr with oxygen indicates the IVA irons likely originated from the same source as LL chondrites. In contrast with Eagle Station, the new Cr isotope measurements combined with oxygen indicates the MGP Brenham and Krasnojarsk sampled a source material similar to that of the anomalous HEDs. As with Eagle Station, the Milton pallasite exhibits a carbonaceous chondrite (CC) Cr isotope composition, indicating that Eagle Station was not the lone case of a pallasite originating from a CC reservoir. By establishing these genetic relationships using Cr isotopes, it is now evident that the differentiation activity sampled by IVA irons and pallasites represents processes occurring on a diverse set of parent bodies in the early Solar System. [1] Ruzicka and Hutson (2006) MAPS, 41, 1959. [2] Shukolyukov and Lugmair (2006) EPSL, 250, 200.

  14. U-Pb systematics in iron meteorites: uniformity of primordial lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goepel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions and U-Pb abundances were determined in the metal phase of six iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo IA, Toluca IA, Odessa IA, Youndegin IA, Deport IA and Mundrabilla An. Prior to complete dissolution, samples were subjected to a series of leachings and partial dissolutions. Isotopic compositions and abundances of the etched Pb indicate a contamination by terrestrial Pb which is attributable to previous cutting of the meteorite. Pb isotopic compositions measured in the decontaminated samples are identical within 0.2% and essentially confirm the primordial Pb value defined by Tatsumoto et al. (1973). These data invalidate more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions published for iron meteorites, which are the result of terrestrial Pb contamination introduced mainly by analytical procedure. Our results support the idea of a solar nebula which was isotopically homogeneous for Pb 4.55 Ga ago. The new upper limit for U-abundance in iron meteorites, 0.001 ppb, is in agreement with its expected thermodynamic solubility in the metal phase. (author)

  15. Different Conditions of Formation Experienced by Iron Meteorites as Suggested by Neutron Diffraction Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grazzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we report the results of a preliminary neutron diffraction investigation of iron meteorites. These planetary materials are mainly constituted by metallic iron with variable nickel contents, and, owing to their peculiar genesis, are considered to offer the best constrains on the early stages of planetary accretion. Nine different iron meteorites, representative of different chemical and structural groups, thought to have been formed in very different pressure and temperature conditions, were investigated, evidencing variances in crystallites size, texturing, and residual strain. The variability of these parameters and their relationship, were discussed in respect to possible diverse range of petrological conditions, mainly pressure and cooling rate, experienced by these materials during the crystallization stage and/or as consequence of post accretion events.

  16. Cosmogenic 45Sc in Gibeon iron meteorite by radioanalytical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oura, Y.; Honda, M.; Ebihara, M.; Bajo, K.; Nagao, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides in many fragments of Gibeon iron meteorite have been studied by Honda and coworkers. They observed that their concentrations varied by 5 orders and found that Gibeon gives two different exposure ages using pair of stable noble gas isotopes and radinuclide. To assess one possible cause for the difference, namely loss of partial noble gases due to atmospheric heating of the incoming meteoroid, concentrations of non-volatile and stable cosmogenic 45 Sc of Gibeon were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). For RNAA, a radiochemical procedure using extraction chromatography was developed to separate Sc from an iron meteorite. Concentrations of 45 Sc in 7 fragments ranged from 0.0064 to 0.11 ppb and correlated with cosmogenic 4 He concentrations. This correlation suggests that noble gases in Gibeon were not lost during the fall to the earth. (orig.)

  17. Type I and type II residual stress in iron meteorites determined by neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Stefano; Pratesi, Giovanni; Kabra, Saurabh; Grazzi, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a preliminary investigation by means of neutron diffraction experiment to determine the residual stress state in three different iron meteorites (Chinga, Sikhote Alin and Nantan). Because of the very peculiar microstructural characteristic of this class of samples, all the systematic effects related to the measuring procedure - such as crystallite size and composition - were taken into account and a clear differentiation in the statistical distribution of residual stress in coarse and fine grained meteorites were highlighted. Moreover, the residual stress state was statistically analysed in three orthogonal directions finding evidence of the existence of both type I and type II residual stress components. Finally, the application of von Mises approach allowed to determine the distribution of type II stress.

  18. Weldability of an iron meteorite by Friction Stir Spot Welding: A contribution to in-space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William Todd; Neely, Kelsay E.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.

    2017-11-01

    Friction Stir Welding has been proposed as an efficient and appropriate method for in space welding. It has the potential to serve as a viable option for assembling large scale space structures. These large structures will require the use of natural in space materials such as those available from iron meteorites. Impurities present in most iron meteorites limit its ability to be welded by other space welding techniques such as electron beam laser welding. This study investigates the ability to weld pieces of in situ Campo del Cielo meteorites by Friction Stir Spot Welding. Due to the rarity of the material, low carbon steel was used as a model material to determine welding parameters. Welded samples of low carbon steel, invar, and Campo del Cielo meteorite were compared and found to behave in similar ways. This study shows that meteorites can be Friction Stir Spot Welded and that they exhibit properties analogous to that of FSSW low carbon steel welds. Thus, iron meteorites can be regarded as another viable option for in-space or Martian construction.

  19. Meteorite-associated growth physiology of the iron oxidising extremophile Metallosphaera sedula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebec, Ziga; Rittmann, Simon; Schleper, Christa; Milojevic, Tetyana

    2015-04-01

    Extremophiles cherry pick the habitats at the edge of living limits, shaping the life under inhospitable conditions. Such microbes are characterised by functional capabilities required for survival in harsh and extreme environments. These living entities serve as models for a life on early Earth with its severe and ancient habitats, providing an understanding of the extent of biology on Earth, and enabling a discovery of its wider presence in the universe. The Fe-oxidising archaeon Metallosphaera sedula inhabits extreme environments, flourishing in hot acid and exhibiting unusual heavy-metal resistance. This chemolithotrophic archaea thrives at 73°C and pH 2, utilizing energy derived from metal oxidation. Iron and sulphur compounds are preferentially required for its growth. Owing its physiological versatility, M. sedula is able to grow efficiently chemoauto- and chemomixotrophically using pyrite, chalcopyrite or sulfur compounds as an energy source and can also grow heterotrophically using yeast extract representing an excellent model organism for basic research into bioleaching processes. Stimulated by its exceptional physiological properties, we have set out to assess the survival potential of M. sedula by investigating the viability of this archaeon living on and interacting with minerals of non-terrestrial origin. Initial results demonstrate that the iron oxidising thermoacidophile M. sedula utilizes metals trapped within stony meteorites as the most preferential energy source, resulting in i) one order of magnitude higher growth rate comparatively to the other energy substrates of terrestrial origin (sulfide ores, hydrogen, iron sulfate) ii) a drastic shift in a lower temperature limit for this microbe. A comprehensive complex of genetic, biochemical and geochemical techniques will be applied to analyze microbial-meteorite liaison.

  20. Josephinite. A terrestrial alloy with radiogenic xenon-129 and the noble gas imprint of iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, R G; Hennecke, E W; Manuel, O K [Missouri Univ., Rolla (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-12-01

    Analyses of noble gases released by stepwise heating of Josephinite reveal two radiogenic components, radiogenic /sup 129/Xe asymptotically equals 1 x 10/sup -12/ ccSTP/g and radiogenic /sup 40/Ar asymptotically equals 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc STP/g, and the following components of trapped noble gases: He with /sup 3/He//sup 4/He asymptotically equals 4 x 10/sup -5/, Ne with /sup 20/Ne//sup 22/Ne=10.5, Ar with /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar=3 x 10/sup 2/, and Kr and Xe with isotopic compositions similar to those observed in iron meteorites. The excess of /sup 40/Ar and literature values of K in bulk Josephinite yield and apparent K-Ar age of asymptotically equals 4.6 x 10/sup 9/ years.

  1. Study of Dronino Iron Meteorite Weathering in Clay Sand Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy A. Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathering products of two fragments of Dronino iron ungrouped meteorite found in the wet and drier clay sand were studied using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The products of metal oxidation in the internal and external surface layers were different for both fragments. The weathering products in fragment found in the wet clay sand contain magnetite (Fe3O4, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3, goethite (α-FeOOH and probably ferrihydrite (5Fe2O3∙9H2O while those in fragment found in drier clay sand contained ferric hydrous oxides (FeOOH and siderite (FeCO3 mainly. Concretions found near the first fragment contain ferric hydrous oxides (FeOOH mainly. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  2. 26Al in iron meteorites and the constancy of comic ray intensity in the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, W.; Schaeffer, O.A.

    1979-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced 26 Al in iron meteorites has been measured by low-level γγ-coincidence counting. The 26 Al activities, in dpm/kg, are: Aroos 3.0 +- 1.0, Braunau 2.6 +- 0.5, Kayakent 4.6 +- 1.5, N'Goureyma 4.4 +- 1.1, Okahandja 3.6 +- 0.9, Treysa 4.0 +- 0.5. Exposure ages based on 26 Al/ 21 Ne are in agreement, within experimental error (+-20%) , with those based on 36 Cl/ 36 Ar and 39 Ar/ 38 Ar but the ages based on 40 K/ 41 K are higher by about 50%. The difference in exposure ages is probably caused by a real change of the cosmic ray intensity in the inner solar system. (Auth.)

  3. Magnetic domains and magnetic stability of cohenite from the Morasko iron meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznik, B. [Institute of Applied Geosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kontny, A., E-mail: agnes.kontny@kit.edu [Institute of Applied Geosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J. [CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); Solheid, P.; Jackson, M. [Institute for Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic properties, texture and microstructure of cohenite grains from Morasko iron meteorite have been investigated using electron backscattered diffraction, Bitter pattern technique, magneto-optical imaging method and magnetic force microscopy. Cohenite shows much stronger magnetic contrast compared to kamacite because it is magnetically harder than the Fe-Ni alloy, and thus causes higher stray fields. A surprising result is the high stability and reversibility of the global stripe-like magnetic domain structure in cohenite when applying high magnetic fields up to 1.5 T, and exposing it to high temperatures above the Curie temperature of about 220 °C. Heating up to 700 °C under atmosphere conditions has shown that cohenite remains stable and that the global magnetic domain structures mainly recover to its preheating state. This observation suggests that magnetic domains are strongly controlled by the crystal anisotropy of cohenite. Branching magnetic domain structures at the grain boundary to kamacite can be annealed, which indicates that they are very sensitive to record deformation. EBSD observations clearly demonstrate that increasing deviation from the easy [010] crystallographic axis and stress localization are the main factors controlling the distortion of Bitter patterns, and suggest a high sensitivity of the cohenite magnetic domain structure to local microstructural heterogeneities. The results of this study substantiate the theory that cohenite can be a good recorder of magnetic fields in planetary core material. - Highlights: • Magnetic domain structure of cohenite from the Morasko iron meteorite was investigated by Bitter pattern method, magneto-optical imaging and magnetic force microscopy. • Strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy explains high magnetic stability. • Magnetic domain structure shows high sensitivity to local microstructural heterogeneities. • Cohenite is probably a good recorder of magnetic fields in planetary core material.

  4. Magnetic domains and magnetic stability of cohenite from the Morasko iron meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.; Kontny, A.; Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Solheid, P.; Jackson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties, texture and microstructure of cohenite grains from Morasko iron meteorite have been investigated using electron backscattered diffraction, Bitter pattern technique, magneto-optical imaging method and magnetic force microscopy. Cohenite shows much stronger magnetic contrast compared to kamacite because it is magnetically harder than the Fe-Ni alloy, and thus causes higher stray fields. A surprising result is the high stability and reversibility of the global stripe-like magnetic domain structure in cohenite when applying high magnetic fields up to 1.5 T, and exposing it to high temperatures above the Curie temperature of about 220 °C. Heating up to 700 °C under atmosphere conditions has shown that cohenite remains stable and that the global magnetic domain structures mainly recover to its preheating state. This observation suggests that magnetic domains are strongly controlled by the crystal anisotropy of cohenite. Branching magnetic domain structures at the grain boundary to kamacite can be annealed, which indicates that they are very sensitive to record deformation. EBSD observations clearly demonstrate that increasing deviation from the easy [010] crystallographic axis and stress localization are the main factors controlling the distortion of Bitter patterns, and suggest a high sensitivity of the cohenite magnetic domain structure to local microstructural heterogeneities. The results of this study substantiate the theory that cohenite can be a good recorder of magnetic fields in planetary core material. - Highlights: • Magnetic domain structure of cohenite from the Morasko iron meteorite was investigated by Bitter pattern method, magneto-optical imaging and magnetic force microscopy. • Strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy explains high magnetic stability. • Magnetic domain structure shows high sensitivity to local microstructural heterogeneities. • Cohenite is probably a good recorder of magnetic fields in planetary core material.

  5. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1979-01-01

    Silicate and troilite (FeS) from IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurbole: - 3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, + 1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns. Troilite samples were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 Myr; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te gave an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 Myr. Thus, low-melting troilite predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate; meteorites with older silicates have greater Ni contents. No model easily accounts for this result as well as other properties of IAB irons; nevertheless, these results, taken at face value, favour a nebular formation model. The great age of troilite from Mundrabilla suggests that this troilite formed in a different nebular region from the silicate and metal, and was later mechanically mixed with these other phases. The correlation between the trace elements in the metal and the I-Xe ages of the silicate provides one of the first known instances in which another well-defined meteoritic property correlates with I-Xe ages. In addition, almost all the 129 Xe in Mundrabilla silicate (etched in acid) was correlated with 128 Xe. These two results further support the validity of the I-Xe dating method. (author)

  6. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    The IAB iron meteorites may be related to the chondrites; siderophile elements in the metal matrix have chondritic abundances, and the abundant silicate inclusions are chondritic both in mineralogy and in chemical composition. Silicate and troilite (FeS) and IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurboele; the monitor error (+-2.5 m.y.) is not included]: -3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, +1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)/sub trapped/ ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns: intermediate-temperature points defined good correlations but higher-temperature (greater than or equal to 1400 0 C) points lay above (extra 129 Xe) these lines. The two correlations have different slopes, so it cannot be assigned a definite I-Xe age to Pitts silicate. Troilite samples from Mundrabilla and Pitts were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 m.y.; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 m.y. Thus, surprisingly, low-melting troilite substantially predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate (referred to henceforth as the metal-silicate correlation). After exploring possible relationships between the I-Xe ages and other properties of the IAB group, it was concluded that the metal-silicate correlation, the old Mundrabilla troilite, and other results favor a nebular formation model (e.g. Wasson, 1970a)

  7. I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar analyses of silicate from the Eagle Station pallasite and the anomalous iron meteorite Enon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Silicate from two unusual iron-rich meteorites were analyzed by the I-Xe and 40 Ar- 39 Ar techniques. Enon, an anomalous iron meteorite with chondritic silicate, shows no loss of radiogenic 40 Ar at low temperature, and gives a plateau age of 4.59 +- 0.03 Ga. Although the Xe data fail to define an I-Xe correlation the inferred Pu/U ratio is more than 2 σ above the chondritic value, and the Pu abundance derived from the concentration of Pu-fission Xe is 6 times greater than the abundance inferred for CI meteorites. These findings for Enon, coupled with data for IAB iron meteorites, suggest that presence of chondritic silicate in an iron-rich meteorite is diagnostic of an old radiometric age with little subsequent thermal disturbance. The Eagle Station pallasite, the most 16 O-rich meteorite known, gives a complex 40 Ar- 39 Ar age pattern which suggests a recent severe thermal disturbance. The absence of excess 129 Xe, and the low trapped Ar and Xe contents, are consistent with this interpretation. The similarity between 40 Ar- 39 Ar data for Eagle Station and for the olivine-rich meteorite Chassigny lends credence to the previous suggestion of a connection between Chassigny and pallasites. (author)

  8. New insights on the Dronino iron meteorite by double-pulse micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Gioacchino; Senesi, Giorgio S.; Manzari, Paola; Agrosì, Giovanna

    2018-06-01

    Two fragments of an iron meteorite shower named Dronino were characterized by a novel technique, i.e. Double-Pulse micro-Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (DP-μLIBS) combined with optical microscope. This technique allowed to perform a fast and detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the fragments and permitted to determine their composition, the alteration state differences and the cooling rate of the meteorite. Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of Fe, Ni and Co in both fragments, whereas the elements Al, Ca, Mg, Si and, for the first time Li, were detected only in one fragment and were related to its post-falling alteration and contamination by weathering processes. Quantitative analysis data obtained using the calibration-free (CF) - LIBS method showed a good agreement with those obtained by traditional methods generally applied to meteorite analysis, i.e. Electron Dispersion Spectroscopy - Scanning Electron Microscopy (EDS-SEM), also performed in this study, and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EMPA) (literature data). The local and coupled variability of Ni and Co (increase of Ni and decrease of Co) determined for the unaltered portions exhibiting plessite texture, suggested the occurrence of solid state diffusion processes under a slow cooling rate for the Dronino meteorite.

  9. I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar dating of silicate from Weekeroo Station and Netschaevo IIE iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Silicate inclusions from two IIE iron meteorites were dated by the I-Xe and 40 Ar- 39 Ar techniques. Weekeroo Station, a 'normal' IIE iron, shows no loss of radiogenic 40 Ar at low temperature, and the well defined 40 Ar- 39 Ar plateau yields an age of 4.54 +- 0.03 Byr. The xenon data define a good I-Xe correlation with an age of + 10.9 +- 0.5 Myr relative to Bjurbole. Despite its relatively young age, Weekeroo Station's ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratio (= 0.84 +- 0.05) lies significantly below the solar value. Netschaevo silicate has a chondritic composition, unlike 'normal' IIE silicate which is more differentiated. Nevertheless Netschaevo gives a 40 Ar- 39 Ar plateau-age of only 3.79 +- 0.03 Byr, with the xenon data failing to define an I-Xe isochron. Only irons from the IAB and IIE groups contain silicate inclusions, but these two groups differ in many other respects, mostly suggesting that IAB meteorites are more primitive. The I-Xe chronology supports this suggestion inasmuch as Weekeroo Station formed well after IAB silicates. The four silicate-bearing IIE irons which have now been dated can be subdivided into distinct pairs: Weekeroo Station and Colomera formed near the beginning of the solar system, while Netschaevo and Kodaikanal both formed only 3.8 Byr ago. A review of other properties of these meteorites generally supports this subdivision. This work underscores the complexity of the history of IIE meteorites; in particular, an adequate model must account for the formation of two IIE irons at 3.8 Byr without disturbing rare gases in Weekeroo Station. All formation models are quite speculative, but the one which seems best to fit the available evidence postulates two parent bodies: the 3.8 Byr old silicate formed on one parent body, all other IIE material resided in a separate body, and subsequent collision(s) mixed the young silicate with IIE metal. (author)

  10. Microstructures, mineral chemistry, noble gases and nitrogen in the recent fall, Bhuka iron (IAB) meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. V. S.; Ranjith, P. M.; Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Shrivastava, K. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report some chemical, petrological and isotopic studies of the Bhuka iron meteorite that fell in Rajasthan, India in 2005. Numerous silicate and graphite inclusions are visible on the surface of the hand specimen. In the polished and etched surface studied, irregular patches of graphite are found as the most dominant inclusion and commonly associated with pure corundum (95 wt% Al2O3), spinel, feldspar and Si-rich phases. Apart from typical lamellar intergrowth with kamacite (i.e. the Widmänstatten pattern), taenites are also commonly found to occur as a rim of the graphite inclusions. P-rich (up to 10 wt%) taenites are also found locally within the recrystallised kamacite matrix. Based on mineralogy, texture and bulk composition, Bhuka resembles the low-Ni IAB subgroup (ungrouped). Noble gas isotope studies suggest He, Ne and Ar are mostly of cosmogenic origin, while Kr and Xe are a mixture of cosmogenic, radiogenic and trapped components. A pre-atmospheric radius of 10±1 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 346±52 Ma are derived based on depth dependant (3He/4He)c and 38Arc respectively, as per the production systematics of cosmogenic noble gas isotopes (Ammon et al., 2009). Cosmogenic 83Kr and 126Xe yield production rates of 12 and 0.335 (in 10-15ccSTP/g Ma) for 83Kr and 126Xe respectively. Presence of trapped Kr and Xe, with (84Kr/132Xe)t=2 and radiogenic 129Xe=120×10-12 ccSTP/g are due to presence of graphite/silicate inclusions in the analysed sample. Over 150% excess 131Xec than expected from spallation suggests contribution from (n,ɤ) reactions from Ba from inclusions and suggests irradiation of pre-atmospheric object in a larger body, indicative of complex irradiation. Trapped N of 24 ppm, with δ15N=-10.7±0.8‰ observed in Bhuka, is heavier than the range observed hither to in IAB irons.

  11. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  12. Kosice meteorite analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.; Dekan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Meteorite Kosice fell down 28 th of February 2010 near the Kosice and represents an unique find, because the last fall of meteorite was observed in Slovakia at the year 1895. It supposes that for this kind of meteorite the orbit in cosmic space could be calculated. This is one of most important part because until now 13 places of meteorite find are known in the world of which cosmic orbit in space have been calculated. Slovakia is member of international bolide net, dealing with meteorite analysis in Middle Europe .Analysis of Kosice meteorite will also concern at the long live and short live nuclides. Results should be a contribution to determination of radiation and formative ages. From structural analysis of meteorite it will be possible to compare it with similar types of meteorites. In this work Moessbauer spectroscopy will be used for phase analysis from point of view iron contain components with the aim to identify magnetic and non magnetic fractions. From the analysis of magnetic part we can find that the first sextet with hyperfine magnetic field 33.5 T corresponds to bcc Fe-Ni alloy (kamacite) and second with field 31.5 T to FeS (triolite). Meteorites with mentioned composition belong to the mineral group of chondrites. Comparing our parameters with results of measurements at the similar meteorites we can conclude that Kosice meteorite contains the same components. According all Moessbauer parameters we can also include this meteorite in the mineral group of chondrites. (authors)

  13. Implications for Metallographic Cooling Rates, Derived from Fine-Scale Analytical Traverses Across Kamacite, Taenite, and Tetrataenite in the Butler Iron Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Ross, D. K.; Chabot, N. L.; Keller, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    The "M-shaped" Ni concentrations across Widmanstatten patterns in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and ordinary chondrites are commonly used to calculate cooling rates. As Ni-poor kamacite exolves from Ni-rich taenite, Ni concentrations build up at the kamacite-taenite interface because of the sluggish diffusivity of Ni. Quantitative knowledge of experimentally-determined Ni diffusivities, coupled with the shape of the M-profile, have been used to allow calculation of cooling rates that pertained at low temperatures, less than or equal to 500 C. However, determining Ni metallographic cooling rates are challenging, due to the sluggish diffusivity of Ni at low temperatures. There are three potential difficulties in using Ni cooling rates at low temperatures: (i) Ni diffusivities are typically extrapolated from higher-temperature measurements; (ii) Phase changes occur at low temperatures that may be difficult to take into account; and (iii) It appears that Ge in kamacite and taenite has continued to equilibrate (or attempted to equilibrate) at temperatures below those that formed the M-shaped Ni profile. Combining Ni measurements with those of other elements has the potential to provide a way to confirm or challenge Ni-determined cooling rates, as well as provide insight into the partitioning behaviors of elements during the cooling of iron meteorites. Despite these benefits, studies that examine elemental profiles of Ni along with other elements in iron meteorites are limited, often due to the low concentration levels of the other elements and associated analytical challenges. The Butler iron meteorite provides a good opportunity to conduct a multi-element analytical study, due to the higher concentration levels of key elements in addition to Fe and Ni. In this work, we perform combined analysis for six elements in the Butler iron to determine the relative behaviors of these elements during the evolution of iron meteorites, with implications for metallographic cooling

  14. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter contains something for everyone! It lists classifications of about 440 meteorites mostly from the 1997 and 1998 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) seasons. It also gives descriptions of about 45 meteorites of special petrologic type. These include 1 iron, 17 chondrites (7 CC, 1 EC, 9 OC) and 27 achondrites (25 HED, UR). Most notable are an acapoloite (GRA98028) and an olivine diogenite (GRA98108).

  15. Uranium isotope ratios of Muonionalusta troilite and complications for the absolute age of the IVA iron meteorite core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Amelin, Yuri; Kleine, Thorsten

    2018-05-01

    The crystallization ages of planetary crustal material (given by basaltic meteorites) and planetary cores (given by iron meteorites) provide fiducial marks for the progress of planetary formation, and thus, the absolute ages of these objects fundamentally direct our knowledge and understanding of planet formation and evolution. The lone precise absolute age of planetary core material was previously obtained on troilite inclusions from the IVA iron meteorite Muonionalusta. This previously reported Pb-Pb age of 4565.3 ± 0.1 Ma-assuming a 238U/235U =137.88-only post-dated the start of the Solar System by approximately 2-3 million years, and mandated fast cooling of planetary core material. Since an accurate Pb-Pb age requires a known 238U/235U of the sample, we have measured both 238U/235U and Pb isotopic compositions of troilite inclusions from Muonionalusta. The measured 238U/235U of the samples range from ∼137.84 to as low as ∼137.22, however based on Pb and U systematics, terrestrial contamination appears pervasive and has affected samples to various extents for Pb and U. The cause of the relative 235U excess in one sample does not appear to be from terrestrial contamination or the decay of short-lived 247Cm, but is more likely from fractionation of U isotopes during metal-silicate separation during core formation, exacerbated by the extreme U depletion in the planetary core. Due to limited Pb isotopic variation and terrestrial disturbance, no samples of this study produced useful age information; however the clear divergence from the previously assumed 238U/235U of any troilite in Muonionalusta introduces substantial uncertainty to the previously reported absolute age of the sample without knowledge of the 238U/235U of the sample. Uncertainties associated with U isotope heterogeneity do not allow for definition of a robust age of solidification and cooling for the IVA core. However, one sample of this work-paired with previous work using short

  16. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Agee, Carl B.

    2017-05-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 103 contains 2582 meteorites including 10 falls (Ardón, Demsa, Jinju, Križevci, Kuresoi, Novato, Tinajdad, Tirhert, Vicência, Wolcott), with 2174 ordinary chondrites, 130 HED achondrites, 113 carbonaceous chondrites, 41 ureilites, 27 lunar meteorites, 24 enstatite chondrites, 21 iron meteorites, 15 primitive achondrites, 11 mesosiderites, 10 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 5 ungrouped achondrites, 2 enstatite achondrites, 1 relict meteorite, 1 pallasite, and 1 angrite, and with 1511 from Antarctica, 588 from Africa, 361 from Asia, 86 from South America, 28 from North America, and 6 from Europe. Note: 1 meteorite from Russia was counted as European. The complete contents of this bulletin (244 pages) are available on line. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at meteor/">http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of aluminium, silicon, manganese and iron in stone meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalyamov, N.; Mirzaev, M.R.; Murtazin, O.G.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a method which relies on nuclear reactions involving fast neutrons. Samples weighing 1x10 -3 -1x10 -2 g are irradiated together with calibrated standards in a reactor channel under a flux of 1.8x10 13 n/cm 2 sec for 1 min. The activities are measured on an AI-100 analyser with a 40x40 NaI (Tl) crystal. Ten samples can be handled in three hours. The method has been used for analysing seven different meteorites, and also for single crystals and pure materials. (author)

  18. Magnetic Mineralogy of Troilite-Inclusions and their Fe-Ni Host Alloys in IAB Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, A. M.; Kramar, U.; Luecke, W.

    2011-12-01

    Iron-nickel meteorites often contain isolated, mostly rounded troilite nodules enclosed in a bulk of Fe-Ni alloy. As sulfur has a low solubility in metal, it is excluded from the crystallization of metal during cooling. Therefore troilite nodules are interpreted to be trapped droplets of residual sulfur-enriched melts. Microscopic examinations of the interface (mm-range) between troilite inclusions and Fe-Ni alloy yield clear mineralogical differences compared to the troilite inclusion. Such rims around troilite nodules seem to occur exclusively in Fe-Ni meteorites with slow cooling rates, and therefore might provide interesting clues on segregation, fractional crystallization and reequilibration processes between the Fe-Ni alloy and the sulfide phases. These interfaces however are also highly sensitive to terrestrial weathering. We present microscopic observations in combination with temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility (k-T curves) in order to identify the magnetic mineralogy of the Morasko (Poland) and Coahuila (Mexico) meteorites, which both geochemically belong to the non-magmatic IAB or IIICD group. In the k-T curves both, rim and troilite nodule are characterized by Curie temperatures (TC) that can be related to magnetite, daubreelite (FeCr2O4), Fe-hydroxide and sometimes cohenite. Therefore the interface seems to be geochemically more similar to the troilite nodule than the Fe-Ni alloy. Optical microscopy in combination with the ferrofluid method revealed complex microstructures of intergrown magnetic (TC = 780-785 °C) and non-magnetic phases in the Fe-Ni alloy, which differ in their Ni-concentration. Towards the rim of the troilite nodule the concentration of magnetic cohenite ((Fe,Ni)3C) and especially schreibersite ((Fe,Ni)3P), which are both intergrown with the metal, increases. Cohenite is easily identified microscopically by a very characteristic stripe-like magnetic domain structure and it shows a TC at about 200 °C. The carbon-rich, dark

  19. Separation of Platinum from Palladium and Iridium in Iron Meteorites and Accurate High-Precision Determination of Platinum Isotopes by Multi-Collector ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alison C; Ek, Mattias; Schönbächler, Maria

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a new measurement procedure for the isolation of Pt from iron meteorite samples. The method also allows for the separation of Pd from the same sample aliquot. The separation entails a two-stage anion-exchange procedure. In the first stage, Pt and Pd are separated from each other and from major matrix constituents including Fe and Ni. In the second stage, Ir is reduced with ascorbic acid and eluted from the column before Pt collection. Platinum yields for the total procedure were typically 50-70%. After purification, high-precision Pt isotope determinations were performed by multi-collector ICP-MS. The precision of the new method was assessed using the IIAB iron meteorite North Chile. Replicate analyses of multiple digestions of this material yielded an intermediate precision for the measurement results of 0.73 for ε 192 Pt, 0.15 for ε 194 Pt and 0.09 for ε 196 Pt (2 standard deviations). The NIST SRM 3140 Pt solution reference material was passed through the measurement procedure and yielded an isotopic composition that is identical to the unprocessed Pt reference material. This indicates that the new technique is unbiased within the limit of the estimated uncertainties. Data for three iron meteorites support that Pt isotope variations in these samples are due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays in space.

  20. Multistage Core Formation in Planetesimals Revealed by Numerical Modeling and Hf-W Chronometry of Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W.; Kruijer, T. S.; Breuer, D.; Kleine, T.

    2018-02-01

    Iron meteorites provide some of the most direct insights into the processes and timescales of core formation in planetesimals. Of these, group IVB irons stand out by having one of the youngest 182Hf-182W model ages for metal segregation (2.9 ± 0.6 Ma after solar system formation), as well as the lowest bulk sulfur content and hence highest liquidus temperature. Here, using a new model for the internal evolution of the IVB parent body, we show that a single stage of metal-silicate separation cannot account for the complete melting of pure Fe metal at the relatively late time given by the Hf-W model age. Instead, a complex metal-silicate separation scenario is required that includes migration of partial silicate melts, formation of a shallow magma ocean, and core formation in two distinct stages of metal segregation. In the first stage, a protocore formed at ≈1.5 Ma via settling of metal particles in a mantle magma ocean, followed by metal segregation from a shallow magma ocean at ≈5.4 Ma. As these stages of metal segregation occurred at different times, the two metal fractions had different 182W compositions. Consequently, the final 182W composition of the IVB core does not correspond to a single differentiation event, but represents the average composition of early- and late-segregated core fractions. Our best fit model indicates an ≈100 km radius for the IVB parent body and provides an accretion age of ≈0.1-0.5 Ma after solar system formation. The computed solidification time is, furthermore, consistent with the Re-Os age for crystallization of the IVB core.

  1. Thirteen Iron Meteorites Found at Gale Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gusev Crater — Exogenic Witnesses to Weathering Processes Near the Martian Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J.

    2014-12-01

    At least 20 meteorites and meteorite candidates have now been found by science teams at three Mars rover landing sites, all within 15 degrees of the martian equator. Thirteen of these are iron meteorites, comprising 65% of the population — an order of magnitude greater abundance than found among witnessed iron falls in Earth-based collections (~6%). Chondritic meteorites, which comprise some 86% of Earth-based falls, are conspicuously absent from the Mars inventory. The reasons for this disproportion may involve a) post-fall environmental resistance differences favoring iron survivability; b) fragmentation from impact shock (and possibly internal weathering stresses associated with oxide production in desert environments [1]); combined with c) selection biases arising from residual chondritic fragments appearing less conspicuous. Impact features along rover traverses often show evidence of dark materials likely to be impactor fragments [e.g., 2], which could represent the missing chondritic fraction. The reactivity of reduced (metallic) iron to aqueous alteration, combined with the near equatorial and widely distributed locations of these rocks, makes them particularly useful to the assessment of climate models arguing for geologically recent ice at the martian equator. Exposure histories involving alternating wind/water cycles are imprinted on several Meridiani irons, for example [3]. Evidence for oxide coating removal demonstrates the current epoch to be one of coating destruction, not production, showing that atmospheric exposure alone is insufficient to produce the coating. Cavernous weathering is likely associated with acidic corrosion, while evidence of aeolian scouring is found in Widmanstätten patterns, sharp-crested scallops, regmaglypt enlargement, and abundant pitting. Further study of these features could help constrain wind direction and velocity during epochs of sculpting [e.g., 4], and assist in exposure age estimation. References: [1] Ashley J. W

  2. Stable isotope genealogy of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillinger, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    One of the oldest problems in meteoritics is that of taxonomically grouping samples. In recent years the use of isotopes, particularly oxygen isotopes has proved very successful in this respect. Other light-element systematics potentially can perform the same function. For example, nitrogen in iron meteorites, and nitrogen and carbon in ureilites and SNC meteorites. These measurements will serve to extend and augment existing classification schemes and provide clues to the nature of meteorite parent bodies. They can also aid in the recognition of the isotopic signatures relating to inaccessible regions of the Earth. (author)

  3. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  4. Aqueous corrosion of phosphide minerals from iron meteorites: a highly reactive source of prebiotic phosphorus on the surface of the early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of aqueous corrosion of Fe-phosphide under conditions relevant to the early Earth. The results strongly suggest that iron meteorites were an important source of reactive phosphorus (P), a requirement for the formation of P-based life. We further demonstrate that iron meteorites were an abundant source of phosphide minerals early in Earth history. Phosphide corrosion was studied in five different solutions: deionized water, deionized water buffered with sodium bicarbonate, deionized water with dissolved magnesium and calcium chlorides, deionized water containing ethanol and acetic acid, and deionized water containing the chlorides, ethanol, and acetic acid. Experiments were performed in the presence of both air and pure Ar gas to evaluate the effect of atmospheric chemistry. Phosphide corrosion in deionized water results in a metastable mixture of mixed-valence, P-bearing ions including pyrophosphate and triphosphate, key components for metabolism in modern life. In a pH-buffered solution of NaHCO(3), the condensed and reduced species diphosphonate is an abundant corrosion product. Corrosion in ethanol- and acetic acid-containing solutions yields additional P-bearing organic molecules, including acetyl phosphonate and a cyclic triphosphorus molecule. Phosphonate is a major corrosion product of all experiments and is the only P-bearing molecule that persists in solutions with high concentrations of magnesium and calcium chlorides, which suggests that phosphonate may have been a primitive oceanic source of P. The stability and reactivity of phosphonate and hypophosphite in solution were investigated to elucidate reaction mechanisms and the role of mineral catalysts on P-solution chemistry. Phosphonate oxidation is rapid in the presence of Fe metal but negligible in the presence of magnetite and in the control sample. The rate of hypophosphite oxidation is independent of reaction substrate.

  5. Meteorites for K-12 Classrooms: NASA Meteorite Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.

    1995-09-01

    The fall of a new meteorite is an event that catches the interest of the public in matters of science. The threat of a huge impact like last year's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 gives us all reason to evaluate such potential risks. NASA's meteorite educational materials use our natural interest in rocks from space to present classroom activities on planetary science. The meteorite educational package includes a meteorite sample disk, a teachers's guide and a slide set. The sample disk is a lucite disk containing chips of six different kinds of meteorites (3 chondrites, achondrite, iron, stony-iron). EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is a teacher's guide with background information and 19 hands-on or heads-on activities for grades 4-12. It was prepared in a partnership of planetary scientists and teachers. The slide set consists of 48 slides with captions to be used with the activities. The materials will be available in Fall 1995. Teachers may obtain a loan of the whole package from NASA Teacher Resource Centers; researchers may borrow them from the JSC meteorite curator. The booklet is available separately from the same sources, and the slide set will be available from NASA CORE. EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is an interdisciplinary planetary science unit which teaches basic science concepts and techniques together with math, reading, writing and social studies The activities are done in a variety of different teaching styles which emphasize observation, experimentation and critical thinking. The activities are ideal for middle schools where teaming makes interdisciplinary units desireable, but most of the activities can be easily modified for grade levels from upper elementary through high school. Meteorites are a natural subject for interdisciplinary teaching because their study involves all fields of science and offers fascinating historical accounts and possibilities for creative expression. Topics covered in EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERES are centered around basic

  6. Moessbauer study of El-Bahrain meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, A.A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Ramadan, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A stone of brick-like shape, measuring roughly 25 x 12.5 x 10.5 cm 3 and weighing 14 kg was found in 1983, in the western desert of Egypt. The meteorite was named El-Bahrain meteorite and classified as L-chondrite. Principal constituents of El-Bahrain meteorite have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The chemical composition as obtained by the conventional wet analyses of L-chondritic meteorites showed that the meteorite contains 23,38% Fe and 1.23% Ni. While the analysis of the atomic absorption showed the presence of 27.03% as a total iron. The Moessbauer analysis of El-Bahrain meteorite showed that the iron constituent minerals were determined to be olivine, metallic iron-nickel alloys (kamacite, taenite and tetrataenite), ferrous sulfide (troilite) and weathering products such as maghemite and nanocrystalline hematite. The structure of meteoritic iron obtained by the Moessbauer analysis has been discussed on the basis of these constituents. (author)

  7. Moessbauer study of Slovak meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipka, J.; Sitek, J.; Dekan, J., E-mail: julius.dekan@stuba.sk; Degmova, J. [Slovak University of Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (Slovakia); Porubcan, V. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Slovakia)

    2013-04-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool in the investigation of iron containing compounds of two meteorites (Rumanova and Kosice) out of total of six which had fallen on Slovak territory. In the magnetic fraction of the iron bearing compounds in the Rumanova meteorite, maghemite, troilite and Fe-Ni alloy were identified. In the non-magnetic fraction silicate phases were found, such as olivine and pyroxene. The paramagnetic component containing Fe{sup 3 + } ions corresponds probably to small superparamagnetic particles. The Kosice meteorite was found near the town of Kosice in February 2010. Its magnetic fraction consists of a Fe-Ni alloy with the Moessbauer parameters of the magnetic field corresponding to kamacite {alpha}-Fe(Ni, Co) and troilite. The non-magnetic part consists of Fe{sup 2 + } phases such as olivine and pyroxene and traces of a Fe{sup 3 + } phase. The main difference between these meteorites is their iron oxide content. These kinds of analyses can bring important knowledge about phases and compounds formed in extraterrestrial conditions, which have other features than their terrestrial analogues.

  8. Elemental composition analysis of stony meteorites discovered in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loylip, T.; Wannawichian, S.

    2017-09-01

    A meteorite is a fragment of pure stone, iron or the mixture of stony-iron. The falling of meteorites into Earth’s surface is part of Earth’s accretion process from dust and rocks in our solar system. When these fragments come close enough to the Earth to be attracted by its gravity, they may fall into the Earth. Following the detection of objects that fall from the sky onto a home in Phitsanulok in June 27, the meteorites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) instruments. The results from SEM/EDS analysis show that the meteorites are mainly composed of Fe-Ni and Fe-s. The meteorite is Achondrite, a class of meteorite which does not contain Chondrule. The meteorites in this work are thought to be part of a large asteroid.

  9. ON THE EFFECT OF GIANT PLANETS ON THE SCATTERING OF PARENT BODIES OF IRON METEORITE FROM THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET REGION INTO THE ASTEROID BELT: A CONCEPT STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2012-01-01

    In their model for the origin of the parent bodies of iron meteorites, Bottke et al. proposed differentiated planetesimals, formed in 1-2 AU during the first 1.5 Myr, as the parent bodies, and suggested that these objects and their fragments were scattered into the asteroid belt as a result of interactions with planetary embryos. Although viable, this model does not include the effect of a giant planet that might have existed or been growing in the outer regions. We present the results of a concept study where we have examined the effect of a planetary body in the orbit of Jupiter on the early scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial region into the asteroid belt. We integrated the orbits of a large battery of planetesimals in a disk of planetary embryos and studied their evolutions for different values of the mass of the planet. Results indicate that when the mass of the planet is smaller than 10 M ⊕ , its effects on the interactions among planetesimals and planetary embryos are negligible. However, when the planet mass is between 10 and 50 M ⊕ , simulations point to a transitional regime with ∼50 M ⊕ being the value for which the perturbing effect of the planet can no longer be ignored. Simulations also show that further increase of the mass of the planet strongly reduces the efficiency of the scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial planet region into the asteroid belt. We present the results of our simulations and discuss their possible implications for the time of giant planet formation.

  10. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  11. Modeling the Thermal Interactions of Meteorites Below the Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, William Jared; Radebaugh, Jani; Stephens, Denise C.; Lorenz, Ralph; Harvey, Ralph; Karner, James

    2017-10-01

    Meteorites with high specific gravities, such as irons, appear to be underrepresented in Antarctic collections over the last 40 years. This underrepresentation is in comparison with observed meteorite falls, which are believed to represent the actual population of meteorites striking Earth. Meteorites on the Antarctic ice sheet absorb solar flux, possibly leading to downward tunneling into the ice, though observations of this in action are very limited. This descent is counteracted by ice sheet flow supporting the meteorites coupled with ablation near mountain margins, which helps to force meteorites towards the surface. Meteorites that both absorb adequate thermal energy and are sufficiently dense may instead reach a shallow equilibrium depth as downward melting overcomes upward forces during the Antarctic summer. Using a pyronometer, we have measured the incoming solar flux at multiple depths in two deep field sites in Antarctica, the Miller Range and Elephant Moraine. We compare these data with laboratory analogues and model the thermal and physical interactions between a variety of meteorites and their surroundings. Our Matlab code model will account for a wide range of parameters used to characterize meteorites in an Antarctic environment. We will present the results of our model along with depth estimates for several types of meteorites. The recovery of an additional population of heavy meteorites would increase our knowledge of the formation and composition of the solar system.

  12. Contemporary Inuit Traditional Beliefs Concerning Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Inuit religious mythology and the importance of meteorites as "messages" from the Creator of all things is only now being recognized. Field investigations near Resolute, Cornwallis Island in the high Canadian Arctic in 1988 are the bases for this paper. Through interpreters, several elders of the local Inuit described in detail the Inuit belief, recognition, and wonder at the falling meteors & meteorites during the long Polar Night and Polar Day. Such events are passed on in the oral tradition from generation to generation by the elders and especially those elders who fulfill the shamanistic roles. The Inuit have come across rocks that they immediately recognize as not being "natural" and in the cases of a fall that was observed and the rock recovered the meteorite is kept either on the person or in some hidden niche known only to that person. In one story recounted a meteorite fell and was recovered at the birth of one very old elder and the belief was that if the rock was somehow damaged or taken from his possession he would die. Some indirect indication also was conveyed that the discovery and possession of meteorites allow shaman to have "supernatural" power. This belief in the supernatural power of meteorites can be seen historically in many societies, including Islam and the "black rock" (Kaaba) of Mecca. It should also be noted, however, that metallic meteorites were clearly once the major source of iron for Eskimo society as is indicated from the recovery of meteoritical iron arrow heads and harpoon heads from excavated pre-Viking contact sites. The one evident thing that became clear to the author is that the Inuit distinctly believe that these meteorites are religious objects of the highest order and it brings into question the current academic practice of sending meteorites south to research institutes. Any seeming conflict with the traditional use of meteoric iron is more apparent than real--the animals, the hunt, and the act of survival--all being

  13. Isotopic variations in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.N.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The presence of large internal 16 O variability in ordinary chondrites greatly extends the range of meteorite types in which this phenomenon has been observed. These results may lead to identification of major gas and dust reservoirs in the cloud from which the Solar System formed. The demonstration that live 107 Pd was present in the differentiated parent bodies of some iron meteorites supports the million year time scale between a major nucleosynthetic event and Solar System formation, as implied by the presence of live 26 Al in carbonaceous chondrites. However, the variability of radiogenic 26 Mg abundances in these meteorites makes it clear that the data cannot be interpreted simply in terms of time variations. Models of nucleosynthesis for elements from calcium to the iron peak should be aided by the new observations of abundances of titanium isotopes. Progress has been made in establishing the carrier phases of isotopically anomalous xenon and krypton. The apparent location of anomalous xenon and 14 N-rich nitrogen in identical carriers supports the notion that nucleosynthetic anomalies in nitrogen are also present in Allende. (author)

  14. Meteorites as space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Meteorites are a major source of information on evolution of the solar system. The BMR-Hollmayer meteorite collection consists mainly of chondrites but also includes a carbonaceous chondrite and a ureilite from the achondrite group. The mineralogy and chemical composition of the meteorites have been studied

  15. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  16. Mössbauer study of Slovak meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, J.; Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.; Degmová, J.; Porubčan, V.

    2013-04-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool in the investigation of iron containing compounds of two meteorites (Rumanová and Košice) out of total of six which had fallen on Slovak territory. In the magnetic fraction of the iron bearing compounds in the Rumanová meteorite, maghemite, troilite and Fe-Ni alloy were identified. In the non-magnetic fraction silicate phases were found, such as olivine and pyroxene. The paramagnetic component containing Fe3 + ions corresponds probably to small superparamagnetic particles. The Košice meteorite was found near the town of Košice in February 2010. Its magnetic fraction consists of a Fe-Ni alloy with the Mössbauer parameters of the magnetic field corresponding to kamacite α-Fe(Ni, Co) and troilite. The non-magnetic part consists of Fe2 + phases such as olivine and pyroxene and traces of a Fe3 + phase. The main difference between these meteorites is their iron oxide content. These kinds of analyses can bring important knowledge about phases and compounds formed in extraterrestrial conditions, which have other features than their terrestrial analogues.

  17. Oral histories in meteoritics and planetary science—XXV: Vagn F. Buchwald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2014-07-01

    Vagn Buchwald (Fig. 1) was born in Copenhagen where he attended school and college. Then after 18 months of military service, he assumed a position at the Technical University of Copenhagen. A few years later, he was presented with a piece of the Cape York meteorite, which led to an interest in iron meteorites. Through a campaign of informed searching, Vagn found the 20 ton Agpalilik meteorite (part of the Cape York shower) on 31st July 1963 and by September 1967 had arranged its transport to Copenhagen. After sorting and describing the Danish collection, which included application of the Fe-Ni-P phase diagram to iron meteorite mineralogy, Vagn was invited to sort and describe other iron meteorite collections. This led to a 7 yr project to write his monumental Handbook of Iron Meteorites. Vagn spent 3 yr in the United States and visited most of the world's museums, the visit to Berlin being especially important since the war had left their iron meteorites in bad condition and without labels. During a further decade or more of iron meteorite research, he documented natural and anthropomorphic alterations experienced by iron meteorites, discovered five new minerals (roaldite, carlsbergite, akaganeite, hibbingite, and arupite); had a mineral (buchwaldite, NaCaPO4) and asteroid (3209 Buchwald 1982 BL1) named after him; and led expeditions to Chile, Namibia, and South Africa in search of iron meteorites and information on them. Vagn then turned his attention to archeological metal artifacts. This work resulted in many papers and culminated in two major books on the subject published in 2005 and 2008, after his retirement in 1998. Vagn Buchwald has received numerous Scandinavian awards and honors, and served as president of the Meteoritical Society in 1981-1982.

  18. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  19. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment

  20. Magnetism in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview is presented of magnetism in meteorites. A glossary of magnetism terminology followed by discussion of the various techniques used for magnetism studies in meteorites are included. The generalized results from use of these techniques by workers in the field are described. A brief critical analysis is offered.

  1. Methods for determining the preatmospheric dimensions of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.; Alekseev, V. A.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1988-10-01

    Methods are proposed for the determination of the preatmospheric size of a meteorite on the basis of data on its cosmogenic radionuclides. Optimal conditions for the application of each of these methods are presented together with the demonstration of their effectiveness. Estimates of relative dimensions determined by these methods are presented for the Harleton, St. Severin, Lost City, Peace River, Pribram, Dhajala, Innisfree, Bruderheim, Ehole, and Gorlovka chondrites and for the Iardymly, Boguslavka, Treysa, and Sikhote-Alin' iron meteorites.

  2. Meteors, meteorites and cosmic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedinets, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of meteorite origin and meteorite composition is discussed. Nowadays, most scientists suppose that the giant Oort cloud consisting of ice comet nuclei is the sourse of the meteor matter. A principle unity of the matter of meteorites falling to the Earth and cosmic dust is noted as well as that of meteorite bodies evaporating in the atmosphere and bearing meteors and bodies

  3. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions-Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Paton, Chad; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    2015-01-01

    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI...

  4. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  5. Studies on New Halfa Meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdu, Y.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range (295 deg K - 4.2 deg K), electron microprobe, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have been carried out for the investigation of a Sudanese meteorite, named New Halfa, from a new fall. The specimen contains well defined chondrules which consist mainly of radiating orthopyroxene and olivine. The XRD and the microprobe analysis show the presence of the silicate phases (olivine and pyroxene), iron sulphide (troilite), and Fe-Ni alloys (kamacite and taenite). The olivine appears to have a constant composition throughout the specimen, whereas pyroxene have a varying composition and both orthopyroxene (which is the dominant pyroxene) and clinopyroxene were present. The microprobe trace of Ni concentration across a kamacite-taenite-kamacite area shows a high Ni concentration at the interface between kamacite and taenite phases. The room temperature Mossbauer spectrum is fitted with with three sextets and two doublets. The sextets were assigned Fe in troilite, kamacite and taenite, and the two doublets to Fe 2+ in olivine and pyroxene (no Fe 3+ was found). The Mossbauer spectrum at 4.2 K shows that olivine, which is paramagnetic at room temperature, is magnetic showing relaxation effects. The Mossbauer data of this meteorite confirm it as an ordinary L-chondrite. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs

  6. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  7. Meteorites, Ice, and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, William A.

    2003-08-01

    Bill Cassidy led meteorite recovery expeditions in the Antarctic for fifteen years and his searches have resulted in the collection of thousands of meteorite specimens from the ice. This personal account of his field experiences on the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites Project reveals the influence the work has had on our understanding of the moon, Mars and the asteroid belt. Cassidy describes the hardships and dangers of fieldwork in a hostile environment, as well as the appreciation he developed for its beauty. William Cassidy is Emeritus Professor of Geology and Planetary Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He initiated the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) nroject and led meteorite recovery expeditions in Antarctica in1976. His name is found attached to a mineral (cassidyite), on the map of Antarctica (Cassidy Glacier), and in the Catalog of Asteroids (3382 Cassidy). Profiled in "American Men of Science," and "Who's Who in America," he is also a recipient of The Antarctic Service Medal from the United States and has published widely in Science, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and The Journal of Geophysical Research.

  8. Determination of {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl in meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, S.; Herpers [Koeln Univ. (Germany); Neumann, S.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Kubik, P.W.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides were determined in stony ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al) and iron ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl) meteorites using AMS after radiochemical separation. A selection of these data is briefly discussed with respect to exposure histories of the meteorites and is compared to model calculations. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  9. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 5, 1349. [11] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106, 5487. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67, 1589. [13] Chan et al. (2012) MAPS. 47, 1502

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy of the Soledade meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduani, Clederson; Peres, Carlos Ariel Samudio

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Since the early studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of meteorites the formation of magnetic phases have attracted the attention of metallurgists. Mostly metallic specimens presented high contents of nickel and iron as major constituents, and thus the Fe-Ni alloys formed under such special conditions have been the subject of several investigations with a variety of experimental techniques. This is not an easy task considering the weathering process and the distribution of oxides in the metallic matrix, which in some cases varies in composition from one region to another. In this work we applied the Moessbauer spectroscopy to study the iron-bearing phases detected in the meteorite called Soledade. Although no one knows precisely who and when this specimen was found, it received the name of the locality from where it proceeded near the city of Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The first studies indicate that this metallic meteorite is an octahedrite, with polycrystalline troilite, cohenite, schreibersite and rhabdites as major constituents. It consists of a solid block weighing 68 kg, with an irregular form measuring about 36x22x16 cm. (author)

  11. Analyses of Rumanová meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, J.; Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.; Sedlačková, K.

    2014-04-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool in investigation of iron containing compounds of Rumanová meteorite found on Slovak territory and it was classified as chondrite H. The results showed that the Mössbauer spectra consist of magnetic and non-magnetic components related to different iron-bearing phases. In non-magnetic part, olivine, pyroxene, and traces of Fe3 + phases have been identified. The magnetically ordered part of the Rumanová meteorite spectrum consists of kamacite, troilite and the third additional component corresponds to hydroxides originating from weathering due to being long time on the Earth surface. The weathering products can be recognised mainly as maghemite, however traces of other weathering components as akagaenite, goethite and magnetite cannot be excluded. On the contrary to Rumanová, no weathering products have been found in the sample of Košice meteorite which fell on the territory of Slovakia in February 2010 and has been investigated a few months after the fall.

  12. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Satterwhite, Cecilia E.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of 116 new meteorites from the 1994-1996 collections is announced. There are 4 special chondrites, 2 carbonaceous chondrites, and 1 achondrite among the new meteorites. Also included is a redescription of Lodranite GRA95209.

  13. Microbial Populations of Stony Meteorites: Substrate Controls on First Colonizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair W. Tait

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Finding fresh, sterilized rocks provides ecologists with a clean slate to test ideas about first colonization and the evolution of soils de novo. Lava has been used previously in first colonizer studies due to the sterilizing heat required for its formation. However, fresh lava typically falls upon older volcanic successions of similar chemistry and modal mineral abundance. Given enough time, this results in the development of similar microbial communities in the newly erupted lava due to a lack of contrast between the new and old substrates. Meteorites, which are sterile when they fall to Earth, provide such contrast because their reduced and mafic chemistry commonly differs to the surfaces on which they land; thus allowing investigation of how community membership and structure respond to this new substrate over time. We conducted 16S rRNA gene analysis on meteorites and soil from the Nullarbor Plain, Australia. We found that the meteorites have low species richness and evenness compared to soil sampled from directly beneath each meteorite. Despite the meteorites being found kilometers apart, the community structure of each meteorite bore more similarity to those of other meteorites (of similar composition than to the community structure of the soil on which it resided. Meteorites were dominated by sequences that affiliated with the Actinobacteria with the major Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU classified as Rubrobacter radiotolerans. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the next most abundant phyla. The soils were also dominated by Actinobacteria but to a lesser extent than the meteorites. We also found OTUs affiliated with iron/sulfur cycling organisms Geobacter spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. This is an important finding as meteorites contain abundant metal and sulfur for use as energy sources. These ecological findings demonstrate that the structure of the microbial community in these meteorites is controlled by the substrate, and will not

  14. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  15. Organics In Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    The variety of classes of organic compounds that occur in carbonaceous meteorites suggests a rich pre-planetary chemistry with possible connections to interstellar, solar nebular and parent body processes. Structural diversity prevails within all classes examined in detail. Among amino acids for instance, all possible isomers are found up to species containing 4-6 carbon atoms, with abundances decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Such diversity seems limited to those carbonaceous meteorites which show evidence of having been exposed to liquid water; meteorites lacking such evidence also show much lower abundances and less structural diversity in their organic contents. This apparent dependency on water suggests a role for cometary ices in the chemical evolution of organic compounds on parent bodies. Measurements of the stable isotope compositions of C, H, N and S in classes of compounds and at the individual compound level show strong deviations from average chondritic values. These deviations are difficult to explain by solar system or parent body processes, and precedents for some of these isotopic anomalies exist in interstellar (e.g., high D/H ratios) and circumstellar chemistry. Therefore, presolar origins for much if not all of the meteoritic organic compounds (or their precursors) is a distinct possibility. In contrast, evidence of solar nebular origins is either lacking or suspect. Results from molecular and isotopic analyses of meteoritic organics, from laboratory simulations and from a model of interstellar grain reactions will be used to flesh out the hypothesis that this material originated with interstellar chemistry, was distributed within the early solar system as cometary ices, and was subsequently altered on meteorite parent bodies to yield the observed compounds.

  16. Meteoritics, Number 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-06-01

    266, 1958. 131. Houziaux, L., Spectres d’absorption infra-rouge de quelques verres naturels entr 2 et 24 microns (Infrared Absorption Spectra of...Taking Pb20L’ 1), Given as a Function of Time. reteorites was made in a work by M. M. Shats (Ref. 10). M. M. Shats de - termined the uranium and lead...billion years. Table 6. Age, l09 Type of Data of Published Meteorite Years Meteorite Source, Investi- gator Kashin 3.00 Chondrite 1951 (Ref. 14), E.K

  17. THE CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE INNAANGANEQ/ CAPE YORK METEORITE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Martin; Jensen, Jens Fog; Myrup, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    can be used to detect buried even deeply buried iron meteorites, and that the background noise is significantly less than the expected. The additional scannings done in 2014 indicate that the anomalies are more likely to be the result of terrestial rather than extraterrestial phenomenons....

  18. Asteroids, meteorites, and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites provides students, researchers, and general readers with the most up-to-date information on this fascinating field. From the days of the dinosaurs to our modern environment, this book explores all aspects of these cosmic invaders.

  19. Worlds beyond meteorite studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschutz, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorites are of essential interest because they contain the oldest Solar System materials available for research and sample a wide range of parent bodies - exteriors and interiors - some primitive, some highly evolved. Meteorites carry decipherable records of certain solar and galactic effects and yield otherwise unobtainable data about the genesis, evolution, and composition of the Earth and other major planets, satellites, asteroids, and the Sun. Some contain inclusions tracing events from before the Solar System formed; others contain organic matter derived from giant molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. It is especially advantageous that meteorites occur on the Earth's surface, where the full spectrum of laboratory analytical techniques can be applied, ranging from the simplest to the most sophisticated. As the recently released report of the US National Commission on Space put it: If one picture is worth 10,000 words, then one sample is worth 10,000 pictures. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of meteorite studies - overlapping chemistry, physics, geology, and astronomy - no brief article can summarize the full scope of current research. After introducing some basic cosmochemical facts and approaches, this report will illustrate the nature of questions that cosmochemists ask and how they go about answering them. For reasons to be described, the author focuses on certain trace elements - especially Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn - that are particularly responsive to relatively low temperature processes and that yield important genetic information

  20. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  1. Meteorite and meteoroid: New comprehensive definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A.E.; Grossman, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Meteorites have traditionally been defined as solid objects that have fallen to Earth from space. This definition, however, is no longer adequate. In recent decades, man-made objects have fallen to Earth from space, meteorites have been identified on the Moon and Mars, and small interplanetary objects have impacted orbiting spacecraft. Taking these facts and other potential complications into consideration, we offer new comprehensive definitions of the terms "meteorite,""meteoroid," and their smaller counterparts: A meteoroid is a 10-??m to 1-m-size natural solid object moving in interplanetary space. A micrometeoroid is a meteoroid 10 ??m to 2 mm in size. A meteorite is a natural, solid object larger than 10 ??m in size, derived from a celestial body, that was transported by natural means from the body on which it formed to a region outside the dominant gravitational influence of that body and that later collided with a natural or artificial body larger than itself (even if it is the same body from which it was launched). Weathering and other secondary processes do not affect an object's status as a meteorite as long as something recognizable remains of its original minerals or structure. An object loses its status as a meteorite if it is incorporated into a larger rock that becomes a meteorite itself. A micrometeorite is a meteorite between 10 ??m and 2 mm in size. Meteorite- "a solid substance or body falling from the high regions of the atmosphere" (Craig 1849); "[a] mass of stone and iron that ha[s] been directly observed to have fallen down to the Earth's surface" (translated from Cohen 1894); "[a] solid bod[y] which came to the earth from space" (Farrington 1915); "A mass of solid matter, too small to be considered an asteroid; either traveling through space as an unattached unit, or having landed on the earth and still retaining its identity" (Nininger 1933); "[a meteoroid] which has reached the surface of the Earth without being vaporized" (1958

  2. Meteorites, atolls and whisky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Improvements in the methods of measuring radioactive traces of elements in substances which can be hundreds of millions of years old have enabled many secrets of the remote past to be revealed. The techniques developed by nuclear scientists can also be applied to more recent times. In a symposium held in Monaco during March the discussions of radioactive dating and methods of low level counting brought references to meteorites, rocks, archaeology, coral atolls, ancient ceramics, and even whisky

  3. Study of Meteoritic Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg

    of meteorite samples that date back to the birth of the solar system. In this thesis, we have taken advantage of novel methods for the high-precision analysis of various radiogenic and stable isotope systems by plasma source and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ICPMS and TIMS) as well as by secondary....... The manuscripts presented in this thesis have provided critical insights into the origin and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes as well as the formation and transport history of chondrules and, by extension, the precursor material to asteroidal and planetary bodies. The proposal of 26Al heterogeneity...

  4. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  5. The Orgueil meteorite: 150 years of history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to summarize 150 yr of history of a very special meteorite. The Orgueil meteorite fell near Montauban in southwestern France on May 14, 1864. The bolide, which was the size of the full Moon, was seen across Western France, and almost immediately made the news in local and Parisian newspapers. Within a few weeks of the fall, a great diversity of analyses were performed under the authority of Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, geology professor at the Paris Museum, and published in the Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The skilled scientists reported the presence of iron sulfides, hydrated silicates, and carbonates in Orgueil. They also characterized ammonium salts which are now gone, and observed sulfates being remobilized at the surface of the stone. They identified the high water and carbon contents, and noted similarities with the Alais meteorite, which had fallen in 1806, 300 km away. While Daubrée and his colleagues noted the similarity of the Orgueil organic matter with some terrestrial humus, they were cautious not to make a direct link with living organisms. One century later, Nagy and Claus were less prudent and announced the discovery of "organized" elements in some samples of Orgueil. Their observations were quickly discredited by Edward Anders and others who also discovered that some pollen grains were intentionally placed into the rock back in the 1860s. Orgueil is now one of the most studied meteorites, indeed one of the most studied rocks of any kind. Not only does it contain a large diversity of carbon-rich compounds, which help address the question of organo-synthesis in the early solar system but its chemical composition is also close to that of the Sun's photosphere and serves as a cosmic reference. Secondary minerals, which make up 99% of the volume of Orgueil, were probably formed during hydrothermal alteration on the parent-body within the first few million years of the solar system; their study is essential to our

  6. Nature and evolution of the meteorite parent bodies: Evidence from petrology and metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical as well as chemical properties of the meteorite parent bodies are reviewed and it is concluded that many differentiated meteorites were likely formed in asteroidal-sized parents. A new model is developed for the formation of pallasites at the interface between an iron core and olivine mantle in differentiated bodies only about 10 km in diameter, which are later incorporated into a second generation of larger (100 km) parent bodies.

  7. On presolar meteoritic sulphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Ramadurai, S.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that discoveries of isotopic anomalies in meteorites caused some workers to postulate nucleosynthetic inhomogeneities that were somehow carried into the early solar system. A picture was developed treating most anomalies as extinct radioactivities trapped in mineral condensations in the expanding sites of explosive nucleosynthesis, such as supernovae or novae. As evidence for this grows it becomes clear that not only isotopic but also mineralogical evidence of presolar grains is wanted, and also knowledge of what supernovae condensates are likely to survive. It is suggested here that a search should be made among sulphides in meteorites, searching especially for sulphides of Ti. The reasoning is that many sulphides, especially Ti sulphides, will not be expected in solar condensation sequences, but are expected to dominate certain key zones of supernovae expansion. Sulphur seems to have resulted primarily from the nuclear explosions of O and Si, and arguments leading to that conclusion are analysed. It is thought that the discussion could lead to important discoveries for nucleosynthesis and the origin of the solar system. (U.K.)

  8. Os{sup 187}-isotope abundances in terrestrial and meteoritic osmium and an attempt to determine Re/Os-ages of iron meteorites; Anomalies dans l'abondance isotopique de l'osmium-187 dans l'osmium terrestre et meteoritique - Essai de determination de l'age des meteorites de fer au moyen du rapport Re/Os; Anomalii v rasprostranennosti izotopa osmiya-187 v zemnom i meteoritnom osmie i popytka opredeleniya vozrastov reniya/osmiya v zheleznykh meteoritakh; Anomalias en la abundancia isotopica del {sup 187}Os en el osmio terrestre y meteoritico. Ensayo para determinar la edad de los meteoritos de hierro por medio de la razon Re Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, W; Hoffmeister, W; Langhoff, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Geiss, J; Hirt, B; Houtermans, F G [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bern (Switzerland)

    1962-01-15

    The isotopic composition of a large number of Os-samples from terrestrial platinum ores and from iron meteorites has been investigated by mass-spectrometry. The observed isotope-ratios Os{sup 187}:Os{sup 186} in Os/Ir-ores and in Os-samples, extracted quantitatively from iron meteorites, vary in limit from 0.88 to 1.41. These variations may be explained by the production of radiogenic Os following the decay of Re{sup 187}, a natural {beta}-emitter with the lowest known {beta}-energy. Neutron activation analysis proves that Re and Os are common trace elements in iron meteorites. As dating of these bodies by conventional methods suffers from enormous difficulties, the application of the Re/Os method has been studied. From our experiments a primordial Os{sup 187}:Os{sup 186} ratio is assumed and 'minimum ages' are discussed. They differ widely and are found presumably in the range from 3.7 to 5.6x10{sup 9} yr. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie au moyen de la spectrometrie de masse la composition isotopique d'un grand nombre d'echantillons d'osmium provenant de minerais terrestres de platine et d'holosideres. Le rapport isotopique osmium-187/ osmium-186 observe dans l'osmiure d'iridium et dans les echantillons d'osmium extraits en quantite mesurable des holosideres varie entre 0,88 et 1,41. Ces variations peuvent etre expliquees par la production d'osmium radiogenicjue resultant de la desintegration du rhenium-187, emetteur naturel de rayonnements beta connu comme ayant la plus faible energie beta. L'analyse par activation des neutrons montre que le rhenium et l'osmium se trouvent communement a l'etat de traces dans les holosideres. Comme il est extremement difficile d'evaluer l'age de ces corps en recourant aux methodes classiques, les auteurs du memoire ont examine la possibilite d'utiliser le rapport Re/Os. Apres avoir assume de leurs experiences le rapport osmium-187/osmium-186, ils examinent la question des . Ceux-ci different sensiblement et

  9. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor); Lindstrom, Marilyn (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This Newsletter Contains Classifications of 143 New Meteorites from the 1997 ANSMET Collection. Descriptions are given for 6 meteorites;2 eucrites, and 4 ordinary chondrites. We don't expect much excitement from the rest of the 1997 collection. JSC has examined another 100 meteorites to send to the Smithsonian for classification and they appear to be more of the same LL5 shower. However, past experience tells us that there will be some treasures hidden in the remaining samples. Hope rings eternal, but we can't wait to see the 1998 collection described below.

  10. Study of Meteoritic Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg

    by small, potentially terrestrial-like planets. Given the tantalizing perspective of discovering an Earth-like world, understanding the sequence of events leading to the formation our solar system and planetary bodies has never been so relevant. Theoretical and computational astrophysics as well...... of meteorite samples that date back to the birth of the solar system. In this thesis, we have taken advantage of novel methods for the high-precision analysis of various radiogenic and stable isotope systems by plasma source and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ICPMS and TIMS) as well as by secondary....... The manuscripts presented in this thesis have provided critical insights into the origin and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes as well as the formation and transport history of chondrules and, by extension, the precursor material to asteroidal and planetary bodies. The proposal of 26Al heterogeneity...

  11. Analysis of Košice Meteorite by Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Jozef; Dekan, Július; Sedlačková, Katarína

    2016-07-01

    The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy method was used to investigate iron-containing compounds in town Košice meteorite fallen on the territory of Slovakia in February 2010. The results showed that the Mössbauer spectra consisted of magnetic and non-magnetic components related to different iron-bearing phases. The non-magnetic phase includes olivine, pyroxene and traces of Fe3+ phase and the magnetic component comprises troilite (FeS) and iron-rich Fe-Ni alloy with hyperfine magnetic field typical for kamacite. Samples from meteorite were obtained in powder from different depths to inspect its heterogeneous composition. The content of kamacite increases to the detriment of troilite from the surface toward the centre of the sample. Measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature confirmed phase composition of investigated meteorite. Main constituent elements of studied samples were also determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

  12. 48Ca HETEROGENEITY IN DIFFERENTIATED METEORITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Shen, Jason Jiun-San; Chen, Jiang-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic heterogeneities of 48 Ca have been found in numerous bulk meteorites that are correlated with 50 Ti and 54 Cr anomalies among differentiated planetary bodies, and the results suggest that a rare subset of neutron-rich Type Ia supernova (nSN Ia) was responsible for contributing these neutron-rich iron-group isotopes into the solar system (SS). The heterogeneity of these isotopes found in differentiated meteorites indicates that the isotopic compositions of the bulk SS are not uniform, and there are significant amounts of nSNe Ia dust incompletely mixed with the rest of SS materials during planetary formation. Combined with the data of now-extinct short-lived nuclide 60 Fe, which can be produced more efficiently from an nSN Ia than a Type II supernova ejecta, the observed planetary-scale isotopic heterogeneity probably reflects a late input of stellar dust grains with neutron-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium nuclides into the early SS.

  13. The evolution of meteorites and planets from a hot nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H. Tarling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meteorites have a hot origin as planetary materials derive from a supernova, similar to SN1987A, and were acquired by a nearby nova, the Sun. The supernova plasmas became zoned around the nova, mainly by their electromagnetic properties. Carbon and carbide dusts condensed first, followed, within the Inner Planetary Zone, by Ca–Mg–Al oxides and then by iron and nickel metal droplets. In the inner Asteroid Belt, the metals aggregated into clumps as they solidified but over a much longer time in the Inner Zone. ‘Soft’ collisions formed larger (<∼20 km objects in the Asteroid Belt; in the Inner Zone these aggregated forming proto-planetary cores during inwards orbital migration. In the Asteroid Belt, glassy olivines condensed, followed more open lattice minerals growing grew primarily by diffusion. Brittle silicate crystals were comminuted and only aggregated into the carbonaceous meteorites when water–ices formed. The inner planets differentiated by at least 4.4 Ga. Jupiter and the outer planets grew on asteroidal bodies thrown out into freezing water vapours and only formed by 4.1 Ga, resulting in the Late Heavy Bombardment, initially by meteoritic materials and later supplemented by ices from, and beyond, the Asteroid Belt. Critical factors are the properties of very high temperature supernova plasmas, the duration of the molten iron phase in the inner zone. Evidence usually quoted for a cold origin derives from late stage processes in hot meteorite evolution. While highly speculative, it is shown that meteorites and planets can be formed by known processes as supernova plasmas cool.

  14. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Meteorites play a fundamental role in education and outreach, as these samples of extraterrestrial materials are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Thus, for instance, meteorite exhibitions reveal the interest and fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these peculiar rocks and how these can provide information to explain many fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. But this issue can be addressed thanks to new technologies related to the Internet. In fact we can take advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and open the possibility of offering these exhibitions for a global audience. With this aim a Virtual Museum for Meteorites has been created and a description of this web-based tool is given here.

  15. Chladniite: A New Mineral Honoring the Father of Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, T. J.; Steele, I. M.; Keil, K.; Leonard, B. F.; Endress, M.

    1993-07-01

    The IIICD irons are a small group of meteorites, three of which (Maltahohe, Carlton, and Dayton) contain silicate-bearing inclusions rich in troilite, graphite, schreibersite, and phosphates [1]. The Na,Ca,Mg-rich phosphates bnanite and panethite were first described in Dayton [2]. We have discovered a new mineral, Na(sub)2CaMg(sub)7(PO(sub)4)(sub)6, as a single grain within a silicate-bearing inclusion in the Carlton (IIICD) iron meteorite. The mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association. Chladniite occurs as a single grain near the edge of a silicate-bearing inclusion in polished section USNM 2707. This inclusion is dominated by chlorapatite and contains olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, schreibersite, and troilite. Chladniite occurs as a single, massive grain (975 x 175 micrometers) and is cross-cut by hydrated iron oxides of terrestrial origin. In polished section, it is gray, dark, and weakly anisotropic. Cleavage is rhomboidal in plan and very likely rhombohedral in three dimension. The formula for chladniite (derived from five microprobe analyses) is Na(sub)1.77Si(sub)0.08 Ca(sub)0.98(Mg(sub)6.96Fe(sub)0.26Mn(sub)0.04)(sub)Sigma = 7.26(Po(sub)0.98 O(sub)4)(sub)6. The idealized formula is Na(sub)2CaMg(sub)7(PO(sub)4)(sub)6. Chladniite is related to two rare minerals, fillowite [3] and johnsomervilleite [4], where fillowite is the Mn-dominated and johnsomervilleite the Fe-dominated analog of chladniite. The unique occurrence of chladniite, the relatively small size of the grain, and the presence of terrestrial weathering veins all presented challenges for removing material for X-ray studies. A 30-micrometer-diameter spindle of material was removed after microdrilling a shallow trench and breaking the spindle with a surgical scalpel. Studies were performed using both a Gandolfi camera to obtain a powder pattern and a four-circle diffractometer to determine the unit

  16. Antarctic Meteorite Classification and Petrographic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Meteorite collection, which is comprised of over 18,700 meteorites, is one of the largest collections of meteorites in the world. These meteorites have been collected since the late 1970's as part of a three-agency agreement between NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution [1]. Samples collected each season are analyzed at NASA s Meteorite Lab and the Smithsonian Institution and results are published twice a year in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which has been in publication since 1978. Each newsletter lists the samples collected and processed and provides more in-depth details on selected samples of importance to the scientific community. Data about these meteorites is also published on the NASA Curation website [2] and made available through the Meteorite Classification Database allowing scientists to search by a variety of parameters

  17. Antarctic Martian Meteorites at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, R. C.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R.

    2018-01-01

    This past year marked the 40th anniversary of the first Martian meteorite found in Antarctica by the ANSMET Antarctic Search for Meteorites) program, ALH 77005. Since then, an additional 14 Martian meteorites have been found by the ANSMET program making for a total of 15 Martian meteorites in the U. S. Antarctic meteorite collection at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Of the 15 meteorites, some have been paired so the 15 meteorites actually represent a total of approximately 9 separate samples. The first Martian meteorite found by ANSMET was ALH 77005 (482.500 g), a lherzolitic shergottite. When collected, this meteorite was split as a part of the joint expedition with the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) Japan. Originally classified as an "achondrite-unique", it was re-classified as a Martian lherzolitic shergottite in 1982. This meteorite has been allocated to 137 scientists for research and there are 180.934 g remaining at JSC. Two years later, one of the most significant Martian meteorites of the collection at JSC was found at Elephant Moraine, EET 79001 (7942.000 g), a shergottite. This meteorite is the largest in the Martian collection at JSC and was the largest stony meteorite sample collected during the 1979 season. In addition to its size, this meteorite is of particular interest because it contains a linear contact separating two different igneous lithologies, basaltic and olivine-phyric. EET 79001 has glass inclusions that contain noble gas and nitrogen compositions that are proportionally identical to the Martian atmosphere, as measured by the Viking spacecraft. This discovery helped scientists to identify where the "SNC" meteorite suite had originated, and that we actually possessed Martian samples. This meteorite has been allocated to 205 scientists for research and 5,298.435 g of sample is available.

  18. Organic Chemistry of Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Chiral and carbon-isotopic analyses of isovaline have been carried out on numerous samples of the Murchison and one sample of the Murray carbonaceous chondrite. The isovaline was found to be heterogeneous with regard to enantiomeric excess (ee) both between samples and within a single Murchison sample. L-Excesses ranging from 0 to 15% were observed. The isovaline delta(sup 13) C was found to be about +18%. No evidence was obtained suggesting terrestrial contamination in the more abundant L-enantiomer. A correlation was observed between isovaline (also alpha - aminoisobutyric acid) concentration and PCP content of five CM chondrites. It is suggested that isovaline, along with other meteoritic a-methyl amino acids with ee, are of presolar origin. The possible formation of ee in extraterrestrial amino acids by exposure to circularly polarized light or by magnetochiral photochemistry is discussed. Key words: Murchison meteorite, Murray meteorite, amino acids, isovaline, chirality, carbon isotopes, PCP.

  19. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  20. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  1. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed

  2. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  3. Classification of Meteorites and Micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurette, Michel

    Archeologists only started to trace back successfully the advance of the Roman legions, trade patterns and the evolution of manufacturing techniques in Roman time, once they found an efficient scheme of classification for the fragments of amphora used to transport wine for the soldiers. Similarly, the classification of meteorites and micrometeorites is an essential step in the exploitation of these extraterrestrial debris. We recall that one of the main objectives of meteoriticists over the last 30 years was to find the most primitive objects of the solar system, which have been the least reprocessed since the formation of the early solar nebula, with the view to exploit them as reliable archivist of our distant past. This section outlines some of the methods used to classify meteorites and Antarctic micrometeorites. It also summarizes some of the key features of the surprisingly simple relationship between micrometeorites and a relatively rare group of stony meteorites, the hydrous carbonaceous CM-type chondrites, which was only confirmed recently after the study of the Concordia micrometeorites collected in central Antarctica in January 2002. A more technical discussion of this relationship presented in Sect. 25 will allow its extension to the smaller micrometeorites collected by NASA in the stratosphere. The book of Wasson (1985) is still one of the best monographs about meteorites.

  4. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  5. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  6. Characterization of Maghsail meteorite from Oman by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and petrographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rawas, A. D.; Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Kathiri, A. F.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A.; Al-Kathiri, S. B.; Widatallah, H. M.; Abdalla, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The meteorite found at Maghsail (16 55 70 N-53 46 69 E) west of Salalah Oman, has been studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-diffractometry and petrographic microscopy. In the polished section the meteorite exhibits a porphyritic texture consisting of pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts in a fine to medium grained ground mass in addition to minor phases possibly skeletal chromite, troilite and minute amount of iron oxides. X-ray diffraction supports the existence of these compounds. The Moessbauer spectra of powdered material from the core of the rock at 298 K and 78 K exhibit a mixture of magnetic and paramagnetic components. The paramagnetic components are assigned to the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. On the other hand, the magnetic spectra reveal the presence of troilite and iron oxides. The petrographic analyses indicate that the iron oxides are terrestrial alteration products.

  7. Irradiation history of meteoritic inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    Understanding the formation and earliest evolution of our solar system is a longstanding goal shared by cosmochemistry, astronomy and astrophysics. Meteorites play a key role in this pursuit, providing a ground truth against which all theories must be weighed. Chondritic meteorites are in essence...... extraterrestrial sediments that contain Calcium-Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules that formed as individual objects during the earliest stages of solar system evolution. They later accreted together to form large bodies, after spending up to several million years in individual orbit around the proto...... of presolar and protosolar materials, as well as evidence for the former presence of over 10 extinct shortlived radionuclei of varying stability and provenance that play a key role in deciphering early solar system evolution. Some shortlived radionuclei, such as 60Fe (T½ 2.5 Myr), must have formed...

  8. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  9. Phase analysis of Košice meteorite: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.; Degmová, J.; Sedlačková, K.

    2012-10-01

    Meteorite fall was observed by the Košice town in Slovakia in February 2010 and it was classified as an ordinary chondrite H5. The samples were prepared in powder form scratched from the surface. Mossbauer spectra were measured at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Spectra consist of components related to iron-bearing phases with different content. Non-magnetic part was fitted with three quadrupole doublets. According to its parameters, we identified olivine, pyroxene, and traces of Fe3+ phases. Magnetic part consists of an iron-rich Fe-Ni alloy with hyperfine magnetic field similar to kamacite α-Fe(Ni,Co) and troilite. Main elements were also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

  10. Low γ activity measurement of meteorites using HPGe–NaI detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombetti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Taricco, C., E-mail: carla.taricco@unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Bhandari, N. [Basic Sciences Research Institute, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Sinha, N. [Department of Science, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston (United States); Di Martino, M.; Cora, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Vivaldo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The radioactivity in natural samples like cosmogenic isotopes in meteorites, in Moon samples, in earth and ice in Antarctica, produced by protons, neutrons, μ mesons and other charged particles, is very low, usually below 0.001 disintegration per minute per gram. Therefore, very special techniques are required, particularly if the sample cannot be destroyed for chemical separation and system must have possibility of counting large amount of sample. For this purpose we have developed a highly selective Ge–NaI coincidence spectrometer, operating in the underground Laboratory of Monte dei Cappuccini (INAF) in Torino. We have then improved it by developing a multiparametric acquisition system, which allows better selectivity of the coincidence windows (e.g., in meteorites, to disentangle cosmogenic {sup 44}Ti signal from overlapping {sup 214}Bi, originated by naturally occurring {sup 238}U). Applications of this system to the study of meteorites (chondrite, achondrite and iron samples) are described.

  11. Biomarkers and Microfossils in the Murchison, Rainbow, and Tagish Lake meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Davies, Paul C.

    2003-02-01

    During the past six years, we have conducted extensive scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations and x-ray analysis to determine the morphology, life cycle processes, and elemental distributions in living and fossil cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae sampled from terrestrial environments relevant to Astrobiology. Biominerals, pseudomorphs and microfossils have been studied for diverse microbial groups in various states of preservation in many types of rocks (e.g., oil shales, graphites, shungites, bauxites, limestones, pyrites, phosphorites, and hydrothermal vent chimneys). Results of these studies have been applied to the search for biosignatures in carbonaceous chondrites, stony, and nickel iron meteorites. We review important biomarkers found in terrestrial rocks and meteorites and present additional evidence for the existence of indigenous bacterial microfossils in-situ in freshly fractured surfaces of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake carbonaceous meteorites. We provide secondary and backscatter electron images and spectral data obtained with Field Emission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopes of biominerals and microfossils. We discuss techniques for discriminating indigenous microfossils from recent terrestrial contaminants. Images are provided of framboidal magnetites in oil shales and meteorites and images and 2D x-ray maps are shown of bacterial microfossils embedded in the mineral matrix of the Murchison, Rainbow and Tagish Lake Carbonaceous Meteorites. These microfossils exhibit characteristics that preclude their interpretation as post-arrival contaminants and we interpret them as indigenous biogenic remains.

  12. Gerontology of the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessberger, A.K.; Dominik, B.

    1979-01-01

    In the Allende meteorite several elements are found to have an isotopic composition that cannot be due to radioactive or spallation or fractionation processes. These isotope anomalies are mostly confined to white inclusions enriched in refractory elements (Ca-Al-rich inclusions) and are thought to be introduced into the Solar System by precondensed grains. The results of the Ar 40 -Ar 39 analysis of some coarse grained Allende inclusions that showed ages in excess of 4,550 Myr are here reported. (author)

  13. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  14. Solar flare irradiation records in Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of solar flare heavy nuclei tracks in eight Antartic meteorite samples are reported. Two of these were interior specimens from an L-3 chondrite which contained track-rich grains (olivine) indicating their exposure to solar flare irradiation before compaction of the meteorite. Preliminary noble gas data also indicate the presence of solar-type gases. (U.K.)

  15. Bacteria in the Tatahouine meteorite: nanometric-scale life in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, P h; Barrat, J A; Heulin, T h; Achouak, W; Lesourd, M; Guyot, F; Benzerara, K

    2000-02-15

    We present a study of the textural signature of terrestrial weathering and related biological activity in the Tatahouine meteorite. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images obtained on the weathered samples of the Tatahouine meteorite and surrounding soil show two types of bacteria-like forms lying on mineral surfaces: (1) rod-shaped forms (RSF) about 70-80 nm wide and ranging from 100 nm to 600 nm in length; (2) ovoid forms (OVF) with diameters between 70 and 300 nm. They look like single cells surrounded by a cell wall. Only Na, K, C, O and N with traces of P and S are observed in the bulk of these objects. The chemical analyses and electron diffraction patterns confirm that the RSF and OVF cannot be magnetite or other iron oxides, iron hydroxides, silicates or carbonates. The sizes of the RSF and OVF are below those commonly observed for bacteria but are very similar to some bacteria-like forms described in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. All the previous observations strongly suggest that they are bacteria or their remnants. This conclusion is further supported by microbiological experiments in which pleomorphic bacteria with morphology similar to the OVF and RSF objects are obtained from biological culture of the soil surrounding the meteorite pieces. The present results show that bacteriomorphs of diameter less than 100 nm may in fact represent real bacteria or their remnants.

  16. Annual Occurrence of Meteorite-Dropping Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Natalia; Jopek, Tadeusz J.

    2016-07-01

    The event of Chelyabinsk meteorite has brought about change the earlier opinion about limits of the sizes of potentially dangerous asteroidal fragments that crossed the Earth's orbit and irrupted in the Earth's atmosphere making the brightest fireball. The observations of the fireballs by fireball networks allows to get the more precise data on atmospheric trajectories and coordinates of predicted landing place of the meteorite. For the reason to search the periods of fireball activity is built the annual distribution of the numbers of meteorites with the known fall dates and of the meteorite-dropping fireballs versus the solar longitude. The resulting profile of the annual activity of meteorites and meteorite-dropping fireballs shows several periods of increased activity in the course of the year. The analysis of the atmospheric trajectories and physical properties of sporadic meteorite-dropping fireballs observed in Tajikistan by instrumental methods in the summer‒autumn periods of increased fireballs activity has been made. As a result the structural strength, the bulk density and terminal mass of the studied fireballs that can survive in the Earth atmosphere and became meteorites was obtained. From the photographic IAU MDC_2003 meteor database and published sources based on the orbit proximity as determined by D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins the fireballs that could be the members of group of meteorite-dropping fireballs, was found. Among the near Earth's objects (NEOs) the searching for parent bodies for meteorite-dropping fireballs was made and the evolution of orbits of these objects in the past on a long interval of time was investigated.

  17. Combining meteorites and missions to explore Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Timothy J; Corrigan, Catherine M; Herd, Christopher D K

    2011-11-29

    Laboratory studies of meteorites and robotic exploration of Mars reveal scant atmosphere, no evidence of plate tectonics, past evidence for abundant water, and a protracted igneous evolution. Despite indirect hints, direct evidence of a martian origin came with the discovery of trapped atmospheric gases in one meteorite. Since then, the study of martian meteorites and findings from missions have been linked. Although the meteorite source locations are unknown, impact ejection modeling and spectral mapping of Mars suggest derivation from small craters in terrains of Amazonian to Hesperian age. Whereas most martian meteorites are young ( 4.5 Ga and formation of enriched and depleted reservoirs. However, the history inferred from martian meteorites conflicts with results from recent Mars missions, calling into doubt whether the igneous histor y inferred from the meteorites is applicable to Mars as a whole. Allan Hills 84001 dates to 4.09 Ga and contains fluid-deposited carbonates. Accompanying debate about the mechanism and temperature of origin of the carbonates came several features suggestive of past microbial life in the carbonates. Although highly disputed, the suggestion spurred interest in habitable extreme environments on Earth and throughout the Solar System. A flotilla of subsequent spacecraft has redefined Mars from a volcanic planet to a hydrologically active planet that may have harbored life. Understanding the history and habitability of Mars depends on understanding the coupling of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface. Sample return that brings back direct evidence from these diverse reservoirs is essential.

  18. Dating the Morasko meteorite fall by natural thermoluminescence of the fusion crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorowicz Stanisław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The date of fall of the Morasko iron meteorite was determined by means of thermoluminescence measurements of the fusion crust and related local materials. Three small pieces, commonly referred to as ‘shrapnel’, were used. The results obtained are 4.5-5.0 ka, which is in good agreement with previous estimates of 4-6 ka on the basis of radiometric, do-simetric and palynological methods.

  19. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  20. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  1. /sup 187/Re-/sup 187/Os systematics in meteorites and cosmo-chemical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, J M; Allegre, C J [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. de Physique du Globe

    1983-03-10

    Using a recently published technique (Luck et al. Nature; 283:256 (1980)) based on isotope dilution, /sup 187/Re-/sup 187/Os systematics in meteorites have been measured with an improved analytical procedure and a recalibrated osmium spike. Using previous results, corrected for this change in spike calibration, in addition to the present data from analyses of irons and the iron phases of 10 chondrites and of one mesosiderite, a revised and more precise value is proposed for the rhenium decay constant, together with a new estimate for the age of the Galaxy.

  2. 187Re-187Os systematics in meteorites and cosmo-chemical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.-M.; Allegre, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Using a recently published technique (Luck et al. Nature; 283:256 (1980)) based on isotope dilution, 187 Re- 187 Os systematics in meteorites have been measured with an improved analytical procedure and a recalibrated osmium spike. Using previous results, corrected for this change in spike calibration, in addition to the present data from analyses of irons and the iron phases of 10 chondrites and of one mesosiderite, a revised and more precise value is proposed for the rhenium decay constant, together with a new estimate for the age of the Galaxy. (U.K.)

  3. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  4. Life on Mars: Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keptra, Katie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Spencer, Lauren; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    New data on martian meteorite 84001 as well as new experimental studies show that thermal or shock decomposition of carbonate, the leading alternative non-biologic explanation for the unusual nanophase magnetite found in this meteorite, cannot explain the chemistry of the actual martian magnetites. This leaves the biogenic explanation as the only remaining viable hypothesis for the origin of these unique magnetites. Additional data from two other martian meteorites show a suite of biomorphs which are nearly identical between meteorites recovered from two widely different terrestrial environments (Egyptian Nile bottomlands and Antarctic ice sheets). This similarity argues against terrestrial processes as the cause of these biomorphs and supports an origin on Mars for these features.

  5. Meteorite Unit Models for Structural Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Carlozzi, Alexander A.; Karajeh, Zaid S.; Bryson, Kathryn L.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the threat posed by an asteroid entering Earth’s atmosphere, one must predict if, when, and how it fragments during entry. A comprehensive understanding of the asteroid material properties is needed to achieve this objective. At present, the meteorite material found on earth are the only objects from an entering asteroid that can be used as representative material and be tested inside a laboratory. Due to complex composition, it is challenging and expensive to obtain reliable material properties by means of laboratory test for a family of meteorites. In order to circumvent this challenge, meteorite unit models are developed to determine the effective material properties including Young’s modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and Poisson’s ratio, that in turn would help deduce the properties of asteroids. The meteorite unit model is a representative volume that accounts for diverse minerals, porosity, cracks and matrix composition.The Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio in the meteorite units are calculated by performing several hundreds of Monte Carlo simulations by randomly distributing the various phases inside these units. Once these values are obtained, cracks are introduced in these units. The size, orientation and distribution of cracks are derived by CT-scans and visual scans of various meteorites. Subsequently, simulations are performed to attain stress-strain relations, strength and effective modulus values in the presence of these cracks. The meteorite unit models are presented for H, L and LL ordinary chondrites, as well as for terrestrial basalt. In the case of the latter, data from the simulations is compared with experimental data to validate the methodology. These meteorite unit models will be subsequently used in fragmentation modeling of full scale asteroids.

  6. Analysis of magnetic compounds of Kosice meteorite using Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekan, J.; Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Meteorite fall was observed by the town Kosice in Slovakia in February 2010. The fall itself was imaged by three security video cameras from Hungary. Detailed bolide light curves were obtained through clouds by radiometers on seven cameras of the European Fireball Network. Records of sonic waves were found on six seismic and four infrasonic stations. chondrites in various works. Due to the high abundance of iron in the solar system and its chemical and physical properties, we can gain insight into the formation and evolution of planets through the study of iron compounds in the planetary bodies. These kinds of analyses can bring important knowledge about phases and compounds formed in extraterrestrial conditions, which have another features than their terrestrial analogues. The "5"7Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive methods for such studies. In this work Moessbauer spectroscopy will be used for phase analysis of iron bearing compounds with the aim to identify magnetic fractions using magnetic separation. (authors)

  7. Thermoluminescence of meteorites and their orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermoluminescence levels of 45 ordinary chondrites are measured in order to provide information on the orbital characteristics of the meteorites before impact. Glow curves of the photon emission response of powdered samples of the meteorites to temperatures up to 550 C in the natural state and following irradiation by a laboratory test dose of 110,000 rad were obtained as functions of terrestrial age and compared to those of samples of the Pribram, Lost City and Innisfree meteorites, for which accurate orbital data is available. The thermoluminescence levels in 40 out of 42 meteorites are found to be similar to those of the three control samples, indicating that the vast majority of ordinary chondrites that survive atmospheric entry have perihelia in the range 0.8-1 AU. Of the remaining two, Farmville is observed to exhibit an unusually large gradient in thermoluminescence levels with sample depth, which may be a result of a temperature gradient arising in a slowly rotating meteorite. Finally, the thermoluminescence measured in the Malakal meteorite is found to be two orders of magnitude lower than control samples, which is best explained by thermal draining by solar heating in an orbit with a perihelion distance of 0.5 to 0.6 AU.

  8. Thermoluminescence of meteorites and their orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermolunimescence (TL) levels of 45 ordinary chondrites were measured to obtain information about the meteorite orbits. The low-temperature TL reaches equilibrium while the meteorite is in space and reflects the temperature of the meteorite at perihelion. Samples of Pribram, Lost City, and Innisfree, whose orbits are accurately known, were used as control samples. The TL levels in 40 out of 42 meteorites are similar to the three control samples, indicating that the vast majority of ordinary chondrites that survive atmospheric entry have perihelia similar to three known orbits, i.e., in the range 0.8-1 AU. The effects of albedo and rotation are also considered. A simple model indicates that temperature gradients of 1-2 0 K/cm are possible in slowly rotating meteoroids and such a temperature gradient is consistent with the unusually large TL gradient measured in the Farmville meteorite. Since slow rotation rates are improbable, other possibilities are examined but no satisfactory explanation has been found. The TL level measured in the Malakal meteorite is two orders of magnitude lower than control samples and is best explained by thermal draining due to solar heating in an orbit with a small perihelion distance. The perihelion is estimated to be approx. 0.5-0.6 AU. (orig.)

  9. SNC meteorites: Clues to martian petrologic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The shergottites, nakhlites, and Chassigny (SNC meteorites) are apparently cumulate mafic and ultramafic rocks that crystallized at shallow levels in the crust of their parent body. The mineralogy and chemistry of these meteorites are remarkably like equivalent terrestrial rocks, although their ratios of Fe/(Fe+Mg) and certain incompatible elements and their oxygen isotopic compositions are distinctive. All have crystallization ages of 1.3 b.y. or younger and formed from magmas produced by partial melting of previously fractionated source regions. Isotope systematics suggest that the SNC parent body had a complex and protracted thermal history spanning most of geologic time. Some meteorites have been severely shock metamorphosed, and all were ejected from their parent body at relatively recent times, possibly in several impact events. Late crystallization ages, complex petrogenesis, and possible evidence for a large gravitational field suggest that these meteorites are derived from a large planet. Trapped gases in shergottite shock melts have compositions similar to the composition measured in the Martian atmosphere. Ejection of Martian meteorites may have been accomplished by acceleration of near-surface spalls or other mechanisms not fully understood. If SNC meteorites are of Martian origin, they provide important information on planetary composition and evolution. The bulk composition and redox state of the Martian mantle, as constrained by shergottite phase equilibria, must be more earthlike than most current models. Planetary thermal models should benefit from data on the abundances of radioactive heat sources, the melting behavior of the mantle, and the timing of planetary differentiation

  10. Magnetic properties of lamellar tetrataenite in Toluca iron meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Nagata, Takesi; Danon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic studies were conducted using lamellar tetrataenite extracted from the Toluca octahedrite by a diluted HCl etching technique. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in the lamellae is very stable against AF demagnetization and is quite intense, ranging from 2.58 to 37.42 x10 -2 emu/g. This NRM is completely demagnetized thermally at about 550 0 C. The most characteristic change in magnetic properties on heating to about 550 C 0 is a significant decrease in magnetic coercivity. This observation is consistent with the results obtained from chondrites. The paramagnetic component in lamellar tetrataenite, which is estimated by Moessbauer spectrum analyses, was not detected by conventional magnetic studies. (Author) [pt

  11. The New Peruvian Meteorite Carancas: Mössbauer Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2013-02-01

    The Carancas meteorite fell on 15 September 2007 approximately 10 km south of Desaguadero, near Lake Titicaca, Peru, producing bright lights, clouds of dust in the sky and intense detonations. The Carancas meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S3 and a degree of weathering W0. The Carancas meteorite is characterized by well defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. The Mössbauer spectra show an overlapping of paramagnetic and magnetic phases. The spectra show two quadrupole doublets associated to olivine and pyroxene; and two magnetic sextets, associated with the primary phases kamacite/taenite and Troilite (Fe2+). Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth tetrataenite/antitaenite. X-Ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, troilite, kamacite, diopside and albite. Iron oxides has not been detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy or XRD as can be expected for a meteorite immediately recovered after its fall.

  12. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-precision analyses of Ti are reported for samples from a variety of meteorite classes. The expanded data base for Allende inclusions still shows Ti isotope anomalies in every inclusion. All the coarse-grained inclusions give quite similar patterns, but fine-grained inclusions show more variable, and sometimes larger, anomalies. One inclusion, 3675A, was analyzed because others identified it as a possible 'FUN' inclusion due to its mass-fractionated Mg. This designation is supported by the significantly more complex Ti isotopic pattern for 3675A compared to all our other Allende inclusions. Available data fail to suggest that any particular Allende mineral phase, including a chromite-carbon fraction from an acid residue, is especially rich in anomalous Ti. We also find anomalous Ti in a bulk sample of a C1 chondrite and in matrix separates from C2 chondrites. The excesses of 50 Ti are smaller than for Allende inclusions, and subtle differences in Ti isotopic patterns tentatively suggest that parent materials for C1-C2 matrix and Allende inclusions are not directly related. Analyses of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites did not yield clear evidence for anomalous Ti, but some 'larger than usual' deficits at 50/46 give encouragement for future work in this direction. (author)

  13. Molybdenum isotopic evidence for the origin of chondrules and a distinct genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Gerrit; Burkhardt, Christoph; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies are powerful tracers to determine the provenance of meteorites and their components, and to identify genetic links between these materials. Here we show that chondrules and matrix separated from the Allende CV3 chondrite have complementary nucleosynthetic Mo isotope anomalies. These anomalies result from the enrichment of a presolar carrier enriched in s-process Mo into the matrix, and the corresponding depletion of this carrier in the chondrules. This carrier most likely is a metal and so the uneven distribution of presolar material probably results from metal-silicate fractionation during chondrule formation. The Mo isotope anomalies correlate with those reported for W isotopes on the same samples in an earlier study, suggesting that the isotope variations for both Mo and W are caused by the heterogeneous distribution of the same carrier. The isotopic complementary of chondrules and matrix indicates that both components are genetically linked and formed together from one common reservoir of solar nebula dust. As such, the isotopic data require that most chondrules formed in the solar nebula and are not a product of protoplanetary impacts. Allende chondrules and matrix together with bulk carbonaceous chondrites and some iron meteorites (groups IID, IIIF, and IVB) show uniform excesses in 92Mo, 95Mo, and 97Mo that result from the addition of supernova material to the solar nebula region in which these carbonaceous meteorites formed. Non-carbonaceous meteorites (enstatite and ordinary chondrites as well as most iron meteorites) do not contain this material, demonstrating that two distinct Mo isotope reservoirs co-existed in the early solar nebula that remained spatially separated for several million years. This separation was most likely achieved through the formation of the gas giants, which cleared the disk between the inner and outer solar system regions parental to the non-carbonaceous and carbonaceous meteorites. The Mo isotope

  14. Meteorites and the Evolution of Our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The study of meteorites has long been of intense interest ever since these objects were discovered to be of extraterrestrial origin. Meteorite research contributes to unraveling the mysteries in understanding the formation and evolution processes of our solar system. Meteorites, of which there are a variety of widely diverse types of chemical and mineralogical compositions, are the most ancient of solar system objects that can be studied in the laboratory. They preserve a unique historical record of the astronomical and astrophysical events of our solar system. This record is being discerned by a host of ever evolving analytical laboratory methods. Recent discoveries of what are believed to be Martian meteorites, lunar meteorites, a meteorite containing indigenous water, and the recovery from the Cretaceous layer of a small meteorite fragment thought to be from the dinosaur-killing asteroid have fueled additional excitement for studying meteorites.

  15. Revealing the sub-nanometere three-dimensional microscture of a metallic meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R.; Blukis, R.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Martineau, B.; Bagot, P.; Collins, S. M.; Midgley, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Coming from from the core of differentiated planetesimals, iron-nickel meteorites provide some of the only direct material artefacts from planetary cores. Iron - nickel meteorites contain a record of their thermal and magnetic history, written in the intergrowth of iron-rich and nickel-rich phases that formed during slow cooling over millions of years. Of intense interest for understanding the thermal and magnetic history is the `'cloudy zone''. This nanoscale intergrowth that has recently been used to provide a record of magnetic activity on the parent body of stony-iron meteorites. The cloudy zone consists of islands of tetrataenite surrounded by a matrix phase, Here we use a multi-scale and multidimensional comparative study using high-resolution electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron tomography with chemical mapping, atom probe tomography and micromagnetic simulations to reveal the three-dimensional architecture of the cloudy zone with sub-nanometre spatial resolution. Machine learning data deconvolution strategies enable the three microanalytical techniques to converge on a consistent microstructural description for the cloudy zone. Isolated islands of tetrataenite are found, embedded in a continuous matrix of an FCC-supercell of Fe27Ni5 structure, never before identified in nature. The tetrataenite islands are arranged in clusters of three crystallographic variants, which control how magnetic information is encoded into the nanostructure during slow cooling. The new compositional, crystallographic and micromagnetic data have profound implications for how the cloudy zone acquires magnetic remanence, and requires a revision of the low-temperature metastable phase diagram of the Fe-Ni system. This can lead to a refinement of core dynamics in small planetoids.

  16. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of 182 Hf (T 1/2 =9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, 182 W. The degrees of relative 182 W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to ±0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of 182 Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  17. Hibonite: Crystal Chemistry and Origin of Blue Coloration in Meteoritic Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Burns, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    The blue color and optical spectra of hibonite, a common constituent of refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, are discussed. Because they may be manifestations of exotic cation species stabilized in unusual coordination sites in the hibonite crystalstructure. Hibonite, ideally CaAl12O19, is conducive to atomic substitution of host Ca2+ and Al3+ ions by a variety of lanthanide and first series transition elements. The latter cations are responsible for the colors of many rock-forming minerals as a result of intraelectronic or intervalence transitions. The visible-region spectra of most oxide and silicate minerals are generally well understood. Assignments of absorption bands in meteoritic hibonite optical spectra due to uncertainties of cation valencies and complexities in the crystal structure are examined. The crystal chemistry of hibonite is reviewed, Mossbauer spectral measurements of iron-bearing hibonite and electronic transitions that may be responsible for the blue coloration of meteoritic hibonites are discussed.

  18. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  19. Catalogue of meteorites from South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; García, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted.The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile's Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes.Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its

  20. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  1. Organic compounds in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Impressive supporting evidence for the concept of the chemical evolution of life has appeared in the discovery of biologically important compounds in extraterrestrial samples. The approaches pursued to detect extraterrestrial organic compounds include the study of interstellar space by radioastronomy, the evaluation of the Apollo lunar samples, and the analysis of meteorites, both ancient and recent. It has been found that the clouds of gas in the interstellar medium contain a wide variety of molecules, most of which are organic in nature. The carbonaceous chondrites contain polymeric organic matter. Amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite.

  2. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the

  3. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  4. Spectral evidence for amorphous silicates in least-processed CO meteorites and their parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Margaret M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Howard, Kieren T.; Alexander, Conel M.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Bus, Schelte J.

    2018-05-01

    Least-processed carbonaceous chondrites (carbonaceous chondrites that have experienced minimal aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism) are characterized by their predominately amorphous iron-rich silicate interchondrule matrices and chondrule rims. This material is highly susceptible to destruction by the parent body processes of thermal metamorphism or aqueous alteration. The presence of abundant amorphous material in a meteorite indicates that the parent body, or at least a region of the parent body, experienced minimal processing since the time of accretion. The CO chemical group of carbonaceous chondrites has a significant number of these least-processed samples. We present visible/near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra of eight least-processed CO meteorites (petrologic type 3.0-3.1). In the visible/near-infrared, these COs are characterized by a broad weak feature that was first observed by Cloutis et al. (2012) to be at 1.3-μm and attributed to iron-rich amorphous silicate matrix materials. This feature is observed to be centered at 1.4-μm for terrestrially unweathered, least-processed CO meteorites. At mid-infrared wavelengths, a 21-μm feature, consistent with Si-O vibrations of amorphous materials and glasses, is also present. The spectral features of iron-rich amorphous silicate matrix are absent in both the near- and mid-infrared spectra of higher metamorphic grade COs because this material has recrystallized as crystalline olivine. Furthermore, spectra of least-processed primitive meteorites from other chemical groups (CRs, MET 00426 and QUE 99177, and C2-ungrouped Acfer 094), also exhibit a 21-μm feature. Thus, we conclude that the 1.4- and 21-μm features are characteristic of primitive least-processed meteorites from all chemical groups of carbonaceous chondrites. Finally, we present an IRTF + SPeX observation of asteroid (93) Minerva that has spectral similarities in the visible/near-infrared to the least-processed CO carbonaceous chondrites

  5. Meteor Crater (Barringer Meteorite Crater), Arizona: Summary of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1995-09-01

    -field rock and meteorite ejecta parameters, 13) Inferred and estimated cloud-rise and fall-out conditions, 14) Late-stage meteorite falls after impact, 15) Estimated damage effect ranges, 16) Erosion of crater and ejecta blanket, 17) New topographic and digital maps of crater and ejecta blanket, 18) Other. (Suggestions are welcome) This compilation will contain expanded discussions of new data as well as revised interpretations of existing information. For example in Item 1, we suggest the impacting body most likely formed during a collision in the main asteroid belt that fragmented the iron-nickel core of an asteroid some 0.5 billion years ago. The fragments remained in space until about 50,000+/-3000 yrs ago, when they were captured by the Earth's gravitational field. In Item 3, the trajectory of the impacting body is interpreted by EMS as traveling north-northwest at a relatively low impact angle. The presence of both shocked meteorite fragments and melt spherules indicate the meteorite had a velocity in the range of about 13 to 20 km/s, probably in the lower part of this range [4]. In Item 4, the coherent meteorite diameter is estimated to have been 45 to 50 m with a mass of 300,000 to 400,000 tons, i.e., large enough to experience less than 1% in both mass ablation and velocity deceleration. During this time, minor flake-off of the meteorite's exterior produced a limited number of smaller fragments that followed the main mass to the impact site but at greatly reduced velocities. In Item 6, we estimate the kinetic energy of impact to be in the range of 20 to 40 Mt depending on the energy coupling functions used and corrections for angle of oblique impact. At impact, terrain conditions were about as we see them today, a gently rolling plain with outcrops of Moenkopi and a meter or so of soil cover. In Item 18, EMS estimates production of a Meteor Crater-size event should occur on the continents about every 50,000 years; interestingly, this is the age of Meteor Crater

  6. Meteorite Dichotomy Implies that Jupiter Formed Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, T. S.; Burkhardt, C.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2018-05-01

    Meteorites derive from two distinct nebular reservoirs that co-existed and remained spatially separated between 1 and 3–4 Ma after CAIs. This can most easily be explained if Jupiter acted as a barrier and formed early, within less than 1 Ma.

  7. Organics in meteorites - Solar or interstellar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Cody, George D.; Fogel, Marilyn; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2008-10-01

    The insoluble organic material (IOM) in primitive meteorites is related to the organic material in interplanetary dust particles and comets, and is probably related to the refractory organic material in the diffuse interstellar medium. If the IOM is representative of refractory ISM organics, models for how and from what it formed will have to be revised.

  8. Determination of Meteorite Porosity Using Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, T.; Kletetschka, G.; Pesonen, L. J.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new harmless method for porosity measurement suitable for meteorite samples. The method is a modification of the traditional Archimedean method based on immersion of the samples in a liquid medium like water or organic liquids. In our case we used liquid nitrogen for its chemically inert characteristics.

  9. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  10. THE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORITIC HCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    HCN is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial environments and is central to current theories on the origin of early solar system organic compounds such as amino acids. These compounds, observed in carbonaceous meteorites, were likely important in the origin and/or evolution of early life. As part of our attempts to understand the origin(s) of meteoritic CN{sup –}, we have analyzed the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic composition of HCN gas released from water extracts of the Murchison meteorite and found its value to be near those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The findings, when evaluated viz-a-viz molecular abundances and isotopic data of meteoritic organic compounds, suggest that HCN formation could have occurred during the protracted water alteration processes known to have affected the mineralogy of many asteroidal bodies during their solar residence. This was an active synthetic stage, which likely involved simple gasses, organic molecules, their presolar precursors, as well as mineral catalysts and would have lead to the formation of molecules of differing isotopic composition, including some with solar values.

  11. "Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

    2013-10-01

    The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 μg g-1 (median 2500 μg g-1) as compared to 187-14140 μg g-1 in soils (median 1148 μg g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

  12. Cosmic-ray exposure records and origins of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The cosmic-ray records of meteorites can be used to infer much about their origins and recent histories. Some meteorites had simple cosmic-ray exposure histories, while others had complex exposure histories with their cosmogenic products made both before and after a collision in space. The methods used to interpret meteorites' cosmic-ray records, especially identifying simple or complex exposure histories, often are inadequate. Besides spallogenic radionuclides and stable nuclides, measurements of products that have location-sensitive production rates, such as the tracks of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei or neutron-capture nuclides, are very useful in accurately determining a meteorite's history. Samples from different, known locations of a meteorite help in studying the cosmic-ray record. Such extensive sets of meteorite measurements, plus theoretical modeling of complex histories, will improve our ability to predict the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites, to distinguish simple and complex exposure histories, and to better determine exposure ages

  13. Curation of US Martian Meteorites Collected in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M.; Satterwhite, C.; Allton, J.; Stansbury, E.

    1998-01-01

    To date the ANSMET field team has collected five martian meteorites (see below) in Antarctica and returned them for curation at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Meteorite Processing Laboratory (MPL). ne meteorites were collected with the clean procedures used by ANSMET in collecting all meteorites: They were handled with JSC-cleaned tools, packaged in clean bags, and shipped frozen to JSC. The five martian meteorites vary significantly in size (12-7942 g) and rock type (basalts, lherzolites, and orthopyroxenite). Detailed descriptions are provided in the Mars Meteorite compendium, which describes classification, curation and research results. A table gives the names, classifications and original and curatorial masses of the martian meteorites. The MPL and measures for contamination control are described.

  14. Detection of a meteorite 'stream' - Observations of a second meteorite fall from the orbit of the Innisfree chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.

    1987-03-01

    The first observational evidence of multiple meteorite falls from the same orbit is adduced from the February 6, 1980 fall of a meteorite precisely 3 yr after the fall of the Innisfree meteorite. Due consideration of the detection probability for two related objects with the meteorite camera network in western Canada suggests that the Innisfree brecciated LL chondrite was a near-surface fragment from a parent object whose radius was of the order of several tens of meters. A meteorite mass of 1.8 kg is predicted for the new object, whose recovery in the vicinity of Ridgedale, Saskatchewan, is now sought for the sake of comparison with the Innisfree chondrite.

  15. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  16. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  17. Characterization and classification or the first meteorite fall in Varre-Sai town, southeast Brazil, using X-ray microfluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Haimon D.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Valeriano, Claudio [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Turbay, Caio [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2011-07-01

    On the night of June 19th, 2010, a meteorite fell nearby the town of Varre-Sai, Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil. A small part of it was found and taken for analysis. A meteorite analysis can give researchers a better understanding of the origins of the Universe. However, some of the most traditionalist methods of characterization and classification of meteorites are destructive. In this paper we present the results of a chemical analysis and classification of this particular meteorite using X-ray microfluorescence ({mu}XRF), a non-destructive technique that allows for a quick and easy elemental analysis within the range of micrometers. Both sides of the meteorite were measured, 35 points in total, using Artax, a state of the art {mu}XRF system developed by Bruker, at 50 kV tension and 700 {mu}A current. Quantitative analysis using direct comparison of counting rates method showed concentrations of iron and nickel together of roughly 7.86%. We found that it is possible to distinguish this meteorite from most of the categories as an ordinary L-type chondrite but a more thorough analysis might be necessary so as to obtain a more detailed classification. (author)

  18. The preservation of the Agoudal impact crater, Morocco, under a landslide: Indication of a genetic link between shatter cones and meteorite fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachit, Hassane; Abia, El Hassan; Bonadiman, Costanza; Di Martino, Mario; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Geological studies and tomographic profiles of a locality nearby the Agoudal village (Morocco) showed the presence of a single impact crater, 500-600 m diameter, largely hidden by a limestone block, 220 m long and 40 m deep. The site was interpreted as a landslide that followed the fall of a cosmic body. The Agoudal impact crater was not affected by intense erosion. The lack of an evident impact structure, as well as the sporadic distribution of impactites and their limited occurrence, can be explained by a complex geological framework and by recent tectonics. The latter is the result of the sliding of limestone block, which hides almost two-thirds of the crater's depression, and the oblique fall of the meteoroid on sloping ground. In addition, some impact breccia dikes sharply cut the host rock in the Agoudal impact structure. They do not show any genetic relationship with tectonics or hydrothermal activity, nor are they related to any karst or calcrete formations. Altogether, the overlapping of the meteorite strewn field (11 km long and 3 km wide) with the area of occurrence of shatter cones and impact breccias, together with the presence of meteorite fragments (shrapnel) ejected from the crater, the presence of shatter cones contaminated by products of iron meteorites and the presence of impact breccias that contain meteorite fragments of the same chemical composition of the Agoudal meteorite indicate that the fall of this meteorite can be responsible for the formation of the impact structure.

  19. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of Fe-Ni order-disorder processes in a 35% Ni meteorite (Santa Catharina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorzelli, R.B.; Danon, J.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and structure of iron-nickel alloys in the Santa Catharina iron meteorite were investigated by metallographic techniques, electron microprobe analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The occurence of an ordered Fe-Ni phase with non-cubic symmetry is demonstrated. This phase is present in large proportions in the Santa Catharina meteorite, and has been identified by its asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum, arising from the presence of a quadrupolar splitting superposed on the magnetic hyperfine splitting. The other major Fe-Ni phase in Santa Catharina gives rise to a single line Moessbauer spectrum with no hyperfine components. X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of the Fe-Ni Llo superstructure in this meteorite. Lattice parameter variations with temperature were found to be identical for the meteorite and for electron irradiated Fe-Ni alloys of the sample composition. Detailed Moessbauer spectroscopy studies from room temperature to liquid helium, and in the presence of external magnetic field show the presence of a smaller amount of another ferromagnetic Fe-Ni phase, probably with disordered structure. The destruction of the superstructure in the Santa Catharina meteorite was investigated after heating the samples. Partial ordering seems to coexist with the disordered phase at intermediate annealing temperatures. At higher temperatures the samples are homogeneous and similar to laboratory produced Fe-Ni alloys with 35% Ni. Order-disorder transformations produced by shock waves and by mechanical treatment are also described. (orig.)

  20. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives the best representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original solar system formation locations for different meteorite classes. To forge the first link between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects. We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) as a mathematical tool, we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-micron and 2-micron geometric band centers and their band area ratios (BARs). Using these identical numerical parameters we quantitatively compare the spectral properties of S-, Sq-, Q- and V-type NEOs with the spectral properties of the meteorites in the H, L, LL and HED meteorite classes. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these meteorite classes. Our NEO- meteorite correlation probabilities are then convolved with NEO-source region probabilities to yield a final set of meteorite-source region correlations. An apparent (significant at the 2.1-sigma level) source region signature is found for the H chondrites to be preferentially delivered to the inner solar system through the 3:1 mean motion resonance. A 3:1 resonance H chondrite source region is consistent with the short cosmic ray exposure ages known for H chondrites. The spectroscopy of asteroids is subject to several sources of inherent error. The source region model used a variety of S-type spectra without

  1. Production of Organic Grain Coatings by Surface-Mediated Reactions and the Consequences of This Process for Meteoritic Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2011-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO are exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these reactions. The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic material. Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  2. Meteorite Impact-Induced Rapid NH3 Production on Early Earth: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    NH3 is an essential molecule as a nitrogen source for prebiotic amino acid syntheses such as the Strecker reaction. Previous shock experiments demonstrated that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have provided a considerable amount of NH3 from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. However, specific production mechanisms remain unclear, and impact velocities employed in the experiments were substantially lower than typical impact velocities of meteorites on the early Earth. Here, to investigate the issues from the atomistic viewpoint, we performed multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed a rapid production of NH3 within several picoseconds after the shock, indicating that shocks with greater impact velocities would provide further increase in the yield of NH3. Meanwhile, the picosecond-order production makes one expect that the important nitrogen source precursors of amino acids were obtained immediately after the impact. It was also observed that the reduction of N2 proceeded according to an associative mechanism, rather than a dissociative mechanism as in the Haber-Bosch process.

  3. Are There High Meteorite Concentrations in the Atacama Desert/Chile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, P.; Delisle, G.

    1992-07-01

    We have visited numerous regions of the Atacama desert between Copiapo (27 degrees, 15'S) and Calama (22 degrees, 25'S) to assess their potential as a high-yield meteorite concentration surface, easily exploitable by search efforts within a reasonable time frame. According to our observations, this desert is characterized by the following features: a) A high percentage of the desert consists of sloping surfaces on which soil movement occurs, presumably by very infrequent, though heavy rain. b) Vast areas of the desert are covered by a dm-thick sand layer of dark colour. Since the sand is too coarse-grained to be transported by wind it presumably resulted from in-situ weathering of rock debris derived from nearby mountains. We suspect that impacting smaller objects can easily penetrate the sand layer. c) The sand layer is typically dotted by rocks, fist-size or smaller, that are covered by a thick layer of desert paint (reddish-brown to black colour). Most country rocks are of volcanic origin (rhyolite, andesite, basalt) and are typically of grey to black colour. A noticeable colour contrast in particular to potential stony meteorites is almost nonexistent. d) Soil salts with a potential to speed up weathering processes are ubiquitous near the surface. e) The Pampa de Mejillones, 45 km north of Antofagasta, is one of the few light-coloured areas in the Atacama desert. The surface, being of Mio-Pliocene age, consists of an almost continuous layer of light-brown fossil shells (bivalves and gastropodes). Fluvially transported dark rocks from adjacent outcrops rest on top. The latter material is covered again by desert paint. Few meteorite discoveries have been reported from this area (Pampa (a),(b),(c)). f) Numerous old tire tracks, in particular around mines in operation, crisscross most areas of the Atacama. Undetected objects such as large masses of iron bodies are not likely to have remained undiscovered in great numbers any more. We conclude that the potential of

  4. The solar iron abundance: not the last word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostik, R.I.; Shchukina, N.G.; Rutten, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Determinations of the solar iron abundance have converged to the meteoritic value with the Fe II studies of Holweger et al. (1990), Biémont et al. (1991) and Hannaford et al. (1992) and the Fe i results of Holweger et al. (1991). However, the latter authors pointed out that Blackwell et al. (1984)

  5. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude......; the observed scaling exponents vary from shower to shower. Half of the analyzed showers show a single scaling region while the orther half show multiple scaling regimes. Such an analysis can provide knowledge about the fragmentation process and about the original meteoroid. We also suggest to compare...... the observed scaling exponents to exponents observed in laboratory experiments and discuss the possibility that one can derive insight into the original shapes of the meteoroids....

  6. Featured Image: Diamonds in a Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    This unique image which measures only 60 x 80 micrometers across reveals details in the Kapoeta meteorite, an 11-kg stone that fell in South Sudan in 1942. The sparkle in the image? A cluster of nanodiamonds discovered embedded in the stone in a recent study led by Yassir Abdu (University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates). Abdu and collaborators showed that these nanodiamonds have similar spectral features to the interiors of dense interstellar clouds and they dont show any signs of shock features. This may suggest that the nanodiamonds were formed by condensation of nebular gases early in the history of the solar system. The diamonds were trapped in the surface material of the Kapoeta meteorites parent body, thought to be the asteroid Vesta. To read more about the authors study, check out the original article below.CitationYassir A. Abdu et al 2018 ApJL 856 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab433

  7. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  8. De Magnete et Meteorite: Cosmically Motivated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, LH; Pinkerton, FE; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Poirier, E; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites, likely the oldest source of magnetic material known to mankind, are attracting renewed interest in the science and engineering community. Worldwide focus is on tetrataenite, a uniaxial ferromagnetic compound with the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure comprised of nominally equiatomic Fe-Ni that is found naturally in meteorites subjected to extraordinarily slow cooling rates, as low as 0.3 K per million years. Here, the favorable permanent magnetic properties of bulk tetrataenite derived from the meteorite NWA 6259 are quantified. The measured magnetization approaches that of Nd-Fe-B (1.42 T) and is coupled with substantial anisotropy (1.0-1.3 MJ/m(3)) that implies the prospect for realization of technologically useful coercivity. A highly robust temperature dependence of the technical magnetic properties at an elevated temperature (20-200 degrees C) is confirmed, with a measured temperature coefficient of coercivity of -0.005%/ K, over one hundred times smaller than that of Nd-Fe-B in the same temperature range. These results quantify the extrinsic magnetic behavior of chemically ordered tetrataenite and are technologically and industrially significant in the current context of global supply chain limitations of rare-earth metals required for present-day high-performance permanent magnets that enable operation of a myriad of advanced devices and machines.

  9. Studies on Al Kidirate and Kapoeta meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismelseed, A.M.; Khangi, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Yousif, A.A.; Worthing, M.A.; Rais, A.; Elzain, M.E.; Brooks, C.K.; Sutherland, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy (20-300 K), magnetic susceptibility measurements (77-350 K), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on two meteorite samples: one from an old fall (Kapoeta) and another from a very recent fall (Al Kidirate). The two specimens differ in their mineralogy. Chondrules appear to be absent in Kapoeta and it is probably a pyroxene-plagioclase achondrite with ferrohypersthene as the most abundant mineral. On the other hand, the Al Kidirate meteorite is an ordinary chondrite and the specimen consists of olivine, orthopyroxene, troilite and kamacite. The Moessbauer measurements confirm the above characterization, showing a paramagnetic doublet for the Kapoeta sample and at least two paramagnetic doublets and magnetic sextets for the Al Kidirate specimens. The former were assigned to Fe in pyroxene sites, while the latter was assigned to Fe in pyroxene, olivine, Fe-S and Fe-Ni alloys. The difference in the mineralogy of the two meteorites has also been reflected in the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility. The magnetization and the hyperfine interaction parameters will be discussed in relation to the mineralogy. (orig.)

  10. Field Guide to Meteors and Meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, O. Richard

    2008-01-01

    Imagine the unique experience of being the very first person to hold a newly-found meteorite in your hand – a rock from space, older than Earth! "Weekend meteorite hunting" with magnets and metal detectors is becoming ever more popular as a pastime, but of course you can’t just walk around and pick up meteorites in the same way that you can pick up seashells on the beach. Those fragments that survived the intense heat of re-entry tend to disguise themselves as natural rocks over time, and it takes a trained eye – along with the information in this book – to recognize them. Just as amateur astronomers are familiar with the telescopes and accessories needed to study a celestial object, amateur meteoriticists have to use equipment ranging from simple hand lenses to microscopes to study a specimen, to identify its type and origins. Equipment and techniques are covered in detail here of course, along with a complete and fully illustrated guide to what you might find and where you might find it. In fact, th...

  11. Cosmic-ray exposure records and origins of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The cosmic-ray records of meteorites are used to infer much about their origins and recent histories. The methods used to interpret meteorites cosmic-ray records, especially identifying simple or complex exposure histories, often are inadequate. Spallogenic radionuclides, stable nuclides, and measurements of products that have location-sensitive production rates, such as the tracks of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei or neutron-capture nuclides, are very useful in accurately determining a meteorite's history. Samples from different, known locations of a meteorite help in studying the cosmic-ray record. Such extensive sets of meteorite measuremetns, plus theoretical modeling of complex histories, improves the ability to predict the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites, to distinguish simple and complex exposure histories, and to better determine exposure ages

  12. What we know about Oslo meteorite from cosmogenic isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Kubalczak, T.; Zaręba, P.; Burski, M.; Bilet, M.; Miśta, E.; Tymińska, K.; Kołakowska, E.; Burakowska, A.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Wiśniewski, M.; Listkowska, A.; Saganowski, P.

    2015-10-01

    The fragments of an asteroid that had crashed over Norway were found in a few locations in Oslo at the beginning of March 2012. Later on some pieces of meteorite from the most South area were collected by the Meteoritical Section members of Comet and Meteor Workshop (PKiM) with the help of local meteoritical authorities. One meteorite fragment of 32g was used to measure cosmogenic radionuclides using non-destructive high-resolution gamma spectrometry technique. Five radioisotopes such as Al-26, Na-22, Mn-54, Co-57 and Co-60 were detected

  13. Diradicaloids in the insoluble organic matter from the Tagish Lake meteorite: Comparison with the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.; Pizzarello, S.; Becker, L.

    2004-10-01

    The radicals in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorites were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance and compared to those existing in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. As in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites, the radicals in the Tagish Lake meteorite are heterogeneously distributed and comprise a substantial amount (~42%) of species with a thermally acessible triplet state and with the same singlet-triplet gap, ?E ??0.1 eV, as in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. These species were identified as diradicaloid moieties. The existence of similar diradicaloid moieties in three different carbonaceous chondrites but not in terrestrial IOM strongly suggests that these moieties could be "fingerprints" of the extraterrestrial origin of meteoritic IOM and markers of its synthetic pathway before its inclusion into a parent body.

  14. Styding of meteorites of Geological museum (Kazan Federal University): magnetic properties and elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzina, D.; Nourgaliev, D. K.; Gareev, B. I.; Batalin, G. A.; Silantiev, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of different types meteorites were performed by non-destructive method using polycapillary Micro X-ray Fluorescence spectrometer M4 Tornado (Bruker). Analysis conditions were chosen individually, depending on a sample. Maximum possible current is 600mkA, voltage - up to 50 kV, minimum size of X-ray point from 25 micron. Result of the measurements is elements distribution on the surface of meteorites. Obtained data used for analyzing conclusions in chondrites, find out iron, nickel distribution in the sample (for comparison with thermomagnetic data), studying secondary alterations such as melting, diffusion. Meteorites which have small amount of material after preparing exhibition samples were studied using thermomagnetic analysis among them: Brownfield-iron (IID), Ochansk - ordinary chondrite (H4), Murchison - carbonaceous chondrite (CM2), Kainsaz - carbonaceous chondrite (CO3.2) and others. Thermomagnetic analysis shows us magneto-mineralogical composition. It makes reliably detection of pure Fe, Ni or their alloys. Measurements were carried out on express Curie balance, constructed in Laboratory of magnetism and paleomagnetism of Kazan Federal University [1]. We measured induced magnetization as a function of temperature in a constant magnetic field - 400 mT. The heating rate is 100°C/min. Thermomagnetic curves measured twice - first and second heating up to 800°C. The weight of the sample is maximum 0.1 gram. Results shows that all samples contain Fe-Ni alloys and according [2] it corresponds to Ni concentration between 4-10%. [1] Burov B.V. et al. 1986. Kazan: Publishing house of KSU, 167 p. (In Russian). [2] Cacciamani C. et al. 2006. Intermetallics, 14. 1312-1325

  15. Structural and magnetic characterization of the "GASPAR" meteorite from Betéitiva, Boyacá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor Torres, L. M.; Pérez Alcazar, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    A structural and magnetic characterization has been performed of a plate obtained from the "Gaspar" meteorite from the Otengá region of the Betéitiva municipality, Boyacá, Colombia. The sample was provided by Ingeominas (Colombian Geological Agency). After the studies the sample was classified as an octahedral iron meteorite, due the Fe and Ni concentrations and the Widmanstätten pattern which was observed on the surface of the sample. The plate shows a crack which divides the sample in two regions (side A and B, respectively). Both sides were studied using techniques like X-rays diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (with EDAX). On both sides an iron Fe-Ni matrix (kamacite) was found; a large quantity of carbon in the form of graphite and in two types: nodular and laminar; and different preferential orientation in both sides of the sample. The studies permit to prove that Gaspar is a fragment of the registered Santa Rosa de Viterbo meteorite.

  16. Quantitative FT-IR Analysis for Chondritic Meteorites: Search for C_60 in Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunglee Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared absorption spectra of 9 bulk samples and 3 acid residues of meteorites were obtained in the mid-infrared region (4000 ~ 400 cm^(-1. From the known composition of meteorites studied, the possible absorption modes were investigated. Most bands of bulk samples occur in the region below 1200 cm^(-1 and they are due to metallic oxides and silicates. The spectra of each group can be distinguished by its own characteristic bands. Acid residues show very distinct features from their bulk samples, and absorption bands due to organic compounds are not evident in their spectra. Quantitative analyses for two carbonaceous (Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 and one ordinary (Carraweena L3.9 chondrites were performed for the presence of fullerene (C_60 in the meteorites. We calculated the concentration of C_60 in the acid residues by curvefitting the spectra with Gaussian functions. The upper limit of C_60 concentration in these meteorites appears to be less than an order of a few hundred ppm.

  17. Book reviews - Catalogue of Meteorites, 5th ed., revised and enlarged, by Monica M. Grady. Cambridge University Press, 2000, 689 pp., US $150.00 (ISBN 0521-66303-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Marina A.

    2002-02-01

    The Catalogue of Meteorites has a long tradition and is one of the most important reference publications for meteorite researchers and cosmochemists. The first Guide to the Catalogue of Meteorites was published in 1881 by Lazarus Fletcher, Keeper of Minerals at the British Museum (Natural History), and contained a description of the nature of meteorites and a list of the 361 samples then in the museum's collection. Over the past century, this list was expanded to include more than just the meteorites that were in the possession of the British Museum; an attempt was made to include names, location, and other information on all meteorites known at the time. Thus, the first Catalogue of Meteorites was published in 1923 by G. T. Prior. His successor at the British Museum was Max H. Hey, who published appendixes to Prior's Catalogue, as well as the second and third editions of the Catalogue of Meteoritesin 1953 and 1966. An appendix to the third edition was published in 1977. Traditionally, the Catalogue contained a listing of all the specimens in any of the world's meteorite collections, in museums or otherwise. With the discovery of large numbers of meteorites in Antarctica, starting in 1969, the publishers of the Catalogue encountered some problems, as hundreds-even thousands-of specimens, many of which may be paired, were brought back from Antarctica from the 1970s onward. The fourth edition of the Catalogue, published in 1985 by Andrew Graham, Alex Bevan, and Robert Hutchison, was the first to deal with this sudden inflation of the number of meteorites. Because most of the thousands of Antarctic meteorites (except the obviously more unusual types, such as irons and certain achondrites) had not been studied in any detail, the fourth edition of the Catalogue wisely limited the entries of these meteorites (in some cases, only those with masses larger than 500 g were included in the Catalogue). The fourth edition of the Catalogue was a handsome and handy reference book

  18. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  19. Asteroid 2008 TC3 Breakup and Meteorite Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of meteorites from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 in the Nubian Desert of Sudan on October 7, 2008, marked the first time meteorites were collected from an asteroid observed in space by astronomical techniques before impacting. Search teams from the University of Khartoum traced the location of the strewn field and collected about 660 meteorites in four expeditions to the fall region, all of which have known fall coordinates. Upon further study, the Almahata Sitta meteorites proved to be a mixed bag of mostly ureilites (course grained, fine grained, and sulfide-metal assemblages), enstatite chondrites (EL3-6, EH3, EH5, breccias) and ordinary chondrites (H5-6, L4-5). One bencubbinite-like carbonaceous chondrite was identified, as well as one unique Rumuruti-like chondrite and an Enstatite achondrite. New analysis: The analysed meteorites so far suggest a high 30-40 percent fraction of non-ureilites among the recovered samples, but that high fraction does not appear to be in agreement with the meteorites in the University of Khartoum (UoK) collection. Ureilites dominate the meteorites that were recovered by the Sudanese teams. To better understand the fraction of recovered materials that fell to Earth, a program has been initiated to type the meteorites in the UoK collection in defined search areas. At this meeting, we will present some preliminary results from that investigation.

  20. The enrichment of the ISM: Evolved stars and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1995-01-01

    Small inclusions (diameters ranging from 0.001 microns to 10 microns) of isotopically anomalous material within meteorites were almost certainly produced in mass-losing stars. These solid particles preserved their individual identities as they passed through the interstellar medium and the pre-solar nebular. The relationship between studies of meteorites and mass-losing red giants is explored.

  1. An Anomalous Basaltic Meteorite from the Innermost Main Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Towner, M.C.; Bevan, A.W.R.; Singleton, A.T.; Bottke jr., W.F.; Greenwood, R.C.; Chesley, S.R.; Shrbený, Lukáš; Borovička, Jiří; Ceplecha, Zdeněk; McClafferty, T.; Vaughan, D.; Benedix, G.K.; Deacon, G.; Howard, K.T.; Franchi, I.A.; Hough, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 325, č. 5947 (2009), s. 1525-1527 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteorites * meteorite fall Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 29.747, year: 2009

  2. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  3. Meteorite Falls Observed by the Desert Fireball Network: An Update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Shrbený, Lukáš; Towner, M.C.; Bevan, A.W.R.; Borovička, Jiří; McClafferty, T.; Vaughan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, Supplement (2010), A16-A16 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /73./. 26.07.2010-30.07.2010, New York] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteorite falls Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Interrelating meteorite and asteroid spectra at UV-Vis-NIR wavelengths using novel multiple-scattering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Julia; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-10-01

    Asteroids have remained mostly the same for the past 4.5 billion years, and provide us information on the origin, evolution and current state of the Solar System. Asteroids and meteorites can be linked by matching their respective reflectance spectra. This is difficult, because spectral features depend strongly on the surface properties, and meteorite surfaces are free of regolith dust present in asteroids. Furthermore, asteroid surfaces experience space weathering which affects their spectral features.We present a novel simulation framework for assessing the spectral properties of meteorites and asteroids and matching their reflectance spectra. The simulations are carried out by utilizing a light-scattering code that takes inhomogeneous waves into account and simulates light scattering by Gaussian-random-sphere particles large compared to the wavelength of the incident light. The code uses incoherent input and computes phase matrices by utilizing incoherent scattering matrices. Reflectance spectra are modeled by combining olivine, pyroxene, and iron, the most common materials that dominate the spectral features of asteroids and meteorites. Space weathering is taken into account by adding nanoiron into the modeled asteroid spectrum. The complex refractive indices needed for the simulations are obtained from existing databases, or derived using an optimization that utilizes our ray-optics code and the measured spectrum of the material.We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the reflectance spectrum of (4) Vesta and the reflectance spectrum of the Johnstown meteorite measured with the University of Helsinki integrating-sphere UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer.Acknowledgments. The research is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320773 (SAEMPL).

  5. Absolute isotopic abundances of Ti in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46 Ti/ 48 Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. We provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components. The absolute Ti and Ca isotopic compositions still support the correlation of 50 Ti and 48 Ca effects in the FUN inclusions and imply contributions from neutron-rich equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium nucleosynthesis. The present identification of endemic effects at 46 Ti, for the absolute composition, implies a shortfall of an explosive-oxygen component or reflects significant isotope fractionation. Additional nucleosynthetic components are required by 47 Ti and 49 Ti effects. Components are also defined in which 48 Ti is enhanced. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  6. Mineral resource of the month: Iron and steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, but it does not occur in nature in a useful metallic form. Although ancient people may have recovered some iron from meteorites, it wasn’t until smelting was invented that iron metal could be derived from iron oxides. After the beginning of the Iron Age in about 1200 B.C., knowledge of iron- and steelmaking spread from the ancient Middle East through Greece to the Roman Empire, then to Europe and, in the early 17th century, to North America. The first successful furnace in North America began operating in 1646 in what is now Saugus, Mass. Introduction of the Bessemer converter in the mid-19th century made the modern steel age possible.

  7. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  8. The Okhansk Meteorite: Specifics of Composition, Structure, and Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bakhtin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Okhansk meteorite fell on August 18, 1887 near the village of Tabor, about 15 km away from the town of Okhansk in Perm province and weighed 186.5 kg (the total weight of collected fragments, according to P.I. Krotov, was more than 245 kg. The shock wave from the meteorite entry knocked down animals and riders on horses. Despite the fact that it was significantly stronger than that caused by the Chelyabinsk meteorite of 2013, all information about this meteorite has completely erased from people's memory. It has been shown that the meteorite is an ordinary olivine-bronzite chondrite. Its main silicate minerals are olivine, bronzite, plagioclase, and diopside. The main ore minerals are kamacite and troilite. The meteorite contains silicate glass in large amounts. The analysis of the composition and structure of the Okhansk meteorite has demonstrated that it was formed at the early stages of accretion of the melted substance of the protosolar nebula without undergoing endogenous, temperature, or pressure changes.

  9. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and orange glass from a pyroclastic deposit. Each Meteorite Disk contains two ordinary chondrites, one carbonaceous chondrite, one iron, one stony iron, and one achondrite. These samples will help educators share the early history of the solar system with students and the public. Educators may borrow either lunar or meteorite disks and the accompanying education materials through the Johnson Space Center Curatorial Office. In trainings provided by the NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, educators certified to borrow the disk learn about education resources, the proper use of the samples, and the special security for care and shipping of the disks. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program will take NASA exploration to more people. Getting Space Rocks out to the public and inspiring the public about new space exploration is the focus of the NASA disk loan program.

  10. Meteorite impacts on ancient oceans opened up multiple NH3 production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2017-05-10

    A recent series of shock experiments by Nakazawa et al. starting in 2005 (e.g. [Nakazawa et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2005, 235, 356]) suggested that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have yielded a considerable amount of NH 3 to the early Earth from atmospheric N 2 and oceanic H 2 O through reduction by meteoritic iron. To clarify the mechanisms, we imitated the impact events by performing multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory in combination with multi-scale shock technique (MSST) simulations. Our previous simulations with impact energies close to that of the experiments revealed picosecond-order rapid NH 3 production during shock compression [Shimamura et al., Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, 38952]. It was also shown that the reduction of N 2 took place with an associative mechanism as seen in the catalysis of nitrogenase enzymes. In this study, we performed an MSST-AIMD simulation to investigate the production by meteorite impacts with higher energies, which are closer to the expected values on the early Earth. It was found that the amount of NH 3 produced further increased. We also found that the increased NH 3 production is due to the emergence of multiple reaction mechanisms at increased impact energies. We elucidated that the reduction of N 2 was not only attributed to the associative mechanism but also to a dissociative mechanism as seen in the Haber-Bosch process and to a mechanism through a hydrazinium ion. The emergence of these multiple production mechanisms capable of providing a large amount of NH 3 would support the suggestions from recent experiments much more strongly than was previously believed, i.e., shock-induced NH 3 production played a key role in the origin of life on Earth.

  11. Durability of metals from archaeological objects, metal meteorites, and native metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Francis, B.

    1980-01-01

    Metal durability is an important consideration in the multi-barrier nuclear waste storage concept. This study summarizes the ancient metals, the environments, and factors which appear to have contributed to metal longevity. Archaeological and radiochemical dating suggest that human use of metals began in the period 6000 to 7000 BC. Gold is clearly the most durable, but many objects fashioned from silver, copper, bronze, iron, lead, and tin have survived for several thousand years. Dry environments, such as tombs, appear to be optimum for metal preservation, but some metals have survived in shipwrecks for over a thousand years. The metal meteorites are Fe-base alloys with 5 to 60 wt% Ni and minor amounts of Co, I, and S. Some meteoritic masses with ages estimated to be 5,000 to 20,000 years have weathered very little, while other masses from the same meteorites are in advanced stages of weathering. Native metals are natural metallic ores. Approximately five million tonnes were mined from native copper deposits in Michigan. Copper masses from the Michigan deposits were transported by the Pleistocene glaciers. Areas on the copper surfaces which appear to represent glacial abrasion show minimal corrosion. Dry cooling tower technology has demonstrated that in pollution-free moist environments, metals fare better at temperatures above than below the dewpoint. Thus, in moderate temperature regimes, elevated temperatures may be useful rather than detrimental for exposures of metal to air. In liquid environments, relatively complex radiolysis reactions can occur, particularly where multiple species are present. A dry environment largely obviates radiolysis effects

  12. Durability of metals from archaeological objects, metal meteorites, and native metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Francis, B.

    1980-01-01

    Metal durability is an important consideration in the multi-barrier nuclear waste storage concept. This study summarizes the ancient metals, the environments, and factors which appear to have contributed to metal longevity. Archaeological and radiochemical dating suggest that human use of metals began in the period 6000 to 7000 BC. Gold is clearly the most durable, but many objects fashioned from silver, copper, bronze, iron, lead, and tin have survived for several thousand years. Dry environments, such as tombs, appear to be optimum for metal preservation, but some metals have survived in shipwrecks for over a thousand years. The metal meteorites are Fe-base alloys with 5 to 60 wt% Ni and minor amounts of Co, I, and S. Some meteoritic masses with ages estimated to be 5,000 to 20,000 years have weathered very little, while other masses from the same meteorites are in advanced stages of weathering. Native metals are natural metallic ores. Approximately five million tonnes were mined from native copper deposits in Michigan. Copper masses from the Michigan deposits were transported by the Pleistocene glaciers. Areas on the copper surfaces which appear to represent glacial abrasion show minimal corrosion. Dry cooling tower technology has demonstrated that in pollution-free moist environments, metals fare better at temperatures above than below the dewpoint. Thus, in moderate temperature regimes, elevated temperatures may be useful rather than detrimental for exposures of metal to air. In liquid environments, relatively complex radiolysis reactions can occur, particularly where multiple species are present. A dry environment largely obviates radiolysis effects.

  13. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Nigel J F; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Flemming, Roberta L

    2015-06-16

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

  14. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  15. Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, U.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.

  16. An 57Fe Mössbauer study of three Australian L5 ordinary-chondrite meteorites: dating Kinclaven–001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadogan, J. M.; Rebbouh, L.; Mills, J. V. J.; Bland, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three L5-type ordinary chondrite meteorites recovered from the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia were studied by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy: Kinclaven–001, Camel Donga–007 and Gunnadorah–002. The relative amounts of the various Fe-bearing phases including the primary minerals (Olivine, Pyroxene, Troilite and Fe-Ni metal) and the ferric alteration products (Goethite, Maghemite/Magnetite) were obtained to determine the percentage of iron converted to Fe 3 +  by weathering processes. These data allow us to estimate the terrestrial age of Kinclaven–001 at 1,700 ± 1,300 yrs

  17. Age of Jupiter inferred from the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, Thomas S; Burkhardt, Christoph; Budde, Gerrit; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-06-27

    The age of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, is still unknown. Gas-giant planet formation likely involved the growth of large solid cores, followed by the accumulation of gas onto these cores. Thus, the gas-giant cores must have formed before dissipation of the solar nebula, which likely occurred within less than 10 My after Solar System formation. Although such rapid accretion of the gas-giant cores has successfully been modeled, until now it has not been possible to date their formation. Here, using molybdenum and tungsten isotope measurements on iron meteorites, we demonstrate that meteorites derive from two genetically distinct nebular reservoirs that coexisted and remained spatially separated between ∼1 My and ∼3-4 My after Solar System formation. The most plausible mechanism for this efficient separation is the formation of Jupiter, opening a gap in the disk and preventing the exchange of material between the two reservoirs. As such, our results indicate that Jupiter's core grew to ∼20 Earth masses within Jupiter is the oldest planet of the Solar System, and its solid core formed well before the solar nebula gas dissipated, consistent with the core accretion model for giant planet formation.

  18. Meteorite as raw material for Direct Metal Printing: A proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Karel; Thijs, Lore; Neirinck, Bram; Lapauw, Thomas; Morrison, Brian; Lewicki, Chris; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid mining as such is not a new concept, as it has been described in science fiction for more than a century and some of its aspects have been studied by academia for more than 30 years. Recently, there is a renewed interest in this subject due the more and more concrete plans for long-duration space missions and the need for resources to support industrial activity in space. The use of locally available resources would greatly improve the economics and sustainability of such missions. Due to its economy in material, use of additive manufacturing (AM) provides an interesting route to valorize these resources for the production of spare parts, tools and large-scale structures optimized for their local microgravity environment. Proof of concept has already been provided for AM of moon regolith. In this paper the concept of In-Situ Resource Utilization is extended towards the production of metallic objects using powdered iron meteorite as raw material. The meteorite-based powder was used to produce a structural part but further research is needed to obtain a high density part without microcracks.

  19. The role of population in tracking meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, F.; Ibhi, A.; Saint-Gerant, T.; Medjkane, M.; Ouknine, L.

    2016-01-01

    The 158 African meteorite falls recorded during the period 1801 to 2014, account for more than 12.3% of all meteorite falls known from the world. Their rate is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860. They are concentrated in countries which exhibit large population (mainly rural population) with an uniform distribution. Generally, the number of falls follows the increase of the population density (coefficient of correlation r = 0.98). The colonial phenomenon, the education of population in this field, the population lifestyle and the rural exodus, are also factors among others which could explain the variability of the recovery of meteorite falls in Africa. In this note, we try by a statistical study, to examine the role of the African population in tracking meteorite falls on this continent.

  20. Meteorite-catalyzed synthesis of nucleosides and other prebiotic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 23 (2015), s. 7109-7110 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : meteorite-catalzzed synthesis * nucleosides * prebiotic compounds Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  1. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of chondritic meteorites from the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Valenzuela, M.; Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as dense collection areas. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable locals with semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the dense collection area of San Juan at the Central Depression and Coastal Range of Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in the terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan area of Atacama Desert.

  2. Historical Romanian meteorites: emendations of official catalogue records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lüttge-Pop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With its more than 50,000 valid official and provisory meteorite entries, the online catalogue of The Meteoritical Society, i.e., the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBDB represents the most authorized and primary source of information in the field. Unfortunately, this official reference contains some erroneous geographical information in the case of five historical Romanian meteorites. For Zsadany, the current country information is “Hungary, Bekes county” instead of Romania, Timiş County. For Mezö-Madaras and Tauti, the county affiliations “Harghita” and respectively “Cluj” have to be corrected into Mureş and Arad, respectively. Geographical coordinates for Kakowa and Ohaba require minor corrections, only. The source of these errors resides in changes of names and administrative affiliations of the localities of the fall/find, while the formal nomenclature protocol requires the meteorite name in the original description to be preserved. The example of the historical Romanian meteorites illustrates the challenges that a researcher unfamiliar with a region faces when locating old specimens, in general. This requires knowledge of regional history and geography, and sometimes access to the original references - usually not written in English, or having a somehow limited circulation. Additionally, in the last two decades several new publications provided more detailed classification information on Sopot, Ohaba, Tauti and Mocs meteorites. Sopot was classified as H5, with shock stage S3. The studied Ohaba and Tauti samples also attested S3 shock stages. Variable shock stages (S3-5 were identified in Mocs samples, the most well-known Romanian meteorite. This new information should be added to the corresponding MBDB entries.

  3. Noble gases in ten stone meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.; Schultz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases have been determined in all ten stone meteorites recovered in Antarctica during 1976-1977 by a U.S.-Japanese expedition. From a comparison of spallogenic and radiogenic gas components it is concluded that the chondrites Mt. Baldr (a) and Mt. Baldr (b) belong to the same fall but that all other stone meteorites are individual finds. (orig.)

  4. U-Pb studies of the Appley Bridge meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, N.H.; Arden, J.W.; Hutchinson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The U and Pb concentration in samples from the interior of the 10.9 kg stone BM 1920, 40 (British Museum), the isotopic composition of lead, a lead-lead diagram for whole meteorite samples of Appley Bridge, and a U-Pb concordia diagram for whole meteorite samples of Appley Bridge from different measurements are treated. (HK) 891 HK/HK 892 MB [de

  5. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  6. Microprobe and SEM Analysis of a Meteorite from the Campo del Cielo Fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, E. D.; Palacios, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: Meteorites are unique pieces in nature having not only the enigmatic connotations of the unknown but also are the easier obtained samples of the exterior universe. Furthermore they are the unique alloys that suffered modifications done during enormous periods of time in space and in land The Campo del Cielo fall, occurred more than 5000 years ago, gave hundredths of pieces some of them well studied. We have studied one of the minor pieces from the fall and with microprobe and scanning electronic microscopy analysis we determined the composition of Schreibersite and Rhabdite phosphides of iron and nickel. This study was performed to establish relationships between the duration of alloys and the design of disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste

  7. Cosmic-ray production of tungsten isotopes in lunar samples and meteorites and its implications for Hf-W cosmochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer; Halliday, Alex N.

    2000-01-01

    Excesses and deficiencies in 182W in meteorites and lunar samples relative to the terrestrial 182W atomic abundance have been assigned to the decay of 182Hf (t1/2=9 Ma) and have been used to date metal-silicate fractionation events in the early solar system. Because the effects are very small, production and burn-out of tungsten isotopes by cosmic ray interactions are a concern in such studies. Masarik [J. Masarik, Contribution of neutron-capture reactions to observed tungsten isotopic ratios, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 152 (1997) 181-185] showed that neutron-capture reactions on tungsten isotopes can account at best for a minor part of the observed deficit of 182W in Toluca and other iron meteorites. On the other hand, in lunar samples and stony meteorites the production of 182W from 181Ta may become crucial. Here, we calculate this contribution as well as production and consumption of 182-186W by other neutron-induced reactions. The neutron fluence of each sample is estimated by its nominal cosmic-ray exposure age deduced from noble gas data. This approach overestimates the true cosmogenic W isotopic shifts for samples that might have been irradiated very close to the regolith surface. A quantitative estimate is often also hampered by a lack of Ta data. Despite these reservations, it appears that in many lunar samples neutron-capture on Ta has caused a large part of the observed 182W excess. On the other hand, in some samples, especially those with very low exposure ages, clearly only a minor or even negligible fraction of the 182W excess can be cosmogenic. Therefore, the conclusion, based on Hf-W model ages, that the Moon formed 50 Myr after the start of the solar system remains valid. Martian meteorites have lower Ta/W ratios and cosmic ray exposure ages than most lunar samples. Therefore, cosmogenic production has not significantly altered the W isotopic composition in Martian meteorites. Observed 182W excesses in Martian meteorites as well as the very large

  8. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  9. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  10. Micro-mapping Meteorite Surfaces on Mars using Microscopic Imager Mosaics — A Tool for Unraveling Weathering History at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Johnson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Meteorites found on Mars provide valuable insights into martian surface processes. During the course of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extended missions, Spirit and Opportunity have identified 17 confirmed and candidate meteorites on Mars, most of which are irons. The iron meteorites exhibit morphologies and coatings that communicate complex post-fall exposure histories relevant to an understanding of climate near the martian equator [1-4]. Both chemical and mechanical weathering effects are represented. Among the more significant of these are: 1) cm-scale hollowing, 2) surficial rounding, 3) mass excavation/dissolution and removal, 4) differential etching of kamacite plates and taenite lamellae, revealing Widmanstätten patterns, 5) discontinuous iron oxide coatings, and 6) the effects of cavernous weathering, which often penetrate to rock interiors. Determining the nature, magnitude, and timing of each process and its associated features is a complex problem that will be aided by laboratory experiments, image processing, and careful surface evaluation. Because some features appear to superpose others in ways analogous to stratigraphic relationships, Microscopic Imager (MI) mosaics are useful for sketching "geologic maps" of meteorite surfaces. Employing the techniques of conventional planetary mapping [5], each map was drafted manually using full-resolution MI mosaics and Adobe Photoshop software. Units were selected to represent the oxide coating, dust-coated surfaces, sand-coated surfaces, taenite lamellae, and uncoated metal. Also included are areas in shadow, and regions of blooming caused by specular reflection of metal. Regmaglypt rim crests are presented as lineations. As with stratigraphic relationships, noting embayments and other cross-cutting relationships assists with establishing the relative timing for observed weathering effects. In addition to suggesting alternating sequences of wind and water exposure [1], patterns in oxide coating occurrence show

  11. Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadnik, M.G.; Wacker, J.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen amorphous carbon (lampblack) samples that had been exposed to Xe 127 and pumped for > 9 hrs to remove the most labile gas were examined by etching with HNO 3 , for comparison with the release pattern of meteoritic xenon. Samples originally exposed at 100 to 200 deg C lost 90% of their Xe very readily, when the surface had been etched to a mean depth of only approx. 0.2 A. This suggests that the Xe is adsorbed mainly at rare sites that are unusually reactive to HNO 3 . The adsorbed Xe survived several months' storage in vacuum, but on exposure to air, part of it was lost within a few hours, while the remainder persisted without measurable exchange. Samples exposed at 800 to 1000 deg C had a similar adsorbed component, as well as a second, tightly bound component extending to a mean depth of up to 30 A; this component had apparently diffused into the carbon during exposure. The (microscopic) diffusion coefficient for graphitic crystallites is 5 x 10 -20 cm 2 /sec at 1000 deg C. PVDC carbon lost its adsorbed Xe at about the same rate as lampblack on exposure to air or HNO 3 , though it differs from lampblack in being non-graphitizable and more porous. It had only a small diffused component, however. The results are discussed. (author)

  12. Valec fireball and predicted meteorite fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.; Spurny, P.

    1987-01-01

    A fireball was photographed with a luminous trajectory below a height of 20 km. On Aug. 3, 1984, seven stations photographed this slow moving fireball, which traversed 94 km of luminous trajectory in 9.2 sec and terminated its visible flight at a height of 19.1 km. The computed dark flight trajectory intersected the surface close to Valec, a small village 40 km west of Brno. The Valec fireball was the lowest photographed fireball ever. The Valec fireball was photographed by fish eye cameras. The positional precision of all the records were within the range of 1 to 2 minutes of arc. All computations were done using the FIRBAL program, a set of almost 4000 Fortran statements run on EC 1040 computer. The average computed mass at the terminal point, i.e., the predicted mass of the biggest meteorite, was 16 kg. This number is based on the dynamical data at the terminal point solely. Visual data was also collected from occasional observers. This observed phenomenon is discussed

  13. Calcium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    We report isotopic anomalies in Ca which were found in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite. These inclusions previously had been shown to contain special anomalies for Mg and O which were attributed to fractionation and unknown nuclear effects. The Ca data, when corrected for mass fractionation by using 40 Ca/ 44 Ca as a standard, show nonlinear isotopic effects in 48 Ca of +13.5 per mil and in 42 Ca of +1.7 per mil for one sample. The second sample shows a 48 Ca depletion of -2.9 per mil, but all other isotopes are normal. Samples with large excesses in 26 Mg show no Ca anomalies. The effects demonstrate that isotopic anomalies exist for higher-atomic-number refractory elements in solar-system materials and do not appear to be readily explainable by a simple model. The correlation of O, Mg, and Ca results on the same inclusions requires the addition and preservation in the solar system of components from idverse nucleosynthetic sources. Observed anomalous Mg and Ca compositions for coexisting mineral phases are uniform within each inclusion, and require initial isotopic homogeneity within an inclusion but the preservation of wide variations between inclusions. Assuming formation of these inclusions by condensation from a gaseous part of the solar nebula, this implies isotopic heterogeneity on a scale of 10-10 2 km within the nebula

  14. Age of meteorites, the Moon, the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikova, G.V.; Levskij, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Review of modern data on age determination of meteorites and lunar rocks and review of papers dedicted to calculations of the Earth age as well are given. Analysis of the age present values, obtained by different methods of isotopic dating has allowed to build up the global events following succession: ∼ 4.8x10 9 years ago - the beginning of dust component condensation within protosolar cloud; ∼ 4.55x10 9 year - the end of cosmic bodies accretion; (4.5-4.4)x10 9 years - differentiation of large planetray bodies (the Moon, the Mars, the Earth) with isolation of the bed type protocrust. Substance differentiation is not typical for solar system small bodies (asteroid-size bodies). Development of the magnetism of main composition (achondrites) on the surface of these bodies is their peculiarity. Both differentiation and basalt volcanism at early periods of cosmic bodies existance are initiated by exogenous factors. Duration of endogenous basalt volcanism correlates with planetary body size

  15. Physical properties of Martian meteorites: Porosity and density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Beech, Martin; Nie, Wenshuang

    Martian meteorites are fragments of the Martian crust. These samples represent igneous rocks, much like basalt. As such, many laboratory techniques designed for the study of Earth materials have been applied to these meteorites. Despite numerous studies of Martian meteorites, little data exists on their basic structural characteristics, such as porosity or density, information that is important in interpreting their origin, shock modification, and cosmic ray exposure history. Analysis of these meteorites provides both insight into the various lithologies present as well as the impact history of the planet's surface. We present new data relating to the physical characteristics of twelve Martian meteorites. Porosity was determined via a combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM) imagery/image analysis and helium pycnometry, coupled with a modified Archimedean method for bulk density measurements. Our results show a range in porosity and density values and that porosity tends to increase toward the edge of the sample. Preliminary interpretation of the data demonstrates good agreement between porosity measured at 100× and 300× magnification for the shergottite group, while others exhibit more variability. In comparison with the limited existing data for Martian meteorites we find fairly good agreement, although our porosity values typically lie at the low end of published values. Surprisingly, despite the increased data set, there is little by way of correlation between either porosity or density with parameters such as shock effect or terrestrial residency. Further data collection on additional meteorite samples is required before more definitive statements can be made concerning the validity of these observations.

  16. The Meteorite Fall in Carancas, Lake Titicaca Region, Southern Peru: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Del Prado, H.; Macharé, J.; Macedo, L.; Chirif, H.; Pari, W.; Ramirez-Cardona, M.; Aranda, A.; Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Canepa, C.; Bernhardt, H.-J.; Plascencia, L.

    2008-03-01

    The meteorite fall that occurred on September 15, 2007, in the Carancas community is a rare case where it is possible to study both impact phenomenology and meteorite characteristics, including accurate time framework.

  17. Expected Geochemical and Mineralogical Properties of Meteorites from Mercury: Inferences from Messenger Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and many types of asteroid bodies have been identified among our global inventory of meteorites, however samples of Mercury and Venus have not been identified. The absence of mercurian and venusian meteorites could be attributed to an inability to recognize them in our collections due to a paucity of geochemical information for Venus and Mercury. In the case of mercurian meteorites, this possibility is further supported by dynamical calculations that suggest mercurian meteorites should be present on Earth at a factor of 2-3 less than meteorites from Mars [1]. In the present study, we focus on the putative mineralogy of mercurian meteorites using data obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has provided us with our first quantitative constraints on the geochemistry of planet Mercury. We have used the MESSENGER data to compile a list of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that a meteorite from Mercury is likely to exhibit.

  18. Annama H5 meteorite fall: orbit, trajectory, recovery, petrology, noble gases and cosmogenic radionuclides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Moilanen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, Supplement 1 SI (2015) [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /78./. 27.07.2015-31.07.2015, Berkeley] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : meteorite * astrophysics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Pigeonholing planetary meteorites: The lessons of misclassification of EET87521 and ALH84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have provided two noteworthy examples of misclassifications of achondritic meteorites because the samples were new kinds of meteorites from planetary rather than asteroidal parent bodies. Basaltic lunar meteorite EET87521 was misclassified as a eucrite and SNC (martian) orthopyroxenite ALH84001 was misclassified as a diogenite. In classifying meteorites we find what we expect: we pigeonhole meteorites into known categories most of which were derived from the more common asteroidal meteorites. But the examples of EET8752 and ALH84001 remind us that planets are more complex than asteroids and exhibit a wider variety of rock types. We should expect variety in planetary meteorites and we need to know how to recognize them when we have them. Our intent here is to show that our asteroidal perspective is inappropriate for planetary meteorites.

  20. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  1. 1992 WAMET/EUROMET Joint Expedition to Search for Meteorites in the Nullarbor Region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, A.

    1992-07-01

    coordinates 30 degrees 10'S, 126 degrees 24'E but could be paired with Billygoat Donga, an L6 ordinary chondrite (McCall and Cleverly, 1968). Three other specimens may possibly be part of the Mulga (west) or Mulga (south) strewn fields, or may be new meteorites. Mundrabilla, Anomalous Iron (de Laeter, 1972): 171 fragments were found, weighing a total of 7450 g in the vicinity of coordinates 30 degrees 46'S, 127 degrees 50'E. Eighty five other meteorite specimens were recovered from previously unsearched locations with a total weight of 1217 g. As no concentration/movement mechanism is involved, pairing is much easier than for the Antarctic and from a total of 89 new stones various estimates suggest between 20-40 new meteorites. The Nullarbor Region has proved to be a prolific collecting region and with the specimens collected in this expedition, is second only to Antarctica in terms of productivity for the recovery of meteorites. At present, all the specimens recovered, excluding tektites, are on loan from the Western Australian Museum to EUROMET and are held at the curatorial facility at The Open University for purposes of classification. Forty of the most promising stones are being prepared as PTSs, hopefully in time for identification to be announced at the conference. Acknowledgment: EUROMET is supported by the EC through its SCIENCE (Twinning and operations) programme; contract no.: SCI* - CT91- 0618(SSMA). References: Bevan A. W. R. and Binns R. A. (1989) Meteoritics 24, 127-133. Cleverly W. H., Jarosewich E. and Mason B. (1986) Meteoritics 21, 263-269. de Laeter J. R. (1972) Meteoritics 7, 285-294. McCall G. J. H. (1968) First Suppl. West. Austr. Mus. Spec. Publ. 3, 12. McCall G. J. H. and Cleverly W. H. (1968) Mineralog. Mag. 36, 691-716.

  2. A petrogenetic model of the relationships among achondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.; Hays, J. F.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Petrological evidence is used to support the hypothesis that although the magma source regions and parent bodies of basaltic achondrite, shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite meteorites are clearly distinct, they may be simply related. It is proposed that the peridotites which on partial melting generated the parent magmas of the shergottite meteorites differed from those which gave rise to eucritic magmas by being enriched in a component rich in alkalis and other volatiles. Similarly, the source regions of the parent magmas of the nakhlite and chassignite meteorites differed from those on the shergottite parent body by being still richer in this volatile-rich component. These regions could have been related by processes such as mixture of variable amounts of volatile-rich and volatile-poor components in planetary or nebular settings, or alternatively by variable varying degrees of volatile loss from volatile-rich materials.

  3. Spectral analysis of meteorites ablated in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouard, A.; Vernazza, P.; Loehle, S.; Gattacceca, J.; Zander, T.; Eberhart, M.; Meindl, A.; Oefele, R.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.

    2017-09-01

    Recently and for the very first time, experiments simulating vaporization of a meteorite sample were performed in a wind tunnel near Stuttgart with the specific aim to record emission spectra of the vaporized material. Using a high enthalpy air plasma flow for modeling an equivalent air friction of an entry speed of about 10 km/s, three meteorite types (H, CM and HED) and two meteoritical analogues (basalt and argillite) were ablated and high resolution spectra were recorded simultaneously. After the identification of all atomic lines, we per- formed a detailed study of our spectra using two approaches: (i) by direct comparison of multiplet in- tensities between the samples and (ii) by computation of a synthetic spectrum to constrain some physical parameters (temperature, elemental abundance). Finally, we compared our results to the elemental composition of our samples and we determined how much compositional information can be retrieved for a given meteor using visible sectroscopy.

  4. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  6. An assessment of the meteoritic contribution to the Martian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; McKay, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of meteoritic material to the Mars soils should perturb their chemical compositions, as has been detected for soils on the Moon and sediments on Earth. Using the measured mass influx at Earth and estimates of the Mars/Earth flux ratio, the authors estimate the continuous, planet-wide meteoritic mass influx on Mars to be between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. If distributed uniformly into a soil with a mean planetary production rate of 1 m/b.y., consistent with radar estimates of the soil depth overlaying a bouldered terrain in the Tharsis region, their estimated mass influx would produce a meteoritic concentration in the Mars soil ranging from 2 to 29% by mass. Analysis of the Viking X ray fluorescence data indicates that the Mars soil composition is inconsistent with typical basaltic rock fragments but can be fit by a mixture of 60% basaltic rock fragments and 40% meteoritic material. The meteoritic influx they calculate is sufficient to provide most or all of the material required by the Clark and Baird model. Particles in the mass range from 10 -7 to 10 -3 g, about 60-1,200 μm in diameter, contribute 80% of the total mass flux of meteoritic material in the 10 -13 to 10 6 g mass range at Earth. On Earth atmospheric entry all but the smallest particles (generally ≤ 50 μm in diameter) in the 10 -7 to 10 -3 g mass range are heated sufficiently to melt or vaporize. Mars, because of its lower escape velocity and larger atmospheric scale height, is a much more favorable site for unmelted survival of micrometeorites on atmospheric deceleration. They calculate that a significant fraction of particles throughout the 60-1,200 μm diameter range will survive Mars atmospheric entry unmelted

  7. 45 CFR 674.4 - Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antarctica. 674.4 Section 674.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.4 Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica. No person may collect meteorites in Antarctica for other than scientific research purposes. ...

  8. Determination of refractory trace elements in Chinese meteorites by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Burger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Some refractory trace elements are important target elements for spallation reactions in meteorites. These elements also serve to characterize the investigated meteorites. The elements Ti, Y, Zr, Hf, W and Ta were measured after radiochemical separation in chondrites from China. After acid digestion of the irradiated samples, the group separations were obtained by precipitation reactions. The necessary radiochemical purification of the pure β emitter Y was realized on a Lewatite OC 1026 column. For all the other elements discrete gamma radiation was measured. (orig.)

  9. The Organic Content of the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Nieman, Ronald A.; Cooper, George; Williams, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite felt last year on a frozen take in Canada and may provide the most pristine material of its kind. Analyses have now shown this carbonaceous chondrite to contain a suite of soluble organic compounds (approximately 100 parts per million) that includes mono- and dicarboxylic acids, dicarboximides, pyridine carboxylic acids, a sulfonic acid, and both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The insoluble carbon exhibits exclusive aromatic character, deuterium enrichment, and fullerenes containing 'planetary' helium and argon. The findings provide insight into an outcome of early solar chemical evolution that differs from any seen so far in meteorites.

  10. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  11. Magnesium isotope systematics in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium isotope compositions are reported for a suite of Martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars, including crustal breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. The δ26Mg values (per mil units relative to DSM-3 reference material) range from -0.32 to -0.11‰; basaltic shergottites and nakhlites lie to the heavier end of the Mg isotope range whereas olivine-phyric, olivine-orthopyroxene-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites, and chassignites have slightly lighter Mg isotope compositions, attesting to modest correlation of Mg isotopes and petrology of the samples. Slightly heavier Mg isotope compositions found for surface-related materials (NWA 7034, black glass fraction of the Tissint shergottite fall; δ26Mg > -0.17‰) indicate measurable Mg isotope difference between the Martian mantle and crust but the true extent of Mg isotope fractionation for Martian surface materials remains unconstrained. The range of δ26Mg values from -0.19 to -0.11‰ in nakhlites is most likely due to accumulation of clinopyroxene during petrogenesis rather than garnet fractionation in the source or assimilation of surface material modified at low temperatures. The rather restricted range in Mg isotope compositions between spatially and temporally distinct mantle-derived samples supports the idea of inefficient/absent major tectonic cycles on Mars, which would include plate tectonics and large-scale recycling of isotopically fractionated surface materials back into the Martian mantle. The cumulative δ26Mg value of Martian samples, which are not influenced by late-stage alteration processes and/or crust-mantle interactions, is - 0.271 ± 0.040 ‰ (2SD) and is considered to reflect δ26Mg value of the Bulk Silicate Mars. This value is robust taking into account the range of lithologies involved in this estimate. It also attests to the lack of the Mg isotope variability reported for the inner Solar System bodies at current

  12. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  13. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  14. Isotopic Dichotomy among Meteorites and Its Bearing on the Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sanders, Ian S.

    2018-02-01

    Whole rock Δ17O and nucleosynthetic isotopic variations for chromium, titanium, nickel, and molybdenum in meteorites define two isotopically distinct populations: carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and some achondrites, pallasites, and irons in one and all other chondrites and differentiated meteorites in the other. Since differentiated bodies accreted 1–3 Myr before the chondrites, the isotopic dichotomy cannot be attributed to temporal variations in the disk. Instead, the two populations were most likely separated in space, plausibly by proto-Jupiter. Formation of CCs outside Jupiter could account for their characteristic chemical and isotopic composition. The abundance of refractory inclusions in CCs can be explained if they were ejected by disk winds from near the Sun to the disk periphery where they spiraled inward due to gas drag. Once proto-Jupiter reached 10–20 M ⊕, its external pressure bump could have prevented millimeter- and centimeter-sized particles from reaching the inner disk. This scenario would account for the enrichment in CCs of refractory inclusions, refractory elements, and water. Chondrules in CCs show wide ranges in Δ17O as they formed in the presence of abundant 16O-rich refractory grains and 16O-poor ice particles. Chondrules in other chondrites (ordinary, E, R, and K groups) show relatively uniform, near-zero Δ17O values as refractory inclusions and ice were much less abundant in the inner solar system. The two populations were plausibly mixed together by the Grand Tack when Jupiter and Saturn migrated inward emptying and then repopulating the asteroid belt with roughly equal masses of planetesimals from inside and outside Jupiter’s orbit (S- and C-type asteroids).

  15. Petrogenesis of Igneous-Textured Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (and pairings) is a breccia that samples a variety of materials from the martian crust. Several previous studies have identified multiple types of igneous-textured clasts within the breccia [1-3], and these clasts have the potential to provide insight into the igneous evolution of Mars. One challenge presented by studying these small rock fragments is the lack of field context for this breccia (i.e., where on Mars it formed), so we do not know how many sources these small rock fragments are derived from or the exact formation his-tory of these sources (i.e., are the sources mantle de-rived melt or melts contaminated by a meteorite impactor on Mars). Our goal in this study is to examine specific igneous-textured clast groups to determine if they are petrogenetically related (i.e., from the same igneous source) and determine more information about their formation history, then use them to derive new insights about the igneous history of Mars. We will focus on the basalt clasts, FTP clasts (named due to their high concentration of iron, titanium, and phosphorous), and mineral fragments described by [1] (Fig. 1). We will examine these materials for evidence of impactor contamination (as proposed for some materials by [2]) or mantle melt derivation. We will also test the petrogenetic models proposed in [1], which are igneous processes that could have occurred regardless of where the melt parental to the clasts was formed. These models include 1) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI), 2) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through fractional crystallization, and 3) a lack of petrogenetic relationship between these clast groups. The relationship between the clast groups and the mineral fragments will also be explored.

  16. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1(0) FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E; Pinkerton, FE; Kubic, R; Mishra, RK; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Lewis, LH; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1(0) FeNi-the mineral "tetrataenite"-has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol.% tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at.% Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1(0) phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1(0) grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H-a = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m(3) is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m(3) obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  17. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Eric [MEDA Engineering and Technical Services, Southfield, Michigan 48075 (United States); Pinkerton, Frederick E., E-mail: frederick.e.pinkerton@gm.com; Kubic, Robert; Mishra, Raja K. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Lab, GM R and D Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Bordeaux, Nina; Lewis, Laura H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Mubarok, Arif; Goldstein, Joseph I. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Skomski, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Barmak, Katayun [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1{sub 0} crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1{sub 0} FeNi—the mineral “tetrataenite”—has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol. % tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at. % Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1{sub 0} phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1{sub 0} grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4πM{sub s} = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H{sub a} = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m{sup 3} is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m{sup 3} obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether.

  18. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L10 FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Eric; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kubic, Robert; Mishra, Raja K.; Bordeaux, Nina; Lewis, Laura H.; Mubarok, Arif; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Skomski, Ralph; Barmak, Katayun

    2015-01-01

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1 0 crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1 0 FeNi—the mineral “tetrataenite”—has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol. % tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at. % Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1 0 phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1 0 grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4πM s  = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H a  = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m 3 is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m 3 obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether

  19. Tritium in Meteorites and in Recovered Satellite Material; Tritium dans les meteorites et dans les matieres provenant d'un satellite recupere; Tritij v meteoritakh i v vozvrashchennom sputnike; Tritio en meteoritos y en el material de un satelite recuperado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, E L [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1962-01-15

    Tritium was measured in separated phases and in whole rock samples of the Bruderheim chondritic meteorite and in samples of lead and iron material of recovered satellites. Radioactive isotopes of argon were also measured. The tritium and argon radioactivity in the Bruderheim meteorite can be reasonably well explained by the interaction of cosmic ray particles of some thousand million volts energy with the meteoritic material. The tritium content of the recovered satellite material was more than a factor of a hundred too large to be explained by the interactions of cosmic rays or by the interactions of solar flare particles with the satellite. The high tritium content of the satellite material must result from a flux of incident tritium particles that stop in the satellite. (author) [French] Tritium dans les meteorites et dans les matieres provenant d'un satellite recupere. On a mesure la teneur en tritium d'echantillons de diverses parties et de l'ensemble de la roche formant la chondrite de Bruderheim, ainsi que celle d'echantillons de plomb et de fer preleves sur des satellites recuperes. On a egalement mesure la teneur en radioargon dans la meteorite de Bruderheim. La presence de tritium et de radioargon peut fort bien s'expliquer par l'interaction d'elements de la meteorite et de rayons cosmiques corpusculaires ayant une energie de l'ordre du milliard de volts. La teneur en tritium des satellites recuperes etait plus de cent fois trop elevee pour pouvoir etre expliquee par une interaction entre les rayons cosmiques ou les particules provenant d'eruptions solaires et le satellite etudie. La forte teneur en tritium des matieres provenant des satellites est certainement due a un flux incident de particules de tritium qui sont retenues dans le satellite. (author) [Spanish] Se midieron las concentraciones de tritio en fases separadas y en muestras enteras de roca del meteorito condritico de Bruderheim, y en muestras de plomo y de hierro de satelites recuperados

  20. The Kosice meteorite fall: Recovery and strewn field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toth, J.; Svoreň, J.; Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Igaz, A.; Kornos, L.; Vereš, P.; Husárik, M.; Koza, J.; Kučera, A.; Zigo, P.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Čapek, David; Krisandova, Z.; Tomko, D.; Šilha, J.; Schunová, E.; Bodnárová, M.; Búzová, Diana; Krejčová, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2015), s. 853-863 ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1382 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Kosice meteorite * fragments * impact Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.819, year: 2015

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of the Dergaon meteorite with reference ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of a part of the meteorite which fell at Dergaon (India) on March 2, 16.40 local time (2001) is presented with the help of FTIR, absorption and atomic spectra. The FTIR spectrum exhibits prominent absorption bands in the region 800–1100 cm-1, originating from the valence vibration of SiO4, a basic component of the ...

  2. Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabelek, Ladislav; Mazanec, Martin; Kdyr, Simon; Kletetschka, Gunther

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic images of Chelyabinsk meteorite's (fragment F1 removed from Chebarkul lake) thin section have been unraveled by a magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses. Bcr of magnetic sources in Chelyabinsk meteorite ranges between 4 and 7 mT. These magnetic sources enter their saturation states when applying 40 mT external magnetic field pulse.

  3. The Prevailing Catalytic Role of Meteorites in Formamide Prebiotic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Lorenzo; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2018-02-22

    Meteorites are consensually considered to be involved in the origin of life on this Planet for several functions and at different levels: (i) as providers of impact energy during their passage through the atmosphere; (ii) as agents of geodynamics, intended both as starters of the Earth's tectonics and as activators of local hydrothermal systems upon their fall; (iii) as sources of organic materials, at varying levels of limited complexity; and (iv) as catalysts. The consensus about the relevance of these functions differs. We focus on the catalytic activities of the various types of meteorites in reactions relevant for prebiotic chemistry. Formamide was selected as the chemical precursor and various sources of energy were analyzed. The results show that all the meteorites and all the different energy sources tested actively afford complex mixtures of biologically-relevant compounds, indicating the robustness of the formamide-based prebiotic chemistry involved. Although in some cases the yields of products are quite small, the diversity of the detected compounds of biochemical significance underlines the prebiotic importance of meteorite-catalyzed condensation of formamide.

  4. Forging Asteroid-Meteorite Relationships Through Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Binzel, R. P.; Bus, S. J.; Buchanan, P. C.; Hinrichs, J. L.; Meibom, A.; Hiroi, T.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra were obtained for 196 asteroids as part of SMASSIR. SMASSIR focused on observing asteroids assumed to be one of the following: (1) olivine-rich, (2) objects with "Vesta-like spectra" (the "Vestoids"), and (3) postulated meteorite parent bodies.

  5. The Prevailing Catalytic Role of Meteorites in Formamide Prebiotic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Saladino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Meteorites are consensually considered to be involved in the origin of life on this Planet for several functions and at different levels: (i as providers of impact energy during their passage through the atmosphere; (ii as agents of geodynamics, intended both as starters of the Earth’s tectonics and as activators of local hydrothermal systems upon their fall; (iii as sources of organic materials, at varying levels of limited complexity; and (iv as catalysts. The consensus about the relevance of these functions differs. We focus on the catalytic activities of the various types of meteorites in reactions relevant for prebiotic chemistry. Formamide was selected as the chemical precursor and various sources of energy were analyzed. The results show that all the meteorites and all the different energy sources tested actively afford complex mixtures of biologically-relevant compounds, indicating the robustness of the formamide-based prebiotic chemistry involved. Although in some cases the yields of products are quite small, the diversity of the detected compounds of biochemical significance underlines the prebiotic importance of meteorite-catalyzed condensation of formamide.

  6. JESENICE (L6)-A RECENT METEORITE FALL FROM SLOVENIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bischoff, A.; Jersek, M.; Grau, T.; Mirtic, B.; Ott, U.; Kučera, Jan; Horstmann, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Herrmann, S.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Weber, M.; Heusser, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, Suppl. S (2010), A15-A15 ISSN 1086-9379. [73rd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society. 26.07.2010-30.07.2010, New York] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : SHOCK METAMORPHISM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  7. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  8. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  9. Meteorite Fall Detection and Analysis via Weather Radar: Worldwide Potential for Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bresky, C.; Laird, C.; Reddy, V.; Hankey, M.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorite falls can be detected using weather radars, facilitating rapid recovery of meteorites to minimize terrestrial alteration. Imagery from the US NEXRAD radar network reveals over two dozen meteorite falls where meteorites have been recovered, and about another dozen that remain unrecovered. Discovery of new meteorite falls is well suited to "citizen science" and similar outreach activities, as well as automation of computational components into internet-based search tools. Also, there are many more weather radars employed worldwide than those in the US NEXRAD system. Utilization of weather radars worldwide for meteorite recovery can not only expand citizen science opportunities but can also lead to significant improvement in the number of freshly-fallen meteorites available for research. We will discuss the methodologies behind locating and analyzing meteorite falls using weather radar, and how to make them available for citizen science efforts. An important example is the Aquarius Project, a Chicago-area consortium recently formed with the goal of recovering meteorites from Lake Michigan. This project has extensive student involvement geared toward development of actual hardware for recovering meteorites from the lake floor. Those meteorites were identified in weather radar imagery as they fell into the lake from a large meteor on 06 Feb 2017. Another example of public interaction is the meteor detection systems operated by the American Meteor Society (AMS). The AMS website has been developed to allow public reporting of meteors, effectively enabling citizen science to locate and describe significant meteor events worldwide.

  10. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  11. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  12. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  13. The formation and the evolution process of the Jilin meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyang, Z.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the data from an integrated study by a multidisciplinary group on the Jilin meteorite, we discuss the following aspects concerning its formation and evolution: (1) The fractionation-condensation of the solar nebula was examined based on the condensation and solidification age and the mineral composition of the Jilin meteorite. (2) The thermometamorphic history of the Jilin parent body was discussed based on the data on the loss of rare gases, the chemical composition of the whole rock, the self-purification of rare-earth elements and the composition stability of olivine and orthopyroxene. (3) The cooling process of the Jilin parent body was analyzed according to the Ni content and the width of taenite, and the retentivity of argon and fission tracks in the minerals. (4) The breakup of the Jilin parent body and its cosmic ray irradiation history: Based on the measurements of the cosmogenic nuclides as He 3 , Ne/sup 20,21,22/, Ar 38 , Na 22 , Al 26 , Mn 54 , Mn 53 , Co 60 etc., a two-stage model of the irradiation history of the Jilin meteorite was proposed. From the data on the Jilin meteorite parent body of the first stage (the age = 10--11 MY and r = 10 m) and that of the second stage (the age = 0.3--0.5 MY and r = 80--90 cm). The relative positions of samples in the parent body, their burial depths as well as the post-atmospheric loss by ignition were determined. (5) The falling process of the Jilin meteorite: The orbits of the Jilin meteor in the solar system and in the atmosphere, and its falling process were discussed

  14. 57Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Meteorites: Implications for Weathering Rates, Meteorite Flux, and Early Solar System Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Smith, T. B.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Cadogan, J. M.; Sexton, A. S.; Franchi, L. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2002-01-01

    Ordinary chondrite finds, terrestrial age dated using 14 C analyses, from different meteorite accumulation sites, have been examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy to quantitatively determine terrestrial oxidation. We observe differences in weathering rates between sites, and also between different chondrite groups. A comparison of weathering over time, and its effect in 'eroding' meteorites, together with the number and mass distribution of meteorites in each region, enables us to derive estimates of the number of meteorite falls over a given mass per year. Studies of how the oxygen isotopic composition of samples varies with weathering indicate that incipient alteration may occur without a pronounced isotopic effect, possibly due to weathering of silicates to topotactically oriented smectite confined spaces where the water volume is limited. This finding has profound implications for the use of oxygen isotopes as a tool in understanding water-rock interaction. It also may reconcile previously contradictory data regarding the nebular or asteroidal location of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration. Finally, Moessbauer spectroscopy is also found to be a useful tool in determining mineral abundance in carbonaceous chondrites, where a fine-grained matrix makes traditional approaches inapplicable. Again, the results have implications for the modification of chondritic materials in the early solar system.

  15. Laboratory spectroscopy of meteorite samples at UV-vis-NIR wavelengths: Analysis and discrimination by principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Antti; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2018-02-01

    Meteorite samples are measured with the University of Helsinki integrating-sphere UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. The resulting spectra of 30 meteorites are compared with selected spectra from the NASA Planetary Data System meteorite spectra database. The spectral measurements are transformed with the principal component analysis, and it is shown that different meteorite types can be distinguished from the transformed data. The motivation is to improve the link between asteroid spectral observations and meteorite spectral measurements.

  16. Multi scale imaging of the Cloudy Zone in the Tazewell IIICD Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Blukis, R.; Midgley, P. A.; Eggeman, A.; Saghi, Z.; Bagot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of iron and stony iron meteorites suggest that many small planetary bodies possessed molten cores resulting in the generation of a magnetic field. As these bodies cooled, Fe-Ni metal trapped within their mantle underwent a series of low-temperature transitions, leading to the familiar Widmanstatten intergrowth of kamacite and taenite. Adjacent to the kamacite/taenite interface is the so-called "cloudy zone" (CZ): a nanoscale intergrowth of tetrataenite islands in an Fe-rich matrix phase formed via spinodal decomposition. It has recently been shown (Bryson et al. 2015, Nature) that the CZ encodes a time-series record of the evolution of the magnetic field generated by the molten core of the planetary body. Extracting meaningful paleomagnetic data from the CZ relies, on a thorough understanding of the 3D chemical and magnetic properties of the intergrowth focsusing on the interactions between the magnetically hard tetrataenite islands and the magnetically soft matrix. Here we present a multi scale study of the chemical and crystallographic make up of the CZ in the Tazewell IIICD meteorite, using a range of advanced microscopy techniques. The results provide unprecedented insight into the architecture of the CZ, with implications for how the CZ acquires chemical transformation remanance during cooling on the parent body. Previous 2D transmission electron microscope studies of the CZ suggested that the matrix is an ordered Fe3Ni phase with the L12 structure. Interpretation of the electron diffraction patterns and chemical maps in these studies was hindered by a failure to resolve signals from overlapping island and matrix phases. Here we obtain high resolution electron diffraction and 3D chemical maps with near atomic resolution using a combination of scanning precession electron diffraction, 3D STEM EDS and atom probe tomography. Using this combined methodology we reslove for the first time the phenomena of secondary precipitation in the

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  19. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  7. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  10. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  11. Variability in Abundances of Meteorites in the Ordovician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, P. R.; Schmitz, B.; Kita, N.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the flux of extraterrestrial material throughout Earth's history is of great interest to reconstruct the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Here, we present a review of our investigations of the nature of the meteorite flux to Earth in the Ordovician, one of the best-studied time periods for extraterrestrial matter in the geological record [1]. We base our studies on compositions of extraterrestrial chromite and chrome-spinel extracted by acid dissolution from condensed marine limestone from Sweden and Russia [1-3]. By analyzing major and minor elements with EDS and WDS, and three oxygen isotopes with SIMS we classify the recovered meteoritic materials. Today, the L and H chondrites dominate the meteorite and coarse micrometeorite flux. Together with the rarer LL chondrites they have a type abundance of 80%. In the Ordovician it was very different: starting from 466 Ma ago 99% of the flux was comprised of L chondrites [2]. This was a result of the collisional breakup of the parent asteroid. This event occurred close to an orbital resonance in the asteroid belt and showered Earth with >100x more L chondritic material than today during more than 1 Ma. Although the flux is much lower at present, L chondrites are still the dominant type of meteorites that fall today. Before the asteroid breakup event 467 Ma ago the three groups of ordinary chondrites had about similar abundances. Surprisingly, they were possibly surpassed in abundance by achondrites, materials from partially and fully differentiated asteroids [3]. These achondrites include HED meteorites, which are presumably fragments released during the formation of the Rheasilvia impact structure 1 Ga ago on asteroid 4 Vesta. The enhanced abundance of LL chondrites is possibly a result of the Flora asteroid family forming event at 1 Ga ago. The higher abundance of primitive achondrites was likely due to smaller asteroid family forming events that have not been identified yet but that did

  12. Meteorites, Bolides and Comets: A Tale of Inconsistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Padevet, V.

    1992-07-01

    -Tuttle, and Leo Minorids to 1739 Zanotti. Geminids were related to asteroid 3200 Phaeton, considered to be an "extinct comet." Spurny [9], using ablation coefficient and penetration depth criteria, found that Geminids (frequently) and Taurids (rarely) contain bolides of types I and II. This may indicate that meteoric showers from "comets" on AAA orbits contain some portion of "rocky" material comparable to chondrites. These observations revive Opik's (1963) idea that comets may be captured in the asteroid belt on AAA orbits and may contain (and supply) chondritic meteorites to the Earth [10]. If the relationship among large solid particles "native to the asteroid belt" and those from the outer solar system can be established, they can be scaled and applied to IDPs. We have studied the records of 292 bolides (Prairie and European networks) with measured terminal velocities. We attempt to use the terminal velocity, calculated density, estimated terminal mass, and mechanical strength to correlate features with the meteorite features. We compare the meteorite fall frequency [11] with the bolide features. Two extreme hypotheses (Table 1) are examined: (A) bolides of types IIIa and IIIb do not have equivalents among the meteorites and (B) all four bolide types have meteoritic equivalents, and only IDPs do not produce bolides (fireballs). If the entry parameters of meteoroids are similar, bodies with lower density should reach terminal velocity at higher altitudes than those with higher density. If it is assumed that fragmentation is the same for dense (I and II) and less dense bodies (IIIa and IIIb), the calculated terminal altitudes show that among the bolides exist materials with lower densities than those of recovered meteorites and that model A of the correlation between meteorite falls and bolide observations is likely [12]. If, however, the less dense bodies were more easily fragmented than denser bodies, the correlation is better for hypothesis B. Table 1, which in the hard

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  14. Hg and Pt-metals in meteorite carbon-rich residues - Suggestions for possible host phase for Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon-rich and oxide residual phases have been isolated from Allende and Murchison by acid demineralization for the determination of their Hg, Pt-metal, Cr, Sc, Co, and Fe contents. Experimental procedures used eliminated the possibility of exogenous and endogenous contaminant trace elements from coprecipitating with the residues. Large enrichments of Hg and Pt-metals were found in Allende but not in Murchison residues. Hg-release profiles from stepwise heating experiments suggest a sulfide as the host for Hg. Diffusion calculations for Hg based on these experiments indicate an activation energy of 7-8 kcal/mol, the same as that for Hg in troilite from an iron meteorite. This is further support for a sulfide host phase for Hg. Equilibration of Hg with this phase at approximately 900 K is indicated. Reasons for the presence of Pt-metals in noncosmic relative abundances are explored.

  15. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Chemical Structure of Insoluble Organic Matter of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, S.; Robert, F.; Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Largeau, C.

    A detailed knowledge of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the meteorites is essential to estimate to what extent the interstellar organic matter was preserved during the formation of the solar system and to decipher the synthetic pathways of this matter in space. Although predominant, the insoluble organic fraction has been much less extensively studied than soluble one due to specific analytical difficulties. The present work reports the examination of the IOM of two carbonaceous meteorites, Orgueil and Murchison through a number of various spectroscopic and microscopic methods, i. e. XANES for sulphur, carbon and nitrogen, solid state 13C NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, electron nuclear double resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Stardust from meteorites an introduction to presolar grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The study of presolar meteoritic grains is a new inter-disciplinary field that brings together topics from nuclear physics to astronomy and chemistry. Traditionally, most of the information about the cosmos has been gathered by observing light through telescopes. However, with the recent discovery that some dust grains extracted from primitive meteorites were produced in stellar environments, we now have the opportunity to gather information about stars and our Galaxy from the laboratory analysis of tiny pieces of stardust. Stellar grains represent a unique and fascinating subject of study. Their analysis is a breakthrough in research on stellar nucleosynthesis and the origin of the elements. While a number of specialized reviews exist on the topic, this book is the first work that brings together in a unified and accessible manner the background knowledge necessary for the study of presolar grains together with up-to-date discoveries in the field. The book includes exercise questions and answers, an extensiv...

  18. What we have learned about Mars from SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The SNC meteorites are thought to be igneous martian rocks, based on their young crystallization ages and a close match between the composition of gases implanted in them during shock and the atmosphere of Mars. A related meteorite, ALH84001, may be older and thus may represent ancient martian crust. These petrologically diverse basalts and ultramafic rocks are mostly cumulates, but their parent magmas share geochemical and radiogenic isotopic characteristics that suggest they may have formed by remelting the same mantle source region at different times. Information and inferences about martian geology drawn from these samples include the following: Planetary differentiation occured early at approximately 4.5 GA, probably concurrently with accretion. The martian mantle contains different abundances of moderately volatile and siderophile elements and is more Fe-rich than that of the Earth, which has implications for its mineralogy, density, and origin. The estimated core composition has a S abundance near the threshold value for inner core solidification. The former presence of a core dynamo may be suggested by remanent magnetization in Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassignite (SNC) meteorites, although these rocks may have been magnetized during shock. The mineralogy of martian surface units, inferred from reflectance spectra, matches that of basaltic shergottites, but SNC lithologies thought to have crystallized in the subsurface are not presently recognized. The rheological properties of martian magmas are more accurately derived form these metorites than from observations of martian flow morphology, although the sampled range of magma compositions islimited. Estimates of planetary water abundance and the amount of outgassed water based on these meteorites are contridictory but overlap estimates based on geological observations and atmospheric measurements. Stable isotope measurements indicate that the martian hydrosphere experienced only limited exchange with the

  19. Pairing Relationships Among Feldspathic Lunar Meteorites from Miller Range, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Range ice fields have been amongst the most prolific for lunar meteorites that ANSMET has searched [1-3]. Six different stones have been recovered during the 2005, 2007, and 2009 field seasons: MIL 05035 (142 g), MIL 07006 (1.4 g), MIL 090034 (196 g), MIL 090036 (245 g), MIL 090070 (137 g), and MIL 090075 (144 g). Of these, the five stones collected during the 2007 and 2009 seasons are feldspathic breccias. Previous work on the Miller Range feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) has suggested that they are not all paired with each other [4-5]. Here we examine the pairing relationships among the Miller Range FLMs using petrography in concert with traceand major-element compositions.

  20. Preliminary Study of Meteorite and Tektite using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Tangpitayakul, Pisarn; Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn; Sangsuriya, Sineenart; Wiseatsri, Pojanee

    2003-06-01

    The discoveries of suspicious meteorite or tektite around Chaiyapum province and surrounding area were sent to Physics Division, Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). Fourteen samples were analyzed by 3 nuclear techniques; the measurement of natural radiation, x-ray fluorescence analysis and neutron activation analysis. The result shows that the samples can be classified according to the level of natural radiation, the elemental composition and there quantity

  1. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  2. Delivery of asteroids and meteorites to the inner solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.; Nolan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how critical observational constraints on the delivery of asteroids (including the very small ones, called meteorites, that land on the Earth) include orbital distributions, exposure ages and mineralogy. Orbital maturity in the inner solar system is indicated by the AM/PM distribution of meteorite falls and fireballs: orbits with perihelia at 1 AU are less mature and arrive preferentially in the PM. Ordinary chondrites have short exposure ages, but their AM/PM fall statistics indicate significant orbital maturity. Hence, many may be collisional offspring of slightly larger parents that emigrated from the main belt. The required size distribution, extrapolated up to multi-km-size bodies, would also yield numbers of planet-crossing asteroids comparable to those astronomically observed. However, such a distribution requires launch on Earth-bound trajectories by catastrophic disruption events, which probably cannot launch sufficient material at high enough velocities Cratering events offer higher ejecta velocities, and if dominant would explain the abundance of basaltic meteorites relative to olivine, which should constitute the bulk of a differentiated parent body's volume

  3. PF120916 Piecki fireball and Reszel meteorite fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Wiśniewski, M.; Bęben, M.; Lewandowski, T.; Polak, K.; Raj, A.; Zaręba, P.

    2017-06-01

    On September 12, 2016, at 21:44:07 UT, a -9.2±0.5 mag fireball appeared over northeastern Poland. The precise orbit and atmospheric trajectory of the event are presented, based on the data collected by six video stations of the Polish Fireball Network (PFN). The PF120916 Piecki fireball entered the Earth's atmosphere with the velocity of 16.7±0.3 km/s and started to shine at a height of 81.9 ± 0.3 km. Clear deceleration started after first three seconds of the flight, and the terminal velocity of the meteor was only 5.0±0.3 km/s at a height of 26.0 ± 0.2 km. Such a low value of the terminal velocity indicates that fragments with the total mass of around 10-15 kg could survive the atmospheric passage and cause fall of the meteorites. The predicted area of possible meteorite impact is computed and it is located south of Reszel city at the Warmian-Masurian region. The impact area was extensively searched by experienced groups of meteorite hunters, but without any success.

  4. Indigenous Carbonaceous Matter in the Nakhla Mars Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Le, L.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed microanalysis of the Martian meteorite Nakhla has shown there are morphologically distinct carbonaceous features spatially associated with low-T aqueous alteration phases including salts and id-dingsite. A comprehensive suite of analytical instrumentation including optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), two-step laser mass spectrometry (mu-L(sup 2)MS), laser mu-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) are being used to characterize the carbonaceous matter and host mineralogy. The search for carbonaceous matter on Mars has proved challenging. Viking Landers failed to unambiguously detect simple organics at either of the two landing sites although the Martian surface is estimated to have acquired at least 10(exp15) kg of C as a consequence of meteoritic accretion over the last several Ga. The dearth of organics at the Martian surface has been attributed to various oxidative processes including UV photolysis and peroxide activity. Consequently, investigations of Martian organics need to be focused on the sub-surface regolith where such surface processes are either severely attenuated or absent. Fortuitously since Martian meteorites are derived from buried regolith materials they provide a unique opportunity to study Martian organic geochemistry.

  5. Sparking young minds with Moon rocks and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    What could be more exciting than seeing pieces of other worlds? The Apollo program left a legacy of astounding accomplishments and precious samples. Part of the thrill of those lunar missions is brought to schools by the lunar sample educational disks, which contain artifacts of six piloted trips to the Moon. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is preparing 100 new educational disks containing pieces of meteorites collected in Antarctica. These represent chunks of several different asteroids, that were collected in one of the most remote, forbidding environments on Earth. These pieces of the Moon and asteroids represent the products of basic planetary processes (solar nebular processes, initial differentiation, volcanism, and impact), and, in turn, these processes are controlled by basic physical and chemical processes (energy, energy transfer, melting, buoyancy, etc.). Thus, the lunar and meteorite sample disks have enormous educational potential. New educational materials are being developed to accompany the disks. Present materials are not as effective as they could be, especially in relating samples to processes and to other types of data such as spectral studies and photogeology. Furthermore, the materials are out of date. New background materials will be produced for teachers, assembling slide sets with extensive captions, and devising numerous hands-on classroom activities to do while the disks are at a school and before and after they arrive. The classroom activities will be developed by teams of experienced teachers working with lunar and meteorite experts.

  6. Magnetic properties of tetrataenite-rich meteorites. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.; Funaki, M.; Danon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic characteristics of St. Severin (LL 6 ), Appley Bridge (LL 6 ) and Tuxtuac (LL 5 ) chondrites, which contain tetrataenite in their metallic components, are measured and analyzed in comparison with another tetrataenite-rich chondrite, Yamato 74160. The magnetic properties of tetrataenite-rich meteorites are characterized by (a) high magnetic coercive force (H sub(C)) which amounts to 520 Oe for St. Severin and 160 Oe for Appley Bridge, (b) essential flatness up to about 500 0 C and then a sharp irreversible drop down to Curie point of the first-run heating thermomagnetic curve. Both characteristic features are broken down to the ordinary features of disordered taenite by a breakdown of tetrataenite structure at elevated temperatures beyond the order-disorder transition temperature. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of tetrataenite-rich meteorites is extremely stable against AF-demagnetization and other magnetic disturbances because of the high magnetic coercivity of tetrataenite. The breakdown processes of ordered tetrataenite structure by heat treatments are experimentally pursued for the purpose of research of a possible formation process of tetrataenite phase in meteorites. (Author) [pt

  7. Molecular Asymmetry in Prebiotic Chemistry: An Account from Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pizzarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.

  8. Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

  9. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  10. A Method for Estimating Meteorite Fall Mass from Weather Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, C.; Fries, M.; Matson, R.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques such as weather RADAR, seismometers, and all-sky cameras allow new insights concerning the physics of meteorite fall dynamics and fragmentation during "dark flight", the period of time between the end of the meteor's luminous flight and the concluding impact on the Earth's surface. Understanding dark flight dynamics enables us to rapidly analyze the characteristics of new meteorite falls. This analysis will provide essential information to meteorite hunters to optimize recovery, increasing the frequency and total mass of scientifically important freshly-fallen meteorites available to the scientific community. We have developed a mathematical method to estimate meteorite fall mass using reflectivity data as recorded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Next Generation RADAR (NEXRAD) stations. This study analyzed eleven official and one unofficial meteorite falls in the United States and Canada to achieve this purpose.

  11. Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) and the origins of modern meteorite research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1996-09-01

    In 1794, Ernst F. F. Chladni published a 63-page book Über den Ursprung der von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr änlicher Eisenmassen und über einige damit in Verbindung stehende Naturerscheinungen in which he proposed that meteor-stones and iron masses enter the atmosphere from cosmic space and form fireballs as they plunge to Earth. These ideas violated two strongly held contemporary beliefs: (1) fragments of rock and metal do not fall from the sky, and (2) no small bodies exist in space beyond the Moon. From the beginning, Chladni was severely criticised for basing his hypotheses on historical eyewitness reports of falls which others regarded as folk tales and for taking gross liberties with the laws of physics. Eight years later, the study of fallen stones and irons was established as a valid field of investigation. Today, some scholars credit Chladni with founding meteoritics as a science; others regard his contributions as scarcely worthy of mention. Writings by his contemporaries suggest that Chladni's book alone would not have led to changes of prevailing theories; thus, he narrowly escaped the fate of those scientists who propose valid hypotheses prematurely. However between 1794 and 1798, four falls of stones were witnessed and widely publicized. There followed a series of epoch-making analyses of fallen stones and "native irons" by the chemist Edward C. Howard and the mineralogist Jacques-Louis de Bournon. They showed that all the stones were much alike in texture and composition but significantly different from the Earth's known crustal rocks. Of primary importance was Howard's discovery of nickel in the irons and the metal grains of the stones. This linked the two as belonging to the same natural phenomenon. The chemical results, published in 1802 February, persuaded leading scientists in England, France, and Germany that bodies fall from the sky. Within a few months, chemists in France reported similar results and a new field of study was

  12. Utilizing Weather RADAR for Rapid Location of Meteorite Falls and Space Debris Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This activity utilizes existing NOAA weather RADAR imagery to locate meteorite falls and space debris falls. The near-real-time availability and spatial accuracy of these data allow rapid recovery of material from both meteorite falls and space debris re-entry events. To date, at least 22 meteorite fall recoveries have benefitted from RADAR detection and fall modeling, and multiple debris re-entry events over the United States have been observed in unprecedented detail.

  13. Asteroids and Meteorites from Venus? Only the Earth Goddess Knows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Henry; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Alvarellos, José L.

    2018-04-01

    No meteorites from Venus have been found; indeed, some find theirexistence unlikely because of the perceived difficulty of launchingrocks at speeds above 10 km/s and traversing the planet's 93 baratmosphere. [1] Nonetheless, we keep hope alive, since cosmochemistssay they can identify Cytherean meteorites, should candidates be found[2]. Gladman et al. [3] modeled the exchange of impact ejecta betweenthe terrestrial planets, but did not consider meteorites launched fromVenus in any detail. At the time of Gladman's work, no asteroids thatremained entirely within Earth's orbit were known. 14 suchEarth-interior objects with good orbits have now been discovered, andare known as Atiras, for the Pawnee goddess of the Earth. The largestknown member of the class is 163693 Atira, a binary whose componentshave diameters of approximately 4.8 and 1 km. Discovery of Atiras isvery incomplete because they can only be seen at small solarelongations [4]. Greenstreet et al. [5] modeled the orbitaldistribution of Atiras from main-belt asteroidal and cometary sourceregions, while Ribeiro et al. [6] mapped the stability region ofhypothetical Atiras and integrated the orbits of clones of 12 realAtiras for 1 million years. 97% of the clones survived for 1 Myrimpact with Venus was the most common fate of those that met theirends. We have performed orbital integrations of 1000 clones of each ofthe known Atiras, and of hypothetical ejecta that escape Venus afterasteroid impacts, for 10-100 Myr. The latter calculations usetechniques like those of Alvarellos et al. [7] and Zahnle et al. [8]for transfer amongst Jupiter's galilean satellites. Our goals are toestimate the fraction of Atiras that are ejecta launched from Venus,the time spent in space by hypothetical meteorites from Venus, and therate at which such meteorites strike the Earth.[1] Gilmore M., et al (2017). Space Sci. Rev. 212, 1511. [2] JourdanF., Eroglu E. (2017). MAPS 52, 884. [3] Gladman B.J., etal. (1996). Science 271, 1387. [4

  14. A complex of meteorite-forming bodies (the Innisfree - Ridgedale family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestaka, I. S.

    1994-12-01

    For the first time a swarm of meteorite-forming bodies was identified. Yearly this swarm's orbit approaches the Earth's orbit in early February. This swarm contains the Innisfree and Ridgedale fireballs, 9 small meteoric swarms, several asteroids and 12 fireballs photographed by the cameras of the Prairie Network and Canadian Meteorite Observation and Discovery Project. The discovery of this complex, intensive bombardments of the Moon's surface recorded by means of seismographs left on the Moon, the analysis of the time distributions of meteorite falls on the Earth and other established facts confirm the existence of swarms of meteorite-forming bodies which are crossing the Earth's orbit.

  15. A Peltier-based freeze-thaw device for meteorite disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliore, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    A Peltier-based freeze-thaw device for the disaggregation of meteorite or other rock samples is described. Meteorite samples are kept in six water-filled cavities inside a thin-walled Al block. This block is held between two Peltier coolers that are automatically cycled between cooling and warming. One cycle takes approximately 20 min. The device can run unattended for months, allowing for ˜10 000 freeze-thaw cycles that will disaggregate meteorites even with relatively low porosity. This device was used to disaggregate ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite regoltih breccia meteorites to search for micrometeoroid impact craters.

  16. Probing the use of spectroscopy to determine the meteoritic analogues of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouard, A.; Vernazza, P.; Loehle, S.; Gattacceca, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Zanda, B.; Birlan, M.; Bouley, S.; Colas, F.; Eberhart, M.; Hermann, T.; Jorda, L.; Marmo, C.; Meindl, A.; Oefele, R.; Zamkotsian, F.; Zander, F.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Determining the source regions of meteorites is one of the major goals of current research in planetary science. Whereas asteroid observations are currently unable to pinpoint the source regions of most meteorite classes, observations of meteors with camera networks and the subsequent recovery of the meteorite may help make progress on this question. The main caveat of such an approach, however, is that the recovery rate of meteorite falls is low (100) within a reasonable time frame (10-20 years), the optimal solution may be the spatial extension of existing fireball observation networks. The movie associated to this article is available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D

    2001-07-19

    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  18. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    The quest for conclusive evidence of microfossils in meteorites has been elusive. Abiotic microstructures, mineral grains, and even coating artifacts may mimic unicellular bacteria, archaea and nanobacteria with simple spherical or rod morphologies (i.e., cocci, diplococci, bacilli, etc.). This is not the case for the larger and more complex microorganisms, colonies and microbial consortia and ecosystems. Microfossils of algae, cyanobacteria, and cyanobacterial and microbial mats have been recognized and described from many of the most ancient rocks on Earth. The filamentous cyanobacteria and sulphur-bacteria have very distinctive size ranges, complex and recognizable morphologies and visibly differentiated cellular microstructures. The taphonomic modes of fossilization and the life habits and processes of these microorganisms often result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with carbonization, silicification, calcification, phosphatization and metal-binding properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Valid biogenicity is provided by the combination of a suite of known biogenic elements (that differ from the meteorite matrix) found in direct association with recognizable and distinct biological features and microstructures (e.g., uniseriate or multiseriate filaments, trichomes, sheaths and cells of proper size/size range); specialized cells (e.g., basal or apical cells, hormogonia, akinetes, and heterocysts); and evidence of growth characteristics (e.g., spiral filaments, robust or thin sheaths, laminated sheaths, true or false branching of trichomes, tapered or uniform filaments) and evidence of locomotion (e.g. emergent cells and trichomes, coiling hormogonia, and hollow or flattened and twisted sheaths). Since 1997 we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) studies of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial

  19. Watson: A new link in the IIE iron chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward; Davis, Andrew; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Schultz, Ludolf; Weber, Hartwig W.; Clayton, Robert; Mayeda, Toshiko; Jarosewich, Eugene; Sylvester, Paul; Grossman, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    Watson, which was found in 1972 in South Australia, contains the largest single silicate rock mass seen in any known iron meteorite. A comprehensive study has been completed on this unusual meteorite: petrography, metallography, analyses of the silicate inclusion (whole rock chemical analysis, INAA, RNAA, noble gases, and oxygen isotope analysis) and mineral compositions (by electron microprobe and ion microprobe). The whole rock has a composition of an H-chondrite minus the normal H-group metal and troilite content. The oxygen isotope composition is that of the silicates in the IIE iron meteorites and lies along an oxygen isotope fractionation line with the H-group chondrites. Trace elements in the metal confirm Watson is a new IIE iron. Whole rock Watson silicate shows an enrichment in K and P (each approximately 2X H-chondrites). The silicate inclusion has a highly equilibrated igneous (peridotite-like) texture with olivine largely poikilitic within low-Ca pyroxene: olivine (Fa20), opx (Fs17Wo3), capx (Fs9Wo14)(with very fine exsolution lamellae), antiperthite feldspar (An1-3Or5) with less than 1 micron exsolution lamellae (An1-3Or greater than 40), shocked feldspar with altered stoichiometry, minor whitlockite (also a poorly characterized interstitial phosphate-rich phase) and chromite, and only traces of metal and troilite. The individual silicate minerals have normal chondritic REE patterns, but whitlockite has a remarkable REE pattern. It is very enriched in light REE (La is 720X C1, and Lu is 90X C1, as opposed to usual chonditic values of approximately 300X and 100-150X, respectively) with a negative Eu anomaly. The enrichment of whole rock K is expressed both in an unusually high mean modal Or content of the feldspar, Or13, and in the presence of antiperthite.

  20. Orientation relationships of carlsbergite in schreibersite and kamacite in the North Chile iron meteorite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nolze, G.; Wagner, G.; Neumann, R. S.; Skála, Roman; Geist, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2006), s. 373-382 ISSN 0026-461X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : EBSD * phosphides * carlsbergite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2006

  1. Detection and rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite fall as a model for future recoveries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Le Corre, Lucille; Hankey, Mike; Fries, Jeff; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jake; Reddy, Vishnu

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill C-type meteorite fall occurred on 22 April 2012 in and around the town of Coloma, California. The exact location of the meteorite fall was determined within hours of the event using a combination of eyewitness reports, weather radar imagery, and seismometry data. Recovery of the first meteorites occurred within 2 days and continued for months afterward. The recovery effort included local citizens, scientists, and meteorite hunters, and featured coordination efforts by local scientific institutions. Scientific analysis of the collected meteorites revealed characteristics that were available for study only because the rapid collection of samples had minimized terrestrial contamination/alteration. This combination of factors—rapid and accurate location of the event, participation in the meteorite search by the public, and coordinated scientific investigation of recovered samples—is a model that was widely beneficial and should be emulated in future meteorite falls. The tools necessary to recreate the Sutter's Mill recovery are available, but are currently underutilized in much of the world. Weather radar networks, scientific institutions with interest in meteoritics, and the interested public are available globally. Therefore, it is possible to repeat the Sutter's Mill recovery model for future meteorite falls around the world, each for relatively little cost with a dedicated researcher. Doing so will significantly increase the number of fresh meteorite falls available for study, provide meteorite material that can serve as the nuclei of new meteorite collections, and will improve the public visibility of meteoritics research.

  2. Mineralogical issues in long-term corrosion of iron and iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanOrden, A.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of very long term corrosion behavior of buried objects in general requires taking into account that the corrosion processes themselves after the local conditions. Recent work has analyzed corrosion processes in terms of trajectories on Pourbaix diagrams and appears to offer the prospect for using short-term corrosion tests to project corrosion behavior over very long periods. Two different classes of materials are considered here: essentially pure iron, which is an analogue to the carbon steel design overpacks for the salt and basalt sites (on which work has been suspended at present, and iron-nickel alloys, which are the best analogues available for some of the alloys being considered on the tuff site. There are a number of sources of data on corrosion of iron over archaeological times; the data used in this paper are from the recent National Bureau of Standards work on Roman iron nails for Inchtuthill in Scotland, which can be dated fairly precisely to about 70 A.D. and whose method of production is understood. The only available source of natural-analogue data on Fe-Ni alloys is the corrosion of meteorites

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. A Stranger in the Midst: Searching for Relict Grains from Rare Meteorite Types in Mid-Ordovician Limestone Strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Schmitz, B.

    2016-08-01

    A layer of Mid-Ordovician limestone harbors exceptional amounts of L-chondritic chromite grains. The layer also contains grains from potentially rarer types of meteorites, following the discovery of the fossil meteorite Österplana 065.

  7. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  8. The Rosetta Stones of Mars — Should Meteorites be Considered as Samples of Opportunity for Mars Sample Return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A. W.; Schröder, C.; Ashley, J. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Bland, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    We summarize insights about Mars gained from investigating meteorites found on Mars. Certain types of meteorites can be considered standard probes inserted into the martian environment. Should they be considered for Mars Sample Return?

  9. The Meteoritical Quincentennial: The Stone of Ensisheim 1492-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1992-07-01

    This year marks the 500th anniversary of the fall of a meteorite at Ensisheim in Alsace. In at least two respects this event is unique in the history of meteoritics. First, this was the earliest witnessed meteorite fall in the West from which pieces are preserved. Second, it is the only meteorite of which a continuous five-century public record exists in manuscripts and books. Beginning with newsheets printed in 1492, writings about this event illuminate the evolution of ideas from a 15th century belief that stones from the sky were of miraculous origin, to an 18th century conviction that stones do not fall from the sky, to our present view that they fall in abundance, originating in interplanetary space (Marvin, 1992). This paper will highlight certain previously unexamined aspects of the story and address problems inherent in historical analysis. Unusable Maps. The fall of the stone was heralded by an explosion which, according to Sebastian Brant (1492), was heard along the valleys of the Danube, Neckar, Aare, Ill, and Rhine and in the alpine cantons of Schwyz and Uri. Contemporary maps, such as that published in The Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493, so distorted the regional geography that a fireball trajectory cannot be reconstructed on them. On modern maps, however, the areas Brant listed stretch about 150 km to the southeast of Ensisheim, a distance well within the range of sounds reported from other exploding fireballs. Newton (1891) and Marvin (1992) worked out possible trajectories that could account for the sound being heard in all named localities. This suggests that, far from exaggerating distances for dramatic effect, Brant's description may well have been accurate. If so, he compiled his information from word-of-mouth reports without reference to the rudimentary maps available in his time. The Language of Wonder. A document mounted beside the stone in the Ensisheim church stated that learned men did not know what it was: it must be supernatural, a wonder

  10. Authenticating the recovery location of meteorites: The case of Castenaso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Perchiazzi, Natale

    2007-03-01

    This forensic work aims to authenticate the recovery location of Castenaso, a 120 g ordinary chondritic (L5) meteorite reportedly found in 2003 along the sandy bank of the Idice Stream, near the village of Castenaso (Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy). Using the hypothesis that Castenaso was instead a hot-desert meteorite, we conducted a comparative mineralogical and geochemical study of major weathering effects on European and Saharan ordinary chondrites as potential markers of the environment where Castenaso resided during its terrestrial lifetime.Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveals that Castenaso is significantly enriched in Sr, Ba, Tl, and U, and suggests geochemical alteration in a hot-desert environment. The alteration is minor: Castenaso is not coated by desert varnish and does not show significant light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment or loss of Ni and Co.The apparent contrast in size, morphology, and composition between the soil particles filling the external fractures of Castenaso and those from the bank of the Idice Stream observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggests that Castenaso did not reside at the reported find location. Abraded quartz grains (up to 1 mm in size) in Castenaso are undoubtedly from a hot-desert eolian environment: they are well-rounded and show external surfaces characterized by the presence of dish-shaped concavities and upturned silica plates that have been subject to solution-precipitation and subsequent smoothing.We therefore conclude that Castenaso is one of the many hot-desert ordinary chondrite finds, probably from the Sahara, that is currently available on the market. This forensic work provides the scientific grounds for changing the name of this meteorite.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  20. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  8. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  12. Moessbauer studies on the paramagnetic porton of alkidirat meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Huda Mohamed

    1995-11-01

    This work was performed on a sample from alkidirat meteorite which fell west of Sudan by means of Moessbauer effect spectrometer. results showed the absence of transition temperature from the paramagnetic state to the magnetic state in the temperature range from 300K down to 16K. Also, it was found that olivine and ortho pyroxene exist together in site M 1 , while clinothyroxene exists alone in site M 2 . Formula for the composition of ortho pyroxene in the sample were also obtained and they were in good agreement with previous studies. The disorder parameter was also calculated and it showed that the pyroxene present in the sample is well-ordered.(Author)

  13. Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

  14. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  15. The common property of isotope anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment proposed to account for the non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effect observed for oxygen isotopes during the synthesis of ozone (Robert and Camy-Peyret 2001) is applied to other chemical elements. A numerical treatment to calculate isotopic reaction rate ratios is proposed. This treatment yields non-mass-dependent isotopic effects in other chemical elements, qualitatively similar to those observed in some of the high temperature minerals found in the carbonaceous meteorites. This treatment may reflect the numerical consequences of an unrecognized quantum mechanical effect, linked to a property of chemical reactions involving indistinguishable isotopes. (author)

  16. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  17. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  18. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith from Meteorite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Le, L.; Yin, Q.-Z; Kebukawa, Y.; Fries, M.

    2013-01-01

    Regolith from C (and related) asteroid bodies are a focus of the current missions Dawn at Ceres, Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. An asteroid as large as Ceres is expected to be covered by a mature regolith, and as Hayabusa demonstrated, flat and therefore engineeringly-safe ponded deposits will probably be the sampling sites for both Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. Here we examine what we have learned about the mineralogy of fine-grained asteroid regolith from recent meteorite studies and the examination of the samples harvested from asteroid Itokawa by Hayabusa.

  19. Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded in the Semarkona meteorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Roger R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    on the intensity of these fields. Here we show that dusty olivine-bearing chondrules from the Semarkona meteorite were magnetized in a nebular field of 54 ± 21 microteslas. This intensity supports chondrule formation by nebular shocks or planetesimal collisions rather than by electric currents, the x......-wind, or other mechanisms near the Sun. This implies that background magnetic fields in the terrestrial planet-forming region were likely 5 to 54 microteslas, which is sufficient to account for measured rates of mass and angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks....

  20. Meteoritic Input of Amino Acids and Nucleobases: Methodology and Implications for the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 40 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origin(s) of life on Earth were aided by extraterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial review focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally, we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return mIssIons.

  1. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  2. On possible parent bodies of Innisfree, Lost City and Prgibram meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaev, A. E.

    1994-12-01

    Minor planets 1981 ET3 and Seleucus are possible parent bodies of Innisfree and Lost City meteorites, asteroid Mithra is the most probable source of Prgibram meteorite. The conclusions are based on the Southworth - Hawkins criterion with taking into account of the motion constants (Tisserand coefficient, etc.) and minimal distances between orbits at present time.

  3. Pre-Entry Size and Cosmic History of the Annama Meteorite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Meier, M.M.M.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.; Welten, K.C.; Laubenstein, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Gritsevich, M.; Grokhovsky, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI Supplement 1 (2016), A380-A380 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : noble gases * cosmogenic radionuclides chondrite * meteorite * Annama Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Coordinated In Situ Analyses of Organic Nanoglobules in the Sutter's Mill Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura--Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    The Sutter s Mill meteorite is a newly fallen carbonaceous chondrite that was collected and curated quickly after its fall [1]. Preliminary petrographic and isotopic investigations suggest affinities to the CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. The primitive nature of this meteorite and its rapid recovery provide an opportunity to investigate primordial solar system organic matter in a unique new sample. Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and N-15/N-14 relative to terrestrial values [2-4]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [2]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain gm-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [3-5], possibly due to preserved primordial organic grains. The abundance and isotopic composition of C in Sutter's Mill were found to be similar to the Tagish Lake meteorite [6]. In the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of large H and N isotopic anomalies are sub-micron hollow organic spherules known as organic nanoglobules [7]. Organic nanoglobules are commonly distributed among primitive meteorites [8, 9] and cometary samples [10]. Here we report in-situ analyses of organic nano-globules in the Sutter's Mill meteorite using UV fluorescence imaging, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), NanoSIMS, and ultrafast two-step laser mass spectrometry (ultra-L2MS).

  5. Crystal-field spectra of fassaite from the Angra dos Reis meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, H K; Bell, P M; Virgo, D [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1977-06-01

    Fassaitic pyroxene from the Angra dos Reis meteorite has striking spectral properties. The /sup 57/Fe Moessbauer spectra show no Fe/sup 3 +/, and thus the absorption is thought to originate from a complex charge-transfer process. Intense absorption at 480 nm dominates the spectrum of the meteorite and may be important in the interpretation of telescope spectra of objects in space.

  6. Thermal and radiation history of meteorites as revealed by their thermoluminescence records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, N.

    1985-01-01

    Attempts are described to derive information about important parameters of the thermal and radiation history of meteorites from a study of depth profile of thermoluminescence coupled to appropriate annealing studies. In this review some possibilities are examined, emphasizing various factors cardinal to any meaningful application of TL in meteoritics. (author)

  7. Meteorite Falls Observed in U.S. Weather Radar Data in 2015 and 2016 (To Date)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Fries, Jeffrey; Hankey, Mike; Matson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To date, over twenty meteorite falls have been located in the weather radar imagery of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s NEXRAD radar network. We present here the most prominent events recorded since the last Meteoritical Society meeting, covering most of 2015 and early 2016. Meteorite Falls: The following events produced evidence of falling meteorites in radar imagery and resulted in meteorites recovered at the fall site. Creston, CA (24 Oct 2015 0531 UTC): This event generated 218 eyewitness reports submitted to the American Meteor Society (AMS) and is recorded as event #2635 for 2015 on the AMS website. Witnesses reported a bright fireball with fragmentation terminating near the city of Creston, CA, north of Los Angeles. Sonic booms and electrophonic noise were reported in the vicinity of the event. Weather radar imagery records signatures consistent with falling meteorites in data from the KMUX, KVTX, KHNX and KVBX. The Meteoritical Society records the Creston fall as an L6 meteorite with a total recovered mass of 688g. Osceola, FL (24 Jan 2016 1527 UTC): This daytime fireball generated 134 eyewitness reports on AMS report number 266 for 2016, with one credible sonic boom report. The fireball traveled roughly NE to SW with a terminus location north of Lake City, FL in sparsely populated, forested countryside. Radar imagery shows distinct and prominent evidence of a significant meteorite fall with radar signatures seen in data from the KJAX and KVAX radars. Searchers at the fall site found that recoveries were restricted to road sites by the difficult terrain, and yet several meteorites were recovered. Evidence indicates that this was a relatively large meteorite fall where most of the meteorites are unrecoverable due to terrain. Osceola is an L6 meteorite with 991 g total mass recovered to date. Mount Blanco, TX (18 Feb 2016 0343 UTC): This event produced only 39 eyewitness reports and is recorded as AMS event #635 for 2016. No

  8. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  9. Do the age differences given by relative or absolute chronologies of the most ancient meteorites correspond to real age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellas, P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results from absolute and relative chronologies of the most ancient meteorites are reviewed in order to analyze if they are significant or not. Use of the various chronometers to analyze the same meteoritic sample is shown to be an interesting approach to retrace the prehistory of meteorites and their environments. (orig.)

  10. The Enantiomeric Ratios of Meteoritic Organic Compounds: Their Possible Roles in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    This talk will give an overview of the enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of organic compounds in meteorites and also describe the results of the present work in my lab. The primary focus will be on sugar derivatives (sugar acids) of carbonaceous meteorites. Our work begins to address questions associated with chirality, i.e., the origins of homochirality. On Earth, biological monomers (amino acids, sugars, etc.) are usually found with one of the enantiomers more abundant than the other. However, biological polymers (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) are only composed of one enantiomer i.e., they are homochiral. There are hints in meteorites that some organic molecules may also exist in homochiral forms. The talk will address questions such as: did extraterrestrial sources aid in the beginning of this homochirality? Do the increasing size and apparent enantiomer excesses of some meteoritic compounds also extend to larger meteoritic compounds and polymers?

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  12. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  13. MULTIPLE ORIGINS OF NITROGEN ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN METEORITES AND COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation and mixing calculations compared with coupled hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composition of organic molecules from primitive chondrites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 81P/Wild2 reveal that meteoritic and cometary organic matter contains three different isotopic components of different origins. (1) A major component of carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comets Hale-Bopp and Wild2 shows correlated H and N isotopic compositions attributable to isotope exchange between an organic matter of solar composition and a reservoir formed by ion-molecule reactions at T 15 N-rich component having identical 15 N and D enrichments relative to the protosolar gas. Temperatures > 100 K deduced from the low D/H ratio and an anti-correlation between the abundance of this component and meteoritic age indicate a late origin in the solar protoplanetary disk. N 2 self-shielding and the non-thermal nucleosynthesis of 15 N upon irradiation are possible but unlikely sources of this component, and a chemical origin is preferred. (3) An interstellar component with highly fractionated hydrogen isotopes and unfractionated nitrogen isotopes is present in ordinary chondrites. A dominantly solar origin of D and 15 N excesses in primitive solar system bodies shows that isotopic anomalies do not necessarily fingerprint an interstellar origin and implies that only a very small fraction of volatile interstellar matter survived the events of solar system formation.

  14. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, A. M., E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Abdallah, S. B. [University of Khartoum, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Ericsson, T. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Material Sciences (Sweden); Annersten, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  15. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  16. Remote TL and OSL for asteroid and meteorite study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Shunji; Ikeya, Motoji; Yamanaka, Chihiro

    1997-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the Allende meteorite have been studied using infrared CO 2 laser light as a heat source and He-Ne laser light to excite the material, respectively from a long distance. New techniques of remote TL (R-TL) and remote OSL (R-OSL) have been developed for future remote dating from a long distance in a planetary survey. The upper limits of the distance for R-TL and R-OSL were estimated using the laboratory TL signal of the meteorite peaking at 320 o C: about 400 photons s -1 for the R-TL and 60 photons s -1 for R-OSL at a distance of 1 km using a laser beam with the divergence of 0.1 mrad at powers of 100 and 1 W, respectively. An age limit of 10 5 or 10 6 years due to the signal saturation and the objects heterogeneity, as expected from previous studies, may make the asteroid survey difficult but would still help to investigate the surface activities of icy planets and satellites in outer planet worlds. (author)

  17. Mineralogical characterization of a meteorite impact in Carancas, Puno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceron Loayza, Maria L.; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of the study of a meteorite that impacted an inhabited zone in the neighborhood of the town of Carancas, Puno Region, about 1,300 km south of Lima. The analysis carried out by X ray diffractometry, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (at room temperature and at 4,2 K), and by energy dispersive X ray fluorescence reveal the presence in the meteorite simple of magnetic sites assigned to the Fe-Ni and troilite (Fe,S) phases, and of 3 paramagnetic doublets, two of them assigned to Fe 2+ , one associated to olivine and the other to pyroxene, and the third one due to a site occupied by Fe 3+ , which can be associated to oxides in a superparamagnetic state and/or by an Fe hydroxide. The soil samples from the crater reveal a composition that consists mainly of quartz, albite and impactites such as coesite and stishovite (SiO 2 ). The occurrence of these phases with a high content of SiO 2 in the crater soils strengthens the hypothesis of their origin induced by impact; we observe also the presence of the Fe oxide hematite, of aluminum silicates such as illite and montmorillonite, and an unassigned phase of Fe 3+ . In general, the results obtained by these techniques complement each other rather well and allow the verification of the origin of the studied simples. (author).

  18. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  19. On the Maillard reaction of meteoritic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Bajagic, Milica; Liesch, Patrick J.; Philip, Ajish; Cody, George D.

    2006-08-01

    We have performed the Maillard reaction of a series of meteoritic amino acids with sugar ribose under simulated prebiotic conditions, in the solid state at 65°C and at the room temperature. Many meteoritic amino acids are highly reactive with ribose, even at the room temperature. We have isolated high molecular weight products that are insoluble in water, and have studied their structure by the IR (infrared) and solid-state C-13 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic methods. The functional groups and their distribution were similar among these products, and were comparable to the previously isolated insoluble organic materials from the Maillard reaction of the common amino acids with ribose. In addition, there were some similarities with the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. Our results suggest that the Maillard products may contribute to the composition of the part of the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. We have also studied the reaction of sodium silicate solution with the Maillard mixtures, to elucidate the process by which the organic compounds are preserved under prebiotic conditions.

  20. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  1. Isotopically Anomalous Carbonaceous Nanoglobules in Meteorites and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, B. T.; Alexander, C.; Bassim, N. D.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, D.; Nittler, L.; Stroud, R.; Zega, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sub-micron, spherical, organic globules are prevalent in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Many of these globules are significantly enriched in 15N and/or D, relative to solar values, which suggest that they or their precursors formed in cold regions of the solar nebula or in interstellar molecular clouds. We have used correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine the elemental and isotopic composition and organic functional group chemistry of individual carbonaceous nanoglobules in a suite of insoluble organic matter (IOM) residues prepared from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, and two additional organic globules from the Stardust comet 81P/Wild 2 sample collection. The majority of the meteoritic nanoglobules have a similar chemistry to the bulk IOM, with, on average, a small but significant enrichment in aromatic ketone (-C=O) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups. However, some of the meteoritic nanoglobules and one of the Stardust nanoglobules contain highly aromatic organic matter with no significant oxygen functionality. Preliminary measurements indicate that the highest 15N enrichments are associated with the highly aromatic nanoglobules and that aromatic nanoglobules are more prevalent in IOM from more primitive meteorites (e.g. Bells contains more aromatic globules than Murchison). For example, of two adjacent nanoglobules with nearly identical hollow morphologies from Murchison, one contains highly aromatic organic matter and the other contains oxidized IOM-like organic matter. SIMS analysis of these two globules reveals that the highly aromatic globule has the greatest 15N enrichment (δ15N ~ +500‰) of all meteoritic globules in which both XANES and SIMS was performed, whereas the adjacent IOM-like globule has a smaller 15N enrichment (δ15N ~ +300‰) but still greater than bulk IOM (δ15

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  4. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  5. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  9. Origins of mass-dependent and mass-independent Ca isotope variations in meteoritic components and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Gussone, N.; Mezger, K.; Krause, J.

    2018-04-01

    The Ca isotope composition of meteorites and their components may vary due to mass-dependent and/or -independent isotope effects. In order to evaluate the origin of these effects, five amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), three calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), five chondrules (C), a dark inclusion from Allende (CV3), two dark fragments from North West Africa 753 (NWA 753; R3.9), and a whole rock sample of Orgueil (CI1) were analyzed. This is the first coupled mass-dependent and -independent Ca isotope dataset to include AOAs, a dark inclusion, and dark fragments. Where sample masses permit, Ca isotope data are reported with corresponding petrographic analyses and rare earth element (REE) relative abundance patterns. The CAIs and AOAs are enriched in light Ca isotopes (δ44/40Ca -5.32 to +0.72, where δ44/40Ca is reported relative to SRM 915a). Samples CAI 5 and AOA 1 have anomalous Group II REE patterns. These REE and δ44/40Ca data suggest that the CAI 5 and AOA 1 compositions were set via kinetic isotope fractionation during condensation and evaporation. The remaining samples show mass-dependent Ca isotope variations which cluster between δ44/40Ca +0.53 and +1.59, some of which are coupled with unfractionated REE abundance patterns. These meteoritic components likely formed through the coaccretion of the evaporative residue and condensate following Group II CAI formation or their chemical and isotopic signatures were decoupled (e.g., via nebular or parent-body alteration). The whole rock sample of Orgueil has a δ44/40Ca +0.67 ± 0.18 which is in agreement with most published data. Parent-body alteration, terrestrial alteration, and variable sampling of Ca-rich meteoritic components can have an effect on δ44/40Ca compositions in whole rock meteorites. Samples AOA 1, CAI 5, C 2, and C 4 display mass-independent 48/44Ca anomalies (ε48/44Ca +6 to +12) which are resolved from the standard composition. Other samples measured for these effects (AOA 5, CAI 1, CAI 2

  10. Worldwide Weather Radar Imagery May Allow Substantial Increase in Meteorite Fall Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jacob; Fries, Jeffery; Hankey, Mike; Anderson, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Weather radar imagery is a valuable new technique for the rapid recovery of meteorite falls, to include falls which would not otherwise be recovered (e.g. Battle Mountain). Weather radar imagery reveals about one new meteorite fall per year (18 falls since 1998), using weather radars in the United States alone. However, an additional 75 other nations operate weather radar networks according to the UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO). If the imagery of those radars were analyzed, the current rate of meteorite falls could be improved considerably, to as much as 3.6 times the current recovery rate based on comparison of total radar areal coverage. Recently, the addition of weather radar imagery, seismometry and internet-based aggregation of eyewitness reports has improved the speed and accuracy of fresh meteorite fall recovery [e.g. 1,2]. This was demonstrated recently with the radar-enabled recovery of the Sutter's Mill fall [3]. Arguably, the meteorites recovered via these methods are of special scientific value as they are relatively unweathered, fresh falls. To illustrate this, a recent SAO/NASA ADS search using the keyword "meteorite" shows that all 50 of the top search results included at least one named meteorite recovered from a meteorite fall. This is true even though only 1260 named meteorite falls are recorded among the >49,000 individual falls recorded in the Meteoritical Society online database. The US NEXRAD system used thus far to locate meteorite falls covers most of the United States' surface area. Using a WMO map of the world's weather radars, we estimate that the total coverage of the other 75 national weather radar networks equals about 3.6x NEXRAD's coverage area. There are two findings to draw from this calculation: 1) For the past 16 years during which 18 falls are seen in US radar data, there should be an additional 65 meteorite falls recorded in worldwide radar imagery. Also: 2) if all of the world's radar data could be analyzed, the

  11. Express delivery of fossil meteorites from the inner asteroid belt to Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Gladman, Brett; Häggström, Therese

    2007-06-01

    Our understanding of planet formation depends in fundamental ways on what we learn by analyzing the composition, mineralogy, and petrology of meteorites. Yet, it is difficult to deduce the compositional and thermal gradients that existed in the solar nebula from the meteoritic record because, in most cases, we do not know where meteorites with different chemical and isotopic signatures originated. Here we developed a model that tracks the orbits of meteoroid-sized objects as they evolve from the ν secular resonance to Earth-crossing orbits. We apply this model to determining the number of meteorites accreted on the Earth immediately after a collisional disruption of a D˜200-km-diameter inner-main-belt asteroid in the Flora family region. We show that this event could produce fossil chondrite meteorites found in an ≈470 Myr old marine limestone quarry in southern Sweden, the L-chondrite meteorites with shock ages ≈470 Myr falling on the Earth today, as well as asteroid-sized fragments in the Flora family. To explain the measured short cosmic-ray exposure ages of fossil meteorites our model requires that the meteoroid-sized fragments were launched at speeds >500 m s -1 and/or the collisional lifetimes of these objects were much shorter immediately after the breakup event than they are today.

  12. AMSNEXRAD-Automated detection of meteorite strewnfields in doppler weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Michael; Fries, Marc; Matson, Rob; Fries, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    For several years meteorite recovery in the United States has been greatly enhanced by using Doppler weather radar images to determine possible fall zones for meteorites produced by witnessed fireballs. While most fireball events leave no record on the Doppler radar, some large fireballs do. Based on the successful recovery of 10 meteorite falls 'under the radar', and the discovery of radar on more than 10 historic falls, it is believed that meteoritic dust and or actual meteorites falling to the ground have been recorded on Doppler weather radar (Fries et al., 2014). Up until this point, the process of detecting the radar signatures associated with meteorite falls has been a manual one and dependent on prior accurate knowledge of the fall time and estimated ground track. This manual detection process is labor intensive and can take several hours per event. Recent technological developments by NOAA now help enable the automation of these tasks. This in combination with advancements by the American Meteor Society (Hankey et al., 2014) in the tracking and plotting of witnessed fireballs has opened the possibility for automatic detection of meteorites in NEXRAD Radar Archives. Here in the processes for fireball triangulation, search area determination, radar interfacing, data extraction, storage, search, detection and plotting are explained.

  13. A recent meteorite shower in Antarctica with an unusual orbital history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The Antarctic meteorite collection has proved to be a source of many important discoveries, including a number of previously unknown or very rare meteorite types. A thermoluminescence (TL) survey of meteorite samples recovered by the 1988/89 European expedition and pre-1988 American expeditions to the Allan Hills Main blue ice field resulted in the discovery of 15 meteorites with very high TL levels (greater than 100 krad at 250 C in the glow curve). It is likely that these samples are fragments of a single meteoroid body which: (1) fell very recently and (2) experienced a decrease in orbital perihelia from greater than or equal to 1.1 AU to 1 AU within the last 10(exp 5) yr. Carbon-14 data for two of the samples confirm their young terrestrial age compared to most Antarctic meteorites. Studies of the cosmogenic isotopes in at least one non-Antarctic meteorite which also has very high natural TL, Jilin, indicate that the meteorite experienced a multi-stage irradiation history, the most recent stage being 0.4 Ma in duration following a major break-up of the object. These meteorites, and the few equivalent modern falls, are the only documented samples from bodies which were recently in Earth-approaching (Amor) orbits (i.e., with perihelion greater than 1.0 AU), as opposed to the Earth-crossing (Apollo) orbits which are the source of most other meteorites. Their rarity indicates that such rapid orbit changes are unusual for meteoroid bodies and may be the result of isolated, large break-up events.

  14. Galactic cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides in Antarctic meteorites and a lunar core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide depth effects in a meteorite, the history and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and processes on the lunar surface are discussed in six chapters. A depth profile of 26 Al, 10 Be and 53 Mn activities have been measured in eleven metal phase samples of the Antarctic meteorite ALHA78084 to determine the importance of the secondary cascade in producing these nuclides in a 30 centimeter diameter meteorite. The results show a buildup of lower energy reaction products and a flat profile for high energy reaction products with depth. The activity of 53 Mn has been measured as a function of depth in eleven soil samples from the lunar double drive tubes 15011/15010. The results agree within error with the previous results of Nishiizumi. These data are consistent with the previously published 26 Al results of the Battelle Northwest group which indicated a disturbed profile down to 17 g/cm 2 and an accumulation rate of 2 cm/My. Comparison with the gardening models of Arnold and Langevin and the local topography suggests such a continuous accumulation is the result of steady downslope transport of surface soil for 7 to 10 My at this site. The 53 Mn activity was determined in eleven samples in eight Allan Hills-80 Antarctic meteorites and one sample from an Elephant Moraine Antarctic meteorite. Mineralogic and field relation data suggest that Allan Hills meteorites to be two sets of paired falls. The 53 Mn results are consistent with the grouping of these meteorites as paired falls excluding the meteorite ALHA80127. comparison with future nuclear particle track work and results from the measurement of other cosmogenic nuclides will provide more definitive results

  15. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  16. SNC Meteorites, Organic Matter and a New Look at Viking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David M.; Clemett, Simon J.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, evidence has begun to grow supporting the possibility that the Viking GC-MS would not have detected certain carboxylate salts that could have been present as metastable oxidation products of high molecular weight organic species. Additionally, despite the instrument's high sensitivity, the possibility had remained that very low levels of organic matter, below the instrument's detection limit, could have been present. In fact, a recent study indicates that the degradation products of several million microorganisms per gram of soil on Mars would not have been detected by the Viking GC-MS. Since the strength of the GC-MS findings was considered enough to dismiss the biology packet, particularly the LR results, any subsequent evidence suggesting that organic molecules may in fact be present on the Martian surface necessitates a re-evaluation of the Viking LR data. In addition to an advanced mass spectrometer to look for isotopic signatures of biogenic processes, future lander missions will include the ability to detect methane produced by methanogenic bacteria, as well as techniques based on biotechnology. Meanwhile, the identification of Mars samples already present on Earth in the form of the SNC meteorites has provided us with the ability to study samples of the Martian upper crust a decade or more in advance of any planned sample return missions. While contamination issues are of serious concern, the presence of indigenous organic matter in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been detected in the Martian meteorites ALH84001 and Nakhla, while there is circumstantial evidence for carbonaceous material in Chassigny. The radiochronological ages of these meteorites are 4.5 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and 165 Ma respectively representing a span of time in Earth history from the earliest single-celled organisms to the present day. Given this perspective on organic material, a biological interpretation to the Viking LR results can no longer be ruled out. In the LR

  17. Basic nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds in the Murchison meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoks, P.G.; Schwartz, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A fragment of the Murchison (C2) carbonaceous meteorite was analyzed for basic, N-heterocyclic compounds, by dual detector capillary gas chromatography as well as capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using two columns of different polarity. In the formic acid extract 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, 2-methylquinoline and 4-methylquinoline were positively identified. In addition, a suite of alkylpyridines and quinolines and/or isoquinolines was tentatively identified from their mass spectra. The (iso)quinolines were found to contain methyl substituents exclusively. The distribution of the pyridines observed reveals a similarity to that observed from catalytic reactions of ammonia and simple aldehydes under conditions similar to those applied in Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. (author)

  18. Evidence for extreme Ti-50 enrichments in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, A.; Mckeegan, K.D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J.N.; Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad, India)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the first high mass resolution ion microprobe study of Ti isotopic compositions in individual refractory grains from primitive carbonaceous meteorites are reported. One hibonite from the Murray carbonaceous chondrite has a 10 percent excess of Ti-50, 25 times higher than the maximum value previously reported for bulk samples of refractory inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites. The variation of the Ti compositions between different hibonite grains, and among pyroxenes from a single Allende refractory inclusion, indicates isotopic inhomogeneities over small scale lengths in the solar nebula and emphasizes the importance of the analysis of small individual phases. This heterogeneity makes it unlikely that the isotopic anomalies were carried into the solar system in the gas phase. 20 references

  19. Paleomagnetism. Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded in the Semarkona meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roger R; Weiss, Benjamin P; Lima, Eduardo A; Harrison, Richard J; Bai, Xue-Ning; Desch, Steven J; Ebel, Denton S; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Glenn, David; Le Sage, David; Kasama, Takeshi; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kuan, Aaron T

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic fields are proposed to have played a critical role in some of the most enigmatic processes of planetary formation by mediating the rapid accretion of disk material onto the central star and the formation of the first solids. However, there have been no experimental constraints on the intensity of these fields. Here we show that dusty olivine-bearing chondrules from the Semarkona meteorite were magnetized in a nebular field of 54 ± 21 microteslas. This intensity supports chondrule formation by nebular shocks or planetesimal collisions rather than by electric currents, the x-wind, or other mechanisms near the Sun. This implies that background magnetic fields in the terrestrial planet-forming region were likely 5 to 54 microteslas, which is sufficient to account for measured rates of mass and angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Accelerator mass analyses of meteorites - carbon-14 terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Rucklidge, J.; Beukens, R.; Fireman, E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon-14 terrestrial ages of ten Antarctic meteorites have been measured by the IsoTrace accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 14 C terrestrial age of 1 gram sample was determined from 14 C concentrations collected at melt and re-melt temperatures, compared with the 14 C concentration of the known Bruderheim chondrite. Yamato-790448 (LL3) chondrite was found to be the oldest terrestrial age of 3x10 4 years in the nine Yamato chondrites, whereas Yamato-791630 (L4) chondrite is considered to be the youngest chondrites less than thousand years. Allan Hills chondrite of ALH-77231 (L6) shows older terrestrial age than the nine Yamato chondrites. New accelerator data of the terrestrial age show higher accuracy with smaller sample than the previous counting method. (author)

  1. Investigation of Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites and their Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian

    Cosmochemistry aims to clarify the origin of our solar system and the preconditions for life as we know it. Through the study of meteorites, it is possible to constrain our Sun’s birth environment, the formation and the evolution of the protoplanetary disk of dust and gas that evolved...... then terminated their evolution either on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or in supernova explosions at the time when low mass stars like our Sun were forming. In this way, matter incorporated into the nascent solar system must have had diverse origins, some being old inherited presolar grains, others being...... the bulk solar system. Therefore, in order to establish a detailed history of the early solar system and processing of the protoplanetary disk, it is critical to ascertain the isotope variability of a large range of elements of different nucleosynthetic origin. In this thesis, we establish methods...

  2. Meteoritic Stardust and the Presolar History of the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    Presolar stardust is present at low levels in meteorites and cometary dust and identified as ancient stellar matter by unusual isotopic compositions reflecting nuclear processes in stellar interiors and galactic chemical evolution. Most grains originated in winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernova and their isotopic compositions provide important constraints on models of evolution and nucleosynthesis in these environments. The presolar grains from AGB stars appear to have formed in a lower-mass population of stars than predicted by GCE models. A merger of the Milky Way with a dwarf galaxy some 1 Gyr before the birth of the Solar System may explain this and other grain observations and the data thus can provide a unique window into the presolar history of the solar neighborhood.

  3. DECODING THE MESSAGE FROM METEORITIC STARDUST SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Karen M.; Lugaro, Maria; Gibson, Brad K.; Pilkington, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analyzed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carries the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modeling of dust condensation in stellar winds as a function of the metallicity.

  4. LEW 88516: A Meteorite Compositionally Close to the "Martian Mantle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibus, G.; Jochum, K. H.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wlotzka, F.; Wanke, H.

    1992-07-01

    Several samples from a total of 250 mg of the recently discovered Antarctic shergottite LEW 88516 were analysed for major and trace elements by neutron activation techniques, SSMS, and a carbon-sulfur analyser. Results are presented in Table 1, together with data on ALHA 77005 (Wanke et al., 1976). This and earlier results (Boynton et al., 1992; Lindstrom et al.,1992) show the close compositional similarity of Lew 88516 to ALHA 77005. A major difference between the two shergottites is the much lower iodine content of the ALHA 77005 meteorite. The absence of similar variations in Br and Cl confirms earlier suggestions of an Antarctic source for the I excess. In a Mg/Si vs. Al/Si diagram (Fig. 1) the LEW 88516 meteorite plots at the intersection of a Shergotty parent (SPB) body fractionation trend and a line connecting enstatite chondrites and CM chondrites. The position of LEW 88516 and also of ALHA 77005 in the vicinity of ordinary chondrites is indicative of their relatively primitive composition. Lithophile trace elements show some enhancement of Sc and V over heavy REE and depletion of light REE, suggesting either a residual character for the two meteorites or assimilation of a cumulate phase during their formation. Comparatively high Ni and Co also reflect the more mafic character of the two meteorites. The present analysis and the earlier data on ALHA 77005 unambiguously demonstrate the presence of Ir in an abundance range typical for the terrestrial upper mantle. A similar Ir level was found in Chassigny, but the more fractionated Shergotty has 100 times lower Ir contents. The presence of Ir in the martian mantle samples may be the result of sulfide-silicate equilibration. The sulfides in Lew 88516 are small pyrrhotite grains (5-30 micron, 52 atom% S) and occur often together with ilmenite, at grain boundaries of the major silicate minerals. Sulfides contain an average of 1.8% Ni. However, the major fraction of Ni must reside in oxides and/or silicates as the

  5. Refractory metal particles in refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, L.H.; Blander, M.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of refractory metal particles in five calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite indicates a complex variety of compositions and large departures from equilibrium. These particles appear to have been primordial condensates which were isolated from the nebula and from each other at different times by cocondensing oxides. Selective diffusion and/or oxidation of the more oxidizable metals (Mo, W, Fe and Ni), phase segregations into different alloy phases (fcc, bcc, hcp and perhaps ordered phases) and the formation of metastable condensates appears to have been involved in the modification of these materials to their present state. Only a small fraction of our observations cannot be reconciled with this picture because of a lack of knowledge of some of the phase equilibria which might have bee involved

  6. Moessbauer studies on the paramagnetic porton of alkidirat meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Huda Mohamed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1995-11-01

    This work was performed on a sample from alkidirat meteorite which fell west of Sudan by means of Moessbauer effect spectrometer. results showed the absence of transition temperature from the paramagnetic state to the magnetic state in the temperature range from 300K down to 16K. Also, it was found that olivine and ortho pyroxene exist together in site M{sup 1}, while clinothyroxene exists alone in site M{sup 2}. Formula for the composition of ortho pyroxene in the sample were also obtained and they were in good agreement with previous studies. The disorder parameter was also calculated and it showed that the pyroxene present in the sample is well-ordered.(Author) 37 refs. , 2 tabs. , 19 figs.

  7. Organic chemistry of Murchison meteorite: Carbon isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Cronin, J. R.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual organic compounds of meteoritic origin remains unknown, as most reported carbon isotopic ratios are for bulk carbon or solvent extractable fractions. The researchers managed to determine the carbon isotopic ratios for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids isolated from a Murchison sample by a freeze-thaw-ultrasonication technique. The abundances of monocarboxylic acids and saturated hydrocarbons decreased with increasing carbon number and the acids are more abundant than the hydrocarbon with the same carbon number. For both classes of compounds, the C-13 to C-12 ratios decreased with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic number than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with a kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues for lower ones.

  8. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  9. Ar-Ar dating techniques for terrestrial meteorite impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S. P.

    2003-04-01

    The ages of the largest (>100 km) known impacts on Earth are now well characterised. However the ages of many intermediate sized craters (20-100 km) are still poorly known, often the only constraints are stratigraphic - the difference between the target rock age and the age of crater filling sediments. The largest impacts result in significant melt bodies which cool to form igneous rocks and can be dated using conventional radiometric techniques. Smaller impacts give rise to thin bands of melted rock or melt clasts intimately mixed with country rock clasts in breccia deposits, and present much more of a challenge to dating. The Ar-Ar dating technique can address a wide variety of complex and heterogeneous samples associated with meteorite impacts and obtain reasonable ages. Ar-Ar results will be presented from a series of terrestrial meteorite impact craters including Boltysh (65.17±0.64 Ma, Strangways (646±42 Ma), and St Martin (220±32 Ma) and a Late Triassic spherule bed, possibly representing distal deposits from Manicouagan (214±1 Ma) crater. Samples from the Boltysh and Strangways craters demonstrate the importance of rapid cooling upon the retention of old ages in glassy impact rocks. A Late Triassic spherule bed in SW England is cemented by both carbonate and K-feldspar cements allowing Ar-Ar dating of fine grained cement to place a mimimum age upon the age of the associated impact. An age of 214.7±2.5 Ma places the deposit with errors of the age of the Manicouagan impact, raising the possibility that it may represent a distal deposit (the deposit lay around 2000 km away from the site of the Manicouagan crater during the Late Triassic). Finally the limits of the technique will be demonstrated using an attempt to date melt rocks from the St Martin Crater in Canada.

  10. Isotopic and chemical variation of organic nanoglobules in primitive meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'd.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Cody, George D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Nuevo, Michel; Zega, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Organic nanoglobules are microscopic spherical carbon-rich objects present in chondritic meteorites and other astromaterials. We performed a survey of the morphology, organic functional chemistry, and isotopic composition of 184 nanoglobules in insoluble organic matter (IOM) residues from seven primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Hollow and solid nanoglobules occur in each IOM residue, as well as globules with unusual shapes and structures. Most nanoglobules have an organic functional chemistry similar to, but slightly more carboxyl-rich than, the surrounding IOM, while a subset of nanoglobules have a distinct, highly aromatic functionality. The range of nanoglobule N isotopic compositions was similar to that of nonglobular 15N-rich hotspots in each IOM residue, but nanoglobules account for only about one third of the total 15N-rich hotspots in each sample. Furthermore, many nanoglobules in each residue contained no 15N enrichment above that of bulk IOM. No morphological indicators were found to robustly distinguish the highly aromatic nanoglobules from those that have a more IOM-like functional chemistry, or to distinguish 15N-rich nanoglobules from those that are isotopically normal. The relative abundance of aromatic nanoglobules was lower, and nanoglobule diameters were greater, in more altered meteorites, suggesting the creation/modification of IOM-like nanoglobules during parent-body processing. However, 15N-rich nanoglobules, including many with highly aromatic functional chemistry, likely reflect preaccretionary isotopic fractionation in cold molecular cloud or protostellar environments. These data indicate that no single formation mechanism can explain all of the observed characteristics of nanoglobules, and their properties are likely a result of multiple processes occurring in a variety of environments.

  11. Pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa 856 martian meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Hugues; Devouard, Bertrand; Cordier, Patrick; Guyot, François

    2004-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 martian meteorite to construct its cooling and shock histories. All pyroxenes contain strained coherent pigeonite/augite exsolution lamellae on (001). The average width and periodicity of lamellae are 80 and 400 nm, respectively, indicating a cooling rate below 0.1 °C/hr for the parent rock. Pigeonite and augite are topotactic, with strained coherent interfaces parallel to (001). The closure temperature for Ca-Fe, Mg interdiffusion, estimated from the composition at the augite pigeonite interface, is about 700 °C. Tweed texture in augite reveals that a spinodal decomposition occurred. Locally, tweed evolved toward secondary pigeonite exsolutions on (001). Due to the decreasing diffusion rate with decreasing temperature, "M-shaped" concentration profiles developed in augite lamellae. Pigeonite contains antiphase boundaries resulting from the C2/c to P21/c space group transition that occurred during cooling. The reconstructive phase transition from P21/c clinopyroxene to orthopyroxene did not occur. The deformation (shock) history of the meteorites is revealed by the presence of dislocations and mechanical twins. Dislocations are found in glide configuration, with the [001](100) glide system preferentially activated. They exhibit strong interaction with the strained augite/pigeonite interfaces and did not propagate over large distances. Twins are found to be almost all parallel to (100) and show moderate interaction with the augite/pigeonite interfaces. These twins are responsible for the plastic deformation of the pyroxene grains. Comparison with microstructure of shocked clinopyroxene (experimentally or naturally shocked) suggests that NWA 856 pyroxenes are not strongly shocked.

  12. Allochthonous Addition of Meteoritic Organics to the Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of lunar samples 74220,861 was discussed in detail in [3, 4]. Our analysis sequence was as follows: optical microscopy, UV fluorescence imaging, -Raman, FESEM-EDX imaging and mapping, FETEMEDX imaging and mapping of a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) extracted section, and NanoSIMs analysis. We observed fluffytextured C-rich regions of interest (ROI) on three different volcanic glass beads. Each ROI was several m2 in size and fluoresced when exposed to UV. Using FESEM/EDX, the largest ROI measured 36 m and was located on an edge of a plateau located on the uppermost surface of the bead. The ROI was covered on one edge by a siliceous filament emanating from the plateau surface indicating it was attached to the bead while on the Moon. EDX mapping of the ROI shows it is composed primarily of heterogeneously distributed C. Embedded with the carbonaceous phase are localized concentrations of Si, Fe, Al and Ti indicating the presence of glass and/or minerals grains. -Raman showed strong D- and G-bands and their associated second order bands; intensity and location of these bands indicates the carbonaceous matter is structurally disorganized. A TEM thin section was extracted from the surface of a glass bead using FIB microscopy. High resolution TEM imaging and selected area electron diffraction demonstrate the carbonaceous layer to be amorphous; it lacked any long or short range order characteristic of micro- or nanocrystalline graphite. Additionally TEM imaging also revealed the presence of submicron mineral grains, typically < 50 nm in size, dispersed within the carbonaceous layer. NanoSIMs data will be presented and discussed at the meeting. Given the noted similarities between the carbonaceous matter present on 74220 glass beads and meteoritic kerogen, we suggest the allochthonous addition of meteoritic organics as the most probable source for the C-rich ROIs.

  13. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  14. Falling sky the science and history of meteorites and why we should learn to love them

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Did an enormous collision in the Asteroid Belt, orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter, bombard Earth with meteorites 470 million years ago? Astonishing new research suggests it did, and a revolutionary theory is emerging that this bombardment resulted in the single greatest increase in biological diversity on the planet since the origin of life. Introducing these discoveries to the general public for the first time, Ted Nield challenges the view that meteorites are bad news. Tracing the history of meteorites from the first recorded strike to the videos made routinely today, he reveals the fascinating ways in which meteorites have transformed from omens of doom to a stepping stone to Mars in twenty-first-century space exploration. The Falling Sky will shatter everything you thought you knew about one of the most terrifying forces in the universe.

  15. Investigation of carbonates in the Sutter's Mill meteorite grains with hyperspectral infrared imaging micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    Synchrotron-based high spatial resolution hyperspectral infrared imaging technique provides thousands of infrared spectra with high resolution, thus allowing us to acquire detailed spatial maps of chemical molecular structures for many grains in short times. Utilizing this technique, thousands of infrared spectra were analyzed at once instead of inspecting each spectrum separately. Sutter's Mill meteorite is a unique carbonaceous type meteorite with highly heterogeneous chemical composition. Multiple grains from the Sutter's Mill meteorite have been studied using this technique and the presence of both hydrous and anhydrous silicate minerals have been observed. It is observed that the carbonate mineralogy varies from simple to more complex carbonates even within a few microns in the meteorite grains. These variations, the type and distribution of calcite-like vs. dolomite-like carbonates are presented by means of hyperspectral FTIR imaging spectroscopy with high resolution. Various scenarios for the formation of different carbonate compositions in the Sutter's Mill parent body are discussed.

  16. Minor bodies of the Solar system: meteorite orbits, relationship, mirror symmetry in C-distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'eva, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Population of large meteor bodies having masses from several kilograms up to several tens of tons has been revealed by means of photographic observations of bright fireballs. 39 of 69 objects of this population is meteorites producing. A unique class of meteorite orbits of an extremely short period (the Earth's group) has been found. The analysis of the distributions of minor bodies by Tisserand constant C (the perturbing planet is Jupiter) allowed to make conclusions about possible genetic connections and families inside the complex of minor bodies - comets, asteroids, large meteor bodies including meteorites and meteor streams. About 8 per cent of meteorites and 15 per cent of asteroids of the Amour group may have a cometary origin. Mirror symmetry has been found in C-distribution of minor bodies relative to the gap in the center of which collinear points of libration are located

  17. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  18. Identification, testing, and analysis of a meteorite debris from jhelum, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry have been used to determine the mineralogical and elemental composition of a stone sample recovered from a location near village Lehri in district Jhelurn, Pakistan. The test data is compared with previous findings (as reported in literature and included in references) to identify this sample stone as part of a prehistoric meteorite ablation debris. Carbon content of a specimen of the meteorite debris has also been determined through combustion analysis. This carbon abundance has been compared with carbon wt% value of a certain type of meteorites to establ ish the origin and nature of the parent body of this particular meteorite debris. (author)

  19. Constraining the Source Craters of the Martian Meteorites: Implications for Prioritiziation of Returned Samples from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Tornabene, L. L.; Bowling, T. J.; Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Melosh, H. J.; Hamilton, J. S.; Viviano, C. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    We have made advances in constraining the potential source craters of the martian meteorites to a relatively small number. Our results have implications for Mars chronology and the prioritization of samples for Mars Sample Return.

  20. Enantiomer excesses of rare and common sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Rios, Andro C

    2016-06-14

    Biological polymers such as nucleic acids and proteins are constructed of only one-the d or l-of the two possible nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers) of selected organic compounds. However, before the advent of life, it is generally assumed that chemical reactions produced 50:50 (racemic) mixtures of enantiomers, as evidenced by common abiotic laboratory syntheses. Carbonaceous meteorites contain clues to prebiotic chemistry because they preserve a record of some of the Solar System's earliest (∼4.5 Gy) chemical and physical processes. In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. Although the proposed origins of such excesses are still tentative, the findings imply that meteoritic compounds and/or the processes that operated on meteoritic precursors may have played an ancient role in the enantiomer composition of life's carbohydrate-related biopolymers.

  1. The Distinct Genetics of Carbonaceous and Non-Carbonaceous Meteorites Inferred from Molybdenum Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, G.; Burkhardt, C.; Kleine, T.

    2017-07-01

    Mo isotope systematics manifest a fundamental dichotomy in the genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites. We discuss its implications in light of the most recent literature data and new isotope data for primitive achondrites.

  2. Comparisons of PGA and INAA in the analyses of meteorite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ebihara, M.; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2010-01-01

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are suitable methods for multi-elemental determinations in various samples. These two methods are complementary because PGA is capable of analyzing most major and minor elements in rock samples whereas INAA is more superior in determining minor and trace elements. Both PGA and INAA are essential for the study of rare samples such as meteorites because of non-destructivity and relatively being free from contaminations. Samples for PGA can be reused for INAA, which help to reduce the sample usage. This project aims to utilize PGA and INAA techniques for comparative study and apply them to meteorites. In this study, 11 meteorite samples received from the Meteorite Working Group of NASA were analyzed. The Allende meteorite powder was included as quality control material. Results from PGA and INAA for Allende showed good agreement with literature values, signifying the reliabilities of these two methods. Elements Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na and Ti were determined by both methods and their results are compared. Comparison of PGA and INAA data using linear regression analysis showed correlations coefficients r 2 > 0.90 for Al, Ca, Mn and Ti, 0.85 for Mg, and 0.38 for Na. The PGA results for Na using 472 keV were less accurate due to the interference from the broad B peak. Therefore, Na results from INAA method are preferred. For other elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Ti), PGA and INAA results can be used as cross-reference for consistency. The PGA and INAA techniques have been applied to meteorite samples and results are comparable to literature values compiled from previously analyzed meteorites. In summary, both PGA and INAA methods give reasonably good agreement and are indispensable in the study of meteorites. (author)

  3. Microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites: implications to the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-11-01

    Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) investigations have shown that a wide variety of carbonaceous meteorites contain the remains of large filaments embedded within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite rock matrix. The filaments occur singly or in dense assemblages and mats and are often encased within carbon-rich, electron transparent sheaths. Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot analysis and 2D X-Ray maps indicate the filaments rarely have detectable nitrogen levels and exhibit elemental compositions consistent with that interpretation that of the meteorite rock matrix. Many of the meteorite filaments are exceptionally well-preserved and show evidence of cells, cell-wall constrictions and specialized cells and processes for reproduction, nitrogen fixation, attachment and motility. Morphological and morphometric analyses permit many of the filaments to be associated with morphotypes of known genera and species of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria and sulfur bacteria). The presence in carbonaceous meteorites of diagenetic breakdown products of chlorophyll (pristane and phytane) along with indigenous and extraterrestrial chiral protein amino acids, nucleobases and other life-critical biomolecules provides strong support to the hypothesis that these filaments represent the remains of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms that grew on the meteorite parent body. The absence of other life-critical biomolecules in the meteorites and the lack of detectable levels of nitrogen indicate the filaments died long ago and can not possibly represent modern microbial contaminants that entered the stones after they arrived on Earth. This paper presents new evidence for microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites and considers the implications to some of the major hypotheses for the Origin of Life.

  4. Neuschwanstein and Pribram: Two solitaire meteorites or members of a stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, J.; Spurny, P.; Heinlein, D.

    2003-04-01

    The fall of the Neuschwanstein enstatite chondrite EL6 at 20:20:17.7 UTC on April 6, 2002, in Southern Bavaria is well documented. Using photographic records obtained by the European Fireball Network (EN), the heliocentric orbit of the object before its collision with Earth could be determined [Spurny et al., Nature, submitted]. Surprisingly, its orbit is practically identical to that of another meteorite, which was photographed by the EN 43 years earlier: the Pribram H5-chondrite, which fell on April 7, 1959. The orbital elements are extremely similar indeed, as is indicated by a D-criterion of D=0.025. By analysis of the orbital elements of all available (approx. 200) ''meteorite candidates'', we estimate that the chances of finding two meteorites with orbital elements matching as well as in the case of Pribram and Neuschwanstein is 1:100,000. Therefore, we believe that the paired fall is not a coincidence and that the meteorites are members of a stream of objects. Considering Innisfree and Ridgedale, another paired fall, observed by the Canadian MORP (Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project), in 1977 and 1980 [Halliday, Icarus 69, 550-556, 1987], it appears that meteorite streams are not uncommon among Earth-approaching objects. On the basis of the observational efficiency of the EN, we estimate that the Pribram/Neuschwanstein meteorite stream contains approx. 10^9 members; all of them combined would form an asteroid with a minimum radius of 300m. From studies of cometary-type meteor streams it is known that these cometary stream members have separated from their parent body fairly recently. However, judging from the different classifications of the meteorites, and from their long cosmic exposure (Pribram has a cosmic ray age of 19 Million years) both, a common parent and a recent separation, are not very likely.

  5. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of plagioclase and maskelynite in Martian meteorites: Evidence of progressive shock metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz,Jorg; Greshake,Ansgar; Stoffler,Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We present the first systematic Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of plagioclase of different degree of shock metamorphism in Martian meteorites. The equilibrium shock pressure of all plagioclase phases of seventeen unpaired Martian meteorites was determined by measuring the shock-induced reduction of the refractive index. Systematic variations in the recorded Raman spectra of the plagioclase phases correlate with increasing shock pressure. In general, the shock induced deformation of t...

  6. Qualitative Elemental Analyses of a Meteorite Sample Found in Turkey by Photo-activation Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertugay, C; Boztosun, I; Ozmen, S F; Dapo, H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a meteorite sample provided from TÜBITAK National Observatory found in Turkey has been investigated by using a clinical linear accelerator that has endpoint energy of 18 MeV, and a high purity Germanium detector for qualitative elemental analysis within photo-activation analysis method. 21 nuclei ranging from 24Na to 149Nd have been identified in the meteorite sample. (paper)

  7. Lunar Meteorites Sayh Al Uhaymir 449 and Dhofar 925, 960, and 961: Windows into South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ryan A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, three lunar meteorites were collected in close proximity to each other in the Dhofar region of Oman: Dhofar 925 (49 g), Dhofar 960 (35 g), and Dhofar 961 (22 g). In 2006, lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 (16.5 g) was found about 100 km to the NE. Despite significant differences in the bulk composition of Dhofar 961 relative to Dhofar 925/960 and SaU 449 (which are identical to each other), these four meteorites are postulated to be paired based on their find locations, bulk composition, and detailed petrographic analysis. Hereafter, they will collectively be referred to as the Dhofar 961 clan. Comparison of meteorite and component bulk compositions to Lunar Prospector 5-degree gamma-ray data suggest the most likely provenance of this meteorite group is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. As the oldest, largest, and deepest recognizable basin on the Moon, the composition of the material within the SPA basin is of particular importance to lunar science. Here we review and expand upon the geochemistry and petrography of the Dhofar 961 clan and assess the likelihood that these meteorites come from within the SPA basin based on their bulk compositions and the compositions and characteristics of the major lithologic components found within the breccia.

  8. A Propensity for n-omega-Amino Acids in Thermally-Altered Antarctic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Martin, Mildred G.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain a wealth of indigenous organic molecules, including amino acids, which suggests that these meteorites could have been an important source of prebiotic organic material during the origins of life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. We report the detection of extraterrestrial amino acids in thermally-altered type 3 CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and ureilites recovered from Antarctica. The amino acid concentrations of the thirteen Antarctic meteorites were generally less abundant than in more amino acid-rich CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites that experienced much lower temperature aqueous alteration on their parent bodies. In contrast to low-temperature aqueously-altered meteorites that show complete structural diversity in amino acids formed predominantly by Strecker-cyanohydrin synthesis, the thermally-altered meteorites studied here are dominated by small, straight-chain, amine terminal (n-omega-amino) amino acids that are not consistent with Strecker formation. The carbon isotopic ratios of two extraterrestrial n-omega-amino acids measured in one of the CV chondrites are consistent with C-13-depletions observed previously in hydrocarbons produced by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. The predominance of n-omega-amino acid isomers in thermally-altered meteorites hints at cosmochemical mechanisms for the preferential formation and preservation of a small subset of the possible amino acids.

  9. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsook Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of δ(13C, -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of δ(13C from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  10. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  11. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  12. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

  13. Cathodoluminescence and Raman Spectromicroscopy of Forsterite in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Astromineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gucsik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tagish Lake meteorite is CI/CM2 chondrite, which fell by a fireball event in January 2000. This study emphasizes the cathodoluminescence (CL and Raman spectroscopical properties of the Tagish Lake meteorite in order to classify the meteoritic forsterite and its relation to the crystallization processes in a parent body. The CL-zoning of Tagish Lake meteorite records the thermal history of chondrules and terrestrial weathering. Only the unweathered olivine is forsterite, which is CL-active. The variation of luminescence in chondrules of Tagish Lake meteorite implies chemical inhomogeneity due to low-grade thermal metamorphism. The blue emission center in forsterite due to crystal lattice defect is proposed as being caused by rapid cooling during the primary crystallization and relatively low-temperature thermal metamorphism on the parent body of Tagish Lake meteorite. This is in a good agreement with the micro-Raman spectroscopical data. A combination of cathodoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopies shows some potentials in study of the asteroidal processes of parent bodies in solar system.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  11. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  19. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  7. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  8. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  9. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  12. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  1. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  4. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  5. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  6. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  7. Effects of meteorite impacts on the atmospheric evolution of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lê Binh San; Karatekin, Ozgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Early in its history, Mars probably had a denser atmosphere with sufficient greenhouse gases to sustain the presence of stable liquid water at the surface. Impacts by asteroids and comets would have played a significant role in the evolution of the martian atmosphere, not only by causing atmospheric erosion but also by delivering material and volatiles to the planet. We investigate the atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles with an analytical model that takes into account the impact simulation results and the flux of impactors given in the literature. The atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles are calculated to obtain the atmospheric pressure evolution. Our results suggest that the impacts alone cannot satisfactorily explain the loss of significant atmospheric mass since the Late Noachian (approximately 3.7-4 Ga). A period with intense bombardment of meteorites could have increased the atmospheric loss; but to explain the loss of a speculative massive atmosphere in the Late Noachian, other factors of atmospheric erosion and replenishment also need to be taken into account.

  8. Searching for Amino Acids in Meteorites and Comet Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, which strives to understand the origin, distribution, and evolution of life throughout the universe. Chemical techniques are used to search for and characterize the basic ingredients for life, from the elements through simple molecules and up to the more complex compounds that may serve as the ingredients for life. The Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory at NASA Goddard uses state-of-the-art laboratory analytical instrumentation in unconventional ways to examine extraterrestrial materials and tackle some of the big questions in astrobiology. This talk will discuss some of the instrumentation and techniques used for these unique samples, as well as some of our most interesting results. The talk will present two areas of particular interest in our laboratory: (1) the search for chiral excesses in meteoritic amino acids, which may help to explain the origin of homochirality in life on Earth; and (2) the detection of amino acids and amines in material returned by NASA's Stardust mission, which rendevouzed with a cornet and brought back cometary particles to the Earth.

  9. Evidence From Hydrogen Isotopes in Meteorites for a Martian Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial landforms on Mars suggest that it was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. The transition to the present cold and dry Mars is closely linked to the history of surface water, yet the evolution of surficial water is poorly constrained. We have investigated the evolution of surface water/ ice and its interaction with the atmosphere by measurements of hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H: deuterium/ hydrogen) of martian meteorites. Hydrogen is a major component of water (H2O) and its isotopes fractionate significantly during hydrological cycling between the atmosphere, surface waters, ground ice, and polar cap ice. Based on in situ ion microprobe analyses of three geochemically different shergottites, we reported that there is a water/ice reservoir with an intermediate D/H ratio (delta D = 1,000?2500 %) on Mars. Here we present the possibility that this water/ice reservoir represents a ground-ice/permafrost that has existed relatively intact over geologic time.

  10. X-radiography of slices of the Allende Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Heymann, D.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.2 kg fragment of the Allende Meteorite was derinded and sliced by bandsawing. Several X-radiographs were made of all slices. The following features are resolved: grains of blocky troilite (bright spots), troilite rimmed chondrules (bright halos), chondrules with central vugs (dim halos), white aggregates (dark patches), and dark inclusions (medium dark patches). The number of FeS grains larger than about 0.5 mm is one per 6 + or - 1 gram of this fragment. Their concentration appears to be uniform at the 1 kg weight level, but is not uniform at the 100 g level. The number of FeS rimmed chondrules is one per 10 g. Their concentration is also nonuniform at the 100 g weight level. The number of white aggregates is roughly one per 20 g. These disc shaped objects show a distinct preferred orientation of the axis orthogonal to the plane of the disc. Chondrules with central vugs are numerous. Linear and curved arrays of chondrules, up to a few cm long, were observed. An interpretation of the observed features is given.

  11. A Meteorite Dropping Superbolide from the Catastrophycally Disrupted Comet C1919Q2 Metcalf: A Pathway for Meteorites from Jupiter Family Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.; Williams, I. P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Llorca, J.; Vítek, S.; Jelínek, M.

    2009-03-01

    A meter-sized meteoroid probably produced during the disintegration of comet C1919Q2 Metcalf was observed producing a -18 magn. bolide (MNRAS, in press).The progenitor meteoroid was sufficiently large and of high enough tensile strength to produce meteorites.

  12. Ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy measurements of carbonaceous meteorites and planetary analog materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, Charles A.; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen; Takir, Driss

    2017-10-01

    The compositions of airless solar system objects tell us about the origin and evolutionary processes that are responsible for the current state of our solar system and that shape our environment. Spectral reflectance measurements in the ultraviolet are being used more frequently for providing compositional information of airless solid surfaces. Most minerals absorb in the UV making studying surface composition both informative but also challenging [e.g. 1]. The UV region is sensitive to atomic and molecular electronic absorptions such as the ligand-metal charge transfer band that is present in oxides and silicates and the conduction band at vacuum UV wavelengths. At the JHU-APL, bidirectional UV reflectance measurements are obtained under vacuum using a McPherson monochrometer with a PMT detector to achieve measurements over the range from ~ 140 nm to ~ 570 nm. Sample temperature can also be controlled from ~ 100K to ~ 600K, which enables the exploring the interaction of water ice and other volatiles with refractory samples. We have measured the UV spectra of many carbonaceous chondrites, including Mokoia, Vigarano, Warrenton, Orgueil, SaU290, and Essebi. In addition to being dark, some also possess on OMCT band. We have also obtained IR measurement of these meteorites to explore possible correlations between their UV and IR spectral signatures. In addition, we have also measured the UV spectra of low water content lunar analog glasses and have found a correlation between the spectral nature of the OMCT band and the abundance of iron [3]. Also, the spectral signature of mineralic and adsorbed water in the UV has been investigated. While water-ice has a known strong absorption feature near 180 nm (e.g. 4], adsorbed molecular and disassociatively adsorbed OH appear to not be optically active in this spectral region [5]. References: [1] Wagner et al. (1987) Icarus, 69, 14-28.1987; [2] Cloutis et al. (2008) Icarus, 197, 321-347; [3] Greenspon et al. (2012), 43rd LPSC

  13. The radiation age of meteorites; L'age des meteorites; Opredelenie vozrasta meteoritov s pomoshch'yu radiatsii; Edad de los meteoritos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, K; Schmidlin, P [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1962-01-15

    Radioisotopes produced by cosmic radiation in meteorites while travelling through space can be used to trace the history of these meteorites. The radioisotopes and the accumulated daughter-elements in the meteorite must be determined in order to evaluate how long the meteorite was exposed to cosmic radiation. (It must be assumed for this calculation that the flux of the cosmic radiation is constant with time.) Most often gaseous isotopes have been used for these measurements as they can be easily separated from the meteoric substance. In the reported work tritium and argon have been mainly used. From the ratio H{sup 3}/He{sup 3}, radiation ages from a few millions to several hundred millions of years have been found. The recent measurements made at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) agree in principle with results from other sources. The probable errors from diffusion-losses of gas and the influence of shielding in the pre-atmospheric meteorite are discussed in the paper. By taking into consideration the measured cross-section for tritium production in the elements which form the meteorite, the values of the cosmic-ray flux in outer space can be determined. (author) [French] Les radioisotopes produits par les rayonnements cosmiques dans les meteorites circulant dans l'espace peuvent servir a reconstituer l'histoire de ces corps. Il faut mesurer les radioisotopes et les produits de filiation accumules dans la meteorite pour evaluer le temps pendant lequel la meteorite a ete exposee aux rayonnements cosmiques. (On considere alors que le flux des rayonnements cosmiques ne varie pas dans le temps.) Pour ces mesures, on se fonde le plus souvent sur les isotopes gazeux parce qu'il est facile de les separer de la substance meteorique. Dans les recherches qui font l'objet du present memoire, il s'agissait surtout du tritium et de l'argon. En partant du rapport {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, on a pu evaluer des ages allant de quelques millions a plusieurs centaines

  14. Parent Body Influences on Amino Acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a primitive C2 carbonaceous chondrite with a mineralogy, oxygen isotope, and bulk chemical. However, in contrast to many CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, the Tagish Lake meteorite was reported to have only trace levels of indigenous amino acids, with evidence for terrestrial L-amino acid contamination from the Tagish Lake meltwater. The lack of indigenous amino acids in Tagish Lake suggested that they were either destroyed during parent body alteration processes and/or the Tagish Lake meteorite originated on a chemically distinct parent body from CI and CM meteorites where formation of amino acids was less favorable. We recently measured the amino acid composition of three different lithologies (11h, 5b, and 11i) of pristine Tagish Lake meteorite fragments that represent a range of progressive aqueous alteration in order 11h amino acids found in hot-water extracts of the Tagish Lake fragments were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPA/NAC derivatization. Stable carbon isotope analyses of the most abundant amino acids in 11h were measured with gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  15. Thermoluminescence studies of the thermal and radiation histories of chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of chondritic meteorites are investigated to understand the ways in which the stored TL reflects the thermal and radiation histories of these objects. Differences in TL levels measured in recent falls are attributed to small differences in orbital temperatures. In addition, a correlation between TL level and terrestrial age is observed in meteorites of known terrestrial age. The thermoluminescence in chondrites is produced primarily by ionization from galactic cosmic rays with a much smaller contribution from the decay of natural radionuclides (U, Th, K, Rb). The production of most of the TL occurs after the break up of the large parent bodies into meter-size objects which are thus exposed to the ionizing effects of the cosmic rays. Measurements indicate that the low temperature TL represents a dynamic equilibrium between build up from ionizing radiation and thermal draining. The high temperature TL is near saturation. The terrestrial ages currently of greatest interest are those of the recently discovered meteorites in Antarctica. TL measurements were made on 11 of these meteorites and compared with the activities of 14 C, 26 Al, and 36 Cl measured by other workers in terrestrial age studies. A good correlation was found between the TL levels and the activities of cosmogenic radionuclides in these meteorites. Since the TL measurements can be made more rapidly and require much smaller samples (approx. 10 mg) than the radionuclide measurements, TL is most useful as a screening process to select potentially interesting samples for further study by more precise techniques

  16. The fall of a meteorite at Aegos Potami in 467/6 BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E. Th; Niarchos, P. G.; Manimanis, V. N.; Orchiston, W.

    2002-12-01

    Cosmic catastrophes have been associated from time to time with the fall of celestial objects to Earth. From the writings of ancient Greek authors we know that during the second year of the 78th Olympiad, that is the year corresponding to 467/6 BC, a very large meteorite fell at Aegos Potami, in the Gallipoli Peninsula (in Eastern Thrace). This event was predicted by Anaxagoras, and the meteorite was worshipped by the Cherronesites until at least the first Century AD. The fall of the Aegos Potami Meteorite was not associated with any cosmic catastrophe, but it was believed to have foretold the terminal defeat of the Athenians by the Spartans in 405 BC near Aegos Potami, which brought to an end the Peloponnesian War in favour of Sparta. In addition, according to the Latin author Pliny the Elder, during the first century AD the inhabitants of Avydus in Asia Minor worshipped another meteorite that was displayed in the city's sports centre, The fall of this meteorite is also said to have been predicted by Anaxagoras.

  17. Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    photoautotrophs and chemolithotrophs such as the motile filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Calothrix, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Spirulina) that grow in geothermal springs and geysers of Earth at temperatures ranging fiom 320K to 345K and are also found growing in cold polar desert soils. The mineralized remains of morphotypes of all of these cyanobacteria have also been found in the Orgueil CI1 and the Murchison CN2 carbonaceous meteorites that may derive from cometary parent bodies. Observational results that support the hypothesis that liquid water can in active regions just beneath the surface of comets and that comets, carbonaceous meteorites, and asteroids may have played a significant role in the origin and evolution of the Biosphere and in the distribution of microbial life throughout the Solar System.

  18. Ancient stardust in meteorites - A new source of cosmic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Micron sized, presolar grains of SiC and graphite (as well as other phases not discussed here) found in mineral separates of primitive meteorites constitute a new source of cosmic material. The grains are identified by anomalous isotopic ratios in both major and minor elements. In some cases, these differ from average solar system values by a factor >10 3 . The SiC grains can be separated into distinct isotopic families representing different stellar sources. Only two types are discussed here - 'mainstream' SiC grains, constituting ∼98% of the total and less abundant X-grains that constitute <1% of the total. The former have isotopic ratios characteristic of S-process nucleosynthesis and are believed to be condensates formed in the atmospheres of AGB stars. In contrast, X grains have isotopic patterns characteristic of R-process nucleosynthesis and are believed to be supernovae condensates. In addition to giving a wealth of new detail on the nuclear processes in different stars, the grains open up entirely new avenues of research. For example, electron microscope mineralogical/petrographic studies of microtomed grains give insight on the processes of grain growth. Molecules of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common in the graphite grains. Isotopic measurements demonstrate that some of the PAHs formed from the same suite of atoms as the parent grains and are thus indigenous. The relationship of presolar grains to cosmic ray physics is briefly considered. Overall, the grain work serves to deepen the mystery of the similarity of isotopic ratios measured in cosmic rays to those of Solar System materials

  19. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  20. Using the Planetary Science Institute’s Meteorite Mini-Kits to Address the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Cañizo, Thea L.; Buxner, Sanlyn

    2014-11-01

    Hands-on learning allows students to understand science concepts by directly observing and experiencing the topics they are studying. The Planetary Science Institute (PSI) has created instructional rock kits that have been introduced to elementary and middle school teachers in Tucson, in our professional development workshops. PSI provides teachers with supporting material and training so that they can use the kits as tools for students’ hands-on learning. Use of these kits provides an important experience with natural materials that is essential to instruction in Earth and Space Science. With a stronger knowledge of science content and of how science is actually conducted, the workshops and kits have instilled greater confidence in teachers’ ability to teach science content. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations includes: “What makes up our solar system?” NGSS emphasizes the Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding of the nature of scientific models.Addressing a need expressed by teachers for borrowing kits less expensive than our $2000 option, we created a Meteorite Mini-Kit. Each Mini-Kit contains eight rocks: an iron-bearing chondrite, a sliced chondrite (showing iron and chondrules), a tektite, a common Tucson rock, a river-polished rock, pumice, a small iron, and a rounded obsidian rock (false tektite). Also included in the Mini-Kits are magnets and a magnifier. The kits cost $40 to $50, depending on the sizes of the chondrites. A teacher can check out a classroom set of these which contains either 10 or 20 Mini-Kits. Each