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Sample records for iron loss calculation

  1. Relativistic Calculations for Be-like Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianhui; Zhang Jianping; Li Ping; Li Huili

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic configuration interaction calculations for the states of 1s 2 2s 2 , 1s 2 2s3l (l = s,p,d) and 1s 2 2p3l (l = s,p,d) configurations of iron are carried out using relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) and multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method in the active interaction approach. In the present calculation, a large-scale configuration expansion was used in describing the target states. These results are extensively compared with other available calculative and experimental and observed values, the corresponding present results are in good agreement with experimental and observed values, and some differences are found with other available calculative values. Because more relativistic effects are considered than before, the present results should be more accurate and reliable

  2. An improved iron loss estimation for permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an improved approach for predicting iron losses in permanent magnet brushless machines. The new approach is based on the fundamental concept that eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the time rate of change of flux density. Expressions are derived for predicting hysteresis and eddy current losses in the stator teeth and yoke. The so-called anomalous or excess losses, caused by the induced eddy current concentration around moving magnetic domain walls and neglected in the conventional core loss calculation, are also included in the proposed approach. In addition, the model is also capable of accounting for the stator skewing, if present. The core losses obtained from the proposed approach are compared with those measured on an existing PM motor at several operating speeds, showing very good agreement. (14 refs).

  3. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    . We develop three methods for the direct calculation of the tip loss. The first is the computationally expensive calculation of the velocities induced by the helicoidal wake which requires the evaluation of infinite sums of products of Bessel functions. The second uses the asymptotic evaluation......The usual method to account for a finite number of blades in blade element calculations of wind turbine performance is through a tip loss factor. Most analyses use the tip loss approximation due to Prandtl which is easily and cheaply calculated but is known to be inaccurate at low tip speed ratio...

  4. Improved loss calculations for the HDM magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, G.T. Jr.; Carr, W.J.; Krefta, M.P.; Johnson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Losses due to ramped fields and currents, quite adequate for the initial design, were calculated previously by Snitchler, Jayakumar, Kovachev, and Orrell for the high energy booster magnets to be used in the SSC. The present analysis considers the loss problem in more detail

  5. Calculated power output from a thin iron-seeded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merts, A.L.; Cowan, R.D.; Magee, N.H. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Ionization equilibrium calculations are carried out for iron ions at a density of 10 12 cm -3 in a (hydrogen) plasma with electron density 10 14 cm -3 , at temperatures from 0.8 to 10 keV. The computed radiated power loss from this plasma due to the iron ions ranges from about 4 W/cm 3 at the lowest temperature to about 0.4 W/cm 3 at the highest temperature; loss rates for other electron and ion densities will scale approximately as N/sub e/N/sub Fe/10 26 . The losses are due principally to collisionally excited line radiation (especially Δn = 0 transitions) at low temperatures, and to collisionally excited Δn not equal to 0 transitions and to continuum radiative recombination at high temperatures. Spectra are also computed for diagnostic x-ray K/sub α/ (1s - 2p) transitions; the change in spectral distribution as a function of temperature agrees well with observations in the ST Tokamak. Bound-bound radiative transitions and dielectronic recombination are discussed at length in appendices; the latter process is of great importance in the establishment of ionization equilibrium, and in the excitation of K/sub α/ radiation at the lower temperatures

  6. Evaluation of Iron Loss in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Consideration of Rotational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Sanada, Masayuki; Morimoto, Shigeo; Takeda, Yoji; Kaido, Chikara; Wakisaka, Takeaki

    Loss evaluation is an important issue in the design of electrical machines. Due to the complicate structure and flux distribution, it is difficult to predict the iron loss in the machines exactly. This paper studies the iron loss in interior permanent magnet synchronous motors based on the finite element method. The iron loss test data of core material are used in the fitting of the hysteresis and eddy current loss constants. For motors in practical operation, additional iron losses due to the appearance of rotation of flux density vector and harmonic flux density distribution makes the calculation data deviates from the measured ones. Revision is made to account for these excess iron losses which exist in the practical operating condition. Calculation results show good consistence with the experimental ones. The proposed method provides a possible way to predict the iron loss of the electrical machine with good precision, and may be helpful in the selection of the core material which is best suitable for a certain machine.

  7. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  8. Marginal Loss Calculations for the DCOPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Brent [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); O' Neill, Richard P. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Castillo, Andrea R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of this paper is to explain some aspects of including a marginal line loss approximation in the DCOPF. The DCOPF optimizes electric generator dispatch using simplified power flow physics. Since the standard assumptions in the DCOPF include a lossless network, a number of modifications have to be added to the model. Calculating marginal losses allows the DCOPF to optimize the location of power generation, so that generators that are closer to demand centers are relatively cheaper than remote generation. The problem formulations discussed in this paper will simplify many aspects of practical electric dispatch implementations in use today, but will include sufficient detail to demonstrate a few points with regard to the handling of losses.

  9. Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Kheldoun Aissa; Khodja Djalal Eddine

    2009-01-01

    The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model ...

  10. Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1999-01-01

    of the motor referenced to the rotor magnetizing current, and with the extension of an iron loss resistor added in parallel to the magnetizing inductance. The resistor estimator is based on the observation that the actual applied stator voltages deviates from the voltage estimated, when a motor is current......It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...

  11. Iron Status in Diffuse Telogen Hair Loss among Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeinvaziri, Mojdeh; Mansoori, Parvin; Holakooee, Koorosh; Naraghi, Zahra Safaee; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between iron body status and different types of hair loss has been investigated in a number of studies, however, with relatively discrepant findings. Therefore we conducted an analytical case-control study to assess whether diffuse telogen hair loss in women of childbearing age (15

  12. Calculation of parameters for an iron shield experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this text is carreid out the evaluation of radiation transport methodology, comparying the calculated reactions and dose rates, for neutrons and gama-rays, with the experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in YAYOI reactor. Were employed the ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system for generation of cross sections, collapsed by the ANISN code. The tranpsort calculations were made by using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the spectrum of the iron shield boundary source to the reaction and doses rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The distributions calculated for neutrons and gamma-rays, on iron shield, presented reasonable concordance with the experimental measurements. Finally, is presented a proposal for setting up of an experimental arrangement, using the IEA-R1 reactor, with the purpose of lay down a shielding benchmark. (Author) [pt

  13. Iron Losses in Electrical Machines Due to Non Sinusoidal Alternating Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Walker, J.A.; Dorrell, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how the flux waveform in the core of an electrical machine can be vary non- sinusoidally which complicates the calculation of the iron loss in a machine. A set of tests are conducted on a steel sample using an Epstein square where harmonics are injected into the flux waveform which...... of a machine....

  14. Neutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes for core-collapse physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, J.-U.

    2008-07-01

    Accurate estimates of neutrino energy loss rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution, in particular for the cooling of neutron stars and white dwarfs. The energy spectra of neutrinos and antineutrinos arriving at the Earth can also provide useful information on the primary neutrino fluxes as well as neutrino mixing scenario. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for a microscopic calculation of stellar weak interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide, particularly iron isotopes, with success. Here I present the calculation of neutrino and antineutrino energy loss rates due to key iron isotopes in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory. The rates are calculated on a fine grid of temperature-density scale suitable for core-collapse simulators. The calculated rates are compared against earlier calculations. The neutrino cooling rates due to even-even isotopes of iron, 54,56 Fe, are in good agreement with the rates calculated using the large-scale shell model. The pn-QRPA calculated neutrino energy loss rates due to 55 Fe are enhanced roughly around an order of magnitude compared to the large-scale shell model calculation during the oxygen and silicon shell burning stages of massive stars and favor a lower entropy for the cores of massive stars. (author)

  15. Equation for calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarin, Yu.M.; Grigorenko, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Equation for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent iron melts in a wide range of partial pressures (1-1600 kPa), of doping component concentrations and temperatures (1773-2373 K) is proposed. Comparative analysis of experimental and calculated values of nitrogen solubility has demonstrated a principle possibility of applying the equation proposed for evaluating absorption ability to nitrogen of industrial nitrogen containing steels and ferroalloys subjected to melting or remelting in plasma or other melting devices

  16. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K and pressure range (0-100 GPa, compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  17. Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...... controlled in a Field Oriented Control scheme. This deviation is used to force a MIT-rule based adaptive estimator. An adaptive compensator containing the developed estimator is introduced and verified by simulations and tested by real time experiments....

  18. Estimation of the iron loss in deep-sea permanent magnet motors considering seawater compressive stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  19. Estimation of the Iron Loss in Deep-Sea Permanent Magnet Motors considering Seawater Compressive Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM. The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  20. Detailed comparative study regarding different formulae of predicting the iron losses in a machine excited by non-sinusoidal supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kharashi, Eyhab

    2014-01-01

    Variable-speed drives in any machine provide an accurate control and high-energy efficiency. More and more often machines are excited by non-sinusoidal voltages. Predicting the amount of iron losses in non-sinusoidal excitation is important. The paper aims to achieve accurate efficiency estimation by presenting a new modified calculation method to predict the iron losses. In a switched reluctance motor, the iron losses can't be ignored, it has considered value. This paper presents conventional and modified Steinmetz formulae for the estimation of the iron losses. The conventional Steinmetz formula consists of three terms: hysteresis, eddy current and anomalous losses. The equations of hysteresis and eddy current losses depend mainly on the value of the peak flux density. The reason to modify the Steinmetz formula is to avoid the need of knowing the peak flux density and the anomalous losses in accurate figures. The paper also explains and clarifies the methods of using both the conventional as well as the modified Steinmetz formulae in accurate calculation of the iron losses in different sections of the magnetic circuit. For both formulae, a comparison is made between the distributions of the iron losses in different parts of the magnetic circuit and the efficiencies. - Highlights: • The paper aims to achieve accurate efficiency estimation. • The predicted iron loss by the conventional Steinmetz formula is inaccurate. • The modified Steinmetz formula is more accurate because it includes the minor loops losses caused by each flux density. • The paper compared the predicted losses obtained by the two different formals to stand on the degree of accuracy

  1. Prediction of power losses in silicon iron sheets under PWM voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amar, M.; Kaczmarek, R.; Protat, F.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of iron losses in silicon iron steels submitted to a PWM voltage is studied. The influence of modulation parameters (the depth of modulation and the number of eliminated harmonics) is clarified. In particular, the idea of an equivalent alternating pulse voltage that gives the same iron losses as the PWM voltage is established. An estimation formula for iron losses under the PWM voltage is developed based on the loss separation model and the voltage form factor. ((orig.))

  2. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Radiation losses from oxygen and iron impurities in a high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radiation and ionization losses due to impurities present in a high temperature plasma have been calculated for a light element (oxygen), which is completely stripped in the core of existing Tokamak discharges, and a heavy one (iron), which is only partially stripped. Two extreme cases have been treated: in the first one coronal equilibrium is reached; the radiated power is then equal to the product of the electron density, the impurity density, and a function of the electron temperature; in the second one impurities recycle with a constant radial velocity v 0 in a background plasma; radiation and ionization losses are proportional to the impurity flux and are a decreasing function of the diffusion velocity. The results presented can be used to evaluate losses in a practical case [fr

  4. Model calculation for energy loss in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, J.E.; Gravielle, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The so-called local plasma approximation is generalized to deal with projectiles colliding with surfaces of amorphous solids and with a specific crystalline structure (plannar channeling). Energy loss of protons grazingly colliding with aluminum, SnTe alloy, and LiF surfaces is investigated. The calculations agree quite well with previous theoretical results and explain the experimental findings of energy loss for aluminum and SnTe alloy, but they fall short to explain the data for LiF surfaces

  5. Improving MODPRESS heat loss calculations for PWR pressurizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Natalia V.; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner O.; Castrillho, Lazara S.

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of heat loss calculations in MODPRESS transient code for PWR pressurizer analysis is the main focus of this investigation. Initially, a heat loss model was built based on heat transfer coefficient (HTC) correlations obtained in handbooks of thermal engineering. A hand calculation for Neptunus experimental test number U47 yielded a thermal power loss of 11.2 kW against 17.3 kW given by MODPRESS at the same conditions, while the experimental estimate is given as 17 kW. This comparison is valid only for steady state or before starting the transient experiment, because MODPRESS does not update HTC's when the transient phase begins. Furthermore, it must be noted that MODPRESS heat transfer coefficients are adjusted to reproduce the experimental value of the specific type of pressurizer. After inserting the new routine for HTC's into MODPRESS, the heat loss was calculated as 11.4 kW, a value very close to the first estimate but far below 17 kW found in the U47 experiment. In this paper, the heat loss model and results will be described. Further research is being developed to find a more general HTC that allows the analysis of the effects of heat losses on transient behavior of Neptunus and IRIS pressurizers. (author)

  6. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  7. Transmission Loss Calculation using A and B Loss Coefficients in Dynamic Economic Dispatch Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethmalani, C. H. Ram; Dumpa, Poornima; Simon, Sishaj P.; Sundareswaran, K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of A-loss coefficients while evaluating transmission losses in a Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) Problem. The performance analysis is carried out by comparing the losses computed using nominal A loss coefficients and nominal B loss coefficients in reference with load flow solution obtained by standard Newton-Raphson (NR) method. Density based clustering method based on connected regions with sufficiently high density (DBSCAN) is employed in identifying the best regions of A and B loss coefficients. Based on the results obtained through cluster analysis, a novel approach in improving the accuracy of network loss calculation is proposed. Here, based on the change in per unit load values between the load intervals, loss coefficients are updated for calculating the transmission losses. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated on IEEE 6 bus system, IEEE 14 bus, system IEEE 30 bus system and IEEE 118 bus system. All simulations are carried out using SCILAB 5.4 (www.scilab.org) which is an open source software.

  8. Hysteresis losses in iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by glass crystallization or wet chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Robert; Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf; Schmidt, Christopher; Steinmetz, Hanna; Zeisberger, Matthias; Gawalek, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ferrofluids were prepared from glass crystallized as well as wet precipitated iron oxide particles. Comparing hysteresis losses versus applied field amplitude from particles in immobilized state (powder) and in fluid state (ferrofluid) shows in some cases anomalous large losses at low magnetic fields. The influence of texture on the losses was investigated

  9. The effects of fat loss after bariatric surgery on inflammation, serum hepcidin, and iron absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.; Allende-Labastida, Javier; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Moretti, Diego; Rodriguez-Lastra, Ramiro; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is common in obese subjects. This may be due to an increase in serum hepcidin and a decrease in iron absorption from adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: We evaluated whether weight and fat loss in obese subjects would decrease inflammation and serum hepcidin and

  10. Iron Loss Prediction Using Modified IEM-Formula during the Field Weakening for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Asef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During field weakening operation time (FWOT, the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency, especially if a large range of FWOT exists due to a large voltage drop that was rooted from the resistance of the used material. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2D finite element analysis (FEA. This paper proposes harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit with a novel procedure. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-field density calculation over each single term of the modified institute of electrical machines formula (IEM-Formula. The proposed analytical calculation is performed using 2D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-Formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG for a wind generation application.

  11. Calculated electronic structure of chromium surfaces and chromium monolayers on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victora, R.H.; Falicov, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent calculation of the magnetic and electronic properties of the chromium (100) and (110) surfaces and of a chromium monolayer on the (100) and (110) iron surfaces is presented. It is found that (i) the (100) chromium surface is ferromagnetic with a greatly enhanced spin polarization (3.00 electrons); (ii) a substantial enhancement of the spin imbalance exists several (>5) layers into the bulk; (iii) the (110) chromium surface is antiferromagnetic with a large (2.31) spin imbalance; (iv) the (100) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is ferromagnetic, with a huge spin imbalance (3.63), and aligned antiferromagnetically with respect to the bulk iron; (v) the (110) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is also ferromagnetic, with a spin imbalance of 2.25 and antiferromagnetically aligned to the iron. The spin imbalance of chromium on iron (100) is possibly the largest of any transition-metal system

  12. Effect of shrink fitting and cutting on iron loss of permanent magnet motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Morimoto, H.; Yunoki, Y.; Miyagi, D.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic properties of a motor core are affected by the distortion due to the compression caused by shrink fitting and the distortion caused by punching, etc. In this paper, the B-H curve and iron loss of stator core of actual motor under shrink fitting are measured. It is shown that the maximum permeability is reduced by about 50%, and the iron loss is increased by about 30% due to the shrink fitting. It is illustrated that the loss of motor is increased by about 10%, 4% and 2% due to the shrink fitting, the cutting stress and the eddy current in rotor magnet, respectively

  13. EELOSS: the program for calculation of electron energy loss data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1980-10-01

    A computer code EELOSS has been developed to obtain the electron energy loss data required for shielding and dosimetry of beta- and gamma-rays in nuclear plants. With this code, the following data are obtainable for any energy from 0.01 to 15 MeV in any medium (metal, insulator, gas, compound, or mixture) composed of any choice of 69 elements with atomic number 1 -- 94: a) Collision stopping power, b) Restricted collision stopping power, c) Radiative stopping power, and d) Bremsstrahlung production cross section. The availability of bremsstrahlung production cross section data obtained by the EELOSS code is demonstrated by the comparison of calculated gamma-ray spectrum with measured one in Pb layer, where electron-photon cascade is included implicitly. As a result, it is concluded that the uncertainty in the bremsstrahlung production cross sections is negligible in the practical shielding calculations of gamma rays of energy less than 15 MeV, since the bremsstrahlung production cross sections increase with the gamma-ray energy and the uncertainty for them decreases with increasing the gamma-ray energy. Furthermore, the accuracy of output data of the EELOSS code is evaluated in comparison with experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are observed concerning the stopping power. (J.P.N.)

  14. Iron Supplementation Associated With Loss of Phenotype in Autosomal Dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelari, Klaus; Köhle, Julia; Kotzot, Dieter; Högler, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is the only hereditary disorder of renal phosphate wasting in which patients may regain the ability to conserve phosphate. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. This study reports of a girl with ADHR, iron deficiency, and a paternal history of hypophosphatemic rickets that resolved without treatment. The girl's biochemical phenotype resolved with iron supplementation. A 26-month-old girl presented with typical features of hypophosphatemic rickets, short stature (79 cm; -2.82 SDS), and iron deficiency. Treatment with elemental phosphorus and calcitriol improved her biochemical profile and resolved the rickets. The girl's father had presented with rickets at age 11 months but never received medication. His final height was reduced (154.3 cm; -3.51 SDS), he had undergone corrective leg surgery and had an adult normal phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23, and iron status. Father and daughter were found to have a heterozygous mutation in exon 3 of the FGF23 gene (c.536G>A, p.Arg179Gln), confirming ADHR. Withdrawal of rickets medication was attempted off and on iron supplementation. Withdrawal of rickets medication in the girl was unsuccessful in the presence of low-normal serum iron levels at age 5.6 years but was later successful in the presence of high-normal serum iron levels following high-dose iron supplementation. We report an association between iron supplementation and a complete loss of biochemical ADHR phenotype, allowing withdrawal of rickets medication. Experience from this case suggests that reduction and withdrawal of rickets medication should be attempted only after iron status has been optimized.

  15. Deep-penetration calculations in concrete and iron for shielding of proton therapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Yen-Fu; Lin, Uei-Tyng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Proton accelerators in the energy range of approximately 200 MeV have become increasingly popular for cancer treatment in recent years. These proton therapy facilities usually involve bulky concrete or iron in their shielding design or accelerator structure. Simple shielding data, such as source terms or attenuation lengths for various proton energies and materials are useful in designing accelerator shielding. Understanding the appropriateness or uncertainties associated with these data, which are largely generated from Monte Carlo simulations, is critical to the quality of a shielding design. This study demonstrated and investigated the problems of deep-penetration calculations on the estimation of shielding parameters through an extensive comparison between the FLUKA and MCNPX calculations for shielding against a 200-MeV proton beam hitting an iron target. Simulations of double-differential neutron production from proton bombardment were validated by comparison with experimental data. For the concrete shielding, the FLUKA calculated depth–dose distributions were consistent with the MCNPX results, except for some discrepancies in backward directions. However, for the iron shielding, if FLUKA is used inappropriately then overestimation of neutron attenuation can be expected as shown by this work because of the multigroup treatment for low-energy neutrons in FLUKA. Two neutron energy group structures, three degrees of self-shielding correction, and two iron compositions were considered in this study. Significant variation of the resulting attenuation lengths indicated the importance of problem-dependent multigroup cross sections and proper modeling of iron composition in deep-penetration calculations.

  16. On-line iron loss resistance identification by a state observer for rotor-flux-oriented control of induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Pablo M. de la; Bossio, Guillermo R.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Garcia, Guillermo O.

    2008-01-01

    A rotor flux state observer considering iron loss, for an Induction Motor (IM), is proposed. The aim of this proposal is to avoid detuning caused by the IM iron loss on a field-oriented control (FOC). An adaptive scheme for the K Fe , a parameter that represents the IM iron loss, is also proposed. The main objective of this scheme is to improve the dynamic response of control by compensating the variations of iron losses due to possible variations in the stator core characteristics. Simulation results demonstrated that the observer and the adaptive scheme showed a good performance fulfilling then the objectives

  17. Ab initio calculation of tensile strength in iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír; Vitek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 83, 31-34 (2003), s. 3529-3537 ISSN 1478-6435. [Multiscale Materials Modelling: Working Theory for Industry /1./. London, 17.06.2002-20.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302; GA ČR GA202/03/1351; GA MŠk OC 523.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electronic structure * theoretical tensile strength Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Effect of iron content on permeability and power loss characteristics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The permeability of cadmium doped lithium ferrites exhibited higher values than zinc doped lithium ferrites. The power loss of cadmium doped lithium ferrites is lesser as compared to zinc doped lithium ferrites in the frequency range of 50–5000 kHz and at flux.

  19. Calculations of the spectra of fast neutrons in iron spheres using the vitamin-C file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.; Aizawa, O.; Kadotani, H.

    1984-01-01

    Steady-state space-dependent fast neutron angular and scalar spectra and total flux in various iron spheres have been calculated using the one-dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and Vitamin-C nuclear data file. The results have been used to study the question of establishment of equilibrium and of an associated fast neutron diffusion length in iron. The authors find that true equilibrium conditions are not established even inside a 3-m-radius iron sphere. However, from the study of spatial decay of total flux, one can obtain the value of the fast neutron diffusion length in iron, which in the present case is found to be 24.4 cm

  20. The impact of different stator and rotor slot number combinations on iron losses of a three-phase induction motor at no-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcic, T.; Stumberger, B.; Stumberger, G.; Hadziselimovic, M.; Zagradisnik, I.

    2008-01-01

    The electromechanical characteristics of induction motors depend on the used stator and rotor slot combination. The correlation between the usage of different stator and rotor slot number combinations, magnetic flux density distributions, no-load iron losses and rated load winding over-temperatures for a specific induction motor is presented. The motor's magnetic field was analyzed by traces of the magnetic flux density vector, obtained by FEM. Post-processing of FE magnetic field solution was used for posterior iron loss calculation of the motor iron loss at no-load. The examined motor stator lamination had 36 semi-closed slots and the rotor laminations had 28, 33, 34, 44 and 46 semi-closed slots

  1. Calculation of core loss and copper loss in amorphous/nanocrystalline core-based high-frequency transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys are now widely used for the cores of high-frequency transformers, and Litz-wire is commonly used as the windings, while it is difficult to calculate the resistance accurately. In order to design a high-frequency transformer, it is important to accurately calculate the core loss and copper loss. To calculate the core loss accurately, the additional core loss by the effect of end stripe should be considered. It is difficult to simulate the whole stripes in the core due to the limit of computation, so a scale down model with 5 stripes of amorphous alloy is simulated by the 2D finite element method (FEM. An analytical model is presented to calculate the copper loss in the Litz-wire, and the results are compared with the calculations by FEM.

  2. Frequency Calculation For Loss Coolant Accident In The Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony, DT

    1996-01-01

    LOCA as initiating event is engineering judgement, because it is rare condition. So, to determine LOCA frequency used be probability and statistic method. By probability and statistic method was estimated from size, weld, age, learning curve and quality, etc. it has been calculated for LOCA frequency in the simplified piping system model, especially estimates from size and weld factors. From calculation, LOCA frequency is 9,82.10 - 6/year

  3. DLVO and XDLVO calculations for bacteriophage MS2 adhesion to iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2015-10-01

    In this study, batch experiments were performed to examine the adhesion of bacteriophage MS2 to three iron oxide particles (IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3) with different particle properties. The characteristics of MS2 and iron oxides were analyzed using various techniques to construct the classical DLVO and XDLVO potential energy profiles between MS2 and iron oxides. X-ray diffractometry peaks indicated that IOP1 was mainly composed of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), but also contained some goethite (α-FeOOH). IOP2 was composed of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and IOP3 was composed of iron (Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron oxide (FeO). Transmission electron microscope images showed that the primary particle size of IOP1 (γ-Fe2O3) was 12.3±4.1nm. IOP2 and IOP3 had primary particle sizes of 167±35nm and 484±192nm, respectively. A surface angle analyzer demonstrated that water contact angles of IOP1, IOP2, IOP3 and MS2 were 44.83, 64.00, 34.33 and 33.00°, respectively. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the magnetic saturations of IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3 were 176.87, 17.02 and 946.85kA/m, respectively. Surface potentials measured in artificial ground water (AGW; 0.075mM CaCl2, 0.082mM MgCl2, 0.051mM KCl, and 1.5mM NaHCO3; pH7.6) indicated that iron oxides and MS2 were negatively charged in AGW (IOP1=-0.0185V; IOP2=-0.0194V; IOP3=-0.0301V; MS2=-0.0245V). Batch experiments demonstrated that MS2 adhesion to iron oxides was favorable in the order of IOP1>IOP2>IOP3. This tendency was well predicted by the classical DLVO model. In the DLVO calculations, both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere geometries predicted the same trend of MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Additionally, noticeable differences were not found between the DLVO and XDLVO interaction energy profiles, indicating that hydrophobic interactions did not play a major role; electrostatic interactions, however, did influence MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Furthermore, the aggregation of iron oxides was investigated with a modified XDLVO

  4. Iron -chromium alloys and free surfaces: from ab initio calculations to thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, M.

    2010-11-01

    Ferritic steels possibly strengthened by oxide dispersion are candidates as structural materials for generation IV and fusion nuclear reactors. Their use is limited by incomplete knowledge of the iron-chromium phase diagram at low temperatures and of the phenomena inducing preferential segregation of one element at grain boundaries or at surfaces. In this context, this work contributes to the multi-scale study of the model iron-chromium alloy and their free surfaces by numerical simulations. This study begins with ab initio calculations of properties related to the mixture of atoms of iron and chromium. We highlight complex dependency of the magnetic moments of the chromium atoms on their local chemical environment. Surface properties are also proving sensitive to magnetism. This is the case of impurity segregation of chromium in iron and of their interactions near the surface. In a second step, we construct a simple energy model for high numerical efficiency. It is based on pair interactions on a rigid lattice to which are given local chemical environment and temperature dependencies. With this model, we reproduce the ab initio results at zero temperature and experimental results at high temperature. We also deduce the solubility limits at all intermediate temperatures with mean field approximations that we compare to Monte Carlo simulations. The last step of our work is to introduce free surfaces in our model. We then study the effect of ab initio calculated bulk and surface properties on surface segregation.Finally, we calculate segregation isotherms. We therefore propose an evolution model of surface composition of iron-chromium alloys as a function of bulk composition. which are given local chemical environment and temperature dependencies. With this model, we reproduce the ab initio results at zero temperature and experimental results at high temperature. We also deduce the solubility limits at all intermediate temperatures with mean field approximations that

  5. Simplified models for radiational losses calculating a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutiunov, A.B.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Prokhorov, D.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the magnitudes and profiles of radiational losses in a Tokamak plasma, particularly for high plasma densities, when formation of MARFE or detached-plasma takes place, it is necessary to know impurity distribution over the ionization states. Equations describing time evolution of this distribution are rather cumbersome, besides that, transport coefficients as well as rate constants of the processes involving complex ions are known nowadays with high degree of uncertainty, thus it is believed necessary to develop simplified, half-analytical models describing time evolution of the impurities analysis of physical processes taking place in a Tokamak plasma on the base of the experimental data. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Iron losses evaluation in soft magnetic materials with a sinusoidal voltage supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelcu, Steluţa; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation method of for specific iron losses in non-oriented laminated steel suitable for electric motors and transformers in the case of a sinusoidal excitation. The model is based on the separation of loss contribution due to hysteresis, eddy currents and excess losses...... (between 0.35 mm and 0.65 mm) and alloy compositions. Hysteresis and eddy currents loss coefficients have been considered as dependent on the frequency. For curve fitting of these coefficients third and fourth polynomials were employed, with good result for all the frequencies and magnetic flux density...... and it is proposing an identification procedure for the model coefficients from multi-frequency single sheet tests. The frequencies used are in the range 10 Hz and 150 Hz and with the values of magnetic flux density in the range 0.1 T and 1.4 T. The model was applied on six magnetic materials of different thicknesses...

  7. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  8. Acute loss of the hepatic endo-lysosomal system in vivo causes compensatory changes in iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzendorf, Christoph; Zeigerer, Anja; Seifert, Sarah; Sparla, Richard; Najafi, Bahar; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Zerial, Marino; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2017-06-22

    Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin. Compensatory changes in livers of Rab5-depleted mice include increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 as well as reduced expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Serum iron indices (serum iron, free iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity) in Rab5-KD mice were increased, consistent with an elevated splenic and hepatic iron export. Our data emphasize the critical importance of the endosomal compartments in hepatocytes to maintain hepatic and systemic iron homeostasis in vivo. The short time period (between day four and five) upon which these changes occur underscore the fast dynamics of the liver iron pool.

  9. Calculation of radiation losses in cylinder symmetric high pressure discharges by means of a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriessen, F.J.; Boerman, W.; Holtz, I.F.E.M.

    1973-08-01

    Computer calculations have been made of radiative energy losses in a cylindrically symmetric high pressure discharge. The calculations show that the radiation losses which occur in discharges at pressures of a few atmospheres and central temperatures of about 20000degK when compared with the electrical energy supplied, are only of importance in the neighbourhood of the centre of discharge

  10. Nitrogen loss from anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to Iron(III) reduction in a riparian zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bangjing; Li, Zhengkui; Qin, Yunbin

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron(III) reduction (termed Feammox) is a recently discovered pathway of nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the pathways of N transformation via Feammox process in riparian zones. In this study, evidence for Feammox in riparian zones with or without vegetation cover was demonstrated using isotope tracing technique and high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that Feammox could occur in riparian zones, and demonstrated that N 2 directly from Feammox was dominant Feammox pathway. The Feammox rates in vegetated soil samples was 0.32-0.37 mg N kg -1 d -1 , which is higher than that in un-vegetated soil samples (0.20 mg N kg -1 d -1 ). Moreover, the growth of vegetation led to a 4.99-6.41% increase in the abundance of iron reducing bacteria (Anaeromyxobacter, Pseudomonas and Geobacter) and iron reducing bacteria play an essential role in Feammox process. An estimated loss of 23.7-43.9 kg N ha -1 year -1 was associated with Feammox in the examined riparian zone. Overall, the co-occurrence of ammonium oxidation and iron reduction suggest that Feammox can play an essential role in the pathway of nitrogen removal in riparian zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of iron nuclear data for the neutron calculation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaglio-Gaudard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The GEN-III and GEN-IV reactors will be equipped with heavy reflectors. However, the existing integral validation of the iron nuclear data in the latest JEFF3 European library in the frame of the neutron calculation of the heavy reflector is very partial: some results exist concerning fast reactors but there is no result corresponding to the LWR heavy reflector. No clear trend on the JEFF3 iron cross sections was brought into evidence up to now for fission reactor calculations. Iron nuclear data were completely re-evaluated in the JEFF3 library. Despite the fact that iron is widely used in the nuclear industry, large uncertainties are still associated with its nuclear data, particularly its inelastic cross section which is very important in the neutron slowing down. A validation of 56 Fe nuclear data was performed on the basis of the analysis of integral experiments. Two major critical experiments, the PERLE experiment and the Gas Benchmark, were interpreted with 3D reference Monte-Carlo calculations and the JEFF3.1.1 library. The PERLE experiment was recently performed in the EOLE zero-power facility (CEA Cadarache). This experiment is dedicated to heavy reflector physics in GEN-III light water reactors. It was especially conceived for the validation of iron nuclear data. The Gas Benchmark is representative of a Gas Fast Reactor with a stainless steel reflector (with no fertile blanket) in the MASURCA facility (CEA Cadarache). Radial traverses of reaction rates were measured to characterize flux attenuation at various energies in the reflector. The results of the analysis of both experiments show good agreement between the calculations and the measurements, which is confirmed by the analysis of complementary experiments (ZR-6M, MISTRAL4, CIRANO-ZONA2B). A process of re-estimating the 56 Fe nuclear data was implemented on the basis of feedback from these two experiments and the RDN code. This code relies on a non-linear regression method using an iterative

  12. Calculated and experimental low-loss electron energy loss spectra of dislocations in diamond and GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R; Gutiérrez-Sosa, A; Bangert, U; Heggie, M I; Blumenau, A T; Frauenheim, T; Briddon, P R

    2002-01-01

    First-principles calculations of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for bulk GaN and diamond are compared with experimental spectra acquired with a scanning tunnelling electron microscope offering ultra-high-energy resolution in low-loss energy spectroscopy. The theoretical bulk low-loss EEL spectra, in the E sub g to 10 eV range, are in good agreement with experimental data. Spatially resolved spectra from dislocated regions in both materials are distinct from bulk spectra. The main effects are, however, confined to energy losses lying above the band edge. The calculated spectra for low-energy dislocations in diamond are consistent with the experimental observations, but difficulties remain in understanding the spectra of threading dislocations in GaN.

  13. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron...

  14. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm 2 /kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: ► Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. ► Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. ► This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. ► The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. ► The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  15. Calculated performance of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Schmidt, W.

    1976-02-01

    The calculated responses of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV are presented. The responses calculated are energy resolution vs energy, energy resolution vs the thickness of the sampling plates, the angular and spatial root-mean-square deviations (i.e., the ability to determine the incident particle's entrance angle and impact point), and the spatial properties of the average and individual hadronic cascades. Some comparisons are made with experimental data; however, the main purpose of this paper is to provide specific design information for these types of calorimeters

  16. A free software for the calculation of T2* values for iron overload assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Fioravante, Luciana Andrea Barozi; Verissimo, Monica P; Loggetto, Sandra R

    2017-06-01

    Background Iron overload assessment with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2* has become a key diagnostic method in the management of many diseases. Quantitative analysis of the MRI images with a cost-effective tool has been a limitation to increased use of the method. Purpose To provide a free software solution for this purpose comparing the results with a commercial solution. Material and Methods The free tool was developed as a standalone program to be directly downloaded and ran in a common personal computer platform without the need of a dedicated workstation. Liver and cardiac T2* values were calculated using both tools and the values obtained compared between them in a group of 56 patients with suspected iron overload using Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). Results In the heart, the mean T2* differences between the two methods was 0.46 ms (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.037 -0.965) and in the liver 0.49 ms (95% CI, 0.257-0.722). The CCC for both the heart and the liver were significantly high (0.98 [95% CI, 0.966-0.988] with a Pearson ρ of 0.9811 and 0.991 [95% CI, 0.986-0.994] with a Pearson ρ of 0.996, respectively. No significant differences were observed when analyzing only patients with abnormal concentrations of iron in both organs compared to the whole cohort. Conclusion The proposed free software tool is accurate for calculation of T2* values of the liver and heart and might be a solution for centers that cannot use paid commercial solutions.

  17. First-principles thermodynamic calculations of diffusion characteristics of impurities in γ-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Kaji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Because solute impurities have an effect on embrittlement through segregation under irradiation, solute stability and the influence of irradiation on the diffusion characteristics of impurities become prominent due to several acceleration effects of high irradiance circumstances in irradiated materials. In this study, the diffusion characteristics of several impurities in non-magnetic fcc iron are investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In accordance with classical diffusion and transition state theories, we nonempirically evaluated the contribution to properties of the binding energy between vacancy and each impurity and the migration enthalpy. The migration energy was calculated using the nudged elastic band method with DFT. The vacancy formation energy, including the entropic contributions to free energies in γ-iron, was evaluated by considering vibrational phonon frequencies based on frozen phonons employing the harmonic approximation for the lattice dynamics. Consequently, we confirmed that the binding energy between large-radius impurities and vacancies is larger than that with an equivalent size of the solvent element, and that the migration enthalpies of these impurities are quite small compared with self diffusion. This finding may indicate that the electronic binding states at the saddle point have a large influence on the migration of impurities

  18. REFINED ALGORITHMS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOSSES CALCULATION IN 0,38 KV NETWORKS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach for closer definition of electrical energy losses size in air lines due to the accounting of environment temperature influence and flowing current size on the wire resistance is offered. Multifunctional microprocessor devices for energy losses calculation are elaborated.

  19. Power Loss Calculation and Thermal Modelling for a Three Phase Inverter Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhou

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Power losses calculation and thermal modelling for a three-phase inverter power system is presented in this paper. Aiming a long real time thermal simulation, an accurate average power losses calculation based on PWM reconstruction technique is proposed. For carrying out the thermal simulation, a compact thermal model for a three-phase inverter power module is built. The thermal interference of adjacent heat sources is analysed using 3D thermal simulation. The proposed model can provide accurate power losses with a large simulation time-step and suitable for a long real time thermal simulation for a three phase inverter drive system for hybrid vehicle applications.

  20. Eddy current loss calculation and thermal analysis of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional magnetic field analytical model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is presented to calculate the eddy current loss, and the prediction of the copper plate temperature under various loads is analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is calculated, and then the eddy current loss is obtained, with the magnetic field analytical model established in cylindrical coordinate. The influence of various loads on eddy current loss is analyzed. Furthermore, a thermal model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is established by taking the eddy current loss as the heat source, using the electromagnetic-thermal coupled method. With the help of the thermal model, the influence of various loads on copper plate temperature rise is also analyzed. The calculated results are compared with the results of finite element method and measurement. The comparison results confirm the validity of the magnetic field analytical model and thermal model.

  1. Magnetism of iron and nickel from rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, A. S.; Leonov, I.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2013-03-01

    We present a rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in which the spin rotational invariance of Hund's exchange is approximated by averaging over all possible directions of the spin quantization axis. We employ this technique to perform benchmark calculations for the two- and three-band Hubbard models on the infinite-dimensional Bethe lattice. Our results agree quantitatively well with those obtained using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with rotationally invariant Coulomb interaction. The proposed approach is employed to compute the electronic and magnetic properties of paramagnetic α iron and nickel. The obtained Curie temperatures agree well with experiment. Our results indicate that the magnetic transition temperature is significantly overestimated by using the density-density type of Coulomb interaction.

  2. Interactions of foreign interstitial and substitutional atoms in bcc iron from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Yan, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    C and N atoms are the most frequent foreign interstitial atoms (FIAs), and often incorporated into the surface layers of steels to enhance their properties by thermochemical treatments. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb and Mo are the most common alloying elements in steels, also can be called foreign substitutional atoms (FSAs). The FIA and FSA interactions play an important role in the diffusion of C and N atoms, and the microstructures and mechanical properties of surface modified layers. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory are carried out to investigate FIA interactions with FSA in ferromagnetic bcc iron. The FIA-FSA interactions are analyzed systematically from five aspects, including interaction energies, density of states (DOS), bond populations, electron density difference maps and local magnetic moments.

  3. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, P; Anderson, K; Artikov, A; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Bravo, S; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Carvalho, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Cowan, Brian; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delfino, M C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Downing, R; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fassi, F; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Flix, J; Garabik, R; Gil, I; Gildemeister, O; Glagoley, V; Gómez, A; González de la Hoz, S; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hébrard, C; Higón, E; Holik, P; Holmgren, S O; Hruska, I; Huston, J; Jon-And, K; Kakurin, S; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J I; Kopikov, S V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; López-Amengual, J M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Marroquin, F; Mataix, L; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Ostankov, A P; Pacheco, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Ruiz, H; Rusakovitch, N A; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santo, J; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shcelchkov, A; Shochet, M J; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, O P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Thaler, J J; Thome-Filho, Z D; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Valklar, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A

    2001-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 180 GeV muons has been measured with the 5.6 m long finely segmented Module 0 of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter at the CERN SPS. The differential probability dP/d nu per radiation length of a fractional energy loss nu = Delta E/sub mu //E /sub mu / has been measured in the range 0.025losses due to bremsstrahlung, production of electron-positron pairs, and energetic knock-on electrons. The iron elastic form factor correction Delta /sub Fe//sup el/=1.63+or-0.17/sub stat/+or-023/sub syst$/ -/sub 0.14 //sup +0.20//sub theor/ to muon bremsstrahlung in the region of no screening of the nucleus by atomic electrons has been measured for the first time, and is compared with different theoretical predictions. (31 refs).

  4. Regenerator heat exchanger – calculation of heat recovery efficiency and pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Performance of heat exchangers is determined based on two main parameters: efficiency to exchange / recover heat and pressure loss due to friction between fluid and exchanger surfaces. These two parameters are contradicting each other which mean that the higher is efficiency the higher becomes...... pressure loss. The aim of the optimized design of heat exchanger is to reach the highest or the required heat efficiency and at the same time to keep pressure losses as low as possible keeping total exchanger size within acceptable size. In this report is presented analytical calculation method...... to calculate efficiency and pressure loss in the regenerator heat exchanger with a fixed matrix that will be used in the decentralized ventilation unit combined in the roof window. Moreover, this study presents sensitivity study of regenerator heat exchanger performance, taking into account, such parameters as...

  5. Loss of conformational entropy in protein folding calculated using realistic ensembles and its implications for NMR-based calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Michael C.; Haddadian, Esmael J.; Jumper, John M.; Freed, Karl F.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of conformational entropy is a major contribution in the thermodynamics of protein folding. However, accurate determination of the quantity has proven challenging. We calculate this loss using molecular dynamic simulations of both the native protein and a realistic denatured state ensemble. For ubiquitin, the total change in entropy is TΔSTotal = 1.4 kcal⋅mol−1 per residue at 300 K with only 20% from the loss of side-chain entropy. Our analysis exhibits mixed agreement with prior studies because of the use of more accurate ensembles and contributions from correlated motions. Buried side chains lose only a factor of 1.4 in the number of conformations available per rotamer upon folding (ΩU/ΩN). The entropy loss for helical and sheet residues differs due to the smaller motions of helical residues (TΔShelix−sheet = 0.5 kcal⋅mol−1), a property not fully reflected in the amide N-H and carbonyl C=O bond NMR order parameters. The results have implications for the thermodynamics of folding and binding, including estimates of solvent ordering and microscopic entropies obtained from NMR. PMID:25313044

  6. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Applications to Identify Iron Sand Reject and Losses in Cement Industry : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helia, V. N.; Wijaya, W. N.

    2017-06-01

    One of the main raw materials required in the manufacture of cement is iron sand. Data from the Procurement Department on XYZ Company shows that the number of defective iron sand (reject) fluctuates every month. Iron sand is an important raw material in the cement production process, so that the amount of iron sand reject and losses got financial and non-financial impact. This study aims to determine the most dominant activity as the cause of rejection and losses of iron sands and suggest improvements that can be made by using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). Data collection techniques in this study was using the method of observation, interviews, and focus group discussion (FGD) as well as the assessment of the experts to identify it. Results from this study is there are four points of the most dominant cause of the defect of iron sand (mining activities, acceptance, examination and delivery). Recommendation for overcoming these problem is presented (vendor improvement).

  7. Radiative properties of stellar envelopes: Comparison of asteroseismic results to opacity calculations and measurements for iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Gilles, D.; Le Pennec, M.; Blenski, T.; Thais, F.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blancard, C.; Caillaud, T.; Cosse, P.; Faussurier, G.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.C.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Busquet, M.; Colgan, J.; Guzik, J.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Magee, N.H.; Delahaye, F.; Zeippen, C.J.; Ducreta, J.E.; Fontes, C.J.; Harris, J.W.; Loisel, G.

    2013-01-01

    The international OPAC consortium consists of astrophysicists, plasma physicists and experimentalists who examine opacity calculations used in stellar physics that appear questionable and perform new calculations and laser experiments to understand the differences and improve the calculations. We report on iron and nickel opacities for envelopes of stars from 2 to 14 M and deliver our first conclusions concerning the reliability of the used calculations by illustrating the importance of the configuration interaction and of the completeness of the calculations for temperatures around 15-27 eV. (authors)

  8. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  9. Calculation of radiation loss of 1. 2 GeV-electrons in a thick silicon monocrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshtova, S.V.; Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I.

    1988-10-01

    The angular distribution of radiation loss of different fractions of 1.2 GeV-electrons during axial channeling in a Si monocrystal of 1.6 mm thickness is discussed. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine a...

  11. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  12. Calculation and Analysis of Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Fault with Magnet Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of calculating and analyzing the effect of the permanent magnet eddy current loss fault due to magnet segmentation. Taking an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with inverter supplied as an example, the rated power of motor was 2.2 kW. Three-dimensional finite-element model was firstly established based on finite-element software. Then, the model mesh and boundary conditions were handled specially; permanent magnet eddy current loss fault was calculated and analyzed theoretically with magnet segmentation from space harmonic and time harmonic, respectively. Finally, calculation results were compared and explained. A useful conclusion for permanent magnet synchronous motor design has been obtained.

  13. Deep penetration hadron cascade calculations and comparisons to measurements in iron at 24 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Gobel, K; Routti, J T

    1973-01-01

    Monte-Carlo methods are used to simulate extranuclear hadron cascades resulting from a high energy proton beam incident on a block of material. The calculated star and energy deposition densities compare favourably to measurements with activation and dose meters, respectively, in a large muon stopper made of iron and irradiated by a 24 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Results of calculations at 200-400 GeV/c are also presented. (11 refs).

  14. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Beard, C. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Daemen, L. L.; Liska, D. J.; Waters, L. S.; Adams, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  15. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Beard, C.A.; Wilson, W.B.; Daemen, L.L.; Liska, D.J.; Waters, L.S.; Adams, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  16. Investigation of iron adsorption on composite transition metal carbides in steel by first-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui-Hui; Gan, Lei; Tong, Zhi-Fang; Zhang, Heng-Hua; Zhou, Yang

    2018-05-01

    The nucleation potential of transition metal (TM) carbides formed in steel can be predicted by the behavior of iron adsorption on their surface. Therefore, Fe adsorption on the (001) surface of (A1-xmx)C (A = Nb, Ti, m = Mo, V) was investigated by the first-principles method to reveal the initialization of Fe nucleation. The Mulliken population and partial density of state (PDOS) were also calculated and analyzed in this work. The results show that Fe adsorption depends on the composition and configuration of the composite carbides. The adsorption energy (Wads) of Fe on most of (A1-xmx)C is larger than that of Fe on pure TiC or NbC. The maximum Wads is found for Fe on (Nb0.5Mo0.5)C complex carbide, indicating that this carbide has the high nucleation capacity at early stage. The Fe adsorption could be improved by the segregation of Cr and Mn atoms on the surfaces of (Nb0.5Mo0.5)C and (Ti0.5Mo0.5)C. The PDOS analysis of (Cr, Mn)-doped systems further explains the strong interactions between Fe and Cr or Mn atoms.

  17. Superposition of configurations in semiempirical calculation of iron group ion spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantseryavichyus, A.Yu.; Ramonas, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The energy spectra of ions from the iron group in the dsup(N), dsup(N)s, dsup(N)p configurations are studied. A semiempirical method is used in which the effective hamiltonian contains configuration superposition. The sdsup(N+1), psup(4)dsup(N+2) quasidegenerated configurations, as well as configurations which differ by one electron are taken as correction configurations. It follows from the calculations that the most important role among the quasidegenerate configurations is played by the sdsup(N+1) correctional configuration. When it is taken into account, the introduction of the psup(4)dsup(N+2) correctional configuration practically does not affect the results. Account of the dsup(N-1)s configuration in the second order of the perturbation theory is equivalent to that of sdsup(N+1) in the sense that it results in the identical mean square deviation. As follows from the comparison of the results of the approximate and complete account of the configuration superposition, in many cases one can be satisfied with its approximate and complete account of the configuration superposition, in many cases one can be satisfied with its approximate version. The results are presented in the form of tables including the values of empirical parameters, radial integrals, mean square errors, etc

  18. Analytical calculation of dE/dx cluster-charge loss due to threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Dunn, J.

    1997-01-01

    This letter presents a simple analytical approximation which allows one to estimate the effect of ADC threshold on the measured cluster-charge size as used for dE/dx determinations. The idea is to gain some intuitive understanding of the cluster-charge loss and not to replace more accurate simulations. The method is applied to the multiple sampling measurements of energy loss in the main time projection chambers (TPCs) of the NA49 experiment at CERN SPS. The calculations are in reasonable agreement with data. (orig.)

  19. Measurement and Calculation of Frictional Loss in Large Two-Stroke Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The total frictional loss in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is rather well determined. However, the contribution (size and distribution) from the different machine elements are not well known. The aim of this study is to establish methods to measure and calculate friction in the piston...... assembly and guide shoe system for a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. These components are the two major contributors to the total friction in a two-stroke marine diesel engine. The piston pack represents approximately 60% of the total mechanical loss at full load and the guide shoe system 23...

  20. Environmental selection pressures related to iron utilization are involved in the loss of the flavodoxin gene from the plant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella Karlusich, Juan J; Ceccoli, Romina D; Graña, Martín; Romero, Héctor; Carrillo, Néstor

    2015-02-16

    Oxidative stress and iron limitation represent the grim side of life in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The versatile electron transfer shuttle ferredoxin, an iron-sulfur protein, is particularly sensitive to these hardships, and its downregulation under adverse conditions severely compromises survival of phototrophs. Replacement of ferredoxin by a stress-resistant isofunctional carrier, flavin-containing flavodoxin, is a widespread strategy employed by photosynthetic microorganisms to overcome environmental adversities. The flavodoxin gene was lost in the course of plant evolution, but its reintroduction in transgenic plants confers increased tolerance to environmental stress and iron starvation, raising the question as to why a genetic asset with obvious adaptive value was not kept by natural selection. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the evolutionary history of flavodoxin is intricate, with several horizontal gene transfer events between distant organisms, including Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. The flavodoxin gene is unevenly distributed in most algal lineages, with flavodoxin-containing species being overrepresented in iron-limited regions and scarce or absent in iron-rich environments. Evaluation of cyanobacterial genomic and metagenomic data yielded essentially the same results, indicating that there was little selection pressure to retain flavodoxin in iron-rich coastal/freshwater phototrophs. Our results show a highly dynamic evolution pattern of flavodoxin tightly connected to the bioavailability of iron. Evidence presented here also indicates that the high concentration of iron in coastal and freshwater habitats may have facilitated the loss of flavodoxin in the freshwater ancestor of modern plants during the transition of photosynthetic organisms from the open oceans to the firm land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  2. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  3. Finite element calculation of forces on a DC magnet moving over an iron rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodger, D.; Allen, N.; Coles, P.C.; Street, S.; Leonard, P.J.; Eastham, J.F. (Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes results taken from a test rig consisting of a DC magnet over a 0.35m radius spinning iron wheel. The magnet is excited by two coils. The iron parts are unlaminated. Eddy currents are induced in the wheel by virtue of the relative motion of wheel and magnetic field. All iron parts have a nonlinear B-H characteristic. Forces on the magnet are compared with 3D finite element predictions. The results are of relevance to the design of MAGLEV vehicles which are supported by DC magnets.

  4. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... under section 272, shall be gain or loss upon the sale of the coal or iron ore. See paragraph (b)(4) of...

  5. Implementation and adaptation of a macro-scale methodology to calculate direct economic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natho, Stephanie; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    As one of the 195 member countries of the United Nations, Germany signed the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR). With this, though voluntary and non-binding, Germany agreed to report on achievements to reduce disaster impacts. Among other targets, the SFDRR aims at reducing direct economic losses in relation to the global gross domestic product by 2030 - but how to measure this without a standardized approach? The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has hence proposed a methodology to estimate direct economic losses per event and country on the basis of the number of damaged or destroyed items in different sectors. The method bases on experiences from developing countries. However, its applicability in industrial countries has not been investigated so far. Therefore, this study presents the first implementation of this approach in Germany to test its applicability for the costliest natural hazards and suggests adaptations. The approach proposed by UNISDR considers assets in the sectors agriculture, industry, commerce, housing, and infrastructure by considering roads, medical and educational facilities. The asset values are estimated on the basis of sector and event specific number of affected items, sector specific mean sizes per item, their standardized construction costs per square meter and a loss ratio of 25%. The methodology was tested for the three costliest natural hazard types in Germany, i.e. floods, storms and hail storms, considering 13 case studies on the federal or state scale between 1984 and 2016. Not any complete calculation of all sectors necessary to describe the total direct economic loss was possible due to incomplete documentation. Therefore, the method was tested sector-wise. Three new modules were developed to better adapt this methodology to German conditions covering private transport (cars), forestry and paved roads. Unpaved roads in contrast were integrated into the agricultural and

  6. The use of a relaxation method to calculate the 3D magnetic field contribution of an iron yoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-07-01

    A computational procedure has been developed for calculating the three-dimensional field produced by an axisymmetric iron yoke of high permeability in the presence of a system of conductors. The procedure is particularly applicable to the end regions of multipole magnets of the sort used in particle accelerators. The field produced by the conductors is calculated using the Biot-Savart law. We speak of the field contribution of the yoke as an ''image field'' although it is associated with a distinctly diffuse distribution of image currents or magnetic moments. At every point on the boundary of the yoke the total scalar potential is constant, so V i = -V d where i=image and d=direct contribution from the conductors. If we describe both potentials as a series of ''harmonic components'' with respect to azimuthal dependence, then the nature of the boundary condition is such that a de-coupling of one harmonic component from another is preserved and therefore it is also true that V i (n)=-V d (n) at the iron interface, where n is a harmonic number. If we solve the appropriate individual differential equations for the scalar potential functions V i (n) throughout the iron-free region, with the proper applied boundary condition for the scalar potential of each harmonic number, we shall achieve upon summation the appropriate potential function to describe the field contribution of the surrounding high-permeability iron. 2 refs., 3 figs

  7. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  8. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy characterization and microwave absorption of iron-filled carbon-nitrogen nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Renchao; Liang Chongyun; Shi Honglong; Zhou Xingui; Yang Xinan

    2007-01-01

    Iron-filled carbon-nitrogen (Fe/CN x ) nanotubes and iron-filled carbon (Fe/C) nanotubes were synthesized at 900 deg. C through a pyrolysis reaction of ferrocene/acetonitrile and ferrocene/xylene, respectively. The differences of structure and composition between the Fe/CN x nanotubes and Fe/C nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). It was found that the morphology of Fe/CN x nanotubes is more corrugated than that of the Fe/C nanotubes due to the incorporation of nitrogen. By comparing the Fe L 2,3 electron energy-loss spectra of Fe/CN x nanotubes to those of the Fe/C nanotubes, the electron states at the interface between Fe and the tubular wall of both Fe/CN x nanotubes and Fe/C nanotubes were investigated. At the boundary between Fe and the wall of a CN x nanotube, the additional electrons contributed from the doped 'pyridinic-like' nitrogen might transfer to the empty 3d orbital of the encapsulated iron, therefore leading to an intensity suppression of the iron L 2,3 edge and an intensity enhancement of the carbon K edge. However, such an effect could not be found in Fe/C nanotubes. Microwave absorption properties of both Fe/CN x and Fe/C nanocomposites at 2-18 GHz band were studied

  9. Contribution of macrophages in the contrast loss in iron oxide-based MRI cancer cell tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Pierre; Deumer, Gladys; Joudiou, Nicolas; Bouzin, Caroline; Levêque, Philippe; Haufroid, Vincent; Jordan, Bénédicte F.; Feron, Olivier; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking of cancer cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO) allows visualizing metastatic cells in preclinical models. However, previous works showed that the signal void induced by SPIO on T2(*)-weighted images decreased over time. Here, we aim at characterizing the fate of iron oxide nanoparticles used in cell tracking studies and the role of macrophages in SPIO metabolism. In vivo MRI cell tracking of SPIO positive 4T1 breast cancer cells revealed a quick loss of T2* contrast after injection. We next took advantage of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for characterizing the evolution of superparamagnetic and non-superparamagnetic iron pools in 4T1 breast cancer cells and J774 macrophages after SPIO labeling. These in vitro experiments and histology studies performed on 4T1 tumors highlighted the quick degradation of iron oxides by macrophages in SPIO-based cell tracking experiments. In conclusion, the release of SPIO by dying cancer cells and the subsequent uptake of iron oxides by tumor macrophages are limiting factors in MRI cell tracking experiments that plead for the use of (MR) reporter-gene based imaging methods for the long-term tracking of metastatic cells. PMID:28467814

  10. A model for calculating the AC losses of second-generation high temperature superconductor pancake coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.uk

    2009-07-15

    A model is presented for calculating the AC losses of a stack of second-generation high temperature superconductor tapes. This model takes as a starting point the model of Clem and co-workers for a stack in which each tape carries the same current. It is based on the assumption that the magnetic flux lines lie parallel to the tapes within the part of the stack where the flux has not penetrated. In this paper we allow for the depth of penetration of field to vary across the stack, and use the Kim model to allow for the variation of J{sub c} with B. The model is applied to the cases of a transport current and an applied field. For a transport current the calculated result differs from the Norris expression for a single tape carrying a uniform current and it does not seem possible to define a suitable average J{sub c} which could be used. Our method also gives a more accurate value for the critical current of the stack than other methods. For an applied field the stack behaves as a solid superconductor with the J{sub c} averaged locally over several tapes, but still allowed to vary throughout the stack on a larger scale. For up to about ten tapes the losses rise rapidly with the number of tapes, but in thicker stacks the tapes shield each other and the losses become that of a slab with a field parallel to the faces.

  11. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-08-02

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)═O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine and epinephrine are the most efficient food components reducing ferrylmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O 2 , and metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), as revealed by multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares with second order rate constants of 33.6 ± 2.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 19 ± 5 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of -136 ± 18 J/mol K) and 228.9 ± 13.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 110 ± 7 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of 131 ± 25 J/mol K), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The other tyrosine based food components were found to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin with similar reduction rates at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. These reduction reactions were enhanced by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH ⧧ and ΔS ⧧ ), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found to be able to reduce ferrylmyoglobin with a second order rate constant of 66 ± 28 L/mol/s as determined by a competitive kinetic method.

  12. Qualification of a Method to Calculate the Irrecoverable Pressure Loss in High Reynolds Number Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, K. C.; Coffield, R. D.

    2002-09-01

    High Reynolds number test data has recently been reported for both single and multiple piping elbow design configurations at earlier ASME Fluid Engineering Division conferences. The data of these studies ranged up to a Reynolds number of 42 x 10[sup]6 which is significantly greater than that used to establish design correlations before the data was available. Many of the accepted design correlations, based on the lower Reynolds number data, date back as much as fifty years. The new data shows that these earlier correlations are extremely conservative for high Reynolds number applications. Based on the recent high Reynolds number information a new recommended method has been developed for calculating irrecoverable pressure loses in piping systems for design considerations such as establishing pump sizing requirements. This paper describes the recommended design approach and additional testing that has been performed as part of the qualification of the method. This qualification testing determined the irrecoverable pressure loss of a piping configuration that would typify a limiting piping section in a complicated piping network, i.e., multiple, tightly coupled, out-of-plane elbows in series under high Reynolds number flow conditions. The overall pressure loss measurements were then compared to predictions, which used the new methodology to assure that conservative estimates for the pressure loss (of the type used for pump sizing) were obtained. The recommended design methodology, the qualification testing and the comparison between the predictions and the test data are presented. A major conclusion of this study is that the recommended method for calculating irrecoverable pressure loss in piping systems is conservative yet significantly lower than predicted by early design correlations that were based on the extrapolation of low Reynolds number test data.

  13. Time-dependent density functional calculation of the energy loss of antiprotons colliding with metallic nanoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quijada, M.; Borisov, A.G.; Muino, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory is used to study the interaction between antiprotons and metallic nanoshells. The ground state electronic properties of the nanoshell are obtained in the jellium approximation. The energy lost by the antiproton during the collision is calculated and compared to that suffered by antiprotons traveling in metal clusters. The resulting energy loss per unit path length of material in thin nanoshells is larger than the corresponding quantity for clusters. It is shown that the collision process can be interpreted as the antiproton crossing of two nearly bi-dimensional independent metallic systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. A Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation of Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping

    2014-11-10

    In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. A Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation of Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping; Park, Ki-Hong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Extended wave-packet model to calculate energy-loss moments of protons in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archubi, C. D.; Arista, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we introduce modifications to the wave-packet method proposed by Kaneko to calculate the energy-loss moments of a projectile traversing a target which is represented in terms of Gaussian functions for the momentum distributions of electrons in the atomic shells. These modifications are introduced using the Levine and Louie technique to take into account the energy gaps corresponding to the different atomic levels of the target. We use the extended wave-packet model to evaluate the stopping power, the energy straggling, the inverse mean free path, and the ionization cross sections for protons in several targets, obtaining good agreements for all these quantities on an extensive energy range that covers low-, intermediate-, and high-energy regions. The extended wave-packet model proposed here provides a method to calculate in a very straightforward way all the significant terms of the inelastic interaction of light ions with any element of the periodic table.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  18. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Polymorphisms in Iron Homeostasis Genes: New Insights from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castiglione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even if various pathophysiological events have been proposed as explanations, the putative cause of sudden hearing loss remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate and to reveal associations (if any between the main iron-related gene variants and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Case-control study. Materials and Methods. A total of 200 sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients (median age 63.65 years; range 10–92 were compared with 400 healthy control subjects. The following genetic variants were investigated: the polymorphism c.−8CG in the promoter of the ferroportin gene (FPN1; SLC40A1, the two isoforms C1 and C2 (p.P570S of the transferrin protein (TF, the amino acidic substitutions p.H63D and p.C282Y in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE, and the polymorphism c.–582AG in the promoter of the HEPC gene, which encodes the protein hepcidin (HAMP. Results. The homozygous genotype c.−8GG of the SLC40A1 gene revealed an OR for ISSNHL risk of 4.27 (CI 95%, 2.65–6.89; P=0.001, being overrepresented among cases. Conclusions. Our study indicates that the homozygous genotype FPN1 −8GG was significantly associated with increased risk of developing sudden hearing loss. These findings suggest new research should be conducted in the field of iron homeostasis in the inner ear.

  19. Calculation of the time behavior of a PWR NPP during a loss of feedwater ATWS case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    1988-01-01

    Event tree analyses of plant internal accidents play an important role within the safety evaluations of nuclear power reactors. The consequences after normal and abnormal operational perturbations have to be studied with respect to the safety situation of the entire plant and the possibility of additional failures in the reactor scram system be taken into account. In the analysis of anticipated transients with or without reactor scram (non-ATWS or ATWS-cases), it can, according to their initiating events, be distinguished between three important categories, namely - loss of off-site and on-site power (LOOP), - turbine-trip without opening of the bypass station, - loss of main feed water (LOFW). The last case with the additional assumption of a failure in the control rod drive will be subject of this presentation, calculating the dynamic behavior of a PWR NPP (with an end of cycle core, EOC) after such a LOFW/ATWS accident by the transient code combination ALMOD-4/UTSG-2. A short characterization of this combination will be given before consequences of such an accident and the interactions of the different plant parameters are discussed in more detail on basis of the corresponding calculation

  20. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss’s and Stokes’s theorems have been related to Green’s theorem in a novel way.

  1. First-principles calculation for the effect of hydrogen atoms on the mobility of a screw dislocation in BCC iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Endo, Tatsuro; Higuchi, Kenji; Ogata, Shigenobu; Kimizuka, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Effect of hydrogen atoms on the mobility of a screw dislocation in BCC iron has been evaluated using the first-principles calculation. The stable position of a hydrogen atom is found to be near the screw dislocation core and inside the core respectively when the dislocation is at the easy-core or hard-core configuration in BCC iron. The intrinsically unstable hard-core configuration of the screw dislocation is stabilized when a hydrogen atom is trapped inside the core. On the basis of this first-principles result, an elastic string model of a dislocation is developed to predict the kink motion in the presence of a hydrogen atom. It is found that a double-kink formation is facilitated when a hydrogen atom is located near a dislocation line, however, a kink motion is retarded when a hydrogen atom is behind the kink. (author)

  2. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  3. The effect of pearlite on the hydrogen-induced ductility loss in ductile cast irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen energy systems, such as a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and a hydrogen station, are rapidly developing to solve global environmental problems and resource problems. The available structural materials used for hydrogen equipments have been limited to only a few relatively expensive metallic materials that are tolerant for hydrogen embrittlement. Therefore, for the realization of a hydrogen society, it is important to expand the range of materials available for hydrogen equipment and thereby to enable the use of inexpensive common materials. Therefore, ductile cast iron was, in this study, focused as a structural material that could contribute to cost reduction of hydrogen equipment, because it is a low-cost material having good mechanical property comparable to carbon steels in addition to good castability and machinability. The strength and ductility of common ductile cast irons with a ferritic-pearlitic matrix can be controlled by the volume fraction of pearlitic phase. In the case of carbon steels, the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement increases with increase in the pearlite fraction. Toward the development of ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron with reasonable strength for hydrogen equipment, it is necessary to figure out the effect of pearlite on the hydrogen embrittlement of this cast iron. In this study, the tensile tests were conducted using hydrogen-precharged specimens of three kinds of ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast irons, JIS-FCD400, JIS-FCD450 and JIS-FCD700. Based on the results, the role of pearlite in characterizing the hydrogen embrittlement of ductile cast iron was discussed.

  4. Elasticity and wave velocity in fcc iron (austenite) at elevated temperatures - Experimental verification of ab-initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Bevis; Malmström, Mikael; Lönnqvist, Johan; Bate, Pete; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A

    2018-07-01

    High temperature crystal elasticity constants for face centred cubic austenite are important for interpreting the ultrasonic properties of iron and steels but cannot be determined by normal single crystal methods. Values of these constants have recently been calculated using an ab-initio approach and the present work was carried out to test their applicability using laser-ultrasonic measurements. Steel samples having a known texture were examined at temperatures between 800 °C and 1100 °C to measure the velocity of longitudinal P-waves which were found to be in good agreement with modelled values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient Finite Element Models for Calculation of the No-load losses of the Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Dawood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Different transformer models are examined for the calculation of the no-load losses using finite element analysis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses are used for the simulation of the transformer. Results of the finite element method are also compared with the experimental results. The Result shows that 3-dimensional provide high accuracy as compared to the 2 dimensional full and half model. However, the 2-dimensional half model is the less time-consuming method as compared to the 3 and 2-dimensional full model. Simulation time duration taken by the different models of the transformer is also compared. The difference between the 3-dimensional finite element method and experimental results are less than 3%. These numerical methods can help transformer designers to minimize the development of the prototype transformers.

  6. Phosphorus, iron, and aluminum losses in runoff from a rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures can be a source of phosphorus (P) contributing to eutrophication and impairment of water resources. Phosphorus is tightly held in soils that are highly weathered, acidic, and with high iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content like the Ultisols of southeastern USA. We used 11-yr (1999-2009) of da...

  7. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20...

  8. Impact of Uncertainty on Calculations for Recovery from Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty, both aleatory and epistemic, can have a significant impact on estimated probabilities of recovering from loss of offsite power within a specified time window, and such probabilities are an input to risk-informed decisions as to the significance of inspection findings in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Oversight Process. In particular, the choice of aleatory model for offsite power recovery time can have a significant impact on the estimated nonrecovery probability, especially if epistemic uncertainty regarding parameters in the aleatory model is accounted for properly. In past and current analyses, such uncertainty has largely been ignored. This paper examines the impact of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on the results, using modern open-source Bayesian inference software, which implements Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. It includes examples of time-dependent convolution calculations to show the impact that uncertainty can have on this increasingly frequent type of calculation, also. The results show that the 'point estimate' result, which is an input to risk-informed decisions, can easily be uncertain by a factor of 10 if both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are considered. The paper also illustrates the use of Bayesian model selection criteria to aid in the choice of aleatory model.

  9. Large scale steam flow test: Pressure drop data and calculated pressure loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.B.; Spears, J.R.; Feder, A.R.; Moore, B.P.; Young, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the result of large scale steam flow testing, 3 million to 7 million lbs/hr., conducted at approximate steam qualities of 25, 45, 70 and 100 percent (dry, saturated). It is concluded from the test data that reasonable estimates of piping component pressure loss coefficients for single phase flow in complex piping geometries can be calculated using available engineering literature. This includes the effects of nearby upstream and downstream components, compressibility, and internal obstructions, such as splitters, and ladder rungs on individual piping components. Despite expected uncertainties in the data resulting from the complexity of the piping geometry and two-phase flow, the test data support the conclusion that the predicted dry steam K-factors are accurate and provide useful insight into the effect of entrained liquid on the flow resistance. The K-factors calculated from the wet steam test data were compared to two-phase K-factors based on the Martinelli-Nelson pressure drop correlations. This comparison supports the concept of a two-phase multiplier for estimating the resistance of piping with liquid entrained into the flow. The test data in general appears to be reasonably consistent with the shape of a curve based on the Martinelli-Nelson correlation over the tested range of steam quality

  10. Study on Frequency Dependency of ON-Resistance and Pulse-Loss Calculation of MOSFETs for Switch Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hideho; Sato, Ryohei; Iwata, Yoshiharu

    Global efforts toward energy conservation, increasing data centers, and the increasing use of IT equipments are leading to a demand in reduced power consumption of equipments, and power efficiency improvement of power supply units is becoming a necessity. MOSFETs are widely used for their low ON-resistances. Power efficiency is designed using time-domain circuit simulators, except for transformer copper-loss, which has frequency dependency which is calculated separately using methods based on skin and proximity effects. As semiconductor technology reduces the ON-resistance of MOSFETs, frequency dependency due to the skin effect or proximity effect is anticipated. In this study, ON-resistance of MOSFETs are measured and frequency dependency is confirmed. Power loss against rectangular current pulse is calculated. The calculation method for transformer copper-loss is expanded to MOSFETs. A frequency function for the resistance model is newly developed and parametric calculation is enabled. Acceleration of calculation is enabled by eliminating summation terms. Using this method, it is shown that the frequency dependent component of the measured MOSFETs increases the dissipation from 11% to 32% at a switching frequency of 100kHz. From above, this paper points out the importance of the frequency dependency of MOSFETs' ON-resistance, provides means of calculating its pulse losses, and improves loss calculation accuracy of SMPSs.

  11. Calculation of the performance of the INS iron-free π√2 spectrometer as a spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, M.; Hirasawa, M.; Kawakami, H.

    1983-02-01

    The performance of the INS iron-free π√2 beta-ray spectrometer of the current-loop type is calculated with a view of using it as a spectrograph, i.e., in a multichannel mode with a position-sensitive proportional counter. For the momentum resolution of R = 0.01 and 0.1 % the usable momentum range as a spectrograph ( + epsilon + 0 ) and the line shapes on the focal plane are calculated. The transmission of the baffle is 0.025 and 0.13 % of 4π and the expected gain of data-collection efficiency over the single-channel mode is 140 and 40 for R = 0.01 and 0.1%, respectively. An effective tilting of the focal plane due to the entrance baffle is discussed as well as the problems with arrangement and testing of the position detector. (author)

  12. Loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum disturbs iron pathways, potentiates behavioral abnormalities, and exacerbates harmaline-induced tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Matthew A; Winter, Michelle K; Swerdlow, Russell H; McCarson, Kenneth E; Zhu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated in many diseases, including a number of neurological conditions. Cytosolic NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues and is capable of reducing ferric iron in vitro. We previously reported that global gene ablation of NCB5OR resulted in early-onset diabetes and altered iron homeostasis in mice. To further investigate the specific effects of NCB5OR deficiency on neural tissue without contributions from known phenotypes, we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse that lacks NCB5OR only in the cerebellum and midbrain. Assessment of molecular markers in the cerebellum of CKO mice revealed changes in pathways associated with cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. (59)Fe pulse-feeding experiments revealed cerebellum-specific increased or decreased uptake of iron by 7 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Additionally, we characterized behavioral changes associated with loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain in the context of dietary iron deprivation-evoked generalized iron deficiency. Locomotor activity was reduced and complex motor task execution was altered in CKO mice treated with an iron deficient diet. A sucrose preference test revealed that the reward response was intact in CKO mice, but that iron deficient diet consumption altered sucrose preference in all mice. Detailed gait analysis revealed locomotor changes in CKO mice associated with dysfunctional proprioception and locomotor activation independent of dietary iron deficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain exacerbated harmaline-induced tremor activity. Our findings suggest an essential role for NCB5OR in maintaining both iron homeostasis and the proper functioning of various locomotor pathways in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain.

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations of Electron Energy-Loss Spectra with the Addition of Fine Structure from Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarian Shandiz, Mohammad; Guinel, Maxime J-F; Ahmadi, Majid; Gauvin, Raynald

    2016-02-01

    A new approach is presented to introduce the fine structure of core-loss excitations into the electron energy-loss spectra of ionization edges by Monte Carlo simulations based on an optical oscillator model. The optical oscillator strength is refined using the calculated electron energy-loss near-edge structure by density functional theory calculations. This approach can predict the effects of multiple scattering and thickness on the fine structure of ionization edges. In addition, effects of the fitting range for background removal and the integration range under the ionization edge on signal-to-noise ratio are investigated.

  14. Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Smith, Scott M

    2013-07-01

    Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2α (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.

  15. First-principles calculation of the magnetic properties of paramagnetic fcc iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.D.; Gyorffy, B.L.; Pinski, F.J.; Staunton, J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Using the disordered local moment picture of itinerant magnetism, we present calculations of the temperature and volume dependence of the magnetic moment and spin-spin correlations for fcc Fe in the paramagnetic state. These calculations are based on the parameter-free, first principles approach of local spin density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation is used to treat the disorder associated with the random orientation of the local moments

  16. Quantification of body iron and iron absorption in the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Joseph E; Birch, Rebecca J; Steele, Whitney R; Wright, David J; Cable, Ritchard G

    2017-07-01

    Repeated blood donation alters the iron balance of blood donors. We quantified these effects by analyzing changes in body iron as well as calculating iron absorbed per day for donors enrolled in a prospective study. For 1308 donors who completed a final study visit, we calculated total body iron at the enrollment and final visits and the change in total body iron over the course of the study. Taking into account iron lost from blood donations during the study and obligate losses, we also calculated the average amount of iron absorbed per day. First-time/reactivated donors at enrollment had iron stores comparable to previous general population estimates. Repeat donors had greater donation intensity and greater mean iron losses than first-time/reactivated donors, yet they had little change in total body iron over the study period, whereas first-time/reactivated donors had an average 35% drop. There was higher estimated iron absorption in the repeat donors (men: 4.49 mg/day [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.41-4.58 mg/day]; women: 3.75 mg/day [95% CI, 3.67-3.84 mg/day]) compared with estimated iron absorption in first-time/reactivated donors (men: 2.89 mg/day [95% CI, 2.75-3.04 mg/day]; women: 2.76 mg/day [95% CI, 2.64-2.87 mg/day]). The threshold for negative estimated iron stores (below "0" mg/kg stores) was correlated with the development of anemia at a plasma ferritin value of 10 ng/mL. These analyses provide quantitative data on changes in estimated total body iron for a broad spectrum of blood donors. In contrast to using ferritin alone, this model allows assessment of the iron content of red blood cells and the degree of both iron surplus and depletion over time. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Alternating current loss calculation in a high-TC superconducting transmission cable considering the magnetic field distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, H; Haji, K; Hamada, T

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the alternating current (ac) losses of a 114 MVA high-T C superconducting (HTS) transmission cable using an electric-circuit (EC) model. The HTS cable is fabricated by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. The EC model is comprised of a resistive part and an inductive part. The resistive part is obtained by the approximated Norris equation for a HTS tape. The Norris equation indicates hysteresis losses due to self-fields. The inductive part has two components, i.e. inductances related to axial fields and those related to circumferential fields. The layer currents and applied fields of each layer were calculated by the EC model. By using both values, the ac losses of the one-phase HTS cable were obtained by calculation considering the self-field, the axial field and the circumferential field of the HTS tape. The measured ac loss transporting 1 kA rms is 0.7 W m -1 ph -1 , which is equal to the calculation. The distribution of each layer loss resembles in shape the distribution of the circumferential field in each layer, which indicates that the circumferential fields strongly influence the ac losses of the HTS cable

  18. No-load loss calculation of distribution transformers supplied by nonsinusoidal voltage using three-dimensional finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani-Asrami, Mohammad; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Shayegani Akmal, Amir Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Transformers are basically designed to operate under nominal voltage, rated frequency and also, pure sinusoidal load current. In recent decade, change in the type of loads and increasing use of power electronic devices with their nonsinusoidal current waveform has distorted the system voltage waveform as well. The losses of transformers include load and no-load losses. No-load loss continuously led to loss of energy in transformers that are connected to the network in all 24 h. With respect to high significance of energy and undesirable impacts of losses on the aging of transformers, the no-load loss is considered as a critical factor. Nowadays, it is necessary to apply a suitable method for calculation of no-load loss in presence of the voltage harmonics and over-excite conditions, especially for distribution transformers, as a result of harmonic increase in the voltage and current in the network and particular applications. In this paper, Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used to simulate nonsinusoidal voltage effects on no-load loss of transformers. Such simulation enables the software to simulate and analyze different electromagnetic parameters such as flux lines, flux density, losses, and etc under different input sources and with high accuracy. In addition, effect of nonsinusoidal voltages on no-load loss has been investigated by a typical experimental transformer using several practical tests. - Highlights: ► FEM has been employed to loss calculation of distribution transformer under distorted voltages. ► This method gives accurate results in comparison with standard or circuit based methods. ► A new version of 3D FEM has been used, this approach is electromagnetic based. ► In literature, FEM always used for study of transformer load loss and most of them based on magneto-static FEM. ► FEM results are validated by experiment for small test transformer

  19. The effect of silicon on iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation in rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Zou, Qi; Xue, Sheng-Guo; Pan, Wei-Song; Huang, Liu; Hartley, William; Mo, Jing-Yu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Rice is one of the major pathways of arsenic (As) exposure in human food chain, threatening over half of the global population. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Si application on iron (Fe) plaque formation, As uptake and rice grain As speciation in indica and hybrid rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability. The results demonstrated that Si significantly increased root and grain biomass. Indica genotypes with higher ROL induced greater Fe plaque formation, compared to hybrid genotypes and sequestered more As in Fe plaque. Silicon applications significantly increased Fe concentrations in iron plaque of different genotypes, but it decreased As concentrations in the roots, straws and husks by 28-35%, 15-35% and 32-57% respectively. In addition, it significantly reduced DMA accumulation in rice grains but not inorganic As accumulation. Rice of indica genotypes with higher ROL accumulated lower concentrations of inorganic As in grains than hybrid genotypes with lower ROL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation of neutron cross sections on iron up to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of high energy d + Li neutron sources for fusion materials radiation damage studies will require neutron cross sections up to 40 MeV. Experimental data above 15 MeV are generally sparse or nonexistent, and reliance must be placed upon nuclear-model calculations to produce the needed cross sections. To satisfy such requirements for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), neutron cross sections have been calculated for 54 56 Fe between 3 and 40 MeV. These results were joined to the existing ENDF/B-V evaluation below 3 MeV. In this energy range, most neutron reactions can be described using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model with corrections for preequilibrium and direct-reaction effects. To properly use these models to obtain realistic cross sections, emphasis must be placed upon the determination of suitable input parameters (optical model sets, gamma-ray strength functions, level densities) valid over the energy range of the calculation. To do this, several types of independent data were used to arrive at consistent parameter sets as described

  1. Hybrid functional calculations of potential hydrogen storage material: Complex dimagnesium iron hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-06-01

    By employing the state of art first principles approaches, comprehensive investigations of a very promising hydrogen storage material, Mg 2FeH6 hydride, is presented. To expose its hydrogen storage capabilities, detailed structural, elastic, electronic, optical and dielectric aspects have been deeply analysed. The electronic band structure calculations demonstrate that Mg2FeH6 is semiconducting material. The obtained results of the optical bandgap (4.19 eV) also indicate that it is a transparent material for ultraviolet light, thus demonstrating its potential for optoelectronics application. The calculated elastic properties reveal that Mg2FeH6 is highly stiff and stable hydride. Finally, the calculated hydrogen (H2) storage capacity (5.47 wt.%) within a reasonable formation energy of -78 kJ mol-1, at room temperature, can be easily achievable, thus making Mg2FeH6 as potential material for practical H2 storage applications. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron and Nickel spectral opacity calculations in conditions relevant for pulsating stellar envelopes and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Busquet, M.; Thais, F.; Loisel, G.; Piau, L.; Ducret, J. E.; Blenski, T.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, P.; Faussurier, G.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Porcherot, Q.; Guzik, J. A.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Harris, J.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Delahaye, F.; Zeippen, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Seismology of stars is strongly developing. To address this question we have formed an international collaboration, OPAC, to perform specific experimental measurements, compare opacity calculations, and improve the opacity calculations in stellar codes [1]. We consider the following opacity codes: SCO, CASSANDRA, STA, OPAS, LEDCOP, OP, SCO-RCG. Their comparison has shown large differences for Fe and Ni in equivalent conditions of envelopes of type II supernova precursors, temperatures between 15 and 40 eV and densities of a few mg/cm 3 [2-4]. LEDCOP, OPAS, SCO-RCG structure codes and STA give similar results and differ from OP ones for the lower temperatures and for spectral interval values [3]. In this work we discuss the role of Configuration Interaction (CI) and the influence of the number of used configurations. We present and include in the opacity code comparisons new HULLAC-v9 calculations [5, 6] that include full CI. To illustrate the importance of this effect we compare different CI approximations (modes) available in HULLAC-v9 [7]. These results are compared to previous predictions and to experimental data. Differences with OP results are discussed. (authors)

  3. [A cohort study on occupational noise induced hearing loss in workers at an iron and steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S F; Chen, G S; Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Zhang, H L; Wang, X M; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zheng, Y X

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To analyze the incidence rate of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in noise-exposed workers in an iron and steel plant from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Using a cohort study method, workers exposed to occupational noise from Jan 1, 2006 to Dec 12, 2015 were followed up and the pure tone hearing test was conducted. In total, 6 297 subjects completed two or more physical checks and the pure tone hearing test and were included in the analysis. The noise exposure level at the workplace and the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level for workers was monitored and the cumulative noise exposure dose was evaluated. The subjects were divided into low, middle and high exposure groups according to the noise exposure level, and the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level for 8 hours for each group was 80.6-85.0, 85.1-90.0 and 90.1-103.4 dB (A), respectively. While the RR and 95% CI were derived from unconditional logistic regression models. In logistic regression analysis, confounding factors such as age, gender, smoking habit, drinking habit, high temperature exposure and chemical hazards exposure level were controlled. Results: During the follow-up period, 392 cases of occupational noise-induced hearing loss were diagnosed among the 6 297 subjects, with an incidence rate of 6.23%; 318 cases of high-frequency hearing loss were diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 5.05%; and 74 cases of occupational noise-induced deafness were diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 1.18% . The incidence rates of hearing loss among the high, medium and low exposure groups were 9.22% (158/1 737), 6.49% (204/3 142) and 2.08% (30/1 442), respectively; the rates of high-frequency hearing loss were 7.41% (127/1 737), 5.25% (165/3 142) and 1.80% (26/1 442), respectively; and the rates of occupational noise-induced deafness were 1.81% (31/1 737), 1.24% (39/3 142) and 0.28% (4/1 442), respectively. For the groups corresponding to cumulative noise exposure doses of

  4. Effect of iron content on permeability and power loss characteristics of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic properties like saturation magnetization, coercivity, retentivity have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The permeability of cadmium doped lithium ferrites exhibited higher values than zinc doped lithium ferrites. The power loss of cadmium doped lithium ferrites is lesser as compared to zinc ...

  5. Evaluation of stator core loss of high speed motor by using thermography camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeru; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    In order to design a high-efficiency motor, the iron loss that is generated in the motor should be reduced. The iron loss of the motor is generated in a stator core that is produced with an electrical steel sheet. The iron loss characteristics of the stator core and the electrical steel sheet are agreed due to a building factor. To evaluate the iron loss of the motor, the iron loss of the stator core should be measured more accurately. Thus, we proposed the method of the iron loss evaluation of the stator core by using a stator model core. This stator model core has been applied to the surface mounted permanent magnet (PM) motors without windings. By rotate the permanent magnet rotor, the rotating magnetic field is generated in the stator core like a motor under driving. To evaluate the iron loss of the stator model core, the iron loss of the stator core can be evaluated. Also, the iron loss can be calculated by a temperature gradient. When the temperature gradient is measured by using thermography camera, the iron loss of entire stator core can be evaluated as the iron loss distribution. In this paper, the usefulness of the iron loss evaluation method by using the stator model core is shown by the simulation with FEM and the heat measurement with thermography camera.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  7. A study on the development of automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for maritime boundary delimitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, G.; Kim, K.; Park, Y.

    2014-02-01

    As the maritime boundary delimitation is important for the purpose of securing marine resources, in addition to the aspect of maritime security, interest in maritime boundary delimitation to help national benefits are increasing over the world. In Korea, the importance of maritime boundary delimitation with the neighbouring countries is also increasing in practice. The quantity of obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary acts as an important factor for maritime boundary delimitation. Accordingly, a study is required to calculate quantity of our obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary delimitation. This study intends to calculate obtainable marine resources depending on various maritime boundary scenarios insisted by several countries. It mainly aims at developing a GIS-based automation system to be utilized for decision making of the maritime boundary delimitation. For this target, it has designed a module using spatial analysis technique to automatically calculate profit and loss waters area of each country upon maritime boundary and another module to estimate economic profits and losses obtained by each country using the calculated waters area and pricing information of the marine resources. By linking both the designed modules, it has implemented an automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for the GIS-based maritime boundary delimitation. The system developed from this study automatically calculate quantity of the obtainable marine resources of a country for the maritime boundary to be added and created in the future. Thus, it is expected to support decision making for the maritime boundary negotiators.

  8. A study on the development of automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for maritime boundary delimitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, G; Kim, K; Park, Y

    2014-01-01

    As the maritime boundary delimitation is important for the purpose of securing marine resources, in addition to the aspect of maritime security, interest in maritime boundary delimitation to help national benefits are increasing over the world. In Korea, the importance of maritime boundary delimitation with the neighbouring countries is also increasing in practice. The quantity of obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary acts as an important factor for maritime boundary delimitation. Accordingly, a study is required to calculate quantity of our obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary delimitation. This study intends to calculate obtainable marine resources depending on various maritime boundary scenarios insisted by several countries. It mainly aims at developing a GIS-based automation system to be utilized for decision making of the maritime boundary delimitation. For this target, it has designed a module using spatial analysis technique to automatically calculate profit and loss waters area of each country upon maritime boundary and another module to estimate economic profits and losses obtained by each country using the calculated waters area and pricing information of the marine resources. By linking both the designed modules, it has implemented an automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for the GIS-based maritime boundary delimitation. The system developed from this study automatically calculate quantity of the obtainable marine resources of a country for the maritime boundary to be added and created in the future. Thus, it is expected to support decision making for the maritime boundary negotiators

  9. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Davídek, T.; Krivková, P.; Leitner, R.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Suk, M.; Valkar, S.; Zaitsev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2001), s. 487-495 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : energy loss spectrum * muons * hadron Tile calorimeter * CERN SPS * production of electron-positron pairs * energetic knock-on elecktrons * ion elastic form factor correction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.194, year: 2001

  10. Conservatism of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis compared to experimental results and best-estimate calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, F.; Friedmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper compares results of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis with experimental results and results of best-estimate calculations. The large safety margins resulting from the more realistic best-estimate results are used to show the high conservatism inherent in the licensing process of pressurized water reactors. (orig.) [de

  11. Calculation of radiation loss of 1.2 GeV-electrons in a thick silicon monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtova, S.V.; Komarov, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The angular distribution of radiation loss of different fractions of 1.2 GeV-electrons during axial channeling in a Si monocrystal of 1.6 mm thickness is discussed. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the experimental data. (author)

  12. ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF THE BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC LOSSES OF THE ENERGY OF THE FREQUENCY-REGULATED ASYNCHRONOUS ENGINE IN POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Volkov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Obtaining analytical dependencies for the calculation of the main electromagnetic energy losses of a frequency-controlled induction motor in positioning modes with small displacements for various types (linear, parabolic and quasi-optimal of its velocity variation. Methodology. Similarity methods, differential and integral calculus, analytical interpolation, mathematical analysis. Findings. Analytical dependencies for calculation of current electromagnetic power losses and basic electromagnetic energy losses of a frequency-controlled asynchronous motor in the modes of positioning with small displacements for various types (linear, parabolic and quasi-optimal of its velocity are obtained. A universal form of the analytical dependence for calculating the optimal acceleration and deceleration times for a frequency-controlled asynchronous motor for positioning with small displacements, corresponding to minimization of the main electromagnetic energy losses of this engine with the indicated positioning for various species (linear, parabolic and quasi-optimal, is obtained. A comparative quantitative assessment of the change is made: the optimum values of the main electromagnetic energy losses of the frequency-controlled asynchronous engine and the corresponding maximum speed and optimal acceleration and deceleration times, in the function of the set prescribed small displacements for the various engine speed trajectories under consideration. Originality. For the first time, analytical dependencies for the calculation of the main electromagnetic energy losses of a frequency-controlled asynchronous motor are obtained for positioning with small displacements as a function of the set values of the movement of the motor shaft and the set values of its acceleration and deceleration times for the specified specified displacements. For the first time, dependences are obtained for a quantitative estimate of the minimum fundamental electromagnetic

  13. Improved acid neutralisation capacity assessment of iron carbonates by titration and theoretical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.A.; Thomas, J.E.; Skinner, W.M.; Smart, R.St.C.

    2004-01-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of a rock sample containing significant amounts of Fe carbonates, as conducted to determine net acid production potential (NAPP), can be a difficult parameter to determine. Various ANC tests are available to determine the ANC of carbonates. This work does not attempt to create another ANC test protocol; rather, it provides a refinement for existing tests. Results showed that a significant lag period may be needed (up to 432 h) after standard Sobek-type ANC tests for the complete hydrolysis of Fe associated with the ANC testing of siderite. This lag occurred even with standard industry modifications that include the addition of 2 drops of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5 during the back-titration. In this work the authors used a modification to the Sobek ANC test (the Modified Sobek ANC test) that included filtering and the addition of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5. This test was further modified by the continuance of this H 2 O 2 addition (the H 2 O 2 ANC test) until there was no subsequent pH drop (which is due to Fe hydrolysis reactions), thereupon the back titration was continued to pH 7.0. Results indicated that the ANC for siderite (after 0 h) using the H 2 O 2 ANC test was similar to the ANC determined after 432 h lag by the Modified Sobek ANC test. This modification reduces the uncertainty related to static-test results for samples containing Fe carbonates. The test is simple to use, has industry application, and provides a better indication of the NAPP. The Modified Sobek ANC results for calcite and dolomite and the H 2 O 2 ANC test for siderite were in good agreement with the mineralogical carbonate ANC (ANC carb ). ANC carb was determined by calculation based on electron probe micro-analysis. Although lower than both the ANC carb and the ANC determined by titration, the chemical ANC calculated from the ions present in the ANC digestion liquor also provided a good indication of the overall acid neutralisation capacity of the sample

  14. Improved calculations of the electronic and nuclear energy losses for light ions penetrating H and He targets at intermediate velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, P.L. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Schiwietz, G. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Dept. FD

    1994-06-01

    A review is given on the use of the coupled-channel method to calculate the electronic and nuclear energy loss of ions penetrating the matter. This first principle calculation based on an expansion of the time dependent electronic wavefunction in terms of atomic orbitals has been applied to evaluate the impact parameter dependence of the electronic energy loss, the stopping cross-section and the fluctuation is energy loss of ions colliding with H and He atoms at energies of 10 keV/amu to 500 keV/amu. The results have been compared to experimental data as well as to others existing models, local density approximation in an electron gas target, harmonic oscillator target treatment and first order plane-wave-Born approximation. (author). 63 refs, 11 figs.

  15. Comparisons of Measured and Calculated Neutron Fluxes in Laminated iron and Heavy Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E

    1964-10-15

    Measurements of neutron fluxes have been performed in configurations depicting the regions extending radially and axially outwards from the core of a PHWR reactor in order to test the accuracy of the available methods in shield design on thin alternating laminae of Fe and D{sub 2}O. A 'dry' experimental set-up was constructed, i.e. the D{sub 2}O was contained in flat tanks made of Al. The first set of measurements was performed through solid Fe and D{sub 2}O layers, and only the results of these experiments are described in this report. The set-up allowed measurements also in a mock-up of a reactor top penetrated by D{sub 2}O or air-filled channels (to be reported later). The results are compared to fluxes calculated by the British 18-group removal-diffusion method and by the NRN method developed at AE. The results show that the values predicted may be expected to be within a factor of 2 from the true values in most cases. The predicted relative flux distributions follow the observed ones with a very good accuracy in spite of the apparent misuse of diffusion theory for the thin regions in question. Finally, it is shown that the predicted change in the fast spectrum while penetrating these set-ups should be confirmable with certain threshold detectors.

  16. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180o for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tamii, Atsushi; Iwase, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Niita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180 o were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150 o reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  17. HIGH TEMPERATURE RESONANCE LOSSES IN SILICON-DOPED YTTRIUM-IRON GARNET (YIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, D. J.; Tocci, L.

    1967-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic resonance linewidth of silicon-doped YIG, measured as a function of temperature at 13.4 kMHz, is found to show a pronounced peak at 105°C. The anisotropic behavior of this peak is in good agreement with the four-level valence-exchange model proposed by Clogston. The model yields...... for the electron ordering energy a value 5 × 10-4 eV which agrees closely with the energy deduced from magnetic anneal studies. The activation energy for electron transfer (0.25 eV) is virtually identical with values reported in investigations of electrical conductivity and acoustic loss. ©1967 The American...

  18. Evaluation of iron and selenium losses in metalloproteins separated by gel electrophoresis by ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghel, I.; Fernandez, M.L.; Fernandez, B.; Pereiro, R.; Sanz-Medel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Metallomics addresses the study of metabolism, transport, and metal-protein interactions aiming to obtain relevant information of physiological and pathological alterations in living organisms. Gel electrophoresis is widely employed in proteomics and its use is actually extending to metallomics. Unfortunately, analysis of proteins by molecular techniques does not offer quantitative information. So, a good alternative could be their determination via the quantification of (semi)metal bound to the protein by ICPMS. In this work, we will show a detailed study of possible losses of protein and/or metal in Fe-bound and selenium proteins (transferrin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) to evaluate the behaviour of the protein-metal interactions during the electrophoresis process. (author)

  19. GIS-technologies application for calculation of potential soil loss of Marha River basin (Republic of Saha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynbergenov, Y.; Maltsev, K.; Sihanova, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the article the presentation of estimation methods of potential soil loss in the conditions of Siberia with application of geographical information systems is resulted. For the reference area of the Marha river basin, which is a part of the Lena river catchment, there was created a specialized geographic information database of potential soil erosion, with scale of 1: 1,000,000. Digital elevation model “GMTED2010” and the hydroset layer corresponding to the scale of 1: 1,000,000 are taken to calculate the soil loss values. The formation of the geobase data is considered in detail being constructed on the basis of the multiplicative structure which reflects the main parameters of the relief (slope steepness, exposition, slope length, erosion potential of the relief), soil, climatic characteristics and modern types of land cover. At the quantitative level with sufficiently high degree of spatial detail results were obtained for calculating the potential erosion of soils. The average value of potential soil loss in the basin without taking into account the factor of land cover types, was 12.6 t/ha/yr. The calculations carried out, taking into account the types of land cover obtained from remote sensing data from outer space resulted in an appreciable reduction of the soil loss values (0.04 t/ha/yr.).

  20. Measurement and CFD calculation of spacer loss coefficient for a tight-lattice fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Kwack, Young Kyun; Lee, Chi Young

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and CFD analysis evaluated the pressure drop in a spacer grid. • The measurement and CFD errors for the spacer loss coefficient were estimated. • The spacer loss coefficient for the dual-cooled annular fuel bundle was determined. • The CFD prediction agrees with the measured spacer loss coefficient within 8%. - Abstract: An experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed to evaluate the pressure drop in a spacer grid for a dual-cooled annular fuel (DCAF) bundle. The DCAF bundle for the Korean optimum power reactor (OPR1000) is a 12 × 12 tight-lattice rod array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.08 owing to a larger outer diameter of the annular fuel rod. An experiment was conducted to measure the pressure drop in spacer grid for the DCAF bundle. The test bundle is a full-size 12 × 12 rod bundle with 11 spacer grid. The test condition covers a Reynolds number range of 2 × 10 4 –2 × 10 5 by changing the temperature and flow rate of water. A CFD analysis was also performed to predict the pressure drop through a spacer grid using the full-size and partial bundle models. The pressure drop and loss coefficient of a spacer grid were predicted and compared with the experimental results. The CFD predictions of spacer pressure drop and loss coefficient agree with the measured values within 8%. The spacer loss coefficient for the DCAF bundle is estimated to be approximately 1.50 at a nominal operating condition of OPR1000, i.e., Re = 4 × 10 5

  1. Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Fan, Shanhui; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-01-28

    The tight binding approximation (TBA) is used to relate the intrinsic, radiation loss of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) to that of a single constituent resonator within a light cone picture. We verify the validity of the TBA via direct, full-field simulation of CROWs based on the L2 photonic crystal cavity. The TBA predicts that the quality factor of the CROW increases with that of the isolated cavity. Moreover, our results provide a method to design CROWs with low intrinsic loss across the entire waveguide band.

  2. Monte Carlo calculation of energy loss of hydrogen and helium ions transmitted under channelling conditions in silicon single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bounagui, O.; Erramli, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on calculations of the electronic channelling energy loss of hydrogen and helium ions along Si and Si axial directions for the low energy range by using the Monte Carlo simulation code. Simulated and experimental data are compared for protons and He ions in the and axis of silicon. A reasonable agreement was found. Computer simulation was also employed to study the angular dependence of energy loss for 0.5, 0.8, 1, and 2 MeV channelled 4 He ions transmitted through a silicon crystal of 3 μm thickness along the axis.

  3. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  4. Model for Calculating Electrolytic Shunt Path Losses in Large Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized analysis and solution techniques were developed to evaluate the shunt power losses in electrochemical systems designed with a common or circulating electrolyte supply. Sample data are presented for a hypothetical bulk energy storage redox system, and the general applicability of the analysis technique is discussed.

  5. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-11-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles used to provide supplemental shielding to the NSLS-II accelerators and the lessons learned from this process are presented.

  6. Contribution of coated humic acids calculated through their surface coverage on nano iron oxides for ofloxacin and norfloxacin sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongbo; Liang, Ni; Li, Hao; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhang, Di; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-09-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants on organo-mineral complexes has been investigated extensively, but the sorption contribution of mineral particles was not properly addressed before calculating KOC, especially for ionic organic contaminants. We measured the surface coverage of a humic acid (HA) on nano iron oxides (n-Fe2O3) in a series of synthesized organo-mineral complexes. The contribution of the coated HA to ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) sorption in HA-n-Fe2O3 complexes was over 80% of the total sorption with the surface coverage of 36% and fOC of 1.6%. All the coated HA showed higher sorption to NOR and OFL in comparison to the original HA, suggesting HA fractionation and/or physical re-conformation during organo-mineral complex formation. The decreased KOC with multilayer coating may suggest the importance of site-specific interactions for OFL sorption, while the increased KOC with multilayer coating may suggest the importance of partitioning in hydrophobic region for NOR sorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calculating transport AC losses in stacks of high temperature superconductor coated conductors with magnetic substrates using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Flack, Tim J.; Campbell, Archie M.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of stacks of HTS coated conductors with and without a magnetic substrate. Non-magnetic substrate model is consistent with existing methods. Presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack. Differences and similarities between certain tapes within stacks are explained. Ferromagnetic loss of substrate negligible in most cases except small currents/fields. In this paper, the authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of stacks of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors with a particular focus on calculating the total transport AC loss. The cross-section of superconducting cables and coils is often modeled as a two-dimensional stack of coated conductors, and these stacks can be used to estimate the AC loss of a practical device. This paper uses a symmetric two dimensional (2D) finite element model based on the H formulation, and a detailed investigation into the effects of a magnetic substrate on the transport AC loss of a stack is presented. The number of coated conductors in each stack is varied from 1 to 150, and three types of substrate are compared: non-magnetic weakly magnetic and strongly magnetic. The non-magnetic substrate model is comparable with results from existing models for the limiting cases of a single tape (Norris) and an infinite stack (Clem). The presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack, due to an increased localized magnetic flux density, and the stronger the magnetic material, the further the flux penetrates into the stack overall. The AC loss is calculated for certain tapes within the stack, and the differences and similarities between the losses throughout the stack are explained using the magnetic flux penetration and current density distributions in those tapes. The ferromagnetic loss of the substrate itself is found to be negligible in most cases, except for small magnitudes of current. Applying these findings to practical applications, where AC

  8. Calculation of abort thresholds for the Beam Loss Monitoring System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nemcic, Martin; Dehning, Bernd

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is one of the most critical machine protection systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland. Its main purpose is to protect the superconducting magnets from quenches and other equipment from damage by requesting a beam abort when the measured losses exceed any of the predefined threshold levels. The system consist of circa 4000 ionization chambers which are installed around the 27 kilometres ring (LHC). This study aims to choose a technical platform and produce a system that addresses all of the limitations with the current system that is used for the calculation of the LHC BLM abort threshold values. To achieve this, a comparison and benchmarking of the Java and .NET technical platforms is performed in order to establish the most suitable solution. To establish which technical platform is a successful replacement of the current abort threshold calculator, comparable prototype systems in Java and .NET we...

  9. Calculation of photon dose for Dalat research reactor in case of loss of reactor tank water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vinh Vinh; Huynh Ton Nghiem; Nguyen Kien Cuong

    2007-01-01

    Photon sources of actinides and fission products were estimated by ORIGEN2 code with the modified cross-section library for Dalat research reactor (DRR) using new cross-section generated by WIMS-ANL code. Photon sources of reactor tank water calculated from the experimental data. MCNP4C2 with available non-analog Monte Carlo model and ANSI/ANL-6.1.1-1977 flux-to-dose factors were used for dose estimation. The agreement between calculation results and those of measurements showed that the methods and models used to get photon sources and dose were acceptable. In case the reactor water totally leaks out from the reactor tank, the calculated dose is very high at the top of reactor tank while still low in control room. In the reactor hall, the operation staffs can access for emergency works but with time limits. (author)

  10. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....506). The effect of framing on the U-value must be included in the Uo calculation. Other low-R-value... chapters are not applicable: 23.1Steel Frame Construction 23.2Masonry Construction 23.3Foundations and...

  11. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe3+ in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi; Sader, Kasim; Brown, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L 2,3 -ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H 2 O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  12. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe{sup 3+} in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi [SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Sader, Kasim [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy, E-mail: a.p.brown@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L{sub 2,3}-ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H{sub 2}O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  13. Three dimensional model calculations of the global dispersion of high speed aircraft exhaust and implications for stratospheric ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.; Jackman, Charles H.; Weaver, Clark J.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional (zonally averaged) photochemical models are commonly used for calculations of ozone changes due to various perturbations. These include calculating the ozone change expected as a result of change in the lower stratospheric composition due to the exhaust of a fleet of supersonic aircraft flying in the lower stratosphere. However, zonal asymmetries are anticipated to be important to this sort of calculation. The aircraft are expected to be restricted from flying over land at supersonic speed due to sonic booms, thus the pollutant source will not be zonally symmetric. There is loss of pollutant through stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but these processes are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous. Asymmetry in the pollutant distribution contributes to the uncertainty in the ozone changes calculated with two dimensional models. Pollutant distributions for integrations of at least 1 year of continuous pollutant emissions along flight corridors are calculated using a three dimensional chemistry and transport model. These distributions indicate the importance of asymmetry in the pollutant distributions to evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on ozone. The implications of such pollutant asymmetries to assessment calculations are discussed, considering both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.

  14. Simple method for calculation of heat loss through floor/beam-wall intersections according to ISO 9164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmac, Sukran; Guner, Abdurrahman; Senkal, Filiz; Kartal, Semiha

    2007-01-01

    The international standards for calculation of energy consumption for heating are ISO 9164 and EN 832. Although they are based on similar principles, there are significant differences in the calculation procedure of transmission heat loss coefficient, H T , especially in the evaluation of thermal bridges. The calculation of H T and the way thermal bridges are to be taken into consideration are explained in detail in EN 832 and in a series of other linked standards. In ISO 9164, the parameters used in the relevant equations are cited, but there is a lack of explanation about how they will be determined or calculated. Although in ISO 6946-2, the earlier version of the same standard, the calculation methods of these quantities were explained for column-wall intersections; in the revised ISO 6946, these explanations have been removed. On the other hand, these parameters had never been defined for floor/beam-wall intersections. In this paper, a new method is proposed for calculation of the parameters cited in ISO 9164 for floor/beam-wall intersections. The results obtained by the proposed method for typical floor with beam sections are compared with the results obtained by the methods stated in EN 832/EN 13789/EN ISO 14683 and the results obtained from 2D analysis. Different methods are evaluated as to their simplicity and agreement

  15. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  16. TRAC calculations of a loss-of-coolant accident in a reactor scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory as an advanced best-estimate computer program for analysis of postulated hypothetical accidents in pressurized water reactors. As a part of the TRAC developmental verification efforts, a TRAC posttest analysis of Semiscale Mod-3 Test S-07-6 was conducted. The results of this analysis show that the agreement between TRAC calculations and experimental data is not very good. In particular, TRAC does not predict the long term doncomer and core liquid level oscillations during the reflood phase

  17. A two-dimensional finite element method to calculate the AC loss in superconducting cables, wires and coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.

  18. Fault Specific Seismic Hazard Maps as Input to Loss Reserves Calculation for Attica Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Zimbidis, Alexandros; Roberts, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    Greece is prone to various natural disasters, such as wildfires, floods, landslides and earthquakes, due to the special environmental and geological conditions dominating in tectonic plate boundaries. Seismic is the predominant risk, in terms of damages and casualties in the Greek territory. The historical record of earthquakes in Greece has been published from various researchers, providing useful data in seismic hazard assessment of Greece. However, the completeness of the historical record in Greece, despite being one of the longest worldwide, reaches only 500 years for M ≥ 7.3 and less than 200 years for M ≥ 6.5. Considering that active faults in the area have recurrence intervals of a few hundred to several thousands of years, it is clear that many active faults have not been activated during the completeness period covered by the historical records. New Seismic Hazard Assessment methodologies tend to follow fault specific approaches where seismic sources are geologically constrained active faults, in order to address problems related to the historical records incompleteness, obtain higher spatial resolution and calculate realistic source locality distances, since seismic sources are very accurately located. Fault specific approaches provide quantitative assessments as they measure fault slip rates from geological data, providing a more reliable estimate of seismic hazard. We used a fault specific seismic hazard assessment approach for the region of Attica. The method of seismic hazard mapping from geological fault throw-rate data combined three major factors: Empirical data which combine fault rupture lengths, earthquake magnitudes and coseismic slip relationships. The radiuses of VI, VII, VIII and IX isoseismals on the Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity scale. Attenuation - amplification functions for seismic shaking on bedrock compared to basin filling sediments. We explicitly modeled 22 active faults that could affect the region of Attica, including

  19. Modelling IT risk in banking industry : A study on how to calculate the aggregate loss distribution of IT risk

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Didrik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of internal data makes some operational risks hard to calculate with quantitative models. This is true for the IT risk or the risk that a bank will experience losses caused by IT System and Infrastructure failure. IT systems and infrastructure are getting more predominant and important in the banking industry which makes the IT risk even more important to quantify.  Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find an appropriate way of modelling IT risk for the banking industry. Th...

  20. Neutron spectra measurement and calculations using data libraries CIELO, JEFF-3.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1 in iron benchmark assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Bohumil; Rejchrt, Jiri; Novak, Evzen; Losa, Evzen; Blokhin, Anatoly I.; Mitenkova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    The leakage neutron spectra measurements have been done on benchmark spherical assemblies - iron spheres with diameter of 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm. The Cf-252 neutron source was placed into the centre of iron sphere. The proton recoil method was used for neutron spectra measurement using spherical hydrogen proportional counters with diameter of 4 cm and with pressure of 400 and 1000 kPa. The neutron energy range of spectrometer is from 0.1 to 1.3 MeV. This energy interval represents about 85 % of all leakage neutrons from Fe sphere of diameter 50 cm and about of 74% for Fe sphere of diameter 100 cm. The adequate MCNP neutron spectra calculations based on data libraries CIELO, JEFF-3.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1 were done. Two calculations were done with CIELO library. The first one used data for all Fe-isotopes from CIELO and the second one (CIELO-56) used only Fe-56 data from CIELO and data for other Fe isotopes were from ENDF/B-VII.1. The energy structure used for calculations and measurements was 40 gpd (groups per decade) and 200 gpd. Structure 200 gpd represents lethargy step about of 1%. This relatively fine energy structure enables to analyze the Fe resonance neutron energy structure. The evaluated cross section data of Fe were validated on comparisons between the calculated and experimental spectra.

  1. Effect of the van der Waals interaction on the electron energy-loss near edge structure theoretical calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukura, Hirotaka; Miyata, Tomohiro; Tomita, Kota; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction on the simulation of the electron energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES) by a first-principles band-structure calculation is reported. The effect of the vdW interaction is considered by the Tkatchenko-Scheffler scheme, and the change of the spectrum profile and the energy shift are discussed. We perform calculations on systems in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. The transition energy shifts to lower energy by approximately 0.1eV in the condensed (solid and liquid) systems by introducing the vdW effect into the calculation, whereas the energy shift in the gaseous models is negligible owing to the long intermolecular distance. We reveal that the vdW interaction exhibits a larger effect on the excited state than the ground state owing to the presence of an excited electron in the unoccupied band. Moreover, the vdW effect is found to depend on the local electron density and the molecular coordination. In addition, this study suggests that the detection of the vdW interactions exhibited within materials is possible by a very stable and high resolution observation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. ... red blood cells on hand, their bodies can store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. Certain ... domestic small businesses that have strong potential for technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  7. Effect of the van der Waals interaction on the electron energy-loss near edge structure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsukura, Hirotaka; Miyata, Tomohiro; Tomita, Kota; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: teru@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2017-07-15

    The effect of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction on the simulation of the electron energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES) by a first-principles band-structure calculation is reported. The effect of the vdW interaction is considered by the Tkatchenko-Scheffler scheme, and the change of the spectrum profile and the energy shift are discussed. We perform calculations on systems in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. The transition energy shifts to lower energy by approximately 0.1 eV in the condensed (solid and liquid) systems by introducing the vdW effect into the calculation, whereas the energy shift in the gaseous models is negligible owing to the long intermolecular distance. We reveal that the vdW interaction exhibits a larger effect on the excited state than the ground state owing to the presence of an excited electron in the unoccupied band. Moreover, the vdW effect is found to depend on the local electron density and the molecular coordination. In addition, this study suggests that the detection of the vdW interactions exhibited within materials is possible by a very stable and high resolution observation. - Highlights: • Effect of van der Waals (vdW) interaction in ELNES calculation is investigated. • The vdW interaction influences more to the excited state owing to the presence of excited electron. • The vdW interaction makes spectral shift to lower energy side by 0.1–0.01 eV. • The vdW interaction is negligible in gaseous materials due to long intermolecular distance.

  8. Iron(iii) bis(pyrazol-1-yl)acetate based decanuclear metallacycles: synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Małgorzata J; Bieńko, Alina; Herchel, Radovan; Haukka, Matti; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Ożarowski, Andrzej; Drabent, Krzysztof; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2016-09-27

    The synthesis, structural aspects, magnetic interpretation and theoretical rationalizations for a new member of the ferric wheel family, a decanuclear iron(iii) complex with the formula [Fe 10 (bdtbpza) 10 (μ 2 -OCH 3 ) 20 ] (1), featuring the N,N,O tridentate bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetate ligand, are reported. The influence of the steric effect on both the core geometry and coordination mode is observed. Temperature dependent (2.0-300 K range) magnetic susceptibility studies carried out on complexes 1 established unequivocally antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions between high-spin iron(iii) centers (S = 5/2), leading to a ground state S = 0. The mechanism of AF intramolecular coupling was proved using a broken-symmetry approach within the density functional method at the B3LYP/def2-TZVP(-f)/def2-SVP level of theory.

  9. On the Use of a Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation in Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. On the Use of a Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation in Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping

    2015-07-22

    In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. On the calculation of steady-state loss probabilities in the GI/G/2/0 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Kovalenko

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers methods for calculating the steady-state loss probability in the GI/G/2/0 queue. A previous study analyzed this queue in discrete time and this led to an efficient, numerical approximation scheme for continuous-time systems. The primary aim of the present work is to provide an alternative approach by analyzing the GI/ME/2/0 queue; i.e., assuming that the service time can be represented by a matrix-exponential distribution. An efficient computational scheme based on this method is developed and some numerical examples are studied. Some comparisons are made with the discrete-time approach, and the two methods are seen to be complementary.

  12. Calculation of harmonic losses and ampacity in low-voltage power cables when used for feeding large LED lighting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Milardovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation on the harmonic disturbances in low-voltage cables feeding large LED loads is reported. A frequency domain analysis on several commercially-available LEDs was performed to investigate the signature of the harmonic current injected into the power system. Four-core cables and four single-core cable arrangements (three phases and neutral of small, medium, and large conductor cross sections, with the neutral conductor cross section approximately equal to the half of the phase conductors, were examined. The cables were modelled by using electromagnetic finite-element analysis software. High harmonic power losses (up to 2.5 times the value corresponding to an undistorted current of the same rms value of the first harmonic of the LED current were found. A generalized ampacity model was employed for re-rating the cables. It was found that the cross section of the neutral conductor plays an important role in the derating of the cable ampacity due to the presence of a high-level of triplen harmonics in the distorted current. The ampacity of the cables should be derated by about 40 %, almost independent of the conductor cross sections. The calculation have shown that an incoming widespread use of LED lamps in lighting could create significant additional harmonic losses in the supplying low-voltage lines, and thus more severely harmonic emission limits should be defined for LED lamps.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gain or loss from disposition of property...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1084 Gain or loss...-employment, exclude any gain or loss— (1) That is considered a gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a...

  14. ACCOUNTING OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION LEVEL AT PAYMENT CALCULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL CONSUMPTION (LOSSES OF ELECTRIC POWER FOR ITS TRANSMISSION IN POWER NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Zabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed to make a correction in payment for consumption of reactive energy and power which is attributed to deviation of actual activation energy losses for reactive power compensation from their standard value. It is recommended to calculate standard loss values for every voltage level and actual loss values are to be determined with the help of application of remote electronic accounting means in the current mode of power consumption.

  15. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Recent R-matrix calculations and atomic data recommendations of relevance to iron impurities in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrington, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    A progress report on R-matrix calculations of electron impact excitation and opacity data for ionized Fe is given. This paper discusses aspects of modern calculations of the electron excitation process in atoms and ions. The Belfast Atomic Data Bank holds much data in this area, including data recommended in regular Atomic Data Workshops held to evaluate atomic data for the applications community: electron excitation data for Fe ions recommended at recent Workshops is summarised. The main R-matrix programs currently in use are described, and some recent R-matrix calculations on electron excitation in Fe ions are highlighted. Photoabsorption data for all elements up to Fe are also calculated using the R-matrix programs in the international Opacity Project, and a summary is given of the atomic data expected from the Project. Finally some possible future directions are outlined. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of the behavior of orthogonal-core-type push-pull parametric transformer with iron and copper losses. Tetsuson oyobi doson wo koryoshita chokko jishinkei push pull parametric hen prime atsuki no dosa kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, K; Anazawa, Y; Kaga, A [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Ichinokura, O [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-04-30

    This paper reports on a precise numerical analysis of operating characteristics of the push-pull parametric transformer of orthogonal-core type (proposed by the authors in the preceding papers) made in consideration of both the iron loss of its magnetic core and the copper loss of its windings. A model of magnetic circuit in the core is presented, which involves magnetic reluctances representing saturation characteristics of the core and magnetic inductances representing effects produced by hysteresis. Use is made of the function that expresses the saturation characteristics by a twenty-first power series of magnetic flux, the coefficient of each term being determined by use of experimental data on a specified sample of the magnetic core. Furthermore, recourse is had to the circuit simulator SPICE in order to analyze the operating characteristics of the transformer. Comparing results of the present analysis with experimental results, the following are noted: first, both output voltages and currents of windings of the transformer under the condition of parametric oscillation are calculated with sufficient accuracy; second, the present analysis is capable of evaluating the conversion efficiency of electric power and input power factor of the transformer, and of providing more accurate values of both voltage and current in the case of the maximum output under loading conditions as compared with the analyses so far presented. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Stochastic LMP (Locational marginal price) calculation method in distribution systems to minimize loss and emission based on Shapley value and two-point estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad-Farsani, Ehsan; Agah, S.M.M.; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Abedi, Mehrdad; Hosseinian, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    LMP (Locational marginal price) calculation is a serious impediment in distribution operation when private DG (distributed generation) units are connected to the network. A novel policy is developed in this study to guide distribution company (DISCO) to exert its control over the private units when power loss and green-house gases emissions are minimized. LMP at each DG bus is calculated according to the contribution of the DG to the reduced amount of loss and emission. An iterative algorithm which is based on the Shapley value method is proposed to allocate loss and emission reduction. The proposed algorithm will provide a robust state estimation tool for DISCOs in the next step of operation. The state estimation tool provides the decision maker with the ability to exert its control over private DG units when loss and emission are minimized. Also, a stochastic approach based on the PEM (point estimate method) is employed to capture uncertainty in the market price and load demand. The proposed methodology is applied to a realistic distribution network, and efficiency and accuracy of the method are verified. - Highlights: • Reduction of the loss and emission at the same time. • Fair allocation of loss and emission reduction. • Estimation of the system state using an iterative algorithm. • Ability of DISCOs to control DG units via the proposed policy. • Modeling the uncertainties to calculate the stochastic LMP.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  20. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  1. Modeling of flows in heat exchangers with distributed load loss. Simulation of wet-type cooling tower operation with the two-dimensional calculation code ETHER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coic, P.

    1984-01-01

    The principle of a cooling tower is first presented. The equations of the problem are given; the modeling of load losses and heat transfer is described. Then, the numerical method based on a finite difference discrete method is described. Finally, the different results of the calculations carried out in the case of an industrial operation are presented [fr

  2. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses [Shielding Synchrotron Light Sources: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-01-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. Lastly, the principles used to provide

  3. First-principles calculations of (Y, Ti, O) cluster formation in body centred cubic iron-chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claisse, Antoine; Olsson, Pär

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the ab initio parametrization necessary for a Monte Carlo study of the (Y, Ti, O) clusters in a FeCr matrix is done. The cohesive, binding and migration energies of all the solutes have been calculated in the dilute limit in the framework of density functional theory. The special case of the strong interaction between an Y atom and a vacancy has been considered. In the dilute limit, Cr is transparent with respect to Y, Ti, O or vacancies. On the contrary, Y binds O strongly in 2NN configuration while not in 1NN. Ti binds O in 1NN and 2NN configurations. A vacancy binds strongly with Y and O in 1NN position which is resulting in a low diffusion coefficient for Y. The peculiar case of the binding attraction between two interstitial oxygen atoms has been studied and is believed to be the main reason for the planar (2D) symmetry of the cluster nuclei. A preferential cluster shape is determined for the early nucleation stage, up to 12 atoms

  4. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180{sup o} for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Satoh, Daiki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [KEK (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [KEK (Japan); Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatanaka, Kichiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180{sup o} were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150{sup o} reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  5. Comparison of the potentials used for the calculation of the resonant coherent electron capture and loss cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, N.; Dubus, A.; Roesler, M.

    2003-01-01

    For incident protons with velocities around 1 a.u., electron capture and loss processes are known to play an important role. In particular, electron emission as well as electronic stopping power are strongly influenced by the charge changing processes. Several different electron capture and loss processes have been identified [Solid State Phys. 43 (1990) 229], i.e. Auger valence band processes, shell processes and resonant coherent processes. In the latter, the incident projectile undergoes a periodic excitation due to the periodic crystalline potential so that an electron can be lost or captured. In the literature, several different choices have been made for the crystalline potential. It is precisely the aim of the present work to review and compare the various potentials used in the literature and to show the influence of this choice on the resonant coherent electron capture and loss cross sections

  6. Aspects regarding the Calculation of the Dielectric Loss Angle Tangent between the Windings of a Rated 40 MVA Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Popescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify how to determine the dielectric loss angle tangent of the electric transformers from the transformer stations. Autors of the paper managed a case study on the dielectric established between high respectively medium voltage windings of an electrical rated 40 MVA transformer.

  7. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  8. Tests of Neutron Spectrum Calculations with the Help of Foil Measurements in a D{sub 2}O and in an H{sub 2}O-Moderated Reactor and in Reactor Shields of Concrete an Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, R; Aalto, E

    1964-09-15

    Foil measurements covering the fast, epithermal and thermal neutron energy regions have been made in the centre of the Swedish D{sub 2}O-moderated reactor R1, in the pool reactor R2-0, and in different positions in reactor shields of iron, magnetite concrete and ordinary concrete. Neutron spectra have also been calculated for most of these positions, often with the help of a numerical integration of the Boltzmann equation. The measurements and the calculated spectra are presented.

  9. PhybalSIT — Fatigue Assessment and Life Time Calculation of the Ductile Cast Iron EN-GJS-600 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Benjamin; Klein, Marcus; Eifler, Dietmar

    This paper focuses on the ductile cast iron EN-GJS-600 which is often used for components of combustion engines. Under service conditions, those components are mechanically loaded at different temperatures. Therefore, this investigation targets at the fatigue behavior of EN-GJS-600 at ambient and elevated temperatures. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations were done to characterize the sphericity of the graphite as well as the ferrite, pearlite and graphite fraction. At elevated temperatures, the consideration of dynamic strain ageing effects is of major importance. In total strain increase, temperature increase and constant total strain amplitude tests, the plastic strain amplitude, the stress amplitude, the change in temperature and the change in electrical resistance were measured. The measured values depend on plastic deformation processes in the bulk of the specimens and at the interfaces between matrix and graphite. The fatigue behavior of EN-GJS-600 is dominated by cyclic hardening processes. The physically based fatigue life calculation "PHYBALSIT" (SIT = strain increase test) was developed for total strain controlled fatigue tests. Only one temperature increase test is necessary to determine the temperature interval of pronounced dynamic strain ageing effects.

  10. Infiltration Losses Calculated for the Flash Flood in the Upper Catchment of Geru River, Galaţi County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MIKE software created by Danish Institute of Hydraulics can be used to perform mathematical modelling of rainfall-runoff process on the hillslopes, resulting in a runoff hydrograph in the closing section of a catchment. The software includes a unitary hydrograph method - UHM in the hydrological module Rainfall - Runoff. Excess rainfall is routed to the river and transited through unit hydrograph method. The model divides the flood generating precipitation in excess rainfall (net rainfall and losses (infiltration.

  11. Phonon spectra in the parent superconducting iron-tuned telluride F e1 +xTe from inelastic neutron scattering and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiri, Mohamed; Viennois, Romain

    2017-10-01

    We report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon spectra in the parent superconductor iron-tuned chalcogenide F e1 +xTe for two different x contents (x ≤0.11 ) using neutron time-of-flight technique. Thermal neutron spectroscopy allowed the collection of the low-temperature Stokes spectra over an extended Q range at 2, 40, and 120 K, hence covering both the magnetic monoclinic and the paramagnetic tetragonal phases, whereas cold neutrons allowed the measurement of high-resolution anti-Stokes spectra at 140, 220, and 300 K, thus covering the tetragonal phase. Our results evidence a spin-phonon coupling behavior towards the observed noticeable temperature-dependent change of the Stokes spectra across the transition temperatures. On the other hand, the anti-Stokes spectra reveal a pronounced hardening of the low-energy, acoustic region of the phonon spectrum upon heating, indicating a strong anharmonicity and a subtle dependence of phonons on structural evolution within the tetragonal phase. Experimental results are accompanied by ab initio calculations of phonon spectra of the tetragonal stoichiometric phase for a comparison with the high-resolution anti-Stokes spectra. Calculations included different density functional methods. Spin polarization and van der Waals interaction were either considered or neglected, individually or concomitantly, in order to study their respective effect on lattice dynamics description. Our results suggest that including van der Waals interaction has only a slight effect on phonon dynamics; however, phonon spectra are better described when spin polarization is included in a cooperative way with van der Waals interactions.

  12. Dynamic changes in radial oxygen loss and iron plaque formation and their effects on Cd and As accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Yao, Haixin; Wong, Ming Hung; Ye, Zhihong

    2013-12-01

    Temporal variations and correlations between radial oxygen loss (ROL), iron (Fe) plaque formation, cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation were investigated in two rice cultivars at four different growth stages based upon soil pot and deoxygenated solution experiments. The results showed that there were significant differences in ROL (1.1-16 μmol O(2) plant(-1) h(-1)), Fe plaque formation (4,097-36,056 mg kg(-1)), Cd and As in root tissues (Cd 77-162 mg kg(-1); As 49-199 mg kg(-1)) and Fe plaque (Cd 0.4-24 mg kg(-1); As 185-1,396 mg kg(-1)) between these growth stages. ROL and Fe plaque increased dramatically from tillering to ear emergence stages and then were much reduced at the grain-filling stage. Furthermore, significantly positive correlations were detected between ROL and concentrations of Fe, Cd and As in Fe plaque. Our study indicates that increased Fe plaque forms on rice roots at the ear emergence stage due to the increased ROL. This stage could therefore be an important period to limit the transfer and distribution of Cd and As in rice plants when growing in soils contaminated with these toxic elements.

  13. Calculation of thermoelastic stresses in the rewetting region of the fuel rod cladding during a loss of coolant accident (loca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberty, N.C.; Carmo, E.G.D. do; Tanajura, C.A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A one-dimensional model for axial distribution calculation of temperature and thermal stresses in the fuel rod cladding for a Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) is developed. The effect of the coolant inlet temperaure, the Leidenfrost and the nucleate boiling in the stress distribution are evaluated. A perturbation in the cladding stress state is obtained. (E.G.) [pt

  14. A critical look at the calculation of the binding characteristics and concentration of iron complexing ligands in seawater with suggested improvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Thuróczy, C.-E.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental context
    The low concentration of iron in the oceans limits growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved organic molecules, called ligands, naturally present in seawater, bind iron thereby increasing its solubility and, consequently, its availability for biological uptake by phytoplankton. The

  15. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M. [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  16. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  18. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  19. Comparison of methods for calculation of large cladding deformation in the case of a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, H.; Krugmann, U.; Lassmann, K.; Schwarz, R.

    1975-06-01

    Some results of mechanical computations of cladding deformation are discussed for the case of a loss-of-coolant accident. The models for data-creation realize isothermal and transient conditions. The creep-deformation of the cladding is caused by significant temperature and pressure profiles. In all cases the constitutive creep law of Norton is used. The computations are based on three methods: 1) analytical solution (one-dimensional), 2) finite element solution (two-dimensional), 3) theory of creeping shells (two-dimensional). The differences in the solutions depend on the methods themselves and on computational differences. The influence of the large-deflection theory is discussed. In comparing the results it is evident that the differences in the methods are covered by a small variation of the creep parameters. In conclusion we propose the theory of the creeping shell for extensive computer codes. (orig.) [de

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when breastfeeding you may be consuming less ... store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you ...

  5. The NIMO Scandinavian Study: A Prospective Observational Study of Iron Isomaltoside Treatment in Patients with Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Oskar Frigstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intravenous iron allows for efficient and well-tolerated treatment in iron deficiency and is routinely used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective. The aims of this study were to determine the probability of relapse of iron deficiency over time and to investigate treatment routine, effectiveness, and safety of iron isomaltoside. Methods. A total of 282 patients treated with iron isomaltoside were observed for two treatments or a minimum of one year. Results. Out of 282 patients, 82 had Crohn’s disease and 67 had ulcerative colitis. Another 133 patients had chronic blood loss, malabsorption, or malignancy. Patients who received an iron isomaltoside dose above 1000 mg had a 65% lower probability of needing retreatment compared with those given 1000 mg. A clinically significant treatment response was shown, but in 71/191 (37% of patients, anaemia was not corrected. The mean dose given was 1100 mg, lower than the calculated total iron need of 1481 mg. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 4% of patients. Conclusion. Iron isomaltoside is effective with a good safety profile, and high doses reduce the need for retreatment over time. Several patients were anaemic after treatment, indicating that doses were inadequate for full iron correction. This trial is registered with NCT01900197.

  6. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  7. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range

  8. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  9. Mathematical model for heat loss calculation through a window; Modelo para el calculo de la perdida de calor por una ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Cuevas B, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: afissore@udec.cl; ccuevas@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    In the present work a semi-empirical model for heat loss by convection at an indoor window surface with curtain or blind is given. With this model, the convection heat transfer coefficient and temperature of the air at confined space between the curtain and the glass can be calculated. The curtain was modeled with a paper due to the low thermal inertia that it has. The model is based on experimental data obtained for four separations between the paper and the window. Data from numerical simulation program are also used. (author)

  10. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B. [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1997-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  11. Post test calculation of the experiment 'small break loss-of- coolant test' SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B.

    1997-01-01

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory

  12. Comparative analysis of a hypothetical coolant loss accident in an LMFB reactor with the use of various calculation models for a common reference problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comparative analysis of the initial and dismantling stages of a hypothetical loss of flow accident in an LMFB reactor are presented. The analyses were made for a common reference problem with four different calculation models (CARMEN/KADIS, SURDYN, CAPRI/KADIS and FRAX). The reference core is described specifically, as are the differences in its geometrical disposition in the models, the static and transient conditions before and after the start of boiling and during dismantling. The differences in the models used for simulating the boiling and the dismantling are compared. The structure of the core, as well as the calculation conditions and hypotheses, were intentionally designed so that the accident would culminate, in all cases, in an energetic hydrodynamic dismantling stage

  13. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W; Vandreier, B [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1998-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  14. Study on uranium loss during 'Iron-Gypsum Cake' precipitation from acid leach liquor of Jaduguda ore using factorially designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amrita; Yadav, Manoj; Chatterjee, Ankur; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid leaching process for uranium recovery from ore often generates considerable amounts of impurities into the solution. It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable impurities as manageable and stable waste products for final disposal, without losing the valuable constituents. The main impurities that come with the leach liquor are iron and sulfate. Their removal is essential for meeting the iron requirement in leaching circuit and also for making the effluent suitable for recycle. Factorial design analysis was applied to study of process variables for precipitation of iron and sulphate from leach liquor with composition using CaO as precipitation reagent

  15. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  16. Distribution and characterization of iron in implanted silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, J.; Romana, L.J.; Horton, L.L.; McHargue, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy-ion channeling (RBS-C) have been used to characterize single crystal α-silicon carbide implanted at room temperature with 160 keV 57 Fe ions to fluences of 1, 3, and 6 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Best correlations among AEM, RBS, and TRIM calculations were obtained assuming a density of the amorphized implanted regions equal to that of crystalline SiC. No iron-rich precipitates or clusters were detected by AEM. Inspection of the electron energy loss fine structure for iron in the implanted specimens suggests that the iron is not metallically-bonded, supporting conclusions from earlier conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) studies. In-situ annealing surprisingly resulted in crystallization at 600 degrees C with some redistribution of the implanted iron

  17. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieserman, W.R.; Schwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost non-existent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials; an oriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, and an iron-based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials show that the nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated

  18. Calculation of cooling internal circuits loss of load curve in giant electric machines; Calculo da curva de perda de carga dos circuitos axiais internos de refrigeracao de maquinas eletricas gigantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hilton Penha [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia do Produto; Passos, Alex Sandro Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Produto

    2001-07-01

    This article describes a method for calculation of the loss of load curve for the ventilation axial circuits. The method assumes the ventilation circuit representation in a way similar to the electrical circuits. The great difficulty of circuit solution resides in the non linearity of the loss of load resistances and the equations relating the pressures and flows. The method is based on the association of the resistance curves of loss of load in a such way that, when the resistance curve of the total circuit loss of load is obtained, the blower operation point can be easily obtained and, consequently, the individual flows for each section of the circuit.

  19. Impact of preoperative calculation of nephron volume loss on future of partial nephrectomy techniques; planning a strategic roadmap for improving functional preservation and securing oncological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Koon H; Abdel Raheem, Ali; Park, Sung Y; Kim, Kwang H; Kim, Hyung J; Koo, Kyo C; Choi, Young D; Jung, Byung H; Lee, Sang K; Lee, Won K; Krishnan, Jayram; Shin, Tae Y; Cho, Jin-Seon

    2017-11-01

    To assess the correlation of the resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), which is a preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss, with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset. We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robot-assisted PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify the associations between various time points of PRF and the RAIV, as a continuous variable. The mean (sd) RAIV was 24.2 (29.2) cm 3 . The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the eGFRs at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN were 91.0 and 76.8, 80.2 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In multivariable linear regression analysis, the amount of decline in PRF at follow-up was significantly correlated with the RAIV (β 0.261, 0.165, 0.260 at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN, respectively). This study has the limitation of its retrospective nature. Preoperatively calculated RAIV significantly correlates with the amount of decline in PRF during long-term follow-up. The RAIV could lead our research to the level of prediction of the amount of PRF decline after PN and thus would be appropriate for assessing the technical advantages of emerging techniques. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Multi-port network and 3D finite-element models for accurate transformer calculations: Single-phase load-loss test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escarela-Perez, R. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Kulkarni, S.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Melgoza, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico 1500, Morelia, Mich., C.P. 58120 (Mexico)

    2008-11-15

    A six-port impedance network for a three-phase transformer is obtained from a 3D time-harmonic finite-element (FE) model. The network model properly captures the eddy current effects of the transformer tank and frame. All theorems and tools of passive linear networks can be used with the multi-port model to simulate several important operating conditions without resorting anymore to computationally expensive 3D FE simulations. The results of the network model are of the same quality as those produced by the FE program. Although the passive network may seem limited by the assumption of linearity, many important transformer operating conditions imply unsaturated states. Single-phase load-loss measurements are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the network model and to understand phenomena that could not be explained with conventional equivalent circuits. In addition, formal deduction of novel closed-form formulae is presented for the calculation of the leakage impedance measured at the high and low voltage sides of the transformer. (author)

  1. The application of the pore population balance method to the calculation of the radiolytic weight loss and gas transport property changes of nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A pore population balance equation, previously used to describe the physical property changes of porous carbons during thermal oxidation in carbon dioxide, has been modified to treat the radiolytic oxidation of graphite in CO 2 /CO/CH 4 gas mixtures. Good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment for the variation in the gas transport coefficients B, K and lambda of gilsonite graphite with absorbed radiation dose. Calculations indicate that the addition of blind pores to the transport porosity, and an allowance for the opening of closed pores with burn-off, do not account for the experimental fractional weight loss curve. An excellent fit is obtained, however, if a small volume of cylindrical pores of a mean radius approximately equal to the diffusion length of oxidising species in the coolant are present in the pore size spectrum. Gilsonite graphite therefore behaves as if the pore size distribution function is trimodal, with mean radii at about 0.5μm, 2.48μm and greater than or equal to 10.57μm. (author)

  2. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  3. Electronic structure of metastable bcc Cu–Cr alloy thin films: Comparison of electron energy-loss spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebscher, C.H.; Freysoldt, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Dennenwaldt, T. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Center for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Harzer, T.P.; Dehm, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Metastable Cu–Cr alloy thin films with nominal thickness of 300 nm and composition of Cu{sub 67}Cr{sub 33} (at%) are obtained by co-evaporation using molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure, chemical phase separation and electronic structure are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thin film adopts the body-centered cubic crystal structure and consists of columnar grains with ~50 nm diameter. Aberration-corrected scanning TEM in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms compositional fluctuations within the grains. Cu- and Cr-rich domains with composition of Cu{sub 85}Cr{sub 15} (at%) and Cu{sub 42}Cr{sub 58} (at%) and domain size of 1–5 nm are observed. The alignment of the interface between the Cu- and Cr-rich domains shows a preference for {110}-type habit plane. The electronic structure of the Cu–Cr thin films is investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and is contrasted to an fcc-Cu reference sample. The experimental EEL spectra are compared to spectra computed by density functional theory. The main differences between bcc-and fcc-Cu are related to differences in van Hove singularities in the electron density of states. In Cu–Cr solid solutions with bcc crystal structure a single peak after the L{sub 3}-edge, corresponding to a van Hove singularity at the N-point of the first Brillouin zone is observed. Spectra computed for pure bcc-Cu and random Cu–Cr solid solutions with 10 at% Cr confirm the experimental observations. The calculated spectrum for a perfect Cu{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} (at%) random structure shows a shift in the van Hove singularity towards higher energy by developing a Cu–Cr d-band that lies between the delocalized d-bands of Cu and Cr. - Highlights: • Compositional fluctuations on the order of 1–5 nm in Cu- and Cr-rich domains are observed. • EELS determines a single van Hove singularity for bcc Cu–Cr solid solutions. • The electronic structure is dominated by d

  4. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  6. Investigation of Iron-based double perovskite oxides on the magnetic phase stability, mechanical, electronic and optical properties via first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rached, H., E-mail: habib_rached@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et Informatique, Université Hassiba BenBouali de Chlef, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bendaoudia, S. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria); Rached, D., E-mail: rachdj@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 (Algeria)

    2017-06-01

    The main goal of the present work is to obtain report on the magnetic phase stability, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of double perovskite oxides Pb{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Mo, Re and W) by employing the ab-initio plane-wave method, based on the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation (XC) energy of electrons was treated using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof parametrization. The ground-state electronic properties for different magnetic configurations were calculated. The formation enthalpies has been evaluated in order to determinate the stability of our compounds. The independent elastic constants and the related mechanical properties are investigated. The electronic structure calculation reveal the half-metallic ferrimagnets (FiM-HM) for all investigated compounds. The optical constants as the dielectric function, refractive index, optical reflectivity and absorption coefficient were calculated and discussed in detail. Therefore, our compounds are identified as potential candidates for spintronic applications and high performance electronic devices. - Highlights: • Based on the DFT calculation, the Pb{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Mo, Re and W) compounds have been investigated. • The ground-state properties are predicted. • The mechanical properties reveals that these compounds are stable against any elastic deformations. • The electronic structures reveals the half-metallic ferrimagnets (FiM-HM) for all investigated compounds.

  7. Reactivity of the binuclear non-heme iron active site of delta(9) desaturase studied by large-scale multireference ab initio calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupský, Jakub; Rokob, Tibor András; Kurashige, Y.; Yanai, T.; Solomon, E. I.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Srnec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 45 (2014), s. 15977-15991 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : DMRG-CASPT2 * ab initio calculations * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.113, year: 2014

  8. Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl and eta5-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl studied by symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation and collision-energy resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi

    2010-02-28

    Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO)(5) and eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2) have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (2D-PIES), and symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations. Theory provided reliable assignments for the complex ionization spectra of these molecules, which have metal-carbonyl bonds. Theoretical ionization energies agreed well with experimental observations and the calculated wave functions could explain the relative intensities of PIES spectra. The collision-energy dependence of partial ionization cross sections (CEDPICS) was obtained by 2D-PIES. To interpret these CEDPICS, the interaction potentials between the molecules and a Li atom were examined in several coordinates by calculations. The relation between the slope of the CEDPICS and the electronic structure of the ionized states, such as molecular symmetry and the spatial distribution of ionizing orbitals, was analyzed. In Fe(CO)(5), an attractive interaction was obtained for the equatorial CO, while the interaction for the axial CO direction was repulsive. For Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2), the interaction potential in the direction of both Co-C-O and Co-Cp ring was attractive. These anisotropic interactions and ionizing orbital distributions consistently explain the relative slopes of the CEDPICS.

  9. Iron, Anemia, and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Young Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Priya M.; Perrine, Cria G.; Mei, Zuguo; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with impaired neurocognitive development and immune function in young children. Total body iron, calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, and hemoglobin allow for monitoring of the iron and anemia status of children in the United States. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID), anemia, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children 1–5 years using data from the 2007–201...

  10. Functional Dependence for Calculation of Additional Real-Power Losses in a Double-Wound Supply Transformer Caused by Unbalanced Active Inductive Load in a Star Connection with an Insulated Neutral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinskiy, Sergey S.; Troitskiy, Anatoly I.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of calculating the additional real-power losses in double-wound supply transformers with voltage class 6 (10)/0,4 kV, caused by unbalanced active inductive load connected in a star connection with an insulated neutral. When solving the problem, authors used the theory of electric circuits, method of balanced…

  11. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  12. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  13. Measurement of iron absorption from meals contaminated with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described to measure in vitro the extent of isotopic exchange between the native nonheme food iron and added inorganic reduction to radioiron tracer. The food is digested with pepsin and trypsin in the presence of radioiron. The exchangeability of food iron is calculated from the specific activity in the food and in an extract of bathophenantroline in isoamyl alcohol obtained after digesting this food. The precision and accuracy of the method is illustrated by two kinds of studies, those in which different amounts of contamination iron are added to a meal and those evaluating contamination iron in natural meals. The present method will make it possible to measure validly iron absorption from meals contaminated with unknown amounts of iron of unknown exchangeability with the extrinsic radioiron tracer

  14. Calculated and experimental electron energy-loss spectra of La2O3, La(OH)3, and LaOF nanophases in high permittivity lanthanum-based oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmels, L.; Coulon, P. E.; Schamm-Chardon, S.

    2011-06-01

    Using first principles methods, the O K energy-loss near-edge structure of cubic and hexagonal La2O3, La(OH)3, and LaOF phases have been calculated. These calculations support the identification of nanocrystalline phases evidenced experimentally by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) performed in a transmission electron microscope. The nanocrystals have been observed in atomic layer deposited La2O3 thin films developed for advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor applications. The presence of the nanophases can be explained by the hygroscopicity and the particular reactivity with fluorine of La2O3. These calculations provide a set of EELS fingerprints which will be useful for local phase identification in La2O3-based materials.

  15. Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry was studied as a function of the microstructure developed by austempering at 380 and 300°C for different exposure time in the slurry. The corrosion rates of the ADI balls immersed in the iron ore slurry was determined using weight loss method.

  16. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.

    2005-01-01

    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  17. Adaptation of computer code ALMOD 3.4 for safety analyses of Westighouse type NPPs and calculation of main feedwater loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordis, I.; Jerele, A.; Brajak, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical foundations of ALMOD 3.4 code and modification done in order to adjust the model to westinghouse type NPP. test cases for verification of added modules functioning were done and loss of main feedwater (FW) transient at nominal power was analysed. (author)

  18. An improved method for calculating slope length (λ) and the LS parameters of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation for large watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hongming; Wei, Jicheng; Yang, Qinke; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.; Gai, Lingtong; Yang, Xiaomei; Li, Shu Qin; Yu, Jiantao; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales. USLE/RUSLE contain parameters for slope length factor (L) and slope steepness factor (S), usually combined as LS. However a major limitation is the difficulty

  19. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  20. Electronic structure of ZrO{sub 2}: calculation of optical absorption and of losses; Structure electronique de ZrO{sub 2}: calcul de l'absorption optique et des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vast, N. [CEA Saclay (DSM/IRAMIS/LSI), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    This work is a part of the CEA-CNRS program on the behaviour of materials under irradiation. Its aim is to contribute to scientifically base the predicting methods of the behaviour of ceramic materials under irradiation in using the important development of calculation means. In particular, its role has been 1)to develop the basic knowledge and the interactions physics and 2)to elaborate calculation models at relevant scales. The studied topics are until now, the damage mechanisms, the diffusion under irradiation, the micro-structural evolutions and the incidences on the mechanical properties. (O.M.)

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  2. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  3. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison R Moreno

    Full Text Available Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting. In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles.

  4. Density functional theory calculations of energy-loss carbon near-edge spectra of small diameter armchair and zigzag nanotubes: Core-hole, curvature, and momentum-transfer orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titantah, J.T.; Lamoen, D.; Jorissen, K.

    2004-01-01

    We perform density functional theory calculations on a series of armchair and zigzag nanotubes of diameters less than 1 nm using the all-electron full-potential(-linearized)-augmented-plane-wave method. Emphasis is laid on the effects of curvature, the electron-beam orientation, and the inclusion of the core hole on the carbon electron-energy-loss K edge. The electron-energy-loss near-edge spectra of all the studied tubes show strong curvature effects compared to that of flat graphene. The curvature-induced π-σ hybridization is shown to have a more drastic effect on the electronic properties of zigzag tubes than on those of armchair tubes. We show that the core-hole effect must be accounted for in order to correctly reproduce electron-energy-loss measurements. We also find that the energy-loss near-edge spectra of these carbon systems are dominantly dipole selected and that they can be expressed simply as a proportionality with the local momentum projected density of states, thus portraying the weak energy dependence of the transition matrix elements. Compared to graphite, we report a reduction in the anisotropy as seen on the energy-loss near-edge spectra of carbon nanotubes

  5. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  6. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  7. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Clove Oil on Iron in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of iron in hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss as well Scanning electron microscopy study without and with clove oil. The percentage inhibition efficiency increases with increasing clove oil concentration. All the data revel that the oil acts as an excellent inhibitor for the corrosion of iron in HCl solution. Thermodynamic, kinetic parameters and equilibrium constant for adsorption process were calculated from the experimental data. The adsorption of clove oil on experimental metals was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm at all the concentration studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, investigations also indicate that clove oil greatly lowers the dissolution currents.

  8. Calculations of transitions in singly ionised iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, M.P.

    1999-04-01

    The thesis gives a general overview of the atomic structure, introducing the relevant quantum mechanical concepts. Theoretical methods for determining the wave functions, like the Hartree-Fock Methode and the Hylleraas-Undheim Principle are discussed. Methods for obtaining atomic data by theoretical and by experimental means are discussed. Finally sextet transitions in FeII are treated in some detail

  9. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  10. Lighting and shading of PV systems in buildings: Visualisation, calculation of shading losses, optimisation; Licht und Schatten auf ``PV in Gebaeuden``: Visualisierung, Ertragsprognose, Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reise, C. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Photovoltaische Systeme und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    Integrating photovoltaic generators in buildings often requires a specific assessment of the local solar resource. In built-up areas, partial shading of the generator area sometimes cannot be avoided. A combination of the simulation tools RADIANCE and INSEL provides both a perfect visualization and an accurate estimation of shading losses, on the basis of the same numerical model of the building. Thus, simulation techniques help to meet both the aesthetical and the technical requirements of a building construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Integration von photovoltaischen Generatoren in Gebaeude erfordert oft eine besondere Bewertung der lokalen Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse. In einer dicht bebauten Umgebung kann eine zeitweise Teilverschattung der Generatorflaechen oft nicht vermieden werden. Eine Kombination der Simulationsprogramme RADIANCE und INSEL ermoeglicht die architektonisch vollwertige Visualisierung und Durchfuehrung einer praezisen (Minder-)Ertragsprognose fuer gebaeudeintegrierte Photovoltaik auf der Basis desselben numerischen Gebaeudemodells. Die detaillierte Simulation traegt dazu bei, aesthetische und technische Anforderungen an die Gebaeudekonstruktion in Einklang zu bringen. (orig.)

  11. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  12. Extending hydraulic lifetime of iron walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, P.D.; Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Iron walls for control of groundwaters contaminated with chlorinated solvents and reducible metals are becoming much more widely used and field studies of this technology have proven successful to date. However, there is still much uncertainty in predicting long-term performance. This work focuses on two factors affecting the lifetime of the iron media: plugging at the treatment zone entrance and precipitation in the bulk iron media. Plugging at the system entrance is due principally to dissolved oxygen in the incoming water and is an issue in aerobic aquifers or in ex-situ canister tests. In an in-situ treatment system, plugging would result in a dramatic reduction in flow through the iron zone. Designs to minimize plugging in field applications include use of larger iron particles and admixing sand of comparable size with the iron particles. Mineral precipitation in the bulk iron media can lead to porosity losses in the media, again reducing flow through the treatment zone. Decreases in reactivity of the iron media may also occur. The nature of the mineral precipitation and the factors that affect extent of mineral precipitation are examined by a variety of tools, including tracer tests, aqueous inorganic profiles, and surface analysis techniques. At short treatment times, measured porosity losses are due mainly to entrapment of a film of H 2 gas on the iron surfaces and also to Fe(OH) 2 precipitation. Over longer treatment times precipitation of Fe(OH) 2 and FeCO 3 in low carbonate waters and of Fe(OH) 2 , FeCO 3 and CaCO 3 in higher carbonate waters will begin to dominate porosity losses. Preliminary results of an on-going study to control pH in an iron zone by admixing iron sulfide with iron show no difference in extent of carbonate precipitation versus a 100% iron system, suggesting that these systems are supersaturated with respect to carbonate precipitation

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CALCULATION OF DAMAGES IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INFRINGEMENT CASES. RIGHT HOLDER’S LOSS AND UNFAIR PROFITS OF THE INFRINGER. CUMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-George BUTA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This short article deals with a specific problem of interpretation of Romanian law on the enforcement of IP rights, namely the possibility of having the court set damages to the right holder by taking into account both the right holder’s loss and the infringer’s unfair profits. The two criteria for the assessment of damages are specifically provided for by law and are also expressly provided for by the EU IP Rights Enforcement Directive which was implemented in Romania. While the possibility of referring to either of the two remains uncontested, the possibility of cumulating the two has been denied in some decisions of the Romanian High Court. In order to do so the High Court has interpreted Romanian law so as to comply with the provisions of the EU Directive read by taking into account one of the recitals to the directive which seems to only allow for the criteria to be used alternatively and not cumulatively. The article examines this interpretation and concludes that the curt ought not to have referred to the text of the EU Directive and that, even if it would do so, could not base its interpretation on the recital, as it did and should have come to the conclusion that the cumulation of the two criteria is possible. In order to do so the article examines the implementation of the Directive in Romanian law, the limitations that the CJEU has imposed on the interpretation of EU acts, the history of the enacting of the EU provisions at issue and the context of the provisions within the directive.

  14. Tunable negative index metamaterial using yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxue; He, Peng; Dae Yoon, Soack; Parimi, P.V.; Rachford, F.J.; Harris, V.G.; Vittoria, C.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic field tunable, broadband, low-loss, negative refractive index metamaterial is fabricated using yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a periodic array of copper wires. The tunability is demonstrated from 18 to 23 GHz under an applied magnetic field with a figure of merit of 4.2 GHz/kOe. The tuning bandwidth is measured to be 5 GHz compared to 0.9 GHz for fixed field. We measure a minimum insertion loss of 4 dB (or 5.7 dB/cm) at 22.3 GHz. The measured negative refractive index bandwidth is 0.9 GHz compared to 0.5 GHz calculated by the transfer function matrix theory and 1 GHz calculated by finite element simulation

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  17. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  4. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  7. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  8. Cp/Heph mutant mice have iron-induced neurodegeneration diminished by deferiprone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangliang; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Xueying; Song, Ying; Jinnah, H.A.; Wodzinska, Jolanta; Iacovelli, Jared; Wolkow, Natalie; Krajacic, Predrag; Weissberger, Alyssa Cwanger; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Lee, Michael K.; Connor, James; Giasson, Benoit; Harris, Z. Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Brain iron accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases and can cause oxidative damage, but mechanisms of brain iron homeostasis are incompletely understood. Patients with mutations in the cellular iron-exporting ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) have brain iron accumulation causing neurodegeneration. Here, we assessed the brains of mice with combined mutation of Cp and its homolog hephaestin. Compared to single mutants, brain iron accumulation was accelerated in double mutants in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus. Iron accumulated within glia, while neurons were iron deficient. There was loss of both neurons and glia. Mice developed ataxia and tremor, and most died by 9 months. Treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone diminished brain iron levels, protected against neuron loss, and extended lifespan. Ferroxidases play important, partially overlapping roles in brain iron homeostasis by facilitating iron export from glia, making iron available to neurons. PMID:26303407

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  10. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (pstopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  12. Iron bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Sanderson, Peter; Hurrell, Richard F; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Geissler, Catherine; Prentice, Ann; Beard, John L

    2006-11-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating factors affecting iron status and the bioavailability of dietary iron. Results presented at the workshop show menstrual blood loss to be the major determinant of body iron stores in premenopausal women. In the presence of abundant and varied food supplies, the health consequences of lower iron bioavailability are unclear and require further investigation.

  13. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  14. Evaluation of the intrinsic and extrinsic fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.R.; Kang, B.S. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1998-07-27

    Iron aluminides have excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperatures with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides has been undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component has been on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}Al and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}Al. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large for one of the two types of iron sites. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences for hydrogen diffusion. Indeed, the ab-initio-based estimate of the divacancy binding energy indicates a likely tendency toward such clustering for iron vacancies on the sites with large lattice relaxation. The experimental work has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior.

  15. Comparison of chromium-51 and iron-59 for estimating erythrocyte survival in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, C.G.; Putnam, J.P.; Berman, E.; Fisher, H.; Ostby, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies were conducted on eight normal, healthy, 1-year-old male specific-pathogen-free cats using both chromium-51 and iron-59 simultaneously. The chromium-51 procedure gave a half-life value of 11.1 +/- 0.9 days. This was considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of the experimentally determined iron-59 erythrocyte survival time of 51.2 +/- 14.9 days. The results of this study indicated that there was considerable loss of the chromium-51 label in the cat other than that from senescence alone. An analysis of the chromium-51 disappearance curve indicated that there were two exponential disappearance rates for the chromium-51 label and, in the absence of cell death, approximately 67% of the label was lost with a rate constant of 0.02 per day and 33% was lost with a rate constant of 0.1 per day. An equation is presented which models the loss of chromium-51 label which could be used to calculate erythrocyte survival from a chromium-51 disappearance curve. Blood volume measurements, hemograms, bone marrow differential results, and iron kinetic values also were determined and the results presented. While a reasonable approximation of the erythrocyte life span could be made by correcting the chromium-51 values for losses other than senescence, the iron-59 procedure would be the preferred method in cats

  16. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  17. Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S Kritzberg

    Full Text Available This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters--the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system.

  18. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) Studies of Single Iron Nanoparticle Carburization in Synthesis Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Zhang, Chenghua; Li, Yongwang

    2017-01-01

    Structuralevolution of iron nanoparticles involving the formationand growth of iron carbide nuclei in the iron nanoparticle was directlyvisualized at the atomic level, using environmental transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) under reactive conditions mimicking Fischer–Tropschsynthesis. Formation...... and electronenergy-loss spectra provides a detailed picture from initial activationto final degradation of iron under synthesis gas....

  19. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  20. Spin flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchetta, C.J.; Tosatti, E.; Yin, S.

    1986-11-01

    A model ferromagnetic metal is used to calculate the spin-polarization which occurs during inelastic electron-metal scattering with the production of an electron-hole pair. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin-flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modelling iron. (author)

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  4. Concrete shielding exterior to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurista, P.; Cossairt, D.

    1983-08-01

    A rule of thumb at Fermilab has been to use 3 feet of concrete exterior to iron shielding. A recent design of a shield with a severe dimensional constraint has prompted a re-evaluation of this rule of thumb and has led to the following calculations of the concrete thickness required to nullify this problem. 4 references, 4 figures

  5. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  6. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-02-01

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author) [pt

  7. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W.; Mayet, F.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12μg/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores

  8. Određivanje pada početne brzine projektila na osnovu mere produženja barutne komore / Calculation of muzzle velocity loss based on propellant chamber elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ilić

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan postupak za proračun pada početne brzine projektila na osnovu mere produženja barutne komore. Proračuni su urađeni za artiljerijska oruđa koja koriste dvodelni metak. Za poznate unutrašnjobalističke metode Drozdova i Opokova modifikovano je programsko rešenje i prilagođeno rešavanju navedenog problema. Dobijeni rezultati su upoređeni sa spoljnobalističkim tablicama i remontnom dokumentacijom. / A method for calculation the loss of muzzle velocity is presented. The model is based on an erosion of the origin of rifling (elongation of propellant chamber and the known models of interior ballistics of Opokov and Drozdov. First, a computer version of these models is modified. The calculations are made for howitzers using a two-part cartridge. The numerical model has been applied to repair documents and ballistic tables.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  18. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  5. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg ND

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Goldberg Emeritus Chief of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented. Keywords: anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, intravenous iron, iron deficiency, oral iron, therapy

  10. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  12. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  13. Electron Spectroscopy Studies of Iron, Iron Sulfides and Supported Iron Surfaces: Chemisorption of Simple Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yiu Chung

    EELS was used to investigate the chemisorption of oxygen and carbon on iron. The EELS spectra of oxidized iron show characteristic features with strong enhancement of the interband transitions involving the Fe 3d band (4.6 and 7.5 eV) and moderate enhancement of the M(,2,3) transition doublet (54.4 and 58.2 eV). The changes in the electron energy loss structures with an overlayer of graphitic or carbidic carbon were investigated. The adsorption and growth of iron on Ni(100) has been studied using the combined techniques of LEED and EELS. Initially iron grows by a layer-by-layer mechanism for the first few layers. High iron coverages result in the observation of complex LEED patterns with satellites around the main (1 x 1) diffraction sports. This is due to the formation of b.c.c. Fe(110) crystallites arranged in domains with different orientations. EELS studies show the presence of three stages in the growth of iron on Ni(100): low-coverage, film-like and bulk-like. Auger and EELS were used to study the iron sulfide (FeS(,2), Fe(,7)S(,8) and FeS) surfaces. A characteristic M(,2,3) VV Auger doublet with a separation of 5.0 eV was observed on the sulfides. An assignment of the electron energy loss peaks was made based on the energy dependence of the loss peaks and previous photoemission results. The effect of argon ion bombardment was studied. Peaks with strong iron and sulfur character were observed. Heating the damaged sulfides results in reconstruction of the sulfide surfaces. The reactions of the sulfides with simple gases, such as H(,2), CO, CH(,4), C(,2)H(,4), NH(,3) and O(,2) were also studied. Using XPS, the chemisorption of SO(,2) on CaO(100) has been studied. The chemical state of sulfur has been identified as that of sulfate. The kinetics of SO(,2) chemisorption on CaO are discussed. The binding states of Fe and Na on CaO were determined to be Fe('2+) and Na('+) respectively. At low Fe or Na coverages (< 0.5 ML), there is a large increase in the rate of

  14. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1997-12-31

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points. Paper no. 41; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.

    1997-01-01

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points

  16. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  17. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  18. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  1. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  2. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  5. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  6. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  7. Iron inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Filmon, Robert; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Hemochromatosis is a known cause of osteoporosis in which the pathophysiology of bone loss is largely unknown and the role of iron remains questionable. We have investigated the effects of iron on the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro on carboxymethylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) pellets. This noncellular and enzyme-independent model mimics the calcification of woven bone (composed of calcospherites made of hydroxyapatite crystals). Polymer pellets were incubated with body fluid containing iron at increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60 micromol/L). Hydroxyapatite growth was studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microscopy. When incubated in body fluid containing iron, significant differences were observed with control pellets. Iron was detected at a concentration of 5.41- to 7.16-fold that of controls. In pellets incubated with iron, there was a approximately 3- to 4-fold decrease of Ca and P and a approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in the Ca/P ratio. There was no significant difference among the iron groups of pellets, but a trend to a decrease of Ca with the increase of iron concentration was noted. Calcospherite diameters were significantly lower on pellets incubated with iron. Raman microspectroscopy showed a decrease in crystallinity (measured by the full width of the half height of the 960 Deltacm(-1) band) with a significant increase in carbonate substitution (measured by the intensity ratio of 1071 to 960 Deltacm(-1) band). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified iron in the calcospherites. In vitro, iron is capable to inhibit bone crystal growth with significant changes in crystallinity and carbonate substitution.

  8. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  9. Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: Dosing Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Koch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for iron therapy dosing in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA, we conducted a study examining the benefits of a higher cumulative dose of intravenous (IV iron than what is typically administered. Methods. We first individually analyzed 5 clinical studies, averaging the total iron deficit across all patients utilizing a modified Ganzoni formula; we then similarly analyzed 2 larger clinical studies. For the second of the larger studies (Study 7, we also compared the efficacy and retreatment requirements of a cumulative dose of 1500 mg ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to 1000 mg iron sucrose (IS. Results. The average iron deficit was calculated to be 1531 mg for patients in Studies 1–5 and 1392 mg for patients in Studies 6-7. The percentage of patients who were retreated with IV iron between Days 56 and 90 was significantly (p<0.001 lower (5.6% in the 1500 mg group, compared to the 1000 mg group (11.1%. Conclusions. Our data suggests that a total cumulative dose of 1000 mg of IV iron may be insufficient for iron repletion in a majority of patients with IDA and a dose of 1500 mg is closer to the actual iron deficit in these patients.

  10. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir to decrease in size

  11. Modulation of intestinal sulfur assimilation metabolism regulates iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Benjamin H.; Hale, Andrew T.; Irving, Ryan P.; Li, Shenglan; York, John D.

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur assimilation is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in cellular and metabolic processes, including sulfation, amino acid biosynthesis, and organismal development. We report that loss of a key enzymatic component of the pathway, bisphosphate 3′-nucleotidase (Bpnt1), in mice, both whole animal and intestine-specific, leads to iron-deficiency anemia. Analysis of mutant enterocytes demonstrates that modulation of their substrate 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) influences levels of key iron homeostasis factors involved in dietary iron reduction, import and transport, that in part mimic those reported for the loss of hypoxic-induced transcription factor, HIF-2α. Our studies define a genetic basis for iron-deficiency anemia, a molecular approach for rescuing loss of nucleotidase function, and an unanticipated link between nucleotide hydrolysis in the sulfur assimilation pathway and iron homeostasis. PMID:29507250

  12. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  13. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  14. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  15. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  16. When Density Functional Approximations Meet Iron Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Liu, Xing-Wu; Huo, Chun-Fang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Cao, Dong-Bo; Peng, Qing; Dearden, Albert; Gonze, Xavier; Yang, Yong; Wang, Jianguo; Jiao, Haijun; Li, Yongwang; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-10-11

    Three density functional approximations (DFAs), PBE, PBE+U, and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional (HSE), were employed to investigate the geometric, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of four iron oxides, namely, α-FeOOH, α-Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , and FeO. Comparing our calculated results with available experimental data, we found that HSE (a = 0.15) (containing 15% "screened" Hartree-Fock exchange) can provide reliable values of lattice constants, Fe magnetic moments, band gaps, and formation energies of all four iron oxides, while standard HSE (a = 0.25) seriously overestimates the band gaps and formation energies. For PBE+U, a suitable U value can give quite good results for the electronic properties of each iron oxide, but it is challenging to accurately get other properties of the four iron oxides using the same U value. Subsequently, we calculated the Gibbs free energies of transformation reactions among iron oxides using the HSE (a = 0.15) functional and plotted the equilibrium phase diagrams of the iron oxide system under various conditions, which provide reliable theoretical insight into the phase transformations of iron oxides.

  17. Iron status in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Styszyński, Arkadiusz; Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2017-12-23

    A decreased concentration of iron, and consecutively haemoglobin, ferritin and decreased level of saturated transferrin, were observed in obese individuals more often than in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation are significantly diminished in obese female patients compared to non-obese counterparts, and whether excess adiposity and inflammation were associated with depleted iron. Female patients (n=48) diagnosed with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 18-40 were accepted for the study. A control group (n=30) encompassed normal weight women, aged 18-30. All obese women obtained an individually adjusted dietary plan with an energy content of 1,500 kcal. Blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, TIBC and iron concentrations were assayed in serum twice, initially and after 8 weeks of dieting. The obese women at the initial evaluation, in comparison to non-obese control women, were characterized by a significantly lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV; 84.2±12.4 vs. 91.3±9.3 fL; piron level (92.6±42.4 vs. 119.8±44.0 μg/dL; piron homeostasis. Weight loss leads to decrease in the CRP level, but it does not change haematologic parameters in the period of 8 weeks.

  18. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  19. Effect of annealing process of iron powder on magnetic properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Iron powder magnetic cores are used as soft magnetic rotors, in micro special motors such as BS brake motors, refrigerator compressor motors and brushless servo motors. Heat treatment of iron powder played an important role in the magnetic properties and loss of the motor cores. After the annealing process,.

  20. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  1. Verification and validation of XSDRNPM code for tank waste calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This validation study demonstrates that the XSDRNPM computer code accurately calculates the infinite neutron multiplication for water-moderated systems of low enriched uranium, plutonium, and iron. Calculations are made on a 200 MHz Brvo MS 5200M personal

  2. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Ray, Richard I.; Little, Brenda J.; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with three culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media. PMID:24093730

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount of iron. If you ... stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron levels, your doctor may ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia if you have low iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as ... to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  3. TIMP3 deficiency exacerbates iron overload-mediated cardiomyopathy and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Das, Subhash K; Basu, Ratnadeep; Shen, Mengcheng; Patel, Vaibhav B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2018-05-01

    Chronic iron overload results in heart and liver diseases and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with genetic hemochromatosis and secondary iron overload. We investigated the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in iron overload-mediated tissue injury by subjecting male mice lacking Timp3 ( Timp3 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice to 12 wk of chronic iron overload. Whereas WT mice with iron overload developed diastolic dysfunction, iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- mice showed worsened cardiac dysfunction coupled with systolic dysfunction. In the heart, loss of Timp3 was associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, greater Timp1, matrix metalloproteinase ( Mmp) 2, and Mmp9 expression, increased active MMP-2 levels, and gelatinase activity. Iron overload in Timp3 -/- mice showed twofold higher iron accumulation in the liver compared with WT mice because of constituently lower levels of ferroportin. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the hepatic inflammatory response to iron overload, leading to greater neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and increased hepatic fibrosis. Expression of inflammation-related MMPs (MMP-12 and MMP-13) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was elevated to a greater extent in iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- livers. Gelatin zymography demonstrated equivalent increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in WT and Timp3 -/- iron-overloaded livers. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated heart and liver injury, suggesting that Timp3 is a key protective molecule against iron-mediated pathology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In mice, loss of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 ( Timp3) was associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, twofold higher hepatic iron accumulation (attributable to constituently lower levels of ferroportin), and increased hepatic inflammation. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated injury, suggesting that Timp3 plays a key

  4. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsapour, Amir; Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian; Moallem, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated

  5. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  6. Antioxidant, Iron-chelating and Anti-glucosidase Activities of Typha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron chelating activity was assessed using a ferrozine-based assay. Anti- glucosidase activity was determined using 4-nitrophenyl ... flavonoid (TF) content was determined based an aluminum chloride colorimetric assay [6]. TF content was ..... Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation protects from diabetes and loss of β-cell.

  7. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  8. The Inhibition Effect of Potassium Iodide on the Corrosion of Pure Iron in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Attar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inorganic inhibitors as an alternative to organic compounds is based on the possibility of degradation of organic compounds with time and temperature. The inhibition effect of potassium iodide on the corrosion of pure iron in 0.5 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss. It has been observed from the results that the inhibition efficiency (IE% of KI increases from 82.17% to 97.51% with the increase in inhibitor concentration from 1·10−4 to 2·10−3 M. The apparent activation energy (Ea and the equilibrium constant of adsorption (Kads were calculated. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the pure iron surface is in agreement with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  9. Laboratory assessment of iron status in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy prompted an observational study of the occurrence of maternal iron deficiency and its laboratory diagnosis in almost 500 pregnancies. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, the biochemical and haematological iron indices of women (n=492) attending a prenatal clinic in a Dublin maternity hospital were assessed at first booking (mean 15.9 weeks), and after 24 weeks, and 36 weeks of gestation. Full blood counts were measured. Serum ferritin (SF), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were assayed and transferrin receptor index (sTfR-Index) was calculated. The occurrence of low values and their diagnostic values were considered. RESULTS: A high occurrence iron deficiency (ID) at first booking (SF<12 mug\\/L) had increased over six-fold by 24 weeks, and all biochemical iron indices reflected progressive iron depletion right up to term. The WHO recommended anaemia "cut-off" (Hb<110 g\\/L) was insensitive to biochemical iron deficiency at booking, missing over 90% of the low SF values (SF<12 mug\\/L) which were mostly associated with much higher Hb levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study stresses the importance of including a biochemical index of iron status in prenatal screening and supports SF as the best indicator of biochemical ID overall. sTfR was insensitive to iron deficiency in early pregnancy, whereas the sTfR-Index, as a ratio, has the potential to distinguish between ID and physiological anaemia, and may offer stability in the assessment of iron stores from early pregnancy to full term. A policy of early screening of both Hb and SF concentrations is recommended as the minimum requirement for surveillance of maternal iron status in pregnancy.

  10. Dielectronic recombination of carbon, oxygen and iron in low-density and high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Kasai, Satoshi; Tazima, Teruhiko

    1977-03-01

    The coefficient of dielectronic recombination, which is one of the important atomic processes in tokamak plasmas, is evaluated by a semiclassical method neglecting the effects of the density and the radiation fields. Those of carbon, oxygen and iron, which play important roles in such as plasma resistivity and energy losses, are calculated numerically in the range of the electron temperature of 10 eV - 10 keV. Compared with the results obtained from Burgess equation, which is most useful for the ions with effective nuclear charge z 25 such as molybdenum. (auth.)

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  18. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  19. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  20. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  3. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  12. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  15. The Evidence-Based Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Eliana V; Bollard, Edward R

    2016-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent disease with multiple possible etiologies and resultant complications. Iron deficiency anemia is a common cause of anemia and is typically due to insufficient intake, poor absorption, or overt or occult blood loss. Distinguishing iron deficiency from other causes of anemia is integral to initiating the appropriate treatment. In addition, identifying the underlying cause of iron deficiency is also necessary to help guide management of these patients. We review the key components to an evidence-based, cost-conscious evaluation of suspected iron deficiency anemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  17. Application of electrochemical frequency modulation for monitoring corrosion and corrosion inhibition of iron by some indole derivatives in molar hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of four indole derivatives, namely indole (IND), benzotriazole (BTA), benzothiazole (BSA) and benzoimidazole (BIA), have been used as possible corrosion inhibitors for pure iron in 1 M HCl. In this study, electrochemical frequency modulation, EFM was used as an effective method for corrosion rate determination in corrosion inhibition studies. By using EFM measurements, corrosion current density was determined without prior knowledge of Tafel slopes. Corrosion rates obtained using EFM, were compared to that obtained from other chemical and electrochemical techniques. The results obtained from EFM, EIS, Tafel and weight loss measurements were in good agreement. Tafel polarization measurements show that indole derivatives are cathodic-type inhibitors. Molecular simulation studies were applied to optimize the adsorption structures of indole derivatives. The inhibitor/iron/solvent interfaces were simulated and the adsorption energies of these inhibitors were calculated. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed and several quantum chemical indices were calculated and correlated with the corresponding inhibition efficiencies

  18. Anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (Panemia. Female gender was a variable associated with a greater incidence of iron deficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  20. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Common and Curable Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia arises when the balance of iron intake, iron stores, and the body's loss of iron are insufficient to fully support production of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency anemia rarely causes death, but the impact on human health is significant. In the developed world, this disease is easily identified and treated, but frequently overlooked by physicians. In contrast, it is a health problem that affects major portions of the population in underdeveloped countries. Overall, the prevention and successful treatment for iron deficiency anemia remains woefully insufficient worldwide, especially among underprivileged women and children. Here, clinical and laboratory features of the disease are discussed, and then focus is placed on relevant economic, environmental, infectious, and genetic factors that converge among global populations. PMID:23613366

  1. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  2. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the -ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen.

  4. Iron deficiency or anemia of inflammation? : Differential diagnosis and mechanisms of anemia of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz, Manfred; Theurl, Igor; Wolf, Dominik; Weiss, Günter

    2016-10-01

    Iron deficiency and immune activation are the two most frequent causes of anemia, both of which are based on disturbances of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency anemia results from a reduction of the body's iron content due to blood loss, inadequate dietary iron intake, its malabsorption, or increased iron demand. Immune activation drives a diversion of iron fluxes from the erythropoietic bone marrow, where hemoglobinization takes place, to storage sites, particularly the mononuclear phagocytes system in liver and spleen. This results in iron-limited erythropoiesis and anemia. This review summarizes current diagnostic and pathophysiological concepts of iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, as well as combined conditions, and provides a brief outlook on novel therapeutic options.

  5. Comparative evaluation of nephrotoxicity and management by macrophages of intravenous pharmaceutical iron formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Connor

    Full Text Available There is a significant clinical need for effective treatment of iron deficiency. A number of compounds that can be administered intravenously have been developed. This study examines how the compounds are handled by macrophages and their relative potential to provoke oxidative stress.Human kidney (HK-2 cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and renal cortical homogenates were exposed to pharmaceutical iron preparations. Analyses were performed for indices of oxidative stress and cell integrity. In addition, in macrophages, iron uptake and release and cytokine secretion was monitored.HK-2 cell viability was decreased by iron isomaltoside and ferumoxytol and all compounds induced lipid peroxidation. In the renal cortical homogenates, lipid peroxidation occurred at lowest concentrations with ferric carboxymaltose, iron dextran, iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. In the macrophages, iron sucrose caused loss of cell viability. Iron uptake was highest for ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside and lowest for iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. Iron was released as secretion of ferritin or as ferrous iron via ferroportin. The latter was blocked by hepcidin. Exposure to ferric carboxymaltose and iron dextran resulted in release of tumor necrosis factor α.Exposure to iron compounds increased cell stress but was tissue and dose dependent. There was a clear difference in the handling of iron from the different compounds by macrophages that suggests in vivo responses may differ.

  6. Identification of some additional loss components in high-power low-voltage permanent magnet generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamalainen, H.

    2013-11-01

    Permanent magnet generators (PMG) represent the cutting edge technology in modern wind mills. The efficiency remains high (over 90%) at partial loads. To improve the machine efficiency even further, every aspect of machine losses has to be analyzed. Additional losses are often given as a certain percentage without providing any detailed information about the actual calculation process; meanwhile, there are many design-dependent losses that have an effect on the total amount of additional losses and that have to be taken into consideration. Additional losses are most often eddy current losses in different parts of the machine. These losses are usually difficult to calculate in the design process. In this doctoral thesis, some additional losses are identified and modeled. Further, suggestions on how to minimize the losses are given. Iron losses can differ significantly between the measured no-load values and the loss values under load. In addition, with embedded magnet rotors, the quadrature-axis armature reaction adds losses to the stator iron by manipulating the harmonic content of the flux. It was, therefore, re-evaluated that in salient pole machines, to minimize the losses and the loss difference between the no-load and load operation, the flux density has to be kept below 1.5 T in the stator yoke, which is the traditional guideline for machine designers. Eddy current losses may occur in the end-winding area and in the support structure of the machine, that is, in the finger plate and the clamping ring. With construction steel, these losses account for 0.08% of the input power of the machine. These losses can be reduced almost to zero by using nonmagnetic stainless steel. In addition, the machine housing may be subjected to eddy current losses if the flux density exceeds 1.5 T in the stator yoke. Winding losses can rise rapidly when high frequencies and 10-15 mm high conductors are used. In general, minimizing the winding losses is simple. For example, it can be

  7. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  8. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  9. Electromagnetic design calculation of the control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qirong; Zhu Jingchang

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic design calculation of the step-by-step magnetic jacking control rod drive mechanism includes magnetic field force calculation and design calculation of magnetomotive force for three electromagnetic iron and their coilds. The basic principle and method of electromagnetic design calculation had been expounded to take the lift magnet and lift coil for example

  10. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  13. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  14. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  15. Determination of iron absorption and excretion by whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollard, D.; Benabid, Y.; Berard, M.; Bonnin, J.; Darnault, J.; Millet, M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a whole-body counter, the authors have studied 59 Fe absorption and loss in 8 normal subjects and in 30 iron deficient patients. Results showed that whole-body counting provided an excellent and simple method for iron retention measurements, obviating many inaccuracies of previous technic. Normal absorption of radio iron with this procedure has ranged from 9 per cent to 20 per cent of the administered tracer in normal subjects, with a mean of 15 per cent. A significant increase in 59 Fe absorption was noted in 21 iron-deficient patients in whom the retention ranged from 40 to 100 per cent. However, 3 iron-deficient patients were found to have low absorption, and their severe iron deficiency could be correlated with this defect in absorption. This method permits also the determination of the rate of iron excretion during the following months and therefore the study of the mechanism of some pathological loss. (authors) [fr

  16. 7 CFR 1437.301 - Value loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Value loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.301 Value loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of value at the time of disaster. The agency...

  17. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  18. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Monte-Carlo method applied to the energy loss calculation of the gamma rays isotropic flux in the NaI(tau l) cylindrical scintillator between 0.5-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Using the 'Monte Carlo' method, a determination was made of the response function of a NaI cylindrical crystal when exposed to an omnidirectional γ ray flux in the range 0.5 - 20 MeV. Improvements over previous similar calculations include considerations of the bremsstrahlung and multiple scattering processes in the slowing down of the secondary electrons. These calculations will be applied to the problem of determining the energy spectrum of an incident gamma ray flux from the measured response of the crystal in the space [pt

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your ... very young red blood cells. Peripheral smear to see if your red blood ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...

  8. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those ... environments Children who have lead in ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...

  17. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  3. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  8. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  9. Situation of Iron Deficiency and Its Management Prioritizing Dietary Intervention in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, BK; Koirala, U; Lama, STA

    2012-01-01

    the extent of iron deficiency anemia and intake of dietary iron among the general population in Nepal. Materials and methods Published research articles, books, bulletins, and online materials regarding iron deficiency were studied in both national and international scenarios. Results Nearly 46 percent...... of children (6–59 months) and 35 percent of women (15–49 years) were still suffering from anemia though the trend has been decreasing for the last 15 years. Mostly, young children (6–23 months) and pregnant women were the victims due to their high iron requirements and lower intake of dietary iron. The most...... common risk factors related to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) found in different studies were low intake of dietary iron, vitamin A deficiency, hookworm infection, malaria, heavy menstrual blood loss, and multiparity. Iron deficiency situation in the Nepalese population is triggered by Illiteracy, lack...

  10. Mechanisms of defect complex formation and environmental-assisted fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.R.; Muratov, L.S.; Kang, B.S.J.; Li, K.Z. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide has excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperature with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides is being undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work will connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component at this point is on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell} and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell}. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences to be explored for hydrogen diffusion. The experimental work at this stage has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior. For this reason, comparative crack growth tests of FA-186, FA-187, and FA-189 iron aluminides (all with basic composition of Fe-28A{ell}-5Cr, at % with micro-alloying additives of Zr, C or B) under, air, oxygen, or water environment have been performed. These tests showed that the alloys are susceptible to room temperature hydrogen embrittlement in both B2 and DO{sub 3} conditions. Test results indicated that FA-187, and FA-189 are intrinsically more brittle than FA-186.

  11. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  12. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  13. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  14. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  15. Social Costs of Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-59-Month-Old Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice; Tzogiou, Christina; Eichler, Klaus; Brügger, Urs; Wieser, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate nutrition has a severe impact on health in India. According to the WHO, iron deficiency is the single most important nutritional risk factor in India, accounting for more than 3% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. We estimate the social costs of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in 6-59-month-old children in India in terms of intangible costs and production losses. We build a health economic model estimating the life-time costs of a birth cohort suffering from IDA between the ages of 6 and 59 months. The model is stratified by 2 age groups (6-23 and 24-59-months), 2 geographical areas (urban and rural), 10 socio-economic strata and 3 degrees of severity of IDA (mild, moderate and severe). Prevalence of anemia is calculated with the last available National Family Health Survey. Information on the health consequences of IDA is extracted from the literature. IDA prevalence is 49.5% in 6-23-month-old and 39.9% in 24-58-month-old children. Children living in poor households in rural areas are particularly affected but prevalence is high even in wealthy urban households. The estimated yearly costs of IDA in 6-59-month-old children amount to intangible costs of 8.3 m DALYs and production losses of 24,001 m USD, equal to 1.3% of gross domestic product. Previous calculations have considerably underestimated the intangible costs of IDA as the improved WHO methodology leads to a threefold increase of DALYs due to IDA. Despite years of iron supplementation programs and substantial economic growth, IDA remains a crucial public health issue in India and an obstacle to the economic advancement of the poor. Young children are especially vulnerable due to the irreversible effects of IDA on cognitive development. Our research may contribute to the design of new effective interventions aiming to reduce IDA in early childhood.

  16. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  17. Lack of Plasma Protein Hemopexin Results in Increased Duodenal Iron Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Veronica; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Silengo, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The body concentration of iron is regulated by a fine equilibrium between absorption and losses of iron. Iron can be absorbed from diet as inorganic iron or as heme. Hemopexin is an acute phase protein that limits iron access to microorganisms. Moreover, it is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for heme and thus it mediates heme-iron recycling. Considering its involvement in iron homeostasis, it was postulated that hemopexin may play a role in the physiological absorption of inorganic iron. Hemopexin-null mice showed elevated iron deposits in enterocytes, associated with higher duodenal H-Ferritin levels and a significant increase in duodenal expression and activity of heme oxygenase. The expression of heme-iron and inorganic iron transporters was normal. The rate of iron absorption was assessed by measuring the amount of (57)Fe retained in tissues from hemopexin-null and wild-type animals after administration of an oral dose of (57)FeSO4 or of (57)Fe-labelled heme. Higher iron retention in the duodenum of hemopexin-null mice was observed as compared with normal mice. Conversely, iron transfer from enterocytes to liver and bone marrow was unaffected in hemopexin-null mice. The increased iron level in hemopexin-null duodenum can be accounted for by an increased iron uptake by enterocytes and storage in ferritins. These data indicate that the lack of hemopexin under physiological conditions leads to an enhanced duodenal iron uptake thus providing new insights to our understanding of body iron homeostasis.

  18. Ac losses of transposed superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, D.; Enderlein, G.; Lange, F.

    1975-01-01

    Eastham and Rhodes published results of loss measurements on transposed superconducting NbTi cables and concluded basing on an extrapolation to very large numbers of wires that transposed superconductors could be used favorably in cables for power transmission. There are some reasons to question the correctness of their extrapolation. Losses were calculated for transposed superconductors in self field and got results different from those of Eastham and Rhodes. Loss measurements were performed the results of which give evidence for the correctness of our calculations. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of transposed cables of irreversible type 2 superconductors for power transmission is not advantageous

  19. CHANGE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF CAST IRON IN COMPARISON WITH STEEL UNDER INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL DEMAGNETIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Sandomirsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of maximum magnetic permeability µm of cast irons with coercive force Нс and residual magnetism Мr is established in all size of changing of the magnetic characteristics of cast iron. Differences of this connection for steels and cast irons are revealed. Formula for calculation µm of steels by Нс and Мr is corrected for calculation µm of cast irons. As a result of correction the calculation error of cast irons µm is diminished. The results can be used in magnetic structural analysis instead of labor-consuming measurement µm.

  20. Iron solubility in highly boron-doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugo, S.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.; Weber, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have directly measured the solubility of iron in high and low boron-doped silicon using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Iron solubilities were measured at 800, 900, 1000, and 1100thinsp degree C in silicon doped with either 1.5x10 19 or 6.5x10 14 thinspboronthinspatoms/cm 3 . We have measured a greater iron solubility in high boron-doped silicon as compared to low boron-doped silicon, however, the degree of enhancement is lower than anticipated at temperatures >800thinsp degree C. The decreased enhancement is explained by a shift in the iron donor energy level towards the valence band at elevated temperatures. Based on this data, we have calculated the position of the iron donor level in the silicon band gap at elevated temperatures. We incorporate the iron energy level shift in calculations of iron solubility in silicon over a wide range of temperatures and boron-doping levels, providing a means to accurately predict iron segregation between high and low boron-doped silicon. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Mechanism of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lining; Song, Wei; Wang, Jing; Yan, Yunxing; Chen, Jiangwei; Liu, Rutao

    2015-12-01

    To research the mechanism of dimercaptosuccinic acid coated-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human serum albumin (HSA), the methods of spectroscopy, molecular modeling calculation, and calorimetry were used in this paper. The inner filter effect of the fluorescence intensity was corrected to obtain the accurate results. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and circular dichroism spectra reflect that SPION changed the secondary structure with a loss of α-helix and loosened the protein skeleton of HSA; the activity of the protein was also affected by the increasing exposure of SPION. Fluorescence lifetime measurement indicates that the quenching mechanism type of this system was static quenching. The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement and molecular docking calculations prove that the predominant force of this system was the combination of Van der Waals' force and hydrogen bonds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  3. Quantification of surgical blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcel H; Ingvertsen, Britt T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jensen, Asger L; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-06-01

    To compare gravimetric and colorimetric methods of quantifying surgical blood loss, and to determine if there is a correlation between preoperative hemostatic tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time [BMBT] and intraoperative blood loss). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=15) admitted for cutaneous tumor excision, orthopedic procedure, or exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative blood loss was quantified by measuring irrigation fluid and weighing surgical sponges used for blood and fluid collection during surgery. Results of gravimetric measurements were then correlated to blood loss quantified using spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) content. Hemostatic variables including BMBT were measured before surgery and compared with the calculated amount of blood loss. Blood loss quantified by gravimetric measurement showed a significant correlation with colorimetric determination of Hb content in surgical sponges and collected irrigation fluid (r=0.93, P<.0001). BMBT correlated weakly but significantly with intraoperative blood loss (r=0.56, P<.05). Quantifying intraoperative blood loss using spectrophotometric Hb analysis accurately assessed the amount of blood loss; however, it is a time-consuming procedure, primarily applicable as a research tool. Gravimetric evaluation of intraoperative blood loss was found to be an accurate method, which can be recommended for use in a clinical setting. Estimation of blood loss using a gravimetric method is accurate and applicable in the clinical setting and provides surgeons with a simple and objective tool to evaluate intraoperative blood loss.

  4. Origin of the Moon Unveiled by its Heavy Iron Isotope Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson, F.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D.; Levasseur, S.; Teutsch, N.

    2002-12-01

    The origin of the Moon has long been of interest and although the Giant Impact theory is currently the preferred explanation, unequivocal supporting evidence has been lacking. We have measured the iron isotope compositions of Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny meteorites and eucrites thought to come from Mars and Vesta, as well as samples from the Moon and the mafic Earth using high precision plasma source mass spectrometry. The mean iron isotope composition of the lunar samples, expressed in the conventional delta notation (d57Fe/54Fe) with respect to the IRMM-14 isotopic standard, is heavier (0.221 per mil (0.041: one standard deviation, 10 samples)) than those of the Earth (0.119 per mil (0.044, 7 samples)), which themselves are heavier than Martian meteorites (0.009 per mil (0.024, 6 samples)) and the eucrites measured (0.033 per mil (0.038, 7 samples)). Student's t-test calculations show that the Moon and Earth means are different from each other and from those of the other planetary bodies at >99% level of significance. The iron isotope compositions show no simple relationship with planetary heliocentric position, mantle oxygen fugacity, volatile content, or planet size. Similarly, these results do not support an origin of the Moon through co-accretion with the Earth, or as a fragment ejected from the Earth's mantle, or as another planet captured by the early Earth. In contrast, these data can be explained if the Earth, and especially the Moon, went through partial vaporisation and condensation leading to kinetic iron isotopic fractionation. Our data are also consistent with the suggested levels of enrichment of refractory elements for the bulk Earth and Moon. These new iron isotope results thus provide strong support for the origin of the Moon through a giant impact between the proto-Earth and another planet. Raleigh kinetic fractionation calculations indicate that only 1% loss of the current Fe budget of the Moon is required to explain its heavier isotopic

  5. Use of deferiprone for the treatment of hepatic iron storage disease in three hornbills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmeier, Peter; Clauss, Marcus; Donati, Olivio F; Chiers, Koen; Kienzle, Ellen; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    3 hornbills (2 Papua hornbills [Aceros plicatus] and 1 longtailed hornbill [Tockus albocristatus]) were evaluated because of general listlessness and loss of feather glossiness. Because hepatic iron storage disease was suspected, liver biopsy was performed and formalin-fixed liver samples were submitted for histologic examination and quantitative image analysis (QIA). Additional frozen liver samples were submitted for chemical analysis. Birds also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under general anesthesia for noninvasive measurement of liver iron content. Serum biochemical analysis and analysis of feed were also performed. Results of diagnostic testing indicated that all 3 hornbills were affected with hepatic iron storage disease. The iron chelator deferiprone was administered (75 mg/kg [34.1 mg/lb], PO, once daily for 90 days). During the treatment period, liver biopsy samples were obtained at regular intervals for QIA and chemical analysis of the liver iron content and follow-up MRI was performed. In all 3 hornbills, a rapid and large decrease in liver iron content was observed. All 3 methods for quantifying the liver iron content were able to verify the decrease in liver iron content. Orally administered deferiprone was found to effectively reduce the liver iron content in these 3 hornbills with iron storage disease. All 3 methods used to monitor the liver iron content (QIA, chemical analysis of liver biopsy samples, and MRI) had similar results, indicating that all of these methods should be considered for the diagnosis of iron storage disease and monitoring of liver iron content during treatment.

  6. Radiation absorbed doses from iron-52, iron-55, and iron-59 used to study ferrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.S.; Price, R.R.; Budinger, T.F.; Fairbanks, V.F.; Pollycove, M.

    1983-01-01

    Biological data obtained principally with Fe-59 citrate are used with physical data to calculate radiation absorbed doses for ionic or weak chelate forms of Fe-52, Fe-55, and Fe-59, administered by intravenous injection. Doses are calculated for normal subjects, primary hemochromatosis (also called idiopathic or hereditary hemochromatosis), pernicious anemia in relapse, iron-deficiency anemia, and polycythemia vera. The Fe-52 doses include the dose from the Mn-52m daughter generated after injection of Fe-52. Special attention has been given to the dose to the spleen, which has a relatively high concentration of RBCs and therefore of radioiron, and which varies significantly in size in both health and disease

  7. Dietary Intake of Iron Rich Food and Awareness on Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Female Students in Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, F. R.; Usmani, A. Q.; Shahid, A.; Sadiq, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the awareness and intake of iron rich diet amongst college girls with a particular focus on the knowledge about the iron deficiency anaemia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Government College for Women Rawalpindi, during September - December 2010. One hundred and thirty five students of intermediate level aged 17-19 years were selected through convenient sampling technique. The sample size was calculated by WHO-sample size calculator, keeping 95 percent Cl, p<0.05 statistically significant, anticipated population proportion of iron deficiency anaemia 35 percent and absolute precision at 0.08. Results: The awareness about iron rich diet and iron deficiency anaemia was satisfactory (86 percent), while poor intake of iron rich diet amongst adolescent college girls (52 percent) was found. About 65 percent of the participants had knowledge about the causes of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA); while 72 percent and 80 percent knew about the prevention and treatment of IDA respectively. Conclusions: Results indicate the gap between knowledge and practices about IDA; it highlights the need of an effective health promotional programme to raise awareness about the significance of iron in young female diet and to highlight the consequences when it is absent. (author)

  8. Parameters calculation of a shielding experiment and evaluation of calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.; Otto, A.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    In this text is carried out the evaluation of radiation transport methodology, comparying the calculated reactions and dose rates, for neutrons and gamma-rays, with the experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in YAYOI reactor. Were employed the ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system for generation of cross sections, collapsed by the ANISN code. The transport calculation were made by using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the spectrum of the iron shield boundary source to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The distributions calculated for neutrons and gamma-rays, on iron shield, presented coherence with the experimental measurements. (Author) [pt

  9. Nucleation of iron nitrides during gaseous nitriding of iron; the effect of a preoxidation treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friehling, Peter B.; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2001-01-01

    grains. On prolonged nitriding, immediate nucleation at the surface of iron grains becomes possible. Calculated incubation times for the nucleation of gamma'-Fe4N1-x during nitriding are generally longer than those observed experimentally in the present work. The incubation time is reduced dramatically...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for gastrointestinal bleeding To see if gastrointestinal bleeding is causing your iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order the following procedures to guide treatment . Fecal ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) ... Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which causes bleeding in the bowels Frequent blood donation Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small ... the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be at ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... these usually go away within a day or two. Red blood cell transfusions. These may be used ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... detect signs of iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain ... your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health [NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact ... Email Alerts Receive automatic alerts about NHLBI related news and highlights from ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...