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Sample records for iron garnet yig

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (YAIG) nanoferrites prepared by microemulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz, E-mail: majidniazakhtar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar Sulong, Abu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Murtaza, Ghulam [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore, Pakistan" f Department of Mechanical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Sahiwal Pakistan (Pakistan); Raza, M.R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Sahiwal (Pakistan); Raza, R.; Saleem, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Kashif, M. [Department of Physics, Govt. College University Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (YAIG) nanoferrite samples were synthesized by microemulsion method. The effect of sintering was examined by heating the samples at 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The YIG and YAIG samples were then characterized using X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Static and dynamic magnetic properties were measured by evaluating initial permeability, Q factor, and vibrating sample magnetometry properties of YIG and YAIG samples. YIG samples sintered at 1100 °C showed higher initial permeability and Q factor compared with YAIG samples. However, hysteresis loops also showed variations in the saturation magnetization, remanence, and coercivity of YIG and YAIG samples sintered at 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The observed magnetic parameter such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and initial permeability are strongly affected by increasing temperature. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of YIG and YAIG nanoferrites were found in the range 11.56–19.92 emu/g and 7.30–87.70 Oe respectively. Furthermore, the decreasing trends in the static and magnetic properties of YAIG samples may be due to the introduction of Al ions in the YIG crystal lattice. Thus, YIG and YAIG sintered at 1100 °C can be used for wide-ranging frequency applications. - Highlights: • Static and dynamic magnetic properties of YIG and YAIG nanoferrites were determined. • Saturation magnetization, Q and initial permeability increased in YIG nanoferites. • Possible use of these nanoferrites for sensing and switching applications.

  2. Preparation of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) by modified domestic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Amighian

    2002-01-01

    Iron oxide by product of a local steel complex was modified to use for preparation of Yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The improvement was necessary to reduce impurities, especially the Si0 2 and Cl contents, which have deteriorative effects on magnetic properties and equipment used for preparation of the samples. The modified iron oxide was then mixed with Yttrium oxide of Merck Company in appropriate proportion to obtain a stoichiometric single phase YIG, using the conventional ceramic technique. XRD and SEM equipments were used to identify the resulting phases and microstructure respectively. Magnetic parameters were measured by VSM. Curie temperature of the samples was obtained by DTG (M) method. The results were compared with those obtained from samples that made by Merck iron oxide. There are small differences between the results. This was discussed according to extra pores and minute secondary phase in the samples made by domestic iron oxide. (Author)

  3. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE RESONANCE LOSSES IN SILICON-DOPED YTTRIUM-IRON GARNET (YIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, D. J.; Tocci, L.

    1967-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic resonance linewidth of silicon-doped YIG, measured as a function of temperature at 13.4 kMHz, is found to show a pronounced peak at 105°C. The anisotropic behavior of this peak is in good agreement with the four-level valence-exchange model proposed by Clogston. The model yields...... for the electron ordering energy a value 5 × 10-4 eV which agrees closely with the energy deduced from magnetic anneal studies. The activation energy for electron transfer (0.25 eV) is virtually identical with values reported in investigations of electrical conductivity and acoustic loss. ©1967 The American...

  5. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  6. Bonding mechanism of a yttrium iron garnet film on Si without the use of an intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Patriarche, Gilles; Talneau, Anne; Youssef, Jamal Ben

    2014-01-01

    Direct bonding of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on silicon without the use of an intermediate bonding layer is demonstrated and characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. During the bonding experiment, the garnet is reduced in the presence of oxide-free silicon. As a result, a 5 nm thick SiO 2 /amorphous-YIG bilayer is formed and welds the garnet to silicon.

  7. Thermographic measurements of the spin Peltier effect in metal/yttrium-iron-garnet junction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Shunsuke; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Hioki, Tomosato; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation due to spin-current injection, in various metal (Pt, W, and Au single layers and Pt/Cu bilayer)/ferrimagnetic insulator [yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG)] junction systems has been investigated by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) method. The SPE is excited by a spin current across the metal/YIG interface, which is generated by applying a charge current to the metallic layer via the spin Hall effect. The LIT method enables the thermal imaging of the SPE free from the Joule-heating contribution. Importantly, we observed spin-current-induced temperature modulation not only in the Pt/YIG and W/YIG systems, but also in the Au/YIG and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, excluding the possible contamination by anomalous Ettingshausen effects due to proximity-induced ferromagnetism near the metal/YIG interface. As demonstrated in our previous study, the SPE signals are confined only in the vicinity of the metal/YIG interface; we buttress this conclusion by reducing a spatial blur due to thermal diffusion in an infrared-emission layer on the sample surface used for the LIT measurements. We also found that the YIG-thickness dependence of the SPE is similar to that of the spin Seebeck effect measured in the same Pt/YIG sample, implying the reciprocal relation between them.

  8. RBS Characterization of Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumie, M; Abdel samad, B.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic materials such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are of great importance for its magneto-optic properties and for their potential applications in the domain of optical telecommunications. The deposition of thin films of YIG, on quartz or GGG (gadolinium gallium garnet) substrate, was performed using radio frequency non reactive magnetron sputtering, followed by high temperature annealing which is needed to enhance the crystallinity of the layers. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS was used to determine the thickness and stoichiometry of the performed layers in order to investigate correlations between growth conditions and the quality of the final material. RBS measurements showed the influence of the deposition time and the temperature substrate on the film growth and its stoichiometry. (author)

  9. YIG magnonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serga, A A; Chumak, A V; Hillebrands, B

    2010-01-01

    Early experiments in magnonics were made using ferrite samples, largely due to the intrinsically low magnetic (spin-wave) damping in these materials. Historically, magnonic phenomena were studied on micrometre to millimetre length scales. Today, the principal challenge in applied magnonics is to create sub-micrometre devices using modern polycrystalline magnetic alloys. However, until certain technical obstacles are overcome in these materials, ferrites-in particular yttrium iron garnet (YIG)-remain a valuable source of insight. At a time when interest in magnonic systems is particularly strong, it is both useful and timely to review the main scientific results of YIG magnonics of the last two decades, and to discuss the transferability of the concepts and ideas learned in ferrite materials to modern nano-scale systems.

  10. High-resolution structural characterization and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Vikram Singh, Amit; Rastogi, Ankur; Gazquez, Jaume; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mishra, Rohan; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of magnetic garnet materials, e.g. yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), are useful for a variety of applications including microwave integrated circuits and spintronics. Substitution of rare earth ions, such as cerium, is known to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) as compared to pure YIG. Thin films of Ce0.75Y2.25Fe5O12 (Ce:YIG) have been grown using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and their crystal structure examined using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous substitution of Ce in YIG, without oxidation to form a separate CeO2 phase, can be realized in a narrow process window with resulting enhancement of the MOKE signal. The thermally generated signal due to spin Seebeck effect for the optimally doped Ce:YIG films has also been investigated.

  11. Platinum/yttrium iron garnet inverted structures for spin current transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosary, Mohammed; Li, Junxue; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Shi, Jing [Department of Physics and Astronomy and SHINES Energy Frontier Research Center, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zheng, Jian-Guo [Irvine Materials Research Institute, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Bozhilov, Krassimir N. [Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    30-80 nm thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on a 5 nm thick sputtered Pt atop gadolinium gallium garnet substrate (GGG) (110). Upon post-growth rapid thermal annealing, single crystal YIG(110) emerges as if it were epitaxially grown on GGG(110) despite the presence of the intermediate Pt film. The YIG surface shows atomic steps with the root-mean-square roughness of 0.12 nm on flat terraces. Both Pt/YIG and GGG/Pt interfaces are atomically sharp. The resulting YIG(110) films show clear in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with a well-defined easy axis along 〈001〉 and a peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 7.5 Oe at 9.32 GHz, similar to YIG epitaxially grown on GGG. Both spin Hall magnetoresistance and longitudinal spin Seebeck effects in the inverted bilayers indicate excellent Pt/YIG interface quality.

  12. Growth of yttrium iron garnet single crystals in Na2O-B2O3 flux system in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Tarun; Saha, Prasenjit

    1977-01-01

    Detailed studies of growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) in the flux system Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 were made to delineate the phase stability regions of YIG and the neighbouring crystalline phases, and a tentative working diagram of Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -YIG in air was drawn from the results of small batch crystal growth runs and solubility studies. The occurrence of a rather narrow field of YIG crystallization in this system was explained on the basis of relative solubilities of different oxides constituting YIG. Several long-time growth runs with some typical compositions were carried out in this system to evaluate its suitability for bulk growth of YIG crystals. The system, although possessing some inherent advantages, was found to suffer from limitations because the maximum size of the self-nucleated crystals grown hardly exceeded 2.00 mm. (author)

  13. Growth and characterization of yttrium iron garnet films on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Ying; Wang, Genshui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ge, Jun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ponchel, Freddy; Rémiens, Denis [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN)–DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films were prepared on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique using acetic acid and deionized water as solvents. Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films were obtained when annealed at 750 °C and 850 °C respectively, showing a low surface roughness of several nanometers. When annealed at 750 °C for 30 min, the saturated magnetization (Ms) and coercive field (Hc) of YIG films were 0.121 emu/mm{sup 3} (4πMs = 1.52 kGs) and 7 Oe respectively, which were similar to that prepared by PLD technique. The peak-to-peak linewidth of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) was 220 Oe at 9.10 GHz. The results demonstrated that CSD was an excellent technique to prepare high quality yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films on silicon, which could provide a lower-cost way for large-scale production on Si-based integrated devices. - Highlights: • The preparation of YIG films by Chemical Solution Deposition are demonstrated. • Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films can be obtained on Si substrate by CSD. • YIG films can be crystallized in 750 °C with good magnetic performances. • It's beneficial to large-scale production of YIG films on Si integrated devices.

  14. Direct observation of magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Haoran; Shi, Zhong; Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xi; Sullivan, Sean; Zhou, Jianshi; Xia, Ke; Shi, Jing; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of ˜560 K has been widely used in microwave and spintronic devices. Anomalous features in spin Seeback effect (SSE) voltages have been observed in Pt/YIG and attributed to magnon-phonon coupling. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to map out low-energy spin waves and acoustic phonons of YIG at 100 K as a function of increasing magnetic field. By comparing the zero and 9.1 T data, we find that instead of splitting and opening up gaps at the spin wave and acoustic phonon dispersion intersecting points, magnon-phonon coupling in YIG enhances the hybridized scattering intensity. These results are different from expectations of conventional spin-lattice coupling, calling for different paradigms to understand the scattering process of magnon-phonon interactions and the resulting magnon polarons.

  15. Magnetophotonic crystals based on yttrium-iron-garnet infiltrated opals: Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzina, T. V.; Kim, E. M.; Kapra, R. V.; Moshnina, I. V.; Aktsipetrov, O. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Kaplan, S. F.; Golubev, V. G.; Bader, M. A.; Marowsky, G.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) based on artificial opals infiltrated by yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are fabricated and their structural, optical, and nonlinear optical properties are studied. The formation of the crystalline YIG inside the opal matrix is checked by x-ray analysis. Two templates are used for the infiltration by YIG: bare opals and those covered by a thin platinum film. Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique is used to study the magnetization-induced nonlinear-optical properties of the composed MPCs. A high nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect in the SHG intensity is observed at the edge of the photonic band gap of the MPCs.

  16. Low-relaxation spin waves in laser-molecular-beam epitaxy grown nanosized yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsev, L. V., E-mail: l-lutsev@mail.ru; Korovin, A. M.; Bursian, V. E.; Gastev, S. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Suturin, S. M.; Sokolov, N. S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of nanosized yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YIG) films followed by the study of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin wave propagation in these films is reported. The YIG films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. It has been shown that spin waves propagating in YIG deposited at 700 °C have low damping. At the frequency of 3.29 GHz, the spin-wave damping parameter is less than 3.6 × 10{sup −5}. Magnetic inhomogeneities of the YIG films give the main contribution to the FMR linewidth. The contribution of the relaxation processes to the FMR linewidth is as low as 1.2%.

  17. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  18. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...

  19. Spin wave propagation in perpendicularly magnetized nm-thick yttrium iron garnet films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Heimbach, Florian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Liu, Chuanpu; Chang, Houchen; Stückler, Tobias; Hu, Junfeng; Zeng, Lang; Zhang, Youguang; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng; Wu, Mingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Magnonics offers a new way for information transport that uses spin waves (SWs) and is free of charge currents. Unlike Damon-Eshbach SWs, the magneto-static forward volume SWs offer the reciprocity configuration suitable for SW logic devices with low power consumption. Here, we study forward volume SW propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films with an ultra-low damping constant α = 8 ×10-5 . We design different integrated microwave antenna with different k-vector excitation distributions on YIG thin films. Using a vector network analyzer, we measured SW transmission with the films magnetized in perpendicular orientation. Based on the experimental results, we extract the group velocity as well as the dispersion relation of SWs and directly compare the power efficiency of SW propagation in YIG using coplanar waveguide and micro stripline for SW excitation and detection.

  20. Preparation and Faraday rotation of Bi-YIG/PMMA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H. P.; Hong, R. Y.; Wu, Y. J.; Di, G. Q.; Xu, B.; Zheng, Y.; Wei, D. G.

    Bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi-YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by coprecipitation and subsequent heating treatment. Thermal gravity-differential thermal analysis was performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the Bi-YIG precursors and to decide the best annealing temperature. Phase formation of garnet NPs was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. The size of Bi-YIG NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and the magnetic properties of Bi-YIG NPs were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the temperature needed for the transformation of Bi-YIG from the amorphous phase to the garnet phase decreases with increasing Bi content, and Bi-YIG NPs with sizes of 28-78 nm are obtained after heating treatment at 650-1000 °C. The saturation magnetization of Bi-YIG NPs increases as the Bi content increases. Moreover, the Faraday rotation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slices doped with Bi-YIG NPs was investigated. The results indicate that the angle of Faraday rotation increases with increasing Bi content in PMMA composites, and the maximum value of the figure of merit is 1.46°, which is comparable to the value of a sputtered film. The Bi-YIG NPs-doped PMMA slices are new promising materials for magneto-optical devices.

  1. Improved propagation margin in YIG coated LPE garnet films for bubble devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Y.; Yoshimi, K.; Hibiya, T.; Mikami, M.

    1975-01-01

    YIG thin layers grown on (Y,Eu,Yb) 3 (Fe,Ga) 5 O 12 LPE films were found to be very effective for improvement of bubble propagation margin as well as for hard bubble suppression. In the ion-implanted rare earth substituted Ga:YIG on (111) GGG with 8 micron bubble, T-bar propagation margin was diminished, because of stretching or oscillating of bubble along the patterns. A 600 A YIG thin layer with in-plane magnetization, grown by CVD at 1065 0 C, obviated these destructive shortcomings and guaranteed the minimum driving field for stable bubble propagation down to 10 Oe. This improvement can be attributed to the magnetostatic interaction between the YIG layer and the bubble supporting layer. (auth)

  2. Tunable negative index metamaterial using yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxue; He, Peng; Dae Yoon, Soack; Parimi, P.V.; Rachford, F.J.; Harris, V.G.; Vittoria, C.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic field tunable, broadband, low-loss, negative refractive index metamaterial is fabricated using yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a periodic array of copper wires. The tunability is demonstrated from 18 to 23 GHz under an applied magnetic field with a figure of merit of 4.2 GHz/kOe. The tuning bandwidth is measured to be 5 GHz compared to 0.9 GHz for fixed field. We measure a minimum insertion loss of 4 dB (or 5.7 dB/cm) at 22.3 GHz. The measured negative refractive index bandwidth is 0.9 GHz compared to 0.5 GHz calculated by the transfer function matrix theory and 1 GHz calculated by finite element simulation

  3. Preparing magnetic yttrium iron garnet nanodot arrays by ultrathin anodic alumina template on silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hui; Han, Mangui, E-mail: han-mangui@yahoo.com; Deng, Longjiang [National Engineering Research Center of Electromagnetic Radiation Control Materials, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Qin, Huibin [Institute of Electron Device and Application, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Wu, Qiong [Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-08-10

    Ultrahigh density periodically ordered magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YIG) nanodot arrays have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition through an ultrathin alumina mask (UTAM). UTAM having periodically ordered circularly shaped holes with 350 nm in diameter, 450 nm in inter-pore distance, and 700 nm in height has been prepared on silicon substrate. Furthermore, the microstructure and magnetic properties of YIG nanodot arrays have been characterized. Nanodot arrays with a sharp distribution in diameter centered at 340 nm with standard deviation of 10 nm have been fabricated. Moreover, typical hysteresis loops and ferromagnetic resonance spectra in in-plane and out-of-plane revealed that this unique structure greatly influences the magnetics properties of YIG. First, coercivity of YIG nanodot arrays in in-plane was increased about from 15 Oe of YIG films to 500 Oe. Then, the degree of uniformity about nanodot height decided that two or more resonance peaks in out-of-plane were detected in the spectra. The peak-to-peak linewidth values were about 94 Oe and 40 Oe in the parallel and perpendicular directions, respectively, which indicated that the values were larger by the two-magnon scattering. Consequently, this pattering method creates opportunities for studying physics in oxide nanomagnets and may be applied in spin-wave devices.

  4. Phase Diagram for Magnon Condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuxiang; Saslow, Wayne M.; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magnons, which are quasiparticles describing the collective motion of spins, were found to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at room temperature in films of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). Unlike other quasiparticle BEC systems, this system has a spectrum with two degenerate minima, which makes it possible for the system to have two condensates in momentum space. Recent Brillouin Light Scattering studies for a microwave-pumped YIG film of thickness d = 5 μm and field H = 1 kOe find a low-contrast interference pattern at the characteristic wavevector Q of the magnon energy minimum. In this report, we show that this modulation pattern can be quantitatively explained as due to unequal but coherent Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons into the two energy minima. Our theory predicts a transition from a high-contrast symmetric state to a low-contrast non-symmetric state on varying the d and H, and a new type of collective oscillation. PMID:23455849

  5. Element selective X-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroisms in ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Goulon, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: goulon@esrf.fr; Wilhelm, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brouder, Ch. [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR-CNRS 7590, Universite Paris VI-VII, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yaresko, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS FRE 2697, UFR Sciences et Techniques, F-29328 Brest Cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) was used to probe the existence of induced magnetic moments in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films in which yttrium is partly substituted with lanthanum, lutetium or bismuth. Spin polarization of the 4d states of yttrium and of the 5d states of lanthanum or lutetium was clearly demonstrated. Angular momentum resolved d-DOS of yttrium and lanthanun was shown to be split by the crystal field, the two resolved substructures having opposite magnetic polarization. The existence of a weak orbital moment involving the 6p states of bismuth was definitely established with the detection of a small XMCD signal at the Bi M{sub 1}-edge. Difference spectra also enhanced the visibility of subtle changes in the Fe K-edge XMCD spectra of YIG and {l_brace}Y, Bi{r_brace}IG films. Weak natural X-ray linear dichroism signatures were systematically observed with all iron garnet films and with a bulk YIG single crystal cut parallel to the (1 1 1) plane: this proved that, at room temperature, the crystal cannot satisfy all requirements of perfect cubic symmetry (space group: Ia3-bar d), crystal distortions preserving at best trigonal symmetry (R3-bar or R3m). For the first time, a very weak X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) was also measured in the iron K-edge pre-peak of YIG and revealed the presence of a tiny electric quadrupole moment in the ground-state charge distribution of iron atoms. Band-structure calculations carried out with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods support our interpretation that ferrimagnetically coupled spins at the iron sites induce a spin polarization of the yttrium d-DOS and reproduce the observed crystal field splitting of the XMCD signal.

  6. Element selective X-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroisms in ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalev, A.; Goulon, J.; Wilhelm, F.; Brouder, Ch.; Yaresko, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) was used to probe the existence of induced magnetic moments in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films in which yttrium is partly substituted with lanthanum, lutetium or bismuth. Spin polarization of the 4d states of yttrium and of the 5d states of lanthanum or lutetium was clearly demonstrated. Angular momentum resolved d-DOS of yttrium and lanthanun was shown to be split by the crystal field, the two resolved substructures having opposite magnetic polarization. The existence of a weak orbital moment involving the 6p states of bismuth was definitely established with the detection of a small XMCD signal at the Bi M 1 -edge. Difference spectra also enhanced the visibility of subtle changes in the Fe K-edge XMCD spectra of YIG and {Y, Bi}IG films. Weak natural X-ray linear dichroism signatures were systematically observed with all iron garnet films and with a bulk YIG single crystal cut parallel to the (1 1 1) plane: this proved that, at room temperature, the crystal cannot satisfy all requirements of perfect cubic symmetry (space group: Ia3-bar d), crystal distortions preserving at best trigonal symmetry (R3-bar or R3m). For the first time, a very weak X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) was also measured in the iron K-edge pre-peak of YIG and revealed the presence of a tiny electric quadrupole moment in the ground-state charge distribution of iron atoms. Band-structure calculations carried out with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods support our interpretation that ferrimagnetically coupled spins at the iron sites induce a spin polarization of the yttrium d-DOS and reproduce the observed crystal field splitting of the XMCD signal.

  7. The effect of FR enhancement in reactive ion beam sputtered Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron- garnets: Bi2O3 nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Berzhansky, V.; Shaposhnikov, A.; Karavainikov, A.; Prokopov, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Lukienko, I.; Kharchenko, Yu.; Miloslavskaya, O.; Kharchenko, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of considerable Faraday rotation (FR) and figure of merit (Q) enhancement in Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron garnets: Bi2O3 nano-composite films produced by separate reactive ion beam sputtered Bi:YIG and Bi2O3 films was found. It reached threefold enhancement of the FR and twofold of the Q one on GGG substrates.

  8. Magnetodielectric coupling in multiferroic holmium iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malar Selvi, M.; Chakraborty, Deepannita; Venkateswaran, C.

    2017-01-01

    Single phase magneto-electric multiferroics require a large magnetic or electric field for producing magneto-electric (ME) and magnetodielectric (MD) effects. For utilizing these effects in devices investigations on the room temperature and low field MD studies are necessary. Recently, efforts have been largely devoted to the investigation of rare earth iron garnets. In the physical method, the preparation of rare earth iron garnet requires high sintering temperature and processing time. To solve these problems, ball milling assisted microwave sintering technique is used to prepare nanocrystalline holmium iron garnets (Ho_3Fe_5O_1_2). Magnetic and dielectric properties of the prepared sample are investigated. These properties get enhanced in nanocrystalline form when compared to the bulk. The MD coupling of the prepared sample is evident from the anomaly in the temperature dependent dielectric constant plot and the ME coupling susceptibility is derived from the room temperature MD measurements. - Highlights: • Formation of single phase Holmium iron garnet reported. • Ball milling assisted microwave sintering reduces the sintering temperature and time. • Holmium iron garnet shows enhanced magnetic and dielectric properties. • Pyromagnetic and pyroelectric measurements confirm the magnetoelectric coupling. • Room temperature magnetodielectric measurements show the nonlinear behaviour.

  9. Nonlocal magnon spin transport in yttrium iron garnet with tantalum and platinum spin injection/detection electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Cornelissen, L. J.; Shan, J.; van Wees, B. J.; Kuschel, T.

    2018-06-01

    We study the magnon spin transport in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) in a nonlocal experiment and compare the magnon spin excitation and detection for the heavy metal paramagnetic electrodes platinum (Pt|YIG|Pt) and tantalum (Ta|YIG|Ta). The electrical injection and detection processes rely on the (inverse) spin Hall effect in the heavy metals and the conversion between the electron spin and magnon spin at the heavy metal|YIG interface. Pt and Ta possess opposite signs of the spin Hall angle. Furthermore, their heterostructures with YIG have different interface properties, i.e. spin mixing conductances. By varying the distance between injector and detector, the magnon spin transport is studied. Using a circuit model based on the diffusion-relaxation transport theory, a similar magnon relaxation length of  ∼10 μm was extracted from both Pt and Ta devices. By changing the injector and detector material from Pt to Ta, the influence of interface properties on the magnon spin transport has been observed. For Ta devices on YIG the spin mixing conductance is reduced compared with Pt devices, which is quantitatively consistent when comparing the dependence of the nonlocal signal on the injector-detector distance with the prediction from the circuit model.

  10. Direct observation of multivalent states and 4 f →3 d charge transfer in Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasili, H. B.; Casals, B.; Cichelero, R.; Macià, F.; Geshev, J.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Pellegrin, E.; Fontcuberta, J.; Herranz, G.

    2017-07-01

    Due to their large magneto-optic responses, rare-earth-doped yttrium iron garnets, Y3F e5O12 (YIG), are highly regarded for their potential in photonics and magnonics. Here, we consider the case of Ce-doped YIG (Ce-YIG) thin films, in which substitutional C e3 + ions are magnetic because of their 4 f1 ground state. In order to elucidate the impact of Ce substitution on the magnetization of YIG, we have carried out soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements on Ce-YIG films. In particular, we have used the element specificity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to extract the individual magnetization curves linked to Ce and Fe ions. Our results show that Ce doping triggers a selective charge transfer from Ce to the Fe tetrahedral sites in the YIG structure. This, in turn, causes a disruption of the electronic and magnetic properties of the parent compound, reducing the exchange coupling between the Ce and Fe magnetic moments and causing atypical magnetic behavior. Our work is relevant for understanding magnetism in rare-earth-doped YIG and, eventually, may enable a quantitative evaluation of the magneto-optical properties of rare-earth incorporation into YIG.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R. O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil); Holanda, J.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Vilela-Leão, L. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, PE (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-05-11

    We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2–6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.

  12. High-energy xenon ion irradiation effects on the electrical properties of yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, J.M.; Flament, J.L.; Sinopoli, L.; Trochon, J.; Uzureau, J.L.; Groult, D.; Studer, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    1989-01-01

    Thin monocristalline samples of yttrium iron garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) were irradiated at room temperature with 27 MeV/A 132 Xe ions at varying fluences up to 3.5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . Sample thickness (100 μm) was smaller than the mean projected range of ions (170 μm) so that we were able to study the effects of irradiation damage solely. At such a high ion energy the nuclear energy loss is negligible and damage is mainly due to electronic excitation energy loss. YIG d.c conductivity is found to rise by a factor 40 for the highest dose while the permittivity increases only slightly after irradiation (40% max.). The dielectric losses are also enhanced as the ion fluence increases especially at lower frequencies (by a factor 6 at 10 KHz). No dielectric relaxation peak is observed in the frequency range explored here (10 KHz - 10 MHz)

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films with low Gilbert damping and bulk-like magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Onbasli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium iron garnet (YIG, Y 3Fe5O12 films have been epitaxially grown on Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG, Gd3Ga5O12 substrates with (100 orientation using pulsed laser deposition. The films were single-phase, epitaxial with the GGG substrate, and the root-mean-square surface roughness varied between 0.14 nm and 0.2 nm. Films with thicknesses ranging from 17 to 200 nm exhibited low coercivity (<2 Oe, near-bulk room temperature saturation moments (∼135 emu cm−3, in-plane easy axis, and damping parameters as low as 2.2 × 10−4. These high quality YIG thin films are useful in the investigation of the origins of novel magnetic phenomena and magnetization dynamics.

  14. Spin Seebeck effect and ballistic transport of quasi-acoustic magnons in room-temperature yttrium iron garnet films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Timo B.; Musiienko-Shmarova, Halyna Yu; Langner, Thomas; Heussner, Frank; Lauer, Viktor; Heinz, Björn; Bozhko, Dmytro A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Pomyalov, Anna; L’vov, Victor S.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Serga, Alexander A.

    2018-06-01

    We studied the transient behavior of the spin current generated by the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in a set of platinum-coated yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films of different thicknesses. The LSSE was induced by means of pulsed microwave heating of the Pt layer and the spin currents were measured electrically using the inverse spin Hall effect in the same layer. We demonstrate that the time evolution of the LSSE is determined by the evolution of the thermal gradient triggering the flux of thermal magnons in the vicinity of the YIG/Pt interface. These magnons move ballistically within the YIG film with a constant group velocity, while their number decays exponentially within an effective propagation length. The ballistic flight of the magnons with energies above 20 K is a result of their almost linear dispersion law, similar to that of acoustic phonons. By fitting the time-dependent LSSE signal for different film thicknesses varying by almost an order of magnitude, we found that the effective propagation length is practically independent of the YIG film thickness. We consider this fact as strong support of a ballistic transport scenario—the ballistic propagation of quasi-acoustic magnons in room temperature YIG.

  15. Structural and magnetic characterization of YIG particles prepared using microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teijeiro, A.G.; Baldomir, D.; Rivas, J.; Paz, S.; Vaqueiro, P.; Lopez Quintela, A.

    1995-01-01

    Yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) particles have been synthesized using the microemulsion technique. A comparison of ferrite powders obtained by this method and those prepared by sol-gel and solid state reactions is reported. We have studied both the magnetic and structural properties and have found a dependence on annealing temperatures. ((orig.))

  16. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, N. S., E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Tabuchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.

  17. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V.; Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I.; Tabuchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films

  18. Sign of inverse spin Hall voltages generated by ferromagnetic resonance and temperature gradients in yttrium iron garnet platinum bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Michael; Lotze, Johannes; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T B; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Kikkawa, Takashi; Saitoh, Eiji; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I; Lauer, Viktor; Chumak, Andrii V; Serga, Alexander A; Hillebrands, Burkard; Flipse, Joost; Van Wees, Bart J

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a concerted effort to determine the absolute sign of the inverse spin Hall effect voltage generated by spin currents injected into a normal metal. We focus on yttrium iron garnet (YIG)∣platinum bilayers at room temperature, generating spin currents by microwaves and temperature gradients. We find consistent results for different samples and measurement setups that agree with theory. We suggest a right-hand-rule to define a positive spin Hall angle corresponding to the voltage expected for the simple case of scattering of free electrons from repulsive Coulomb charges. (paper)

  19. Polarized neutron diffraction - a tool for testing extinction models: application to yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, M.; Delapalme, A.; Becker, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper shows that polarized neutron experiments, which do not depend on any scale factor, are very dependent on extinction and provide original tests for extinction models. Moon, Koehler, Cable and Child (1972) have formulated the problem and proposed a first-order solution applicable only when the extinction is small. In the first part, some analytical derivations of secondary extinction corrections are discussed, using the formalism of Becker and Coppens (1974). In the second part, the main principles governing polarized neutron diffraction are briefly reviewed, with a special discussion of extinction problems. The method is then applied to the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). This experiment shows the technique of polarized neutrons to be very powerful for testing extinction models and for deciding whether the crystal behaves dynamically or kinematically (following Kato's criterion). (Auth.)

  20. Field and power dependence of auto-oscillations in yttrium-iron-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, R.D.; Wigen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear response of the magnetic spin system in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) thin films to high-power ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at perpendicular resonance was studied and the results are presented. A diagram of the regions of auto-oscillation of the system as a function of field and power is presented which shows the modes that appear in low-power FMR becoming unstable to auto-oscillations with increased power. The auto-oscillations exhibit periodic, quasiperiodic, period doubling, and chaotic behavior with typical frequencies in the MHz range. The domains of oscillatory behavior due to individual resonance modes are seen to merge and shift to lower fields as power is increased. Possible mechanisms for the behavior are proposed

  1. Observation of spin superfluidity: YIG magnetic films and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, Edouard

    2018-03-01

    From topology of the order parameter of the magnon condensate observed in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) magnetic films one must not expect energetic barriers making spin supercurrents metastable. But we show that some barriers of dynamical origin are possible nevertheless until the gradient of the phase (angle of spin precession) does not exceed the critical value (analog of the Landau critical velocity in superfluids). On the other hand, recently published claims of experimental detection of spin superfluidity in YIG films and antiferromagnets are not justified, and spin superfluidity in magnetically ordered solids has not yet been experimentally confirmed.

  2. Electric field tuning of magnetism in heterostructure of yttrium iron garnet film/lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianyun; Ponchel, Freddy; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Chen, Ying; Rémiens, Denis; Lasri, Tuami; Wang, Genshui; Pernod, Philippe; Zhang, Wenbin; Dong, Xianlin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect by electric field tuning of magnetization in an original heterostructure composed of a polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film and a lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) ceramic is presented. The magnetic performances of the YIG films with different thicknesses under a DC electric field applied to the PMN-PZT ceramics and a bias magnetic field are investigated. All the magnetization-electric field curves are found to be in good agreement with the butterfly like strain curve of the PMN-PZT ceramic. Both the sharp deformation of about 2.5‰ of PMN-PZT and the easy magnetization switching of YIG are proposed to be the reasons for the strongest CME interaction in the composite at the small electric coercive field of PMN-PZT (4.1 kV/cm) and the small magnetic coercive field of YIG (20 Oe) where the magnetic susceptibility reaches its maximum value. A remarkable CME coefficient of 3.1 × 10-7 s/m is obtained in the system with a 600 nm-thick YIG film. This heterostructure combining multiferroics and partially magnetized ferrite concepts is able to operate under a small or even in the absence of an external bias magnetic field and is more compact and power efficient than the traditional magnetoelectric devices.

  3. Localized excitation of magnetostatic surface spin waves in yttrium iron garnet by shorted coaxial probe detected via spin pumping and rectification effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the localized excitation and dc electrical detection of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) by a shorted coaxial probe. Thin films of NiFe and Pt are patterned at different regions onto a common bulk YIG substrate. A shorted coaxial probe is used to excite spin precession locally near various patterned regions. The dc voltages across the corresponding regions are recorded. For excitation of the Pt regions, the dc voltage spectra are dominated by the spin pumping of MSSWs from YIG, where various modes can be clearly distinguished. For the NiFe region, it is also found that spin pumping from MSSWs generated in YIG dominated the spectra, indicating that the spin pumped currents are dissipated into charge currents via the inverse Spin Hall effect (ISHE) in NiFe. For all regions, dc signals from YIG MSSWs are observed to be much stronger than the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) uniform mode, likely due to the nature of the microwave excitation. The results indicate the potential of this probe for microwave imaging via dc detection of spin dynamics in continuous and patterned films

  4. Observation of auto-oscillations and chaos in subsidiary absorption in yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Chen, M.; Patton, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Auto-oscillations of the dynamic magnetization and routes to chaos for the first-order transverse pump spin-wave instability have been studied in single-crystal yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) films. The measurements reported here were made on a 20.8-μm-thick YIG film at 9.4 GHz with the static and microwave fields in the plane of the film. Auto-oscillations at 100--400 kHz were observed in the power absorbed by the film over a relatively narrow static field range of 1100--1460 Oe, compared to the first-order instability (FOI) range of 0--1630 Oe. The auto-oscillation frequency and threshold microwave field amplitude were both strongly field dependent. The threshold amplitudes were about a factor of 2 larger than the FOI threshold amplitudes. At even higher power levels and for an even narrower field range of 1300--1380 Oe, the auto-oscillations showed frequency changes indicative of chaotic behavior. Several different subharmonic bifurcation routes to chaos were observed for different fields within the chaotic region

  5. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  6. Scanning-SQUID investigation of spin-orbit torque acting on yttrium iron garnet devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Jermain, Colin L.; Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Brangham, Jack T.; Nowack, Katja C.; Kirtley, John R.; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Daniel C.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    Successful manipulation of electrically insulating magnets, such as yttrium iron garnet, by by current-driven spin-orbit torques could provide a highly efficient platform for spintronic memory. Compared to devices fabricated using magnetic metals, magnetic insulators have the advantage of the ultra-low magnetic damping and the elimination of shunting currents in the magnet that reduce the torque efficiency. Here, we apply current in the spin Hall metal β-Ta to manipulate the magnetic orientation of micron-sized, electrically-insulating yttrium iron garnet devices. We do not observe spin-torque switching even for applied currents well above the critical current expected in a macrospin switching model. This suggests either inefficient transfer of spin torque at our Ta/YIG interface or a breakdown of the macrospin approximation. This work is supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet sponsored by MARCO and DARPA. The SQUID microscope and sensors were developed with support from the NSF-sponsored Center NSF-NSEC 0830228, and from NSF IMR-MIP 0957616.

  7. Swift heavy ion-beam induced amorphization and recrystallization of yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Beuneu, François; Toulemonde, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Pure and (Ca and Si)-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 or YIG) epitaxial layers and amorphous films on gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 , or GGG) single crystal substrates were irradiated by 50 MeV 32 Si and 50 MeV (or 60 MeV) 63 Cu ions for electronic stopping powers larger than the threshold value (∼4 MeV μm −1 ) for amorphous track formation in YIG crystals. Conductivity data of crystalline samples in a broad ion fluence range (10 11 –10 16 cm −2 ) are modeled with a set of rate equations corresponding to the amorphization and recrystallization induced in ion tracks by electronic excitations. The data for amorphous layers confirm that a recrystallization process takes place above ∼10 14 cm −2 . Cross sections for both processes deduced from this analysis are discussed in comparison to previous determinations with reference to the inelastic thermal-spike model of track formation. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was also used to follow the related structural modifications. Raman spectra show the progressive vanishing and randomization of crystal phonon modes in relation to the ion-induced damage. For crystalline samples irradiated at high fluences (⩾10 14 cm −2 ), only two prominent broad bands remain like for amorphous films, thereby reflecting the phonon density of states of the disordered solid, regardless of samples and irradiation conditions. The main band peaked at ∼660 cm −1 is assigned to vibration modes of randomized bonds in tetrahedral (FeO 4 ) units. (paper)

  8. Neutron scattering study of yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takashi U.; Onishi, Hiroaki; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Masato; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Kodama, Katsuaki; Nakao, Akiko; Moyoshi, Taketo; Munakata, Koji; Ohhara, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Nemoto, Yuichi; Shibata, Kaoru

    2018-02-01

    The nuclear and magnetic structure and full magnon dispersions of yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 have been studied using neutron scattering. The refined nuclear structure is distorted to a trigonal space group of R 3 ¯ . The highest-energy dispersion extends up to 86 meV. The observed dispersions are reproduced by a simple model with three nearest-neighbor-exchange integrals between 16 a (octahedral) and 24 d (tetrahedral) sites, Ja a, Ja d, and Jd d, which are estimated to be 0.00 ±0.05 , -2.90 ±0.07 , and -0.35 ±0.08 meV, respectively. The lowest-energy dispersion below 14 meV exhibits a quadratic dispersion as expected from ferromagnetic magnons. The imaginary part of q -integrated dynamical spin susceptibility χ″(E ) exhibits a square-root energy dependence at low energies. The magnon density of state is estimated from χ″(E ) obtained on an absolute scale. The value is consistent with the single chirality mode for the magnon branch expected theoretically.

  9. Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental

  10. Study of the magnetic disaccommodation in La doped YIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Hernandez-Gomez, P.; Francisco, C. de; Munoz, J.M.; Alejos, O.; Gonzalez Arias, A.; Perdigao, J.M.; Ferreira, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The relaxation of the initial magnetic permeability of La doped yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples with nominal composition Y 3-x La x Fe 5 O 12 (0 2 atmosphere when the La content is at least of 0.3. These results have been interpreted in terms of the formation of a secondary perovskite phase when the La solubility limit is reached. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. ORIGIN FOR IRRADIATION EFFECT OF 0.56GeV C6+ ON CaVSn:YIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊宏齐; 侯明东; 等

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents numerous physical characteristics of Ca,V.Sn doped yttrium iron garnet(CaVSn:YIG) irradiated with 0.56GeV carbon ions delivered by the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL).The reason for change of the magnetic properties of the samples induced by energetic carbon ions bombardment is discussed.By comparison of this results with the irradiation effects of YIG induced by eneregetic argon,krypton and xenon oibtained on the GANIL,Caen,France,it is concluded that the irradiation effect of 0.56GeV C6+ on CaVSn:YIG arises from the electronic energy losses.

  12. Effect of synthesis conditions on the preparation of YIG powders via co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, M.M.; Hessien, M.M.; El-Midany, A.; Ibrahim, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) powders have been synthesized through a co-precipitation method in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate), AOT as an anionic surfactant. The garnet precursors produced were obtained from aqueous iron and yttrium nitrates mixtures using 5 M sodium hydroxide at pH 10. A statistical Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of the main parameters (i.e. AOT surfactant concentration, annealing time and temperature) on YIG powder formation, crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties. YIG particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer. XRD revealed that the formation of single cubic phase of YIG was temperature dependent and increased by increasing the annealing temperature from 800 to 1200 o C. SEM micrographs showed that the addition of AOT surfactant promoted the microstructure of YIG in crystalline cubic-like structure. The magnetic properties were sensitive to the synthesis variables of annealing temperature, time and AOT surfactant concentration. The maximum saturation magnetization (28.13 emu/g), remanence magnetization (21.57 emu/g) and coercive force (703 Oe) were achieved at an annealing temperature of 1200 o C, time 2 h and 500 ppm of AOT surfactant concentration.

  13. High density Gd-substituted yttrium iron garnets by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamastra, Francesca Romana; Bianco, Alessandra; Leonardi, Federica; Montesperelli, Giampiero; Nanni, Francesca; Gusmano, Gualtiero

    2008-01-01

    Gadolinium-substituted yttrium iron garnets are ferrite materials of primary importance in microwave engineering. Stoichiometric powders of nominal composition Y 2.6 Gd 0.4 Fe 5 O 12 (i.e. Fe/(Y + Gd) = 1.67) were prepared by reverse strike coprecipitation of metal nitrates. In order to investigate the influence of composition on phase formation, non-stoichiometric powders were also synthesised. On the basis of DTA/TGA analysis, dried coprecipitates were calcined between 600 deg. C and 1200 deg. C and then characterised by ICP, XRD and HT-XRD. Amorphous coprecipitates crystallise around 700 deg. C in cubic garnet phase along with small amounts of YFeO 3 and/or α-Fe 2 O 3 . Only iron-rich garnets, either pure or Gd-substituted, calcined at 1200 deg. C or above display a single-phase cubic garnet. According to thermal dilatometry results, calcined powders were sintered in air up to 1470 deg. C. The microstructure of sintered ceramics is made up of fine grains, the average size ranging between 3 μm and 13 μm. Density of sintered bodies ranged from 88% to 98%. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth (ΔH -3dB ) ranged between 4352.9 A m -1 and 4392.7 A m -1 , depending on composition and microstructure

  14. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  15. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  16. Laser ablation of Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hayashida, K.; Kawano, K.; Higuchi, K.; Ohkoshi, M.; Tsushima, K.

    1995-01-01

    Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films were deposited by laser ablation. The composition, the structure and the magnetic properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent both on the compositions of the targets and on the pressure of oxygen. The highest values of Bi-substitution up to x=1.44 with uniform composition were obtained, after annealing in air. ((orig.))

  17. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  18. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  19. Thermally driven magnon transport in the magnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis covers the investigation of spin-caloric phenomena in ferromagnetic-normal metal heterostructures. These phenomena explore the interaction of heat with spin systems and mainly deal with the generation and the manipulation of spin currents by means of heat currents (phonons). The significance of spin currents is widely seen in developing new fundamental concepts of physics as well as in the industry of magnetic memories. Analogous to the classical Seebeck effect, the generation of a spin current in a spin system by the application of heat currents is known as the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). This mode of spin current generation has recently attracted much scientific attention due to the existence of the spin Seebeck effect in a wide variety of magnetic materials (spin systems), considering from insulators to metals. The potential applications of this effect, in particular to generate electricity out of waste heat, make the effect even more attractive. Generally, spin systems can be classified into either a system constituting the traveling spins carried by free electrons or into a system of spin waves, collective excitations of magnetic moments in the wavevector space. Having the advantage of being free from free-electronic charges, an electrical-insulating-ferromagnetic system of spin waves overcomes the limitation of short propagation lengths of pure spin currents in metals. The long propagation length of spin currents carried by propagating spin waves is crucial for building-up spin-electronic (spintronic) circuits and spin logics for fast computation. For such purposes, the ferrimagnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is a promising material candidate due to its lowest known magnetic damping which offers macroscopic propagation lengths of spin currents. In the framework of this thesis, a detailed investigation of the interaction of phonons with magnons, the quanta of spin waves, in single crystalline YIG films are

  20. A compounded rare-earth iron garnet single crystal exhibiting stable Faraday rotation against wavelength and temperature variation in the 1.55 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.C.; Huang, M.; Li Miao

    2006-01-01

    The Bi, Tb and Yb partially substituted iron garnet bulk single crystals of Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 were grown by using Bi 2 O 3 /B 2 O 3 as flux and accelerated crucible rotation technique for single-crystal growth. Faraday rotation (FR) spectra showed that the specific FR of the (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 )Fe 5 O 12 crystal under magnetic field at saturation was measured to be about -1617 o /cm at λ=1.55 μm, Faraday rotation wavelength coefficient (FWC, 0.009%/nm) in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.62 μm and Faraday rotation temperature coefficient (FTC, 3.92x10 -5 /K) at λ=1.55 μm were even smaller than that of YIG. It is proven that through combining two types of Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets with opposite FWC and FTC signs, the compound rare-earth iron garnets with low FWC and FTC may be obtained due to the compensation effect. The saturation magnetization of (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 ) Fe 5 O 12 crystal is 0.48x10 6 A/M and is also much smaller than that of YIG. We have found empirically that there is a simple relationship between the FR θ f (x) and Bi content x for Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 , which is given by θ f (x)=(-2759x+400) o /cm

  1. New ferrimagnetic biocomposite film based in collagen and yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a great interest in the study of the association of magnetic with biological material for bioapplications has been observed in the literature. This work analyses the development of new magnetic biocomposite films from a magnetic ferrite and a biopolymer. Magnetic and dielectric properties of Y3Fe5O12 (YIG/collagen composite films were studied as a function of the YIG concentration. This biocomposite was also characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, Thermal Analysis (DSC and TG and scanning electron microspcopic (SEM methods. The magnetization and dielectric measurements were performed at room temperature. The results demonstrated that ferrimagnetic garnet (YIG and collagen (Col can be used to obtain a homogeneous composite. All the composite films showed a ferromagnetic behavior and they were characterized as a soft magnet material. These results show that Col-YIG biocomposites are biological films with magnetic properties that can be employed as a versatile performance materials, due to their flexible dielectric and magnetic features. They could be used as electronic devices in biological applications.

  2. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined

  3. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.

  4. Experimental investigation of the nature of the magnetoresistance effects in Pd-YIG hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Tang, Chi; Alyahayaei, Hamad M; Shi, Jing

    2014-07-18

    In bilayers consisting of Pd and yttrium iron garnet (Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) or YIG), we observe vanishingly small room-temperature conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance but large new magnetoresistance that is similar to the spin Hall magnetoresistance previously reported in Pt-YIG bilayers. We report a temperature dependence study of the two magnetoresistance effects in Pt-YIG bilayers. As the temperature is decreased, the new magnetoresistance shows a peak, whereas the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect starts to appear and increases monotonically. We find that the magnetoresistance peak shifts to lower temperatures in thicker Pd samples, a feature characteristic of the spin current effect. The distinct temperature dependence reveals fundamentally different mechanisms responsible for the two effects in such hybrid structures.

  5. Thermal conductivity of yttrium iron garnet at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Y.P.; Sing, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the low-temperature thermal conductivity of yttrium iron garnet is presented giving consideration to the fact that in a conventional conductivity experiment the magnon temperature gradient inside a magnetic insulator need not be necessarily equal to the phonon temperature gradient. Consequently the effective conductivity can be less than the algebraic sum of the phonon and magnon intrinsic conductivities, depending on the magnon-phonon thermal relaxation rate. This relaxation rate has been distinguished from the individual phonon and magnon relaxation rates and an expression is derived for it. Theoretical calculations of the effective conductivity are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The contribution of magnons to the effective conductivity is observed to be small at all temperatures below the conductivity maximum. (author)

  6. Forward volume and surface magnetostatic modes in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinho; Bang, Wonbae; Trossman, Jonathan; Amanov, Dovran; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results on the propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in a film of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) for out-of-plane magnetic fields for which propagation in opposite directions is nonreciprocal in the presence of a metal layer. The plane studied is defined by the film normal n and n × k where k is the wave vector of the mode. Spin waves in this setting are classified as forward volume waves or surface waves and display non-reciprocity in the presence of an adjacent metal layer except for when H//n. The measurements are carried out in a transmission geometry, and a microwave mixer is used to measure the change of phase, and with it the evolution of wavevector, of the arriving spin wave with external magnetic field.

  7. Preparation and microstructure of hot-pressed YIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Halim Shaari; Mansor Hashim; Sidek Haji Abd Aziz

    1992-01-01

    Bulk magnetic ceramics such as yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) and nickel-zinc ferrite were prepared by the conventional-firing and hot-press techniques. Pre-sintering and sintering, both in air, were carried out at temperature ≥ 1200 0 C. Initial density and microstructural measurements show that the high density samples with uniform grain size can be readily achieved by hot-pressing. The well-defined microstructures, the high density attained. The agreement of saturation magnetization 4πMs values and the high resistivities indicated that the optimized preparation conditions for conventional firing yielded yttrium-iron-garnet of good quality. Quenched and isochronally annealed, the YIG samples were also found to retain their room-temperature saturation-magnetization and resonance linewidth values after any single heat treatment. However, the electrical resistivity and the effective linewidth clearly exhibited isochronal recovery. A possible model to explain this behaviour and its implications on microwave applications are discussed. Ferrites of the type MFe 2 O 4 where M=Mg, Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd and of the type Ni1-2xSnxFe 2 O4 have also been prepared and their properties are being studied

  8. Large enhancement of Faraday rotation by localized surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles embedded in Bi:YIG film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, H.; Masuda, Y.; Fujikawa, R.; Baryshev, A.V.; Inoue, M.

    2009-01-01

    A large enhancement of the Faraday rotation, which is associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), was obtained in a sample with Au nanoparticles embedded in a Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG) film. On a quartz substrate, Au nanoparticles were formed by heating an Au thin film, and a Bi:YIG film was then deposited on them. A sample containing the Au nanoparticles produced by 1000 deg. C heating showed a resonant attenuation with narrower bandwidth in the transmission spectrum than nanoparticles of other samples formed by low-temperature heating. The sharp resonant Faraday rotation angle was 4.4 times larger than the estimated intrinsic Bi:YIG film at the LSPR wavelength; the angular difference was 0.14 deg. A discrepancy in the bandwidth between the transmission attenuation and the resonant Faraday rotation is discussed

  9. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage.

  10. Influence of static and dynamic dipolar fields in bulk YIG/thin film NiFe systems probed via spin rectification effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee Tee, E-mail: a0046479@u.nus.edu [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Tay, Z.J. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yakovlev, N.L. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Peng, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Ong, C.K. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore)

    2017-03-15

    The characteristics of the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields originating from a bulk polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate are probed by depositing a NiFe (Permalloy) layer on it, which acts as a detector. By measuring dc voltages generated via spin rectification effect (SRE) within the NiFe layer under microwave excitation, we characterize the influence of dipolar fields from bulk YIG on the NiFe layer. It is found that the dynamic YIG dipolar fields modify the self-SRE of NiFe, driving its own rectification voltages within the NiFe layer, an effect we term as non-local SRE. This non-local SRE only occurs near the simultaneous resonance of both YIG and NiFe. On the other hand, the static dipolar field from YIG manifests itself as a negative anisotropy in the NiFe layer which shifts the latter’s ferromagnetic resonance frequency. - Highlights: • We demonstrate the quantification of both the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields due to a YIG slab. • The detection and characterisation of such dipolar fields are important in many magnetic applications such as magnonics. • The dipolar fields can pose potential pitfalls if not properly considered in certain spin-electronics systems.

  11. Canted ferrimagnetism in Ca2+Sc3+ substituted yttrium-iron-garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavi-Horváth, M.; Thavendrarajah, A.; Wigen, P. E.; DeGasperis, P.

    1988-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetization of Y3-y-zCayLuzFe5-xScxO12 (0.6≤x≤1.2, 0≤y≤0.3, 0≤z≤0.9) epitaxial garnet films was measured from 4.2 K up to the Curie temperature. For x=0.7 and T≥50 K, 4πMs is enhanced by about 10% compared to the magnetization of Sc0.7 YIG. At TJdd/Jad)/da =28 nm.-1 For x=1.2 and T<10 K the magnetization can be influenced by cooling through the Curie point in a magnetic field.

  12. Study of Y and Lu iron garnets using Bethe-Peierls-Weiss method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goveas, Neena; Mukhopadhyay, G.; Mukhopadhyay, P.

    1994-11-01

    We study here the magnetic properties of Y- and Lu- Iron Garnets using the Bethe- Peierls-Weiss method modified to suit complex systems like these Garnets. We consider these Garnets as described by Heisenberg Hamiltonian with two sublattices (a,d) and determine the exchange interaction parameters Jad, Jaa and Jdd by matching the exerimental susceptibility curves. We find Jaa and Jdd to be much smaller than those determined by Néel theory, and consistent with those obtained by the study of spin wave spectra; the spin wave dispersion relation constant obtained using these parameters gives good agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Magnon interaction and relaxation in yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukimov, K.M.; Jumaev, M.R.; Kenjaev, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Magnon interaction and relaxation are the fundamental characteristics describing the response of any system to an external AC field. Almost all experiments aimed at magnon excitation have been carried out in the microwave frequency range where only magnons with energies 0.1 - 5 K can be excited. Nevertheless, all magnons with energy lower or order of the temperature are involved in the processes of low energy magnon relaxation. The present study deals with the interactions of magnons in YIG in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures up to 300 K. We consider the exchange and magnetic - dipole terms in the YIG Hamiltonian and a term due to the local uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy, find the corresponding amplitudes of three - and four - magnon process, and calculate the relaxation rate and the correction to the ferromagnon frequency to the first order in the interaction. This correction is positive, in contrast to the case of ferromagnets, and it is proportional to at temperatures up to, in agreement with experiment. The exchange - relaxation rate of the magnons is found as a function of the wave vector and temperature. In the region this rate agrees with the familiar expression for ferromagnets. At higher temperatures, at which the main contribution to the exchange damping is from the magnons of the linear part of the spectrum, the temperature dependence of the damping becomes stronger. (authors)

  14. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  15. Optical and magnetooptical properties of bismuth and gallium substituted iron garnet films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansteen, F.; Helseth, L.E.; Johansen, T.H.; Hunderi, O.; Kirilyuk, A.I.; Rasing, T.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of iron garnet films of composition Lu3-xBixFe5-yGayO12 grown on (100) oriented GGG substrates have been studied using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and polar Keff spectroscopy (MOKE). The diagonal and off-diagonal components of the permittivity tensor have been determined in

  16. Magnetic field strength dependence of the magnetostriction of rare-earth iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvezdin, A.K.; Levitin, R.Z.; Popov, A.I.; Silant'ev, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetostriction of holmium-yttrium iron garnets Hosub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (x=3 or 1.05) is measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 200 kOe at 78 K. It is shown that the magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 of these ferrimagnets depends on the magnetic field strength. The magnetostriction constant of the iron garnet Ho 3 Fe 5 O 12 increases and of the iron garnet Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) decreases with increase of the field strength. The field dependences of the anisotropic magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 for Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) are fundamentally different. Thus lambda 111 depends quadratically on the total effective field Hsub(eff) whereas lambda 100 depends almost linearly on Hsub(eff). A theoretical analysis of the magneto-elastic interaction in rare-earth iron garnets is carried out [ru

  17. YIG based broad band microwave absorber: A perspective on synthesis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of a thin layer of microwave absorber that operates over a wide band of frequencies is still a challenging task. With recent advances in nanostructure synthesis techniques, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin nanocomposite layer designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation covering S to K band frequencies. The primary objective of this investigation is to achieve best possible EM absorption with a wide bandwidth and attenuation >10 dB for a thin absorbing layer (few hundred of microns). Magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12; in short YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel (SG) as well as solid-state (SS) reaction methods to elucidate the effects of nanoscale finite size on the magnetic behavior of the particles and hence their microwave absorption capabilities. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. Magnetic properties investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exhibit that the coercivity (Hc) of solid-state NPs is much larger (72 Oe) than the sol-gel NPs (31 Oe). Microwave absorption properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique in field sweep mode at different fixed frequencies. A thin layer (∼300 μm) of YIG film was deposited using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique over a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line made on copper coated RT/duroid® 5880 substrates. Temperature dependent magnetic properties were also investigated using VSM and FMR techniques. Microwave absorption properties were investigated at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) both for sol-gel and solid-state synthesized NPs and are related to skin depth of YIG films. It is observed that microwave absorption almost vanishes when the temperature reached the Néel temperature of YIG.

  18. Ultra-low damping in lift-off structured yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofik, A.; Coy, L. E.; Kuświk, P.; Załeski, K.; Głowiński, H.; Dubowik, J.

    2017-11-01

    We show that using maskless photolithography and the lift-off technique, patterned yttrium iron garnet thin films possessing ultra-low Gilbert damping can be accomplished. The films of 70 nm thickness were grown on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet by means of pulsed laser deposition, and they exhibit high crystalline quality, low surface roughness, and the effective magnetization of 127 emu/cm3. The Gilbert damping parameter is as low as 5 ×10-4. The obtained structures have well-defined sharp edges which along with good structural and magnetic film properties pave a path in the fabrication of high-quality magnonic circuits and oxide-based spintronic devices.

  19. Features of photoinduced magnetism in some yttrium–iron-garnet single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob’eva, N. V., E-mail: vnv@anrb.ru [Akmulla Bashkir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Mityukhlyaev, V. B. [Investigation Center for Surface and Vacuum (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Photoinduced magnetic phenomena are considered in yttrium–iron single-crystalline garnets grown from a BaO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} molten solution with the addition of iridium to the initial melt. The features of the composition and defects of the crystal structure of the samples in the surface layer are determined. In view of this, explanations for features of the photoinduced magnetic phenomena in the investigated crystals are proposed. The determining role of oxygen anions for the photoinduced magnetic phenomena at room temperature is highlighted, and the possible role of a variation in the dopant content and composition is considered.

  20. Robust magnon-photon coupling in a planar-geometry hybrid of inverted split-ring resonator and YIG film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Biswanath; Kim, Bosung; Kim, Junhoe; Cho, Young-Jun; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2017-09-20

    We experimentally demonstrate strongly enhanced coupling between excited magnons in an Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) film and microwave photons in an inverted pattern of split-ring resonator (noted as ISRR). The anti-crossing effects of the ISRR's photon mode and the YIG's magnon modes were found from |S 21 |-versus-frequency measurements for different strengths and directions of externally applied magnetic fields. The spin-number-normalized coupling strength (i.e. single spin-photon coupling) [Formula: see text] was determined to 0.194 Hz ([Formula: see text] = 90 MHz) at 3.7 GHz frequency. Furthermore, we found that additional fine features in the anti-crossing region originate from the excitation of different spin-wave modes (such as the magnetostatic surface and the backward-volume magnetostatic spin-waves) rather than the Kittel-type mode. These spin-wave modes, as coupled with the ISRR mode, modify the anti-crossing effect as well as their coupling strength. An equivalent circuit model very accurately reproduced the observed anti-crossing effect and its coupling strength variation with the magnetic field direction in the planar-geometry ISRR/YIG hybrid system. This work paves the way for the design of new types of high-gain magnon-photon coupling systems in planar geometry.

  1. Magneto-optical study of holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2012-09-01

    Bulk holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12 is a cubic ferrimagnet with Curie temperature TC = 567 K and magnetization compensation point in the range 130-140 K. The magneto-optical data are presented for a holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12 film, ˜10 μm thick, epitaxially grown on a (111)-type gadolinium-gallium garnet Gd3Ga5O12 substrate. A specific feature of this structure is that the parameters of the bulk material, from which the film was grown, closely match the substrate ones. The temperature and field dependences of Faraday rotation as well as the temperature dependence of the domain structure in zero field were investigated. The compensation point of the structure was found to be Tcomp = 127 K. It was shown that the temperature dependence of the characteristic size of domain structure diverges at this point. Based on the obtained results we established that the magnetic anisotropy of the material is determined by both uniaxial and cubic contributions, each characterized by different temperature dependence. A complex shape of hysteresis loops and sharp changes of the domain pattern with temperature indicate the presence of collinear-noncollinear phase transitions. Study of the optical second harmonic generation was carried out using 100 fs laser pulses with central photon energy E = 1.55 eV. The electric dipole contribution (both crystallographic and magnetic) to the second harmonic generation was observed with high reliability despite a small mismatch of the film and substrate parameters.

  2. Influence of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of pulsed laser-deposited YIG films on SiO2 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Jadupati; Ray, Nirat

    2018-05-01

    Yttrium Iron Garnet (Y3Fe5O12) was synthesized by solid state/ceramic process. Thin films of YIG were deposited on SiO2 substrate at room temperature(RT) and at substrate temperature (Ts) 700 °C using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. RT deposited thin films are amorphous in nature and non-magnetic. After annealing at temperature 800 ° RT deposited thin films showed X-ray peaks as well as the magnetic order. Magnetic ordering is enhanced by annealing temperature(Ta ≥ 750 °C) and resulted good quality of films with high magnetization value.

  3. Spin Seebeck effect in nanometer-thick YIG micro-fabricated strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Collet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the spin Seebeck effect (SSE generated by current induced-heating in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet film (20 nm covered by an 8 nm thick Pt layer. By passing current in the Pt layer, an out-of-plane temperature gradient is established that, in turn, generates an out-of-equilibrium magnons population. The resulting pure spin current is detected using the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE measured in the Pt electrode. A lock-in detection scheme is used to separate the SSE signal from other magneto-galvanic effect. Indeed, the SSE signal is obtained as the second harmonic voltage response, while spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR is measured as the first harmonic response to the ac excitation current. Interestingly, the amplitude of the SSE in such thin YIG film is comparable to what has been reported for much thicker films.

  4. X ray topographic study of defects and magnetic domains in rare earth iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, Alain.

    1975-11-01

    X ray topographs allow simultaneous observations of crystalline defects and magnetic domain walls (except 180 deg ones). The easy magnetization directions of rare earth iron garnets are and the equilibrium texture of (110) silices is limited by a rectangular array of 71 deg and 109 deg walls. Since the anisotropy and magnetostriction of the choosen compounds (TbIG and DyIG) increase sharply when the temperature is lowered, the influence of these parameters has been studied between 300K and 4.2K. Because of the increase of spontaneous magnetization and anisotropy, the domain number increases at low temperatures and the texture becomes less sensitive to the crystal imperfections. Besides the 109 deg walls disappear almost completely from the pattern; this has been shown to be due to the respective values of the wall energies, and particularly to the influence of the K 2 anisotropy constant. The contrasts observed on the topographs increase also sharply, because of the high values of the lambda 111 coefficient of spontaneous magnetostriction at low temperatures. A splitting of the Brugg reflection peak into two, below 60K for TbIG, each part corresponding to one family of domains, allowed a direct of lambda 111 . The garnets are materials chosen to study domain walls because of the large range of the anisotropy and magnetostriction values obtained in those compounds [fr

  5. Finite temperature magnon spectra in yttrium iron garnet from a mean field approach in a tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka

    2018-04-01

    We study magnon spectra at finite temperature in yttrium iron garnet using a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor exchange interaction. The spin reduction due to thermal magnon excitation is taken into account via the mean field approximation to the local spin and is found to be different at two sets of iron atoms. The resulting temperature dependence of the spin wave gap shows good agreement with experiment. We find that only two magnon modes are relevant to the ferromagnetic resonance.

  6. Size dependence of non-magnetic thickness in YIG nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyaifar, M., E-mail: md.niyaifar@gmail.com; Mohammadpour, H.; Dorafshani, M.; Hasanpour, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study is focused on particle size dependence of structural and magnetic properties in yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) nanoparticles. A series of YIG samples with different particle size were produced by varying the annealing temperatures. The X-ray analysis revealed an inverse correlation between lattice parameter and the crystallite size. The normal distribution is used for fitting the particles size distribution which is extracted from scanning electron micrographs. Also, by using the results of vibrating sample magnetometer, the magnetic diameter was calculated based on Langevin model in order to investigate the variation of dead layer thickness. Furthermore, the observed line broadening in Mössbauer spectra confirmed the increase of non-magnetic thickness due to the reduction of particle size. - Highlights: • Pure phase Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanoparticles are fabricated in different particle size by a thermal treatment. • The size effect on magnetic properties is studied with a core/shell (magnetic/nonmagnetic) model. • The logarithmic variation of (dead layer thickness)/(particle size) ratio with the particle size is investigated. • The results of Mossbauer are explained based on the correlation between lattice constant and particle size variation.

  7. Chemical solution synthesis and ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial thin films of yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Vila-Fungueiriño, J. M.; Magén, Cesar; Sangiao, Soraya; de Teresa, José Maria; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    We report the fabrication of epitaxial Y3F e5O12 (YIG) thin films on G d3G a5O12 (111) using a chemical solution method. Cubic YIG is a ferrimagnetic material at room temperature, with excellent magneto-optical properties, high electrical resistivity, and a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance, which makes it particularly suitable for applications in filters and resonators at microwave frequencies. But these properties depend on the precise stoichiometry and distribution of F e3 + ions among the octahedral/tetrahedral sites of a complex structure, which hampered the production of high-quality YIG thin films by affordable chemical methods. Here we report the chemical solution synthesis of YIG thin films, with excellent chemical, crystalline, and magnetic homogeneity. The films show a very narrow ferromagnetic resonance (long spin relaxation time), comparable to that obtained from high-vacuum physical deposition methods. These results demonstrate that chemical methods can compete to develop nanometer-thick YIG films with the quality required for spintronic devices and other high-frequency applications.

  8. Giant enhancement of Kerr rotation in two-dimensional Bismuth iron garnet/Ag photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Hong; Zhang Qiang; Liu Huan; Fu Shu-Fang; Zhou Sheng; Wang Xuan-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Kerr effects of two-dimensional (2D) Bismuth iron garnet (BIG)/Ag photonic crystals (PCs) combined magnetic and plasmonic functionalities is investigated with the effective medium theory. An analytical expression of Kerr rotation angles is derived, in which the effects of the surface pasmons polaritons (SPP) on magneto–optical (MO) activities are reflected. The largest enhancement of Kerr rotation up to now is demonstrated, which is improved three orders of magnitude compared with that of BIG film. When λ < 750 nm all of the reflection are over 10% for the arbitrary filling ratio f 1 , in addition, the enhancement of Kerr rotation angles are at least one order of magnitude. (paper)

  9. Preparation and properties of yttrium iron garnet microcrystal in $P_{2}O_{5}-MgO$ glass

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, G J; Chang, Y S; Lee, H M; Lin, Y J; 10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.07.041

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication of phosphorus-based glasses containing Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystals by the incorporation method was studied. From transmission electron microscopy observation, there is only one rod- like crystalline phase identified as Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ existing in the glass matrix. When the content of YIG is 30wt.%, the as-cast sample shows a Faraday rotation of 85 degrees /cm and a magnetization of 0.4emu/g in a field of 14kOe. After heat treatment, the magnetic and optical properties of the glass ceramic changed owing to the thermal diffusion of iron ions into the glass matrix.

  10. Homogeneous magnetic relaxation in iron-yttrium garnets in the vicinity of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzyanin, I.D.; Khavronin, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the dynamics of homogeneous magnetization during a phase transition of the second kind in iron-yttrium garnet (IYG) single crystals of various shapes. It is shown that homogeneous relaxation significantly depends on both the magnitude of 4πchisub(st) (chisub(st) is static magnetic susceptibility) as well as on the relation between the variable field frequency (at which the investigation is carried out) and the characteristic energies. It is shown that beginning from temperatures such as 4πchisub(st) approximately 1, the characteristic dipole interaction energy becomes frequency dependent; this indicates that in this case Lorentz coupling between the dynamic susceptibility and homogeneous relaxation time is invalid. This is a principle point in investigations of homogeneous relaxation by radio-frequency techniques. The temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time and static susceptibility is determined in the exchange region. It is found that the phase transition in IYG involves anomalous phenomena which manifest in release and absorption of heat by a sample and in the appearance of additional singularities in the temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time

  11. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  12. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of Zn-doped yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Garcia, R.; Delgado, A.; Guerra, Y.; Farias, B.V.M.; Martinez, D. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Skovroinski, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Galembeck, A. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Padron-Hernandez, E. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Zn-doped YIG was prepared using the sol-gel method with TGA measurements showing the phase formation between 900 and 1000 C. XRD analysis showed close to 1100 C the formation of Franklinite phase, coexisting with the cubic YIG. Y{sub 3}(Fe{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 5}O{sub 12} samples with different Zn concentrations (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) were prepared and analyzed for a magnetic study. A decrease in magnetic moment of the samples was confirmed on increasing the concentration of Zn ions. This decrease is due to the substitution of Fe ions by Zn. This also confirmed the results of XRD showing the linear increase in the lattice parameter. Fittings by Bloch's law shows results compared with those already reported in the literature. The exponent and constant for the Bloch law presented similar values to those reported for YIG doped with other ions. We obtained the parameter α ∝10{sup -6} K{sup -n} with n close to 1.9 for all samples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Analysis on three-sublattice model of magnetic properties in rare-earth iron garnets under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Chen Ri; Qi Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An improved three-sublattice model is provided. ► The magnetic properties of the rare-earth ions show great importance to the magnetic behaviors of rare-earth iron garnets. ► The coefficients α i associated with λ and χ are the functions of H e and T. ► The changes of M with H e at different temperatures are revealed. - Abstract: In this paper, based on the molecular field theory, a new and improved three-sublattice model on studying the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic rare-earth iron garnet in high magnetic fields is introduced. Here, the effective exchange field is described as H i = λM = λχH e , where λ is the coefficient associated with the molecular field, χ is the effective magnetic susceptibility, and H e is external magnetic fields. As is known, the magnetic sublattices in rare-earth iron garnets can be classified three kinds labeled as a, c and d, in our calculations, whose magnetizations are defined as M a , M c and M d , respectively. Then, using this model, the temperature and field dependences of the total magnetization in Dy 3 Fe 5 O 12 (DyIG) are discussed. Meanwhile, the magnetizations of the three kinds of magnetic sublattices are analyzed. Furthermore, our theory suggests that the coefficients α i associated with λ and χ in DyIG show obvious anisotropic, temperature-dependence and field-dependence characteristics. And, the theoretical calculations exactly fit the experimental data.

  15. Curie temperature, exchange integrals, and magneto-optical properties in off-stoichiometric bismuth iron garnet epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertruyen, B.; Cloots, R.; Abell, J. S.; Jackson, T. J.; da Silva, R. C.; Popova, E.; Keller, N.

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the influence of the stoichiometry on the structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films with different stoichiometries have been obtained by varying the Bi/Fe ratio of the target and the oxygen pressure during deposition. Stoichiometry variations influence the Curie temperature TC by tuning the (Fe)-O-[Fe] geometry: TC increases when the lattice parameter decreases, contrary to what happens in the case of stoichiometric rare-earth iron garnets. The thermal variation of the magnetization, the Faraday rotation, and the Faraday ellipticity have been analyzed in the frame of the Néel two-sublattice magnetization model giving energies of -48K (4.1 meV), -29K (2.5 meV), and 84 K (7.3 meV) for the three magnetic exchange integrals jaa , jdd , and jad , respectively. Magneto-optical spectroscopy linked to compositional analysis by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy shows that Bi and/or Fe deficiencies also affect the spectral variation (between 1.77 and 3.1 eV). Our results suggest that bismuth deficiency has an effect on the magneto-optical response of the tetrahedral Fe sublattice, whereas small iron deficiencies affect predominantly the magneto-optical response of the octahedral sublattice.

  16. Spin wave propagation in perpendicular magnetized 20 nm Yttrium Iron Garnet with different antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Stueckler, Tobias; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Chang, Houchen; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Fert Beijing research institute Team; Colorado State University Team; Peking University Collaboration

    Magnonics offers a new way to transport information using spin waves free of charge current and could lead to a new paradigm in the area of computing. Forward volume (FV) mode spin wave with perpendicular magnetized configuration is suitable for spin wave logic device because it is free of non-reciprocity effect. Here, we study FV mode spin wave propagation in YIG thin film with an ultra-low damping. We integrated differently designed antenna i.e., coplanar waveguide and micro stripline with different dimensions. The k vectors of the spin waves defined by the design of the antenna are calculated using Fourier transform. We show FV mode spin wave propagation results by measuring S12 parameter from vector network analyzer and we extract the group velocity of the FV mode spin wave as well as its dispersion relations.

  17. X-ray detected magnetic resonance of YIG thin films in the nonlinear regime of spin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulon, J., E-mail: goulon@esrf.f [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Goujon, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brouder, Ch. [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR-CNRS 7590, Universite Paris VI-VII, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yaresko, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS FRE 2697, UFR Sciences et Techniques, F-29328 Brest Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    We discuss the information content of element/edge resolved X-ray detected magnetic resonance (XDMR) experiments carried out on yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films. Starting with a phenomenological approach, it is shown that the photoionisation of deep atomic core levels by circularly polarized X-rays can be used to probe the precession dynamics of spin or orbital magnetization components in empty final states of proper symmetry. Crude estimates of the opening angle of the uniform precession mode were tentatively deduced from the ratio of the XDMR and XMCD absorption cross-sections either at the iron or yttrium absorbing sites. The implications of the most recent experimental results collected at the ESRF are analyzed, keeping in mind that: (i) the Fe K-edge XDMR signal is largely dominated by the precession of orbital magnetization components at the tetrahedral iron sites; (ii) the Y L-edges XDMR signal essentially describes the precession of induced spin magnetization involving the 4d states of yttrium. In the magnetostatic regime, we produce clear experimental evidence of collective excitations of orbital magnetization waves, especially under high pumping power. Several coupling mechanisms could explain our observations, starting with pseudo-dipolar interactions in ferromagnetic systems. In ferrimagnetic systems in which orbital degeneracy and orbital ordering make the excitation of orbitons possible, one may envisage additional modes of excitation or relaxation of orbital magnetization waves. This interpretation looks fully consistent with the results of band structure calculations carried out recently on YIG with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods.

  18. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Salyuk, O.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO 2 /Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 , Bi 2.5 Gd 0.5 Fe 3.8 Al 1.2 O 12 , Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 and Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO 2 films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO 2 films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  19. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Av., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Y., E-mail: olga-saliuk@yandex.ru [Institute of Magnetizm NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 2.5}Gd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 3.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO{sub 2} films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO{sub 2} films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  20. Effect of adding aluminum ion on the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of terbium doped yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles films prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldbea, Ftema W.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my; Yahya, M.

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • The conductivity of YIG films increased with increasing of Al content. • The saturation magnetization at room temperature decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content. • Al{sup 3+} substituted Tb-YIG films has been prepared by a sol-gel method. - Abstract: Tb{sub 0.8}Y{sub 2.2}Al{sub y}Fe{sub 5−y}O{sub 12} nanoparticle films with y = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were prepared by a sol–gel method for potential use as a magnetic sensor and in magneto-optical applications. The films were deposited onto quartz substrate, followed by annealing at 900 °C in air for 2 h. X-ray diffractometry results confirmed the formation of a pure garnet structure. The lattice parameter decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content due to the substitution of Al{sup 3+} ions with the larger Fe{sup 3+} ions. The grain size of the films decreased up to y = 0.6. This variation is discussed based on the stress on the grain surface. The films observed to be transparent between 76 and 92% in the visible and infrared regions. The films demonstrated a strong absorption of 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1} caused by the charge transfer transition in the UV region. The absorption edge shifts to lower wavelengths at higher Al contents of 0.8 and 1 due to electronic transitions. The conductivity of films increased with increasing of Al content due to the increasing in free carrier concentration. The saturation magnetization at room temperature decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content, whereas the coercivity increased markedly at y = 0.6.

  1. Stress induced modulation of magnetic domain diffraction of single crystalline yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Yuki; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2018-05-01

    Stress induced modulation of the diffraction angle and efficiency of the light reflected from a stripe-domain magnetic garnet was demonstrated. The spacing of the magnetic domain was changed using the inverse magnetostriction effect. The sample structure was a piezo actuator/Al reflection layer/magnetic garnet substrate. A diffraction angle between the 0th and 1st ordered light was changed from 9.12 deg. to 10.20 deg. This result indicates that the domain spacing was changed from 3.3 μm to 3.0 μm. The change of the diffraction angle was irreversible for the voltage. However, reversible, linear and continuous change of the diffraction efficiency was observed. These results could be applicable for a voltage-driven optical solid state light deflector with low power consumption and high switching speed.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Bismuth-Cerium composite iron garnet epitaxial films for magneto optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Sekhar, M.; Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1151, Richmond Street, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The Bi{sub x}Ce{sub 3-x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.8) epitaxial films of high quality were grown by means of pulsed laser deposition on paramagnetic substrates of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet. We study the modifications of substitutions in the parent garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} that produces a higher magneto-optical response at communication wavelengths. These films displayed a strong in plane textures which are treated in argon as well as reduced atmosphere conditions. The elemental constituents of these films were confirmed by energy dispersive-X ray analysis, elastic recoil detection system, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The transmittance spectra were measured and found these films exhibit good transmittance values. The transmittance-spectra were fitted with the theoretical model and the optical constants such as refractive index and absorption edge were evaluated. The highest (negative) Faraday rotation was found for these films treated in the environment of Ar + H{sub 2}. A density matrix theory has been developed for the Faraday rotation and a good agreement between the theory and experiment is found. These epitaxial garnet films can be used in a wide range of frequencies from visible to infrared spectra making them ideal for many magneto optical applications. Therefore, these films may overcome many issues in fabricating all optical isolators which is the viable solution for integrated photonics.

  3. Controlling laser-induced magnetization reversal dynamics in a rare-earth iron garnet across the magnetization compensation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Marwan; Molho, Pierre; Barbara, Bernard; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    In this work we explore the ultrafast magnetization dynamics induced by femtosecond laser pulses in a doped film of gadolinium iron garnet over a broad temperature range including the magnetization compensation point TM. By exciting the phonon-assisted 6S→4G and 6S→4P electronic d -d transitions simultaneously by one- and two-photon absorption processes, we find out that the transfer of heat energy from the lattice to the spin has, at a temperature slightly below TM, a large influence on the magnetization dynamics. In particular, we show that the speed and the amplitude of the magnetization dynamics can be strongly increased when increasing either the external magnetic field or the laser energy density. The obtained results are explained by a magnetization reversal process across TM. Furthermore, we find that the dynamics has unusual characteristics which can be understood by considering the weak spin-phonon coupling in magnetic garnets. These results open new perspectives for controlling the magnetic state of magnetic dielectrics using an ultrashort optically induced heat pulse.

  4. Propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Wonbae; Lim, Jinho; Trossman, Jonathan; Tsai, C. C.; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed the propagation of spin waves across a thin yttrium iron garnet film on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet for magnetic fields inclined with respect to the film plane. Two principle planes were studied: that for H in the plane defined by the wave vector k and the plane normal, n, with limiting forms corresponding to the Backward Volume and Forward Volume modes, and that for H in the plane perpendicular to k, with limiting forms corresponding to the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume modes. By exciting the wave at one edge of the film and observing the field dependence of the phase of the received signal at the opposing edge we determined the frequency vs. wavevector relation, ω = ω (k), of various propagating modes in the film. Avoided crossings are observed in the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume regimes when the propagating mode intersects the higher, exchange split, volume modes, leading to an extinction of the propagating mode; analysis of the resulting behavior allows a determination of the exchange parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations.

  5. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of Faraday rotation on yttrium iron garnets doped with Sn, Zr, or Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Giammaria, F.; Lucari, F.

    1991-01-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements on three thin single crystalline samples of yttrium iron garnet doped with Sn, Zr, and Sb as a function of temperature in the near infrared region show a monotonic variation of the magneto-optical signal as the temperature is decreased from 300 to about 50 K. At this point the FR signal levels off. Moreover, the slope of the plot for the sample, doped with Sn, changes sign below this temperature, at particular wavelengths. An explanation of the observed phenomena is given in terms of the energy levels of the Fe 2+ ions in the different sites of the crystal and the temperature dependence of their populations caused by the relative orientation between the local symmetry axis of the specific site and the direction of the sample magnetization. Hysteresis loops of the Faraday rotation as a function of applied magnetic field have been also measured showing the presence of a remanence of the sample magnetization

  6. One-dimensional photonic crystals with highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect in reflection polar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, T V; Berzhansky, V N; Karavainikov, A V; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Lyashko, S D

    2016-01-01

    It is represented the results of modelling of magnetooptical properties in reflection polar geometry of one-dimensional photonic crystal, in which highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect of composition Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 A l0.8 O 12 / Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 Oi 2 is located between the dielectric Bragg mirrors (SiO 2 / TiO 2 ) m (were m is number of layer pairs) and buffer SiO 2 and gold top layers of different thicknesses is placed on structure. The modification of spectral line- shapes of microcavity and Tamm plasmon-polariton modes depending on m is found. (paper)

  7. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, Simferopol, 95007 (Ukraine); Kotov, V.A. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, 11 Mohovaya Street, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation); Balabanov, D.E. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine); Vasiliev, M. [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup 6027 (Australia); Golub, V.O., E-mail: v_o_golub@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment.

  8. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V.; Kotov, V.A.; Balabanov, D.E.; Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y.; Vasiliev, M.; Golub, V.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar + ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment

  9. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, S., E-mail: stefan.klingler@wmi.badw.de; Maier-Flaig, H.; Weiler, M. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gross, R.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Straße 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Munich (Germany); Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of g{sub eff} /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  10. Magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets R_3Fe_5O_1_2: Sol–gel fabrication, characterization and reinspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opuchovic, Olga; Kareiva, Aivaras; Mazeika, Kestutis; Baltrunas, Dalis

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets (R_3Fe_5O_1_2, where R=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) were prepared by an aqueous sol–gel method. Herein we present, that all these garnets can be obtained by this effective synthesis method simply by changing the temperature of the final annealing. It was also demonstrated, that a different annealing temperature leads to a different particle size distribution of the final product. The SEM analysis results revealed that the smallest particles were formed in the range of 75–130 nm. The phase purity and structure of the rare earth iron garnets were estimated using XRD analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were determined by magnetization measurements. The relation between the particle size, composition and magnetic properties of the sol-gel derived garnets were also discussed in this study. - Highlights: • First time series of R_3Fe_5O_1_2 (R=from Sm to Lu) are prepared by sol–gel process. • Different sintering temperature leads to the different particle size distribution. • Correlation between microstructure, composition and magnetic properties is shown.

  11. Pinning of 1800 Bloch walls at etched nuclear tracks in LPE-grown iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumme, J.; Bartels, I.; Strocka, B.; Witter, K.; Schmelzer, C.; Spohr, R.

    1977-01-01

    For increasing the magnetic-wall coercivity H/sup w//sub c/ in liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) ferrimagnetic garnet films of composition (Gd,Bi) 3 (Fe,Al,Ga) 5 O 12 , magnetic-wall ''traps'' are formed via bombardment by xenon ions with 180-MeV/ion energy and doses between 10 6 and 10 8 cm -2 . For efficient wall pinning, the width of the nuclear damage tracks associated with the ion trajectories in the film have been enlarged to about the wall width by using a selective (chemical) etchant that makes use of the drastically increased etching rate in the damaged track volume. Therefore, channels of cylindrical or prismatic cross section are created having a width of a few 10 2 to about 10 3 A and a length of more than 10 μm at the given etching conditions. The pinning capability of such channels can be further enhanced in films that are grown under planar compressive or tensile misfit strain. Then, strain relaxation occurs in the vicinity of these channels which results in steep gradients of the magnetic-wall energy via magnetostriction. These strain halos extend sufficiently beyond the channels so that efficient wall pinning is observed, even if the channel cross section is small compared with the wall width. Thermomagnetic compensation-point writing in LPE garnet film, that were treated accordingly, yield a pattern of stable magnetic domains of down to 8 μm in diameter in 3-μm-thick layers. The effect of etched nuclear tracks on the magnetic-wall coercivity can be interpreted satisfactorily with present models on H/sup w//sub c/

  12. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, S.; Kolat, V.S.; Bakır, H.G.; Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O.; Kaya, O.A.; Gencer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y_3Fe_5O_1_2) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  13. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, S., E-mail: satalay@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kolat, V.S. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bakır, H.G. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Astronomy Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kaya, O.A. [Inonu University, Education Faculty, Computer Education and Educational Technology Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Gencer, H. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  14. Observation of magnon-mediated current drag in Pt/yttrium iron garnet/Pt(Ta) trilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxue; Xu, Yadong; Aldosary, Mohammed; Tang, Chi; Lin, Zhisheng; Zhang, Shufeng; Lake, Roger; Shi, Jing

    2016-03-02

    Pure spin current, a flow of spin angular momentum without flow of any accompanying net charge, is generated in two common ways. One makes use of the spin Hall effect in normal metals (NM) with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as Pt or Ta. The other utilizes the collective motion of magnetic moments or spin waves with the quasi-particle excitations called magnons. A popular material for the latter is yttrium iron garnet, a magnetic insulator (MI). Here we demonstrate in NM/MI/NM trilayers that these two types of spin currents are interconvertible across the interfaces, predicated as the magnon-mediated current drag phenomenon. The transmitted signal scales linearly with the driving current without a threshold and follows the power-law T(n) with n ranging from 1.5 to 2.5. Our results indicate that the NM/MI/NM trilayer structure can serve as a scalable pure spin current valve device which is an essential ingredient in spintronics.

  15. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    guide growth of the epitaxial YIG films. Aluminum or gallium substitu- tions for iron were used in combination with lanthanum substitutions for yttrium... gallate spinel sub- strates. There was no difficulty with nucleation in the melt and film quality appeared to be similar to that observed previously...hexagonal ferrites. We succeeded in growing the M-type lead hexaferrite (magnetoplumbite) on gallate spinel substrates. We found that the PbO-based

  16. Multiferroic properties of the Y2BiFe5O12 garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A.; Ostos, C.; Arnache, O.; Siqueiros, J. M.; García-Guaderrama, M.

    2017-10-01

    Multiferroic properties are found in the Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) modified with Bi3+. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the Bi3+ ion is completely soluble up to one-third of the Y molar content forming the Y2BiFe5O12 compound as a single phase. Structural analysis did not show signals of other incipient non-centrosymmetric phases in the compound. However, the dielectric and polarization studies clearly exhibit a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior at room temperature where the maxima of the broad permittivity peaks shift with frequency. The quadratic diffuseness coefficient obtained from the modified Curie-Weiss law suggests polar nanoregion switching in a broad temperature range. Using the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, the activation energy and freezing temperature were found to be 243.1 meV and 322.6 K, respectively. Here, the main contribution to relaxation comes from thermally activated reorientation of the dipole moments, as confirmed by the well-defined hysteresis loops in the P-E measurements. The dipole fluctuations arise from the compositional disorder induced by Bi3+ ions randomly distributed in the lattice, having thermally active polarization fluctuations above the freezing temperature, Tf. Furthermore, it is found that Bi3+ preserves the magnetization features of this compound. Thus, the Bi3+ modified YIG compound is found to be a multiferroic material at room temperature.

  17. Study of iron valence state and position in sub-site by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; KIm, Chul Sung; Son, Kwang Jae

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic ordering temperature and the magnitude of the magnetic fields at the iron sites of YIG can be influenced by substituting, either partially or totally, the Fe 3+ ions at the octahedral and/or the tetrahedral sites with magnetic or diamagnetic ions, and/or by substitution the Y 3+ ions at the dodecahedral sites with magnetic rare earth ions. It has been known for some time that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful method by which iron-containing garnets can be studied. We report here on the synthesis of the compounds with garnet-related structures of composition Y 3 Fe 4.5 Cr 0.5 O 12 and its examination by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The chromium in compounds of the Y 3 Fe 4.5 Cr 0.5 O 12 is distributed at an octahedral site. The Moessbauer spectra can be analyzed using 3 or 4 sets of six Lorentzians with increasing amount of Cr 3+ compounds in this system. It results from the distribution ( 4 C n ) of Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ at an octahedral site. A comparative study of ferrous tablets of Dynabi was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in a sample. This observation is important to better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron. The Cr-containing yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and the exchange interactions and site distributions were studied using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in the sample. This observation is important better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron

  18. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  19. Study of photon–magnon coupling in a YIG-film split-ring resonant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoi, B.; Aiyar, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); CRNTS, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Cliff, T.; Maksymov, I. S.; Kostylev, M., E-mail: mikhail.kostylev@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Venkataramani, N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Stamps, R. L. [School of Physics M013, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    By using the stripline Microwave Vector–Network Analyser Ferromagnetic Resonance and Time Domain spectroscopy techniques, we study a strong coupling regime of magnons to microwave photons in the planar geometry of a lithographically formed split-ring resonator (SRR) loaded by a single-crystal epitaxial yttrium–iron–garnet (YIG) film. Strong anti-crossing of the photon modes of SRR and of the magnon modes of the YIG film is observed in the applied-magnetic-field resolved measurements. The coupling strength extracted from the experimental data reaches 9% at 3 GHz. Theoretically, we propose an equivalent circuit model of the SRR loaded by a magnetic film. This model follows from the results of our numerical simulations of the microwave field structure of the SRR and of the magnetisation dynamics in the YIG film driven by the microwave currents in the SRR. The results obtained with the equivalent-circuit model are in good agreement with the experiment. This model provides a simple physical explanation of the process of mode anti-crossing. Our findings are important for future applications in microwave quantum photonic devices as well as in nonlinear and magnetically tuneable metamaterials exploiting the strong coupling of magnons to microwave photons.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  1. High-efficiency control of spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet by the spin-orbit torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-04-25

    We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.

  2. High-efficiency control of spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet by the spin-orbit torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; Loubens, G. de; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.

  3. Multi-directional emission and detection of spin waves propagating in yttrium iron garnet with wavelengths down to about 100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maendl, Stefan; Grundler, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    We performed broadband spin-wave spectroscopy on 200 nm thick yttrium iron garnet containing arrays of partially embedded magnetic nanodisks. Using integrated coplanar waveguides (CPWs), we studied the excitation and transmission of spin waves depending on the presence of nanomagnet arrays of different lateral extensions. By means of the grating coupler effect, we excited spin waves propagating in multiple lateral directions with wavelengths down to 111 nm. They exhibited group velocities of up to 1 km/s. Detection of such short-wavelength spin waves was possible only in symmetrically designed emitter/detector configurations, not with a bare CPW. We report spin waves propagating between grating couplers under oblique angles exhibiting a wave vector component parallel to the CPW. The effective propagation distance amounted to about 80 μm. Such transmission signals were not addressed before and substantiate the versatility of the grating coupler effect for implementing nanomagnonic circuits.

  4. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  5. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  6. 50 MeV, Li"3"+ - ion irradiation effect on magnetic ordering of Y"3"+ - substituted yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P. U.; Zankat, K. B.; Dolia, S. N.; Modi, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    This communication presents the effect of non-magnetic Y"3"+ ions substitution for magnetic Fe"3"+ ions and 50 MeV, Li"3"+ ion irradiation (fluence: 5 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2) on magnetic ordering and Neel temperature of Y_3_+_xFe_5_-_xO_1_2 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) garnet system, studied by means of X-ray powder diffractometry and thermal variation of low field (0.5 Oe) ac susceptibility measurements. The un-irradiated compositions exhibit normal ferrimagnetic behavior with decrease in transition temperature (T_N) on increasing Y"3"+-concentration (x). The irradiated counterparts are characterized by tailing effect indicative of non-uniform effect of irradiation and lower value of T_N. The results have been discussed based on the weakening of magnetic exchange interactions and cumulative effect of redistribution of cations and fractional creation of localized paramagnetic centers resulting from swift heavy ion irradiation. The Neel temperatures and exchange integrals have been calculated theoretically.

  7. Synthesis of mono and multidomain YIG particles by chemical coprecipitation or ceramic procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium iron garnet powders have been synthesized by chemical coprecipitation using two different precursors, nitrates and chlorides, and by an oxides mixture route. It is shown that depending on the precursors and synthesis conditions used pure yttrium iron garnet powders can be obtained with a mono or multidomain magnetic behaviour. The yttrium iron garnet crystalline structure, as studied by Raman spectroscopy, was already formed after calcination at temperatures as low as 800 o C when the nitrate precursors were used. However, calcination temperatures of up to 1100 o C were required to obtain yttrium iron garnet powders when the precursors were chlorides or when the oxides mixture route was chosen. The saturation magnetization of the powders correlates well with the structural characterization: when nitrate precursors were used, the saturation magnetization was already close to the bulk value, 26.8 emu/cm 3 , after calcination at 800 o C. However, the saturation magnetization of the powders obtained by the chlorides and oxides mixture routes was close to zero up to calcination temperatures of 1100 o C. Finally, both the chlorides and the oxides mixture routes yield multidomain micron sized yttrium iron garnet powders, whereas the nitrates route led to monodomain submicron sized powders.

  8. Phylogenomic analysis of the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnicki Janusz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GIY-YIG domain was initially identified in homing endonucleases and later in other selfish mobile genetic elements (including restriction enzymes and non-LTR retrotransposons and in enzymes involved in DNA repair and recombination. However, to date no systematic search for novel members of the GIY-YIG superfamily or comparative analysis of these enzymes has been reported. Results We carried out database searches to identify all members of known GIY-YIG nuclease families. Multiple sequence alignments together with predicted secondary structures of identified families were represented as Hidden Markov Models (HMM and compared by the HHsearch method to the uncharacterized protein families gathered in the COG, KOG, and PFAM databases. This analysis allowed for extending the GIY-YIG superfamily to include members of COG3680 and a number of proteins not classified in COGs and to predict that these proteins may function as nucleases, potentially involved in DNA recombination and/or repair. Finally, all old and new members of the GIY-YIG superfamily were compared and analyzed to infer the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion An evolutionary classification of the GIY-YIG superfamily is presented for the very first time, along with the structural annotation of all (subfamilies. It provides a comprehensive picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in this superfamily of nucleases, which will help to design experiments to study the mechanism of action of known members (especially the uncharacterized ones and will facilitate the prediction of function for the newly discovered ones.

  9. Study of iron valence state and position in sub-site by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; KIm, Chul Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang Jae [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The magnetic ordering temperature and the magnitude of the magnetic fields at the iron sites of YIG can be influenced by substituting, either partially or totally, the Fe{sup 3+} ions at the octahedral and/or the tetrahedral sites with magnetic or diamagnetic ions, and/or by substitution the Y{sup 3+} ions at the dodecahedral sites with magnetic rare earth ions. It has been known for some time that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful method by which iron-containing garnets can be studied. We report here on the synthesis of the compounds with garnet-related structures of composition Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and its examination by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The chromium in compounds of the Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} is distributed at an octahedral site. The Moessbauer spectra can be analyzed using 3 or 4 sets of six Lorentzians with increasing amount of Cr{sup 3+} compounds in this system. It results from the distribution ({sub 4}C{sub n}) of Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} at an octahedral site. A comparative study of ferrous tablets of Dynabi was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in a sample. This observation is important to better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron. The Cr-containing yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and the exchange interactions and site distributions were studied using {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in the sample. This observation is important better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron.

  10. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A{sub 3−x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 2.85)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Filip, Jan, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Mashlan, Miroslav, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Zboril, Radek, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-27

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as {sup VIII}(A{sub 3−x}Fe{sub x}{sup 2+}){sup VI}(Al,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}, where the amount of Fe{sup 3+} in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp{sub 80}Alm{sub 20}). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 μm) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  11. Exchange stiffness of Ca-doped YIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-05-01

    An effective medium theory for the zero-temperature exchange stiffness of uncompensated Ca-doped YIG is presented. The theory is based on the assumption that the effect of the Ca impurities is to produce strong, random ferromagnetic interactions between spins on the a and d sublattices. In the simplest version of the theory, a fraction, x, of the ad exchange integrals are large and positive, x being related to the Ca concentration. The stiffness is calculated as function of x for arbitrary perturbed ad exchange integral, Jxad. For Jxad≳(1/5)‖8Jaa+3Jdd‖, with Jaa and Jdd denoting the aa and dd exchange integrals, respectively, there is a critical concentration, Xc, such that when x≳Xc, the stiffness is complex. It is suggested that Xc delineates the region where there are significant departures from colinearity in the ground state of the Fe spins. Extension of the theory to a model where the Ca doping is assumed to generate Fe4+ ions on the tetrahedral sites is discussed. Possible experimental tests of the theory are mentioned.

  12. Magneto-optical effects of reflection on monocrystals of ferrite garnets, orthoferrites hexaferrites and hematite. [Yttrium oxides iron oxides; europium oxides; bismuth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinchik, G S; Krylova, V A; Khrebtov, A P; Chepurova, E E

    1975-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the equatorial Kerr effect in visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum are given for ferromagnetic dielectrics of different classes: ferrimagnetic ferrite garnets and hexaferrites, as well as weakly ferromagnetic orthoferrites and hematite. A method for the nondestructive magneto-optical data readout using reflected light is proposed and described.

  13. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 o C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 o C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO 3 , opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  14. The Effect of Ca–Zr mole ratio on preparation, structural and magnetic properties of Ca–Zr doped Bi-YIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanpour, A.; Niyaifar, M.; Faridniya, N.; Amighian, J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ca–Zr substituted Bi-YIG has been prepared via mechanochemical processing and heat treatment. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic measurements showed the Ferrimagnetic behavior for pure garnet structure samples. • The spherical morphology of the nanoparticles was found from the SEM micrograph. - Abstract: Ca–Zr substituted (Bi-YIG) nanopowders with a nominal composition of BiY 2−x Ca x Zr y Fe 5−y O 12 (x = y and x varied from 0.00 to 1.25 by the step of 0.25) were prepared by mechanochemical processing (MCP) and subsequent heat treatments. The effect of dopant mol ratios, on garnet phase formation were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The lattice constant of the samples increased by increasing Zr 4+ content (for x ≤ 1). Mean crystallite size of the single-phase powders, which was evaluated by Scherrer's formula, was about 35 nm. The experimental results show that the Ca–Zr substitution Bi-YIG lowers the calcining and sintering temperatures for x < 1. The results show that the single-phase nanopowders can be obtained at temperatures below 850 °C. The measurements of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) show that the saturation magnetization of the samples increases as x increase from 0.00 to 0.25 and then decreases by increasing x to the values greater than 0.25

  15. Pure nuclear reflexes and combined hyperfine interactions in YIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, H; Eisberg, R; Alp, E; Rueffer, R; Gerdau, E; Lauer, S; Trautwein, A X; Grodzicki, M; Vera, A

    1983-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of oriented YIG single crystals were taken and the numerical analysis using the transmission integral yielded a consistent set of hyperfine interaction parameters. They are in good agreement with theoretical values obtained by MO-calculations which included clusters up to 62 ions. Finally pure nuclear reflexes are predicted for single crystals and two theoretical spectra are given.

  16. Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-26

    We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.

  17. Part I: Spin wave dynamics in YIG spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the interactions between spin wave modes excited in a sphere of yttrium iron garnet by pumping the Suhl subsidiary absorption with microwaves. The dynamical behavior of the magnetization is observed under high resolution by varying the dc field and microwave pump power. Varied behavior is found: (1) onset of the Suhl instability by excitation of a single spin wave mode; (2) when two or more modes are excited, interactions lead to auto-oscillations displaying period-doubling to chaos; (3) quasiperiodicity, locking, and chaos occur when three or more modes are excited; (4) abrupt transition to wide band power spectra (i.e., turbulence), with hysteresis; (5) irregular relaxation oscillations and aperiodic spiking behavior. A theoretical model is developed using the plane wave approximation obtaining the lowest order nonlinear interaction terms between the excited modes. Extension of this analysis to the true spherical spin-modes is discussed. Bifurcation behavior is examined, and dynamical behavior is numerically computed and compared to the experimental data. A theory is developed regarding the nature of the experimentally observed relaxation oscillations and spiking behavior based on the interaction of ''weak'' and ''strong'' modes, and this is demonstrated in the numerical simulations for two modes. Quasiperiodicity is shown to occur in the numerical study when at least 3 modes are excited with appropriate parameter values. A possible mechanism for generating microwave subharmonics at half of the pumping frequency is discussed. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Magnetic and structural properties of ZNn-doped YIG nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.P.; Del Toro, A.D.; Davila, Y.G.; Gomes, J.L.; Goncalves, L.P.; Hernandez, E.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PR (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zn-doped YIG was prepared using the sol gel method and TGA measurements showed the phase formation between 900°C and 1000°C. XRD analysis showed close to 1100°C the formation of Franklinite phase, coexisting with the cubic YIG. Y3(Fe1-xZnx)5O12 samples with different Zn concentrations (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) were prepared and analyzed by a magnetic study. A decrease in magnetic moment of the samples was confirmed with increasing the concentration of Zn ions. The diminishing is due to the substitution of Fe ions by Zn. This also confirmed the results of XRD showing the linear increasing in the lattice parameter. Fittings by the Bloch's law shows results compared with those already reported in the literature. Both the exponent of how Bloch constant presented similar values to those reported in YIG doped with other ions. We obtained the parameter α ∼ 10-6 K-n and n close to 1.9 for all samples. (author)

  19. Enhanced room-temperature spin Seebeck effect in a YIG/C60/Pt layered heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R.; Kalappattil, V.; Geng, R.; Luong, H.; Pham, M.; Nguyen, T.; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    2018-05-01

    We report on large enhancement of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in the Y3Fe5O12 (YIG)/Pt system at room temperature due to the addition of a thin layer of organic semiconductor (C60) in between the YIG and the Pt. LSSE measurements show that the LSSE voltage increases significantly, from the initial value of 150 nV for the YIG/Pt structure to 240 nV for the YIG/C60(5nm)/Pt structure. Radio-frequency transverse susceptibility experiments reveal a significant decrease in the surface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the YIG film when C60 is deposited on it. These results suggest that the LSSE enhancement may be attributed to increased spin mixing conductance, the decreased PMA, and the large spin diffusion length of C60.

  20. The effect of Ce doping on the structure, surface morphology and magnetic properties of Dy doped-yttrium iron garnet films prepared by a sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsad, A.Z.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my

    2016-07-15

    Cerium substitute Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35) films have been prepared on quartz substrates by a simple sol–gel method and followed by a spin-coating technique. The crystalline structures, surface and magnetic properties of the films has been investigated by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis revealed that the films have garnet structure. The lattice parameter increased as Ce content was increased up to 0.25 due to the Ce{sup 3+} ions completely substituted for Y{sup 3+} ions. For films x≥0.3, the lattice parameter decreased. The FESEM results showed that the average grains were small, ranging from 11 to 14 nm and the thickness of films increased with the increment of Ce contents. VSM results for both in and out-plane magnetic measurement showed the film with x=0 has the highest saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values. With the increment of Ce contents, the M{sub s} of films decreased due to the substitution of Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} ions in the c-site. For films x≥0.3 the reduction of M{sub s} values was due to the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the film. The films with x=0–0.25 exhibited increases in H{sub c} values. The improvement of coercivity value, small grain size and high crystalline structure of film with x=0.25 has a potential to be used in magneto optical (MO) memory storage applications. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • The solubility limit of Ce{sup 3+} ions in the film was x=0.25. • The average grain size ranging from 11 to 14 nm with the increment of Ce doping. • Increasing Ce contents degrades the saturation of magnetization of films. • Increasing Ce contents improve the coercivity of films.

  1. Unidirectional Spin-Wave-Propagation-Induced Seebeck Voltage in a PEDOT:PSS/YIG Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Zhou, L. F.; Jiang, S. W.; Luan, Z. Z.; Shu, D. J.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2018-01-01

    We clarify the physical origin of the dc voltage generation in a bilayer of a conducting polymer film and a micrometer-thick magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) film under ferromagnetic resonance and/or spin wave excitation conditions. The previous attributed mechanism, the inverse spin Hall effect in the polymer [Nat. Mater. 12, 622 (2013), 10.1038/nmat3634], is excluded by two control experiments. We find an in-plane temperature gradient in YIG which has the same angular dependence with the generated voltage. Both vanish when the YIG thickness is reduced to a few nanometers. Thus, we argue that the dc voltage is governed by the Seebeck effect in the polymer, where the temperature gradient is created by the nonreciprocal magnetostatic surface spin wave propagation in YIG.

  2. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  3. Parameter prediction for microwave garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Linearity of the microwave parameters (resonance linewidth ΔH and effective linewidth ΔH eff ) is demonstrated and their use in the Computer-aided design (CAD)/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) of new microwave garnets is proposed. Such an approach would combine a numerical database of microwave data and several computational programs. The model is an applied formulation of the analysis of a wide range of microwave garnets

  4. Magnon-based logic in a multi-terminal YIG/Pt nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzhorn, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.ganzhorn@wmi.badw.de; Klingler, Stefan; Wimmer, Tobias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Geprägs, Stephan [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans, E-mail: huebl@wmi.badw.de; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    Boolean logic is the foundation of modern digital information processing. Recently, there has been a growing interest in phenomena based on pure spin currents, which allows to move from charge to spin based logic gates. We study a proof-of-principle logic device based on the ferrimagnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet, with Pt strips acting as injectors and detectors for non-equilibrium magnons. We experimentally observe incoherent superposition of magnons generated by different injectors. This allows to implement a fully functional majority gate, enabling multiple logic operations (AND and OR) in one and the same device. Clocking frequencies of the order of several GHz and straightforward down-scaling make our device promising for applications.

  5. Mineral chemistry of garnet in pegmatite and metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi Khalaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area of this study is located near Hamadan within the Sanandaj - Sirjan tectonic zone. In the Hamadan area, consisting mainly of Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, aplites and pegmatites locally contain garnets.(Baharifar et al., 2004, Amidi and Majidi, 1977; Torkian, 1995. Garnet-bearing schists and hornfelses in the area are products of regional metamorphism shown by slate and phyllite (Baharifar, 2004. In this investigation the distribution of elements in garnet in different rock type was studied to determine their mineral types and conditions of formation. Garnet samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks were analyzed by electron microprobe (EMPA, the results of which are presented in this article. Materials and methods Thirty-five samples were selected for thin section preparation and twenty thin-polished sections were prepared for mineralogical and microprobe analysis. Thin sections of garnet-bearing igneous (pegmatite and metamorphic rocks (schist and hornfels were studied by polarizing microscope. Chemical analysis was performed on the garnets (38 points using a Caimeca SX100 electron microprobe at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and electric current of 15 nA in the Mineral Processing Research Center, Iran. Separation of iron (II and Fe (III was calculated by Droop’s method (1987 and the structural formulas of the garnets were calculated using 24 oxygens to determine the relative proportions of the end-members using the mineral spreadsheet software of Preston and Still (2001. Results Based on the analyses, almandine (Fe - Al garnet and spessartine (Mn - Al garnet are the principal types of the (Kamari metamorphic and (Abaro pegmatitic garnets, that belong to the well-known pyralspite garnet group. Chemical zoning patterns of the garnets in the metamorphic rocks (schists differ from those in the igneous rocks (pegmatite, showing different compositions from core to rim. Petrographic evidence such as: co

  6. Study of RE-garnets using BPW method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goveas, Neena; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Mukhopadhyay, G.

    1995-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of rare-earth (Y and Lu) iron garnets is studied using a modified Bethe-Peierls-Weiss (BPW) approximation. The modifications enable us to incorporate the three exchange parameters Jad, Jaa and Jdd necessary to describe the systems. We get excellent fits to the experimental susceptibilities from which we determined the J-values. These also give excellent agreement with the spin wave dispersion relation constant D.

  7. Spin-Orbit Torque and Spin Pumping in YIG/Pt with Interfacial Insertion Layers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-03

    modified by spin-orbit torque6,7 in thin- film YIG due to absorption of pure spin current,8–12 which is gen- erated from an electric current in the adjacent... films were grown on Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition as reported in Ref. 3. The YIG films were transferred through an ambient... introduction into the deposition chamber, maintained at 250 C at 50 mTorr O2 for 30 min to remove water and organics on the surface. The metal overlayers

  8. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  9. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  10. Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, J.; Dejene, F.K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Ben Youssef, J.; Van Wees, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance of a YIG film in the low frequency regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongjae [Department of Physics, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Grudichak, Scott; Sklenar, Joseph; Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Tsai, C. C. [Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan (China); Jang, Moongyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Qinghui; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China)

    2016-07-21

    An improved method for characterizing the magnetic anisotropy of films with cubic symmetry is described and is applied to an yttrium iron garnet (111) film. Analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra performed both in-plane and out-of-plane from 0.7 to 8 GHz yielded the magnetic anisotropy constants as well as the saturation magnetization. The field at which FMR is observed turns out to be quite sensitive to anisotropy constants (by more than a factor ten) in the low frequency (<2 GHz) regime, and when the orientation of the magnetic field is nearly normal to the sample plane; the restoring force on the magnetization arising from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy fields is then comparable to that from the external field, thereby allowing the anisotropy constants to be determined with greater accuracy. In this region, unusual dynamical behaviors are observed such as multiple resonances and a switching of FMR resonance with only a 1° change in field orientation at 0.7 GHz.

  12. YIG: Bi2O3 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Magnetooptic and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur-E-Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Y3Fe5O12-Bi2O3 composite thin films are deposited onto Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG substrates and their annealing crystallization regimes are optimized (in terms of both process temperatures and durations to obtain high-quality thin film layers possessing magnetic properties attractive for a range of technological applications. The amount of bismuth oxide content introduced into these nanocomposite-type films is controlled by adjusting the RF power densities applied to both Y3Fe5O12 and Bi2O3 sputtering targets during the cosputtering deposition processes. The measured material properties of oven-annealed YIG-Bi2O3 films indicate that cosputtering of YIG-Bi2O3 composites can provide the flexibility of application-specific YIG layers fabrication of interest for several existing, emerging, and also frontier technologies. Experimental results demonstrate large specific Faraday rotation (of more than 1°/µm at 532 nm, achieved simultaneously with low optical losses in the visible range and very narrow peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of around ΔHpp= 6.1 Oe at 9.77 GHz.

  13. Comparison of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser for treatment of cosmetic tattoos containing titanium and iron in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  14. Contribution to 57Fe ion implanted garnet study by Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilios, N.

    1986-11-01

    Due to because of their numerous physical properties, garnets are often used in new technologies. In order to improve their properties, ion implantation of inert gases has been proved to be a powerful technique to elaborate bubble memories. Recently it has been shown that high doses implanted ions, chemically reacting with the matrix could give interesting results. If the bulk is completely amorphized after implantation, further annealings can recrystallize it. In this study Y 3 F 5 O 12 , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 single crystals were 100 keV implanted with 57 Fe ions at doses ranging between 10 16 and 10 17 ions cm -2 . The iron chemical states were determined thanks to Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and it was shown that the alloying elements of the matrix could influence the nature of the created phases. After thermal treatments the sample superficial layers were characterized using CEMS, grazing angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). Different annealing stages were put forward: the oxidation of the implanted iron below 650 0 C and the garnet recrystallization around 850 0 C with some iron substitution in the garnet octahedral and tetraedral sites. The overstoechiometric iron forms particles of mixed oxides (FeAl) 2 O 3 , (FeGa) 2 O 3 or particles of pure Fe 2 O 3 oxide depending on the garnet. For the first time it is proved that after annealing around 1200-1300 0 C a complete rebuilding of the garnet matrix can induce for these oxide particles at room temperature a Morin transition [fr

  15. Effect of magnetization boundary condition on cavity magnon polariton of YIG thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H. H.; Xiao, Y.; Hu, C. M.; Guo, H.; Xia, K.

    2018-06-01

    Motivated by recent studies of cavity magnon polariton (CMP), we extended a previous theoretical work to generalize microwave transmission calculation with various magnetization boundary condition of YIG thin film embedded in cavity. It is found that numerical implementation given in this paper can be easily applied to other magnetization boundary condition and extended to magnetic multilayers. Numerical results show that ferromagnetic resonance mode of microwave transmission spectrum, which is absent in previous calculation, can be recovered by altering the pinning condition of surface spins. The demonstrated reliability of our theory opens attractive perspectives for studying CMP of thin film with complicated surface magnetization distribution and magnetic multilayers.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of garnet-group minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingsheng, P.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Dien, L.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the natural end members of the garnet-group minerals, which include pyrope, almandine and spessarite of Fe-Al garnet series and grossularite, andradite and uvarovite of Ca-Fe garnet series, have been studied. Measured Raman spectra of these minerals are reasonably and qualitatively assigned to the internal modes, translational and rotatory modes of SiO4 tetrahedra, as well as the translational motion of bivalent cations in the X site. The stretch and rotatory Alg modes for the Fe-Al garnet series show obvious Raman shifts as compared with those for the Ca-Fe garnet series, owing to the cations residing in the X site connected with SiO4 tetrahedra by sharing the two edges. The Raman shifts of all members within either of the series are attributed mainly to the properties of cations in the X site for the Fe-Al garnet series and in the Y site for the Ca-Fe garnet series. ?? 1994 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  18. Garnet peridotite found in the Greater Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Richard N., Jr.; Draper, Grenville; Keshav, Shantanu

    Although Alpine peridotites are relatively common in collisional orogenic zones, garnet-bearing peridotites are rare and only associated with high pressure/ultra-high pressure or temperature (HP/UHP or T) terranes [Brueckner and Medaris, 2000; Medaris, 1999]. Until recently all reported occurrences of Alpine-type garnet peridotites and HP/UHP terranes were in Eurasia and Africa, with one occurrence in the Seward Peninsula, Alaska [Till, 1981;Lieberman and Till, 1987]. Now a new Alpine-type garnet peridotite locality has been discovered in the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. This discovery is the second of its kind in the Americas.

  19. Experimental-statistical method for investigation of multicomponent yttrium garnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojouharoff, V.; Ionchey, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, some problems are discussed arising in the construction and study of a mathematical model describing the synthesis of multicomponent yttrium garnets with predetermined microwave parameters. To construct the model, the following formula was used for Ca-V YIG substituted with In and Cr: Y/sub 3-2x/Ca/sub 2x/Fe/sub 5-(x+y+z)/In/sub y/Cr/sub z/V/sub x/O/sub 12/. For this purpose, ferrogarnets were synthesized differing in x, y, and z with their values chosen so as to obtain real roots of a set of equations of the type Y/sub k/ = ΣB/sub i/X/sub i/ + ΣB/sub ij/X/sub i/X/sub j/ + ΣB/sub ijk/X/sub i/X/sub j/X/sub k/, where Y/sub k/ are the ferrogarnet microwave properties. The graphical presentation of these solutions as triple diagrams is a very convenient way of obtaining ferrogarnets with predetermined microwave characteristics. The possibility is created of mathematically predicting and determining the influence of the different components on the yttrium ferrogarnet parameters as a function of their concentration

  20. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Yu. [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Golub, V.O., E-mail: golub@imag.kiev.ua [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (84 nm) and Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction.

  1. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Salyuk, O.Yu.; Golub, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 (84 nm) and Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction

  2. Efficient coherent driving of NV centers in a YIG-nanodiamond hybrid platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Paolo; de Las Casas, Charles F.; Liu, Xiaoying; Bretscher, Hope L.; Nealey, Paul F.; Awschalom, David D.; Heremans, F. Joseph

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is an ideal candidate for room temperature quantum computing and sensing applications. These schemes rely on magnetic dipolar interactions between the NV centers and other paramagnetic centers, imposing a stringent limit on the spin-to-spin separation. For instance, creating multi-qubit entanglement requires two NV centers to be within a few nanometers of each other, limiting the possibility for individual optical and microwave (MW) control. Moreover, to sense spins external to the diamond lattice the NV centers need to be within few nanometers from the surface, where their coherence properties are strongly reduced. In this work, we address these limitations using a hybrid YIG-nanodiamond platform where propagating spin-waves (SWs) are used to mediate the interaction between a MW source and a NV center ensemble, thereby relaxing the requirements imposed by dipolar interactions. In particular, we show that SWs can be used to amplify a MW signal detected by the NV centers by more than two orders of magnitude, allowing us to obtain ultra-low energy SW-driven coherent control of the NV centers. These results demonstrate the potentials of YIG-ND hybrid systems for the realization of enhanced quantum sensing and scalable computing devices. This work is supported by the ARO MURI program and the AFOSR.

  3. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  4. Effect of NiO inserted layer on spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/NiO/YIG heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, L. P.; Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H. H.; Wang, B. M.; Li, Run-Wei; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate spin-current transport with an antiferromagnetic insulator NiO thin layer by means of the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) over a wide range of temperature in Pt/NiO/Y_3Fe_5O_1_2 (Pt/NiO/YIG) heterostructures. The SMR signal is comparable to that without the NiO layer as long as the temperature is near or above the blocking temperature of the NiO, indicating that the magnetic fluctuation of the insulating NiO is essential for transmitting the spin current from the Pt to YIG layer. On the other hand, the SMR signal becomes negligibly small at low temperature, and both conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance and the anomalous Hall resistance are extremely small at any temperature, implying that the insertion of the NiO has completely suppressed the Pt magnetization induced by the YIG magnetic proximity effect (MPE). The dual roles of the thin NiO layer are, to suppress the magnetic interaction or MPE between Pt and YIG, and to maintain efficient spin current transmission at high temperature.

  5. Divalent metal ion differentially regulates the sequential nicking reactions of the GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-BmoI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kleinstiver

    Full Text Available Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that function as mobile genetic elements by introducing double-strand breaks or nicks at defined locations. Of the major families of homing endonucleases, the modular GIY-YIG endonucleases are least understood in terms of mechanism. The GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-BmoI generates a double-strand break by sequential nicking reactions during which the single active site of the GIY-YIG nuclease domain must undergo a substantial reorganization. Here, we show that divalent metal ion plays a significant role in regulating the two independent nicking reactions by I-BmoI. Rate constant determination for each nicking reaction revealed that limiting divalent metal ion has a greater impact on the second strand than the first strand nicking reaction. We also show that substrate mutations within the I-BmoI cleavage site can modulate the first strand nicking reaction over a 314-fold range. Additionally, in-gel DNA footprinting with mutant substrates and modeling of an I-BmoI-substrate complex suggest that amino acid contacts to a critical GC-2 base pair are required to induce a bottom-strand distortion that likely directs conformational changes for reaction progress. Collectively, our data implies mechanistic roles for divalent metal ion and substrate bases, suggesting that divalent metal ion facilitates the re-positioning of the GIY-YIG nuclease domain between sequential nicking reactions.

  6. Influence of Thickness and Interface on the Low-Temperature Enhancement of the Spin Seebeck Effect in YIG Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-Jia Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE in heavy metal (HM/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} (YIG hybrid structures is investigated as a function of YIG film thickness, magnetic field strength, and different HM detection materials. The LSSE signal shows a large enhancement with reductions in temperature, leading to a pronounced peak at low temperatures. We find that the LSSE peak temperature strongly depends on the film thickness as well as on the magnetic field. Our result can be well explained in the framework of magnon-driven LSSE by taking into account the temperature-dependent effective propagation length of thermally excited magnons in the bulk of the material. We further demonstrate that the LSSE peak is significantly shifted by changing the interface coupling to an adjacent detection layer, revealing a more complex behavior beyond the currently discussed bulk effect. By direct microscopic imaging of the interface, we correlate the observed temperature dependence with the interface structure between the YIG and the adjacent metal layer. Our results highlight the role of interface effects on the temperature-dependent LSSE in HM/YIG system, suggesting that the temperature-dependent spin current transparency strikingly relies on the interface conditions.

  7. Polycrystalline magnetic garnet films comprising weakly coupled crystallites for piezoelectrically-driven magneto-optic spatial light modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, S.; Sakurai, H.; Takagi, H.; Inoue, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A. V. [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the magnetization process of the polycrystalline magnetic garnet films in order to determine the most suitable composition of garnet films for piezoelectrically-driven magneto-optic spatial light modulators (MOSLMs). For experiment, the bismuth-dysprosium-aluminum-substituted yttrium iron (Bi{sub 1.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Y{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 3.1}Al{sub 1.9}O{sub 12}) garnet films were deposited by an RF magnetron sputter and annealed at 700 deg. C in air. The annealing time was varied in a range of several minutes to control the grain size. The saturation magnetization, the remanent magnetization and the composition of the fabricated garnet films slightly changed versus the annealing time. Experiments showed that the coercivity and the grain size increased at longer annealing; the coercivity was larger for films with bigger grains. This work shows that garnet films with smaller coercivity are most suitable for controlling the magnetization of garnet and, correspondingly, the magneto-optical rotation of MOSLM pixels driven by piezoelectrics.

  8. Faraday effect in rare-earth ferrite garnets located in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, U.V.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Krinchik, G.S.; Levitin, R.Z.; Mukimov, K.M.; Popov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The Faraday effect is investigated experimentally in single crystal specimens of rare earth iron garnets (REIG) R 3 Fe 5 O 12 (R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Eu, Sm and Ho) and also in mixed iron garnets Rsub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (R=Tb, Dy). The m.easurements are carried out in pulsed magnetic fields of intensity up to 200 kOe, in a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and at a wavelength of the light lambda=1.15 μm. The field dependence of the Faraday effect observed in the REIG cannot be explained if only the usually considered ''paramagnetic'' contribution to the Faraday effect is taken into account. A theory is developed which, besides the paramagnetic mechanism, takes into account a diamagnetic mechanism and also the mixing of the wave functions of the ground and excited multiplets. The contributions of each of these three mechanisms to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization by the rare earth sublattice of the iron garnet are estimated theoretically. It is concluded that the mixing mechanism contributes significantly to the field and temperature dependences of the Faraday effect in REIG

  9. EsrE-A yigP Locus-Encoded Transcript-Is a 3′ UTR sRNA Involved in the Respiratory Chain of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The yigP locus is widely conserved among γ-proteobacteria. Mutation of the yigP locus impacts aerobic growth of Gram-negative bacteria. However, the underlying mechanism of how the yigP locus influences aerobic growth remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the yigP locus in Escherichia coli encodes two transcripts; the mRNA of ubiquinone biosynthesis protein, UbiJ, and the 3′ untranslated region small regulatory RNA (sRNA, EsrE. EsrE is an independent transcript that is transcribed using an internal promoter of the yigP locus. Surprisingly, we found that both the EsrE sRNA and UbiJ protein were required for Q8 biosynthesis, and were sufficient to rescue the growth defect ascribed to deletion of the yigP locus. Moreover, our data showed that EsrE targeted multiple mRNAs involved in several cellular processes including murein biosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Among these targets, sdhD mRNA that encodes one subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, was significantly activated. Our findings provided an insight into the important function of EsrE in bacterial adaptation to various environments, as well as coordinating different aspects of bacterial physiology.

  10. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    ) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  11. Systematic hardness measurements on some rare earth garnet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Microhardness measurements were undertaken on twelve rare earth garnet crystals. In yttrium aluminium garnet and gadolinium ... syan (1997) has quoted a single value for Gd3Sc2Ga3O12. In the present study measurements have ... small and within the limits of experimental error. There- fore, where pure garnet crystals ...

  12. A yigP mutant strain is a small colony variant of E. coli and shows pleiotropic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Qiongwei; Song, Jie; Ye, Jiang; Wu, Haizhen; Zhang, Huizhan

    2017-12-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that the SCV was attributable to a defect in the yigP function. Furthermore, we investigated the antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli SCV and it showed increased erythromycin, kanamycin, and d-cycloserine resistance, but collateral sensitivity to ampicillin, polymyxin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampin, and nalidixic acid. We tried to determine the association between yigP and the pleiotropic antibiotic resistance of the SCV by analyzing biofilm formation, cellular morphology, and coenzyme Q (Q 8 ) production. Our results indicated that impaired Q 8 biosynthesis was the primary factor that contributed to the increased resistance and collateral sensitivity of the SCV. This study offers a novel genetic basis for E. coli SCVs and an insight into the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies for clinical therapy.

  13. Nuclear Bragg diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, R.; Gerdau, E.; Grote, M.; Hollatz, R.; Roehlsberger, R.; Rueter, H.D.; Sturhahn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Bragg diffraction with synchrotron radiation as source will become a powerful new X-ray source in the A-region. This source exceeds by now the brilliance of conventional Moessbauer sources giving hyperfine spectroscopy further momentum. As examples applications to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron borate will be discussed. (author)

  14. Magneto-optical Faraday spectroscopy of completely bismuth-substituted Bi3Fe5O12 garnet thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, M; Popova, E; Fouchet, A; Keller, N

    2012-01-01

    We performed a magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectroscopy study of bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 thin single-crystalline films with thickness from 5 to 220 nm. The Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra were measured for photon energies ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 eV. Using a model based on two electric dipole transitions associated with tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites, we successfully reproduce the observed rotation and ellipticity spectra. The sign of both site contributions to the Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra has been used to interpret the complex thermal dependence of the Faraday rotation and ellipticity. For a Faraday ellipticity, anomalous hysteresis loops have been observed around specific photon energies. To explain the surprising shape of hysteresis loop, a model based on the superposition of two hysteresis loops with opposite sign associated with both sites is proposed. The modelling of these hysteresis loops allows accessing the magnetic properties of each individual sublattice. Finally, we have studied the dependence of the energy level parameters on bismuth content in Yi 3-x Bi x Fe 5 O 12 garnet and on the thickness of bismuth iron garnet. Based on this analysis, we show that MO spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive technique to determine the bi-deficiency of BIG films.

  15. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.

    2018-06-01

    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  16. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Taichi, E-mail: goto@ee.tut.ac.jp; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan); Granovsky, Alexander B. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Sekiguchi, Koji [Department of Physics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ross, Caroline A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K{sup −1}, which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K{sup −1}. The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices.

  17. Spin wave differential circuit for realization of thermally stable magnonic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Taichi; Kanazawa, Naoki; Buyandalai, Altansargai; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Okajima, Shingo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Sekiguchi, Koji; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic-field sensor with a high sensitivity of 38 pT/Hz was demonstrated. By utilizing a spin-wave differential circuit (SWDC) using two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films, the temperature sensitivity was suppressed, and the thermal stability of the phase of the spin waves was −0.0095° K −1 , which is three orders of magnitude better than a simple YIG-based sensor, ∼20° K −1 . The SWDC architecture opens the way to design YIG-based magnonic devices

  18. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates are simi...

  19. Isotopic chronometry of zoned garnets: Growth kinetics and metamorphic histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.; O'Nions, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Basic information on the chronological and pressure-temperature evolution of regional metamorphic terrains may in principle be derived from metamorphic garnets because of the similarly low diffusivities of Sm, Nd and major cations in this mineral. We report here Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic and major element data on prograde garnets from regionally metamorphosed pelites from Newfoundland. The garnets preserve a prograde major element zonation as well as a sympathetic variation in Sm/Nd ratio. Sm-Nd data for separated portions of the garnet from core to rim provide both upper limits on the time for garnet growth and demonstrate synchronous growth of different garnet grains on a hand specimen scale. The Rb-Sr data on the same garnet fractions are in general agreement with these results but in some cases cannot be interpreted in terms of growth. A minimum heating rate of 3 K Ma -1 is derived by combining the estimates for garnet growth time with the apparent temperature interval over which the garnet grew, deduced from the major element zonation. This value is similar to the minimum suggested by theoretical models for the thermal evolution of thickened continental crust. The growth rate is within the range of 1.3-19 mm Ma -1 , set respectively by the isotopic data and the likely upper limit for heating rate during regional metamorphism. These growth rates appear too slow to be controlled by surface reaction and suggest that other factors, such as transport, may be rate-limiting. In this case, the limits set of the effective diffusion coefficient for material transport to the growth site (=0.4-6.1x10 -17 m 2 s -1 ) suggest that grain boundary diffusion is probably the transport mechanism for supply of material to the growing garnet. (orig.)

  20. Genes ycfR, sirA and yigG contribute to the surface attachment of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Saintpaul to fresh produce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K Salazar

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a frequent contaminant of minimally-processed fresh produce linked to major foodborne disease outbreaks. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association of this enteric pathogen with fresh produce remain largely unexplored. In our recent study, we showed that the expression of a putative stress regulatory gene, ycfR, was significantly induced in S. enterica upon exposure to chlorine treatment, a common industrial practice for washing and decontaminating fresh produce during minimal processing. Two additional genes, sirA involved in S. enterica biofilm formation and yigG of unknown function, were also found to be differentially regulated under chlorine stress. To further characterize the roles of ycfR, sirA, and yigG in S. enterica attachment and survival on fresh produce, we constructed in-frame deletions of all three genes in two different S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium and Saintpaul, which have been implicated in previous disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene microtiter plates, cell aggregation and hydrophobicity, chlorine resistance, and surface attachment to intact spinach leaf and grape tomato were compared among wild-type strains, single-gene deletion mutants, and their respective complementation mutants. The results showed that deletions of ycfR, sirA, and yigG reduced bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene as well as fresh produce surface with or without chlorine treatment in both Typhimurium and Saintpaul. Deletion of ycfR in Typhimurium significantly reduced bacterial chlorine resistance and the attachment to the plant surfaces after chlorinated water washes. Deletions of ycfR in Typhimurium and yigG in Saintpaul resulted in significant increase in cell aggregation. Our findings suggest that ycfR, sirA, and yigG collectively contribute to S. enterica surface attachment and survival during post-harvest minimal processing of fresh produce.

  1. Magnetooptical garnet films: preparation, characterisation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernert, P.; Lorenz, A.; Lindner, M.; Richert, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In contemporary magnetooptics both Kerr effect and Faraday effect are applied. The Kerr effect of metals and alloys - such as Fe, Ni, Co, FePt, CoPt, MnBi, PtMnSb - with thicknesses 300 μm are established as commercial isolators in optical systems and for developments of waveguide applications. Bi-REIG is prepared mostly by conventional liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) in PbO-B 2 O 3 -Bi 2 O 3 based solvents and sometimes by laser ablation and as nanocrystalline powders. In each case high Faraday rotation and low optical absorption is necessary. Additionally, magnetooptical sensors should possess high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. All these demands can be fulfilled with (REBi) 3 (FeGaAl) 5 O 12 LPE layers. Here we discuss some new results concerning preparation, characterisation, and application of Bi-TmIG and Bi-DyIG LPE layers on high-quality gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) or lattice matched Ca-, Mg-, Zr-substituted GGG substrates. Optimization of flux melt composition and under cooling result in sensor films with a Faraday rotation of e.g. -1.2 0 /μm at a wavelength of l=590 nm and saturation induction of Bs=70 mT. Such films are already applied for forensic investigations. However, the responsivity of the garnet films is restricted by their coercivity Hc. Surface defects are found to give rise to pinned magnetic domains correlated with typical hysteresis. Obviously, Hc and the formation of pits are due to misfit stress and substrate surface quality. Besides, it is shown that an increase of working temperature leads to smaller coercivities. (authors)

  2. High-coercive garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V N; Danishevskaya, Y V; Nedviga, A S; Milyukova, H T

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using high-coercive of garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording is related with the presence of the metastable domain structure, which arises due to a significant mismatch of the lattice parameters of the film and the substrate. In the work the connection between facet crystal structure of elastically strained ferrite garnets films and the domain structure in them is established by methods of phase contrast and polarization microscopy. (paper)

  3. Garnets from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Eugénio A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a geochemical study of a set of garnets, selected by their colors, from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite, located on northeast Angola. Mantle-derived garnets were classified according to the scheme proposed by Grütter et al. (2004 and belong to the G1, G4, G9 and G10 groups. Both sub-calcic (G10 and Ca-saturated (G9 garnets, typical, respectively, of harzburgites and lherzolites, were identified. The solubility limit of knorringite molecule in G10D garnets suggests they have crystallized at a minimum pressure of about 40 to 45 kbar (4-4.5 GPa. The occurrence of diamond stability field garnets (G10D is a clear indicator of the potential of this kimberlite for diamond. The chemistry of the garnets suggests that the source for the kimberlite was a lherzolite that has suffered a partial melting that formed basaltic magma, leaving a harzburgite as a residue.

  4. A method of producing garnet materials for use in circular magnetic domain devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing iron garnet materials for use in circular magnetic domain devices. It comprises providing material having complex domain wall behaviour, and implanting ions having an atomic number of at least 15 into the material. The energy and dose of the ions are such that the lattice is expanded and its crystallinity preserved, and the lattice expansion is such that the complex domain wall behaviour is substantially eliminated. The ions should have an energy in the range 100 to 500 keV and the dose should be in the range 10 12 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The implanted ions may be Ar, Sm, Te, or Lu. It is thought that the use of rare earth ions allows the magnetostriction constant of the implanted ion to operate in addition to that of the implanted garnet. An advantage of the method is that doses used for implantation using Ar or rare earth ions are less than for implantation using lighter ions, thereby allowing implantations to be performed in a shorter time for the same beam currency density. (UK)

  5. Spatial and size distributions of garnets grown in a pseudotachylyte generated during a lower crust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Adriane; Renard, François; Austrheim, Håkon; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2018-05-01

    In the Bergen Arc, western Norway, rocks exhumed from the lower crust record earthquakes that formed during the Caledonian collision. These earthquakes occurred at about 30-50 km depth under granulite or amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. Coseismic frictional heating produced pseudotachylytes in this area. We describe pseudotachylytes using field data to infer earthquake magnitude (M ≥ 6.6), low dynamic friction during rupture propagation (μd earthquake arrest. High resolution 3D X-ray microtomography imaging reveals the microstructure of a pseudotachylyte sample, including numerous garnets and their corona of plagioclase that we infer have crystallized in the pseudotachylyte. These garnets 1) have dendritic shapes and are surrounded by plagioclase coronae almost fully depleted in iron, 2) have a log-normal volume distribution, 3) increase in volume with increasing distance away from the pseudotachylyte-host rock boundary, and 4) decrease in number with increasing distance away from the pseudotachylyte -host rock boundary. These characteristics indicate fast mineral growth, likely within seconds. We propose that these new quantitative criteria may assist in the unambiguous identification of pseudotachylytes in the field.

  6. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J., E-mail: eduardo.nassar@unifran.edu.br

    2016-02-15

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu{sup 3+} onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min{sup −1} and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu{sup 3+} film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu{sup 3+} powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu{sup 3+}. • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu{sup 3+} was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  7. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu 3+ onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min −1 and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu 3+ film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu 3+ powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu 3+ . • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu 3+ was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  8. Presumed Multiple Metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau; Decoding from Chemistry and Inclusion/Lamella Mineralogy of Diverse Garnets from the Garnet Ridge, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various garnets containing the information on mantle petrology and related metasomatism occur at the Garnet Ridge, Colorado Plateau. The origins of garnets range from deep mantle to shallow continental crust. These garnets were delivered by kimberlitic diatreme of 30 Ma (Smith et al. 2004). We have classified the garnets into 10 groups (A to J, see figure) by naked eye observation, major chemistry, minor Na-Ti-P, inclusion/lamella mineralogy. Among them, groups A to D are of mantle origin, E to G of subducted oceanic crust origin, and H to J of continental crust origin. We summarized results as in the followings. A: Cr and pyrope-rich garnet has Cr2O3(0.8-6.3 wt.%) and inclusions of Ol, Cpx, Opx, Ti-Chu/Chn and carbonates, indicating carbonated garnet lherzolites as host. Cr contents negatively correlates with Na-Ti-P contents and occurrence of exsolved Rt, Ilm and crichtonite. This indicates Cr-rich end-member is the most "primitive" mantle garnet before metasomatism. B: Pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet of peridotitic origins was subdivided into 4 subgroups (B1 to B4, see figure). Compositional range in Ca-Mg-Fe triangle expands to Fe-rich side from group A. Exsolved Na-bearing amphibole and inclusions of Ap, carbonates and fluid were identified. These indicate metasomatism of group A. C: Garnet megacryst is coarse-grained garnet (2-10 cm across) with crystal faces. This garnet has wide chemical variation plotted in the center area of Ca-Mg-Fe triangle. D: Garnet aggregate has similar chemistry of group C and is composed of several grains. Grain boundaries of garnet were recognized by Rt, Ilm and other minerals and oscillatory zonings of Ca, Mg, Fe and Na-Ti-P. Fluid inclusions of groups C and D suggest these garnets might crystalized from fluid. E: Garnet in eclogite and F: Garnet in metasomatized eclogite are xenolith samples (the Fallaron Plate origin?). Aggregate of Zo+Ab contained in group E indicates decomposed precursor lawsonite inclusion. G: Quartz

  9. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršek, M. [Slovenian Museum of National History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  10. Observation of the spin Peltier effect for magnetic insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J; Dejene, F K; Wagenaar, D; Bauer, G E W; Ben Youssef, J; van Wees, B J

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques.

  11. Lu-Hf geochronology on cm-sized garnets using microsampling: New constraints on garnet growth rates and duration of metamorphism during continental collision (Menderes Massif, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-12-01

    This study shows Lu-Hf geochronology of zoned garnet crystals contained in mica schists from the southern Menderes Massif, Turkey. Selected samples are four 3-5 cm large garnet megacrysts of which several consecutive garnet shells have been sampled with a micro-saw and analyzed for dating. The results are used to extract growth rates of garnet, and also to improve the time constraint for Alpine-aged overprint of the Pan-African basement in the Menderes Massif. Lu-Hf ages of the sampled garnet shells are determined by two-point garnet-only isochrons using the garnets' Lu-depleted rim compositions. This yields a consistent decrease of age information from core to rim segments of individual garnet crystals and the calculated isochron ages propose a time frame of growth between 42.6 ± 1.9 and 34.8 ± 3.1 Ma. Major element profiles in the investigated garnets characterize zoning patterns indicative of prograde conditions: Rayleigh fractionated bell-shaped Mn and decreasing Fe/(Fe + Mg) are recorded by the garnets' core to rim compositions. Therefore the obtained Lu-Hf ages record timing of early prograde growth for the cores of the garnets. Two of the large garnet crystals also yield isochron ages of 58.83 ± 0.69 and 50.16 ± 0.84 Ma in their innermost cores, which appear to record an early nucleation event. This view, however, is not in concordance with the observed major element profiles of these garnets, and therefore is interpreted with caution. Termination of the garnet growth period is determined through the calculation of radial growth rates based on the size of the garnets and the Lu-Hf ages obtained for consecutive shells. Extrapolation of these rates potentially constrains the total duration for garnet growth terminating at 31 ± 6 Ma. Comparison of the growth rates calculated for individual crystals shows a variety of slow and fast growing garnets, and similar results have been previously obtained with the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems. The new data

  12. Microstructure and defect chemistry of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes basic aspects concerning the defect chemistry and the microstructure of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics. The work consists of three parts: a literature study, an experimental part and a section giving computer simulation data of defects. (author). 320 refs.; 68 figs.; 72 schemes; 32 tabs

  13. Sol gel synthesis for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.; Terpstra, R.A.; Metselaar, R.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel—synthesis for preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet powder with small grain size is subject of this ongoing study. Starting materials were sulfates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3A1SO1Z) pH during hydrolysis as well as temperature during calcination and

  14. Static Magnetic Properties of AL800 Garnet Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuharik, J. [Fermilab; Madrak, R. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Sun, S. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2017-05-17

    A second harmonic tunable RF cavity is being devel-oped for the Fermilab Booster. This device, which prom-ises reduction of the particle beam loss at the injection, transition, and extraction stages, employs perpendicularly biased garnet material for frequency tuning. The required range of the tuning is significantly wider than in previously built and tested tunable RF devices. As a result, the mag-netic field in the garnet comes fairly close to the gyromag-netic resonance line at the lower end of the frequency range. The chosen design concept of a tuner for the cavity cannot ensure uniform magnetic field in the garnet mate-rial; thus, it is important to know the static magnetic prop-erties of the material to avoid significant increase in the lo-cal RF loss power density. This report summarizes studies performed at Fermilab to understand variations in the mag-netic properties of the AL800 garnet material used to build the tuner of the cavity.

  15. Polyphase deformation and garnet growth in pelitic schists of Sausar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metamorphism, minerals that do not participate in the metamorphic ... (internal schistosity – Si) and the matrix foliation .... region along the longer edges of the garnet con- firms that ..... Sarkar S N, Trivedi J R and Gopalan K 1986 Rb-Sr whole.

  16. Sol–gel preparation of selected lanthanide aluminium garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubnikova, N.; Garskaite, E.; Pinkas, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Beganskiene, A.; Kareiva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2010), s. 213-219 ISSN 0928-0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : lanthanide aluminium garnets * sol-gel processing Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2010

  17. On fabrication procedures of Li-ion conducting garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanc, Emil [The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków (Poland); Zając, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.zajac@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Lu, Li; Yan, Binggong; Kotobuki, Masashi [Materials Science Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ziąbka, Magdalena [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Molenda, Janina [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    Ceramic oxides exhibiting high lithium-ion mobility at room temperature receive broad attention as candidate electrolytes for lithium batteries. Lithium-stuffed garnets from the Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} group seem to be especially promising because of their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and their electrochemical stability. In this work, we discuss factors that affect formation of the garnet in its bulk form or in the form of thick and thin films. We demonstrate that zinc oxide can be applied as a sintering aid that facilitate the formation of the highly conducting cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnet phase in a single-step sintering procedure. Based on our experience with the single-step sintering experiments, we successfully fabricated a thick-film membrane consisting of a garnet solid electrolyte using the tape casting technique. In order to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte even further we investigated the fabrication of a thin-film Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} electrolyte by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  18. Combined external-beam PIXE and {mu}-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of 'cloisonne' style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, ...), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ('rhodolite'). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the 'rhodolite' garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, {mu}-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  19. The Friningen Garnet Peridotite (central Swedish Caledonides). A good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; van Roermund, Herman L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068882432

    2015-01-01

    We present pseudosections of Cr-bearing garnet peridotite that together with new mineral–chemical data allow quantification of the early PT conditions of the original lithospheric mantle assemblage (M1) of the Friningen Garnet Peridotite (FGP) located in the central/middle belt of the Seve Nappe

  20. Unraveling the history of complex zoned garnets from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barickman, M. H.; Martin, C.; Flores, K. E.; Harlow, G. E.; Bonnet, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is situated in central Guatemala, between the North American and Caribbean plates. Two serpentinite mélanges straddle the Motagua Fault system: the North Motagua Mélange (NMM) and the South Motagua Mélange (SMM). In this study, chemically zoned garnet grains from four eclogite blocks from the NMM were analyzed by EMPA for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements to unravel the geological history of the eclogites. These eclogites typically consist of euhedral to subhedral garnets, partly retrogressed omphacite grains, and accessory minerals such as phengite and epidote as inclusions in garnet. EBSD was employed to examine apparent garnet inclusions in garnet. The garnet grains in NMM eclogites display complex chemical zonations: all grains roughly show a spessartine-rich core, an almandine-rich core and/or intermediate zone, and a pyrope and grossular-rich rim. Additionally, crystal resorption can be observed between the different zones, and the pyrope-grossular rim can display oscillatory zoning. Finally, grossular-rich zones (crystallographically syntactic) within garnet are present in all studied samples. REE and spider diagrams do not show any significant difference in the patterns of the different zones within the garnet, or indicating that the chemical environment from which each garnet zone grew was broadly the same. The lack of significant variation in LILE content indicates that a fluid influx during garnet growth is unlikely. Consequently, we interpret that garnet grains grew in a largely closed system; however, the presence of the grossular-rich zones, argues for occasional excursions into conditions when either two garnets crystallized or Ca-rich overgrowths that were largely resorbed prior to subsequent continued garnet growth.

  1. Coercive force features in stressed epitaxial ferrite-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, S.V.; Nedviga, A.S.; Vishnevskij, V.G.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Yagupov, V.S.; Nesteruk, A.G.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    One has investigated into effect of a relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate within 0.5-0.85% range on behavior of the coercive force of (Bi, Sm, Lu, Ca) 3 (Fe, Sc, Ga, Al) 5 O 12 composition ferrite garnet epitaxial films (FGEF) synthesized at (111) orientation gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates. One has revealed that the FGEF coercive force at increase of the relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate increases at first, while when reaching the maximum value it begins to decrease. The coercive force maximum value is shown to result from the periodical localized stresses. The period of the localized stresses is determined by the value of mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate [ru

  2. Magnetic domain structure investigation of Bi: YIG-thin films by combination of AFM and cantilever-based aperture SNOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysokikh, Yu E; Shevyakov, V I; Krasnoborodko, S Yu; Shelaev, A V; Prokopov, A R

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of magnetic domain structure investigation by combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Special hollow-pyramid AFM cantilevers with aperture was used. This combination allows us use same probe for both topography and domain structure visualization of Bi -substituted ferrite garnet films of micro- and nano-meter thickness. Samples were excited through aperture by tightly focused linearly polarized laser beam. Magneto-optical effect rotates polarization of transmitted light depend on domain orientation. Visualization of magnetic domains was performed by detecting cross polarized component of transmitted light. SNOM allows to obtain high resolution magnetic domain image and prevent sample from any disturbance by magnetic probe. Same area SNOM and MFM images are presented. (paper)

  3. Low temperature delayed recombination decay in scintillating garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Babin, Vladimir; Bartosiewicz, Karol; Schulman, L. S.; Čuba, V.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, Fešb (2015), s. 127-131 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316906 - LUMINET Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101212 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : luminescence * garnets * scintillator * tunneling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  4. Wear performance of garnet aluminium composites at high contact pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anju; Arora, Rama; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Gurmel; Pandey, O. P.

    2016-05-01

    To satisfy the needs of the engineering sector, researchers and material scientists in this area adopted the development of composites with tailor made properties to enhance efficiency and cost savings in the manufacturing sector. The technology of the mineral industry is shaping the supply and demand of minerals derived materials. The composites are best classified as high performance materials have high strength-to-weight ratios, and require controlled manufacturing environments for optimum performance. Natural mineral garnet was used as the reinforcement of composite because of satisfactory mechanical properties as well as an attractive ecological alternative to others ceramics. For this purpose, samples have been prepared with different sizesof the garnet reinforcement using the mechanical stirring method to achieve the homogeneously dispersed strengthening phase. A systematic study of the effect of high contact pressure on the sliding wear behaviour of garnet reinforced LM13 alloy composites is presented in this paper. The SEM analysis of the worn samples and debris reveals the clues about the wear mechanism. The drastic improvement in the wear resistance of the composites at high contact pressure shows the high potential of the material to be used in engineering applications.

  5. Fluid-aided incorporation of Y into almandine-pyrope garnet via coupled dissolution-reprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    In nature almandine-pyrope garnet is a well-known host for a variety of trace elements including (Y+HREE), Sr, HFSE, as well as LREE such as Sm and Nd; all of which have important roles with regard to various geological processes (Kohn, 2009, GCA, 73, 170). For example, Y exchange between xenotime and garnet has been empirically calibrated as a geothermometer (Pyle and Spear, 2000, CMP, 138, 51). Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf dating, using garnet, is a well-known geochronometer (Thöni et al., 2008, Chem Geol, 254, 216). In general, REE + HFSE + Sr have been used to chart garnet growth and subsequently the evolution of the host rock (Konrad-Schmolke et al., 2008, EPSL, 272, 488). Incorporation of Y into garnet is probably the most widely studied trace element. These studies range from stress-induced redistribution of Y in garnet (Røhr et al, 2007, Am Mineral, 92, 1276) to Y zoning during garnet growth (Zeh, 2005, J Petrol, 47, 2335). While the incorporation of Y into garnet has generally been thought to occur either via diffusion or during garnet growth, more recent workers have suggested that incorporation of Y could also be fluid-aided. Fluid-aided incorporation of Y into garnet has been tested in the piston-cylinder apparatus (CaF2 assemblies, cylindrical graphite ovens) at 1000 MPa and 900 °C (8 days duration). Here, 10 mg of 50-200 µm size, inclusion-free, gem quality, fragments of the Gore Mountain garnet (Alm40-49, Py37-43, Gr13-16, Sp1) plus 5 mg 2N NaOH and 2 mg Y2O3 were loaded into a 3 mm diameter, 1 cm long, Au capsule that was then arc-welded shut and placed vertically in the CaF2 assembly such that the NiCr thermocouple tip came halfway up along the Au capsule length. Examination of the garnet fragments after the experiment indicates both high Y mobility and the partial alteration of the garnet in the form of a remobilized Y3Al5O12 component enriching those areas of the garnet along the grain rim. The enriched areas take the form of a series of intergrowths with

  6. Strong Interlayer Magnon-Magnon Coupling in Magnetic Metal-Insulator Hybrid Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Liu, Chuanpu; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Ke; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Wu, Mingzhong; Yu, Haiming

    2018-05-01

    We observe strong interlayer magnon-magnon coupling in an on-chip nanomagnonic device at room temperature. Ferromagnetic nanowire arrays are integrated on a 20-nm-thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin film strip. Large anticrossing gaps up to 1.58 GHz are observed between the ferromagnetic resonance of the nanowires and the in-plane standing spin waves of the YIG film. Control experiments and simulations reveal that both the interlayer exchange coupling and the dynamical dipolar coupling contribute to the observed anticrossings. The coupling strength is tunable by the magnetic configuration, allowing the coherent control of magnonic devices.

  7. Superconductivity induced by interfacial coupling to magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Fjærbu, Eirik Løhaugen; Brataas, Arne

    2018-03-01

    We consider a thin normal metal sandwiched between two ferromagnetic insulators. At the interfaces, the exchange coupling causes electrons within the metal to interact with magnons in the insulators. This electron-magnon interaction induces electron-electron interactions, which in turn can result in p -wave superconductivity. We solve the gap equation numerically and estimate the critical temperature. In yttrium iron garnet (YIG)-Au-YIG trilayers, superconductivity sets in at temperatures somewhere in the interval between 1 and 10 K. EuO-Au-EuO trilayers require a lower temperature, in the range from 0.01 to 1 K.

  8. Insights into the mantle geochemistry of scandium from a meta-analysis of garnet data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassé, Mathieu; Griffin, William L.; Alard, Olivier; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Calas, Georges

    2018-06-01

    The meta-analysis of about 13,000 analyses of scandium content in garnet grains shows that, below the spinel-garnet transition, this phase carries about three-quarters of the Sc budget of the mantle, indicating its control on Sc mobility. The Sc content of garnets in mafic rocks is low, due to a dilution effect resulting from their high modal content in garnet. Garnets from ultramafic rocks exhibit a wider range of Sc concentrations. We assess the relative influence of thermobarometry, crystal chemistry and fluid-related events on the distribution of Sc in garnet from such rocks to improve the tracking of geochemical processes in the mantle. Pressure and temperature of equilibration in the mantle are second-order factors influencing the Sc content of garnet, while crystal chemistry, in particular Cr/Cr+Al and Ca/Ca+Mg, is the main parameter controlling the compatibility of Sc. Scandium is incorporated in both X and Y sites of Cr-Ca-rich garnets, resulting in a behaviour intermediate between rare-earth elements, incorporated in the X site, and trivalent transition elements, occupying the Y site. This affinity for both sites results in a mild compatibility of Sc in the garnet stability field of the mantle; hence Sc concentration in garnet increases with melt extraction and can be reduced by silicate-melt metasomatism. In contrast, metasomatism by volatile-rich fluids increases the Sc concentration in garnet. The control of garnet on the compatibility of Sc in deep lithospheric rocks demonstrates the potential of using Sc to track the conditions of formation of magmas and their residual rocks, as well as the origin and nature of metasomatic fluids.

  9. Synthesis of complex oxides with garnet structure by spray drying of an aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeenko, A. V.; Larionova, T. V.; Klimova-Korsmik, O. G.; Starykh, R. V.; Galkin, V. V.; Tolochko, O. V.

    2017-04-01

    The use of spray drying to obtain powders of complex oxides with a garnet structure has demonstrated. The processes occurring during heating of the synthesized oxide-salt product, leading to the formation of a material with a garnet structure, have been investigated using DTA, TGA, XPS, and XRD. It has been shown that a single-phase garnet structure of system (Y x Gd(3- x))3Al5O12 can be synthesized over the entire range of compositions.

  10. Fission track dating and estimation of uranium in some garnets of Rajasthan (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S; Virk, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-09-01

    The experimental procedure, involving the preparation, etching, thermal neutron irradiation and scanning of the garnet samples, is described. The calculated fission track ages and uranium concentration are tabulated.

  11. Distribution of garnet grain sizes and morphologies across the Moine Supergroup, northern Scottish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Thigpen, J. Ryan; Law, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is used in a wide range of geologic studies due to its important physical and chemical characteristics. While the mineral is useful for thermobarometry and geochronology constraints and can often be correlated to deformation and fabric development, difficulties remain in making meaningful interpretations of such data. In this study, we characterize garnet grain sizes and crystal morphologies from 141 garnet-bearing metasedimentary rock samples collected from the northern part of the Moine Supergroup in the Scottish Caledonides. Larger, euhedral crystals are indicative of prograde metamorphic growth and are typically associated with the most recent phase of orogenesis (Scandian, ˜430 Ma). Small, rounded ("pin-head") garnets are interpreted as detrital in origin. A subhedral classification is more subjective and is used when garnets contains portions of straight boundaries but have rounded edges or rims that have been altered through retrograde metamorphic reactions. From our collection, 88 samples contain anhedral garnets (maximum measured grain size d = 0.46 ± 0.21 mm), 34 bear subhedral garnets (d = 2.0 ± 1.0 mm), and the remaining 19 samples contain garnets with euhedral grains (d = 4.4 ± 2.6 mm). Plotting the distribution of garnets relative to the mapped thrust contacts reveals an abrupt change in morphology and grain size when traced from the Moine thrust sheet across the Ben Hope and Sgurr Beag thrusts into the higher-grade, more hinterland-positioned thrust sheets. The dominance of anhedral garnets in the Moine thrust sheet suggests that these grains should not be used for peak P - T estimation associated with relatively low temperature (advance of interpreting large suits of garnet-derived thermodynamic and geochronologic data.

  12. Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Esmann, J; Serup, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) lasers is golden standard; however, clients' satisfaction with treatment is little known. OBJECTIVE: To determine clients' satisfaction with tattoo removal. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four tattoo removal clients who had...... relative to colour of tattoo on a scale from 0 (no effect) to 10 (complete removal) scored a mean of blue 9.5, black 9.4, yellow 8.9, red 8.8 and green 6.5. Clients were dissatisfied with green pigment remnants, which could mimic bruising. One hundred and twenty-nine clients (84%) experienced moderate...

  13. Structure-terahertz property relationship in yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steere, D.W.; Clark, B.M.; Sundaram, S.K. [Alfred University, Terahertz and Millimeter Waves Laboratory (T-Lab), Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, NY (United States); Gaume, R. [Townes Laser Institute and the NanoScience Technology Center, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Terahertz (THz) transmission measurements on chemically variant yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics are described. Chemical compositions and processing parameters were varied to determine the effect of stoichiometry, density, and pore volume distribution on the optical and dielectric properties in the THz frequency regime. Density has the largest effect on properties out of the parameters that were investigated. In addition, a linear correlation between cubic root of real permittivity at 1 THz and average density of these samples is observed. Our results show promise for design and fabrication of advanced optical materials and devices with desired THz properties via controlling density and porosity of the materials. (orig.)

  14. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  15. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  16. Ce3+-Doped garnet phosphors : Composition modification, luminescence properties and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Zhiguo; Meijerink, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Garnets have the general formula of A3B2C3O12 and form a wide range of inorganic compounds, occurring both naturally (gemstones) and synthetically. Their physical and chemical properties are closely related to the structure and composition. In particular, Ce3+-doped garnet phosphors have a long

  17. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...

  18. Experimental study of quartz inclusions in garnet at pressures up to 3.0 GPa: evaluating validity of the quartz-in-garnet inclusion elastic thermobarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Spear, Frank S.

    2018-05-01

    Garnet crystals with quartz inclusions were hydrothermally crystallized from oxide starting materials in piston-cylinder apparatuses at pressures from 0.5 to 3 GPa and temperatures ranging from 700 to 800 °C to study how entrapment conditions affect remnant pressures of quartz inclusions used for quartz-in-garnet (QuiG) elastic thermobarometry. Systematic changes of the 128, 206 and 464 cm-1 Raman band frequencies of quartz were used to determine pressures of quartz inclusions in garnet using Raman spectroscopy calibrations that describe the P-T dependencies of Raman band shifts for quartz under hydrostatic pressure. Within analytical uncertainties, inclusion pressures calculated for each of the three Raman band frequencies are equivalent, which suggests that non-hydrostatic stress effects caused by elastic anisotropy in quartz are smaller than measurement errors. The experimental quartz inclusions have pressures ranging from - 0.351 to 1.247 GPa that span the range of values observed for quartz inclusions in garnets from natural rocks. Quartz inclusion pressures were used to model P-T conditions at which the inclusions could have been trapped. The accuracy of QuiG thermobarometry was evaluated by considering the differences between pressures measured during experiments and pressures calculated using published equation of state parameters for quartz and garnet. Our experimental results demonstrate that Raman measurements performed at room temperature can be used without corrections to estimate garnet crystallization pressures. Calculated entrapment pressures for quartz inclusions in garnet are less than 10% different from pressures measured during the experiments. Because the method is simple to apply with reasonable accuracy, we expect widespread usage of QuiG thermobarometry to estimate crystallization conditions for garnet-bearing silicic rocks.

  19. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nur-E-Alam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed.

  20. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Kotov, Viacheslav A.; Balabanov, Dmitry; Akimov, Ilya; Alameh, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed. PMID:28788043

  1. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mallika K.; Karmalkar, Nitin R.; Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Harshe, Shivani; Gain, Sarah; Griffin, William L.

    2017-12-01

    The eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, NW Himalayas preserve both garnets with spectacular atoll textures, as well as whole porphyroblastic garnets. Whole garnets are euhedral, idiomorphic and enclose inclusions of amphibole, phengite and zoisite within the cores, and omphacite and quartz/coesite towards the rims. Detailed electron microprobe analyses and back-scattered electron images show well-preserved prograde zoning in the whole garnets with an increase in Mg and decrease in Ca and Mn contents from the core to the rim. The atoll garnets commonly consist of euhedral ring over island/peninsular core containing inclusions of phengite, omphacite and rarely amphibole between the core and ring. Compositional profiles across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and Mn with low Mg at the peninsula/island cores; contrary to this low Ca, Mn and high Mg is observed at the outer rings. Temperature estimates yield higher values at the Mg-rich atoll garnet outer rings compared to the atoll cores. Atoll garnet formation was favoured by infiltration of fluid formed due to breakdown of hydrous phases, and/or the release of structurally bounded OH from nominally anhydrous minerals at the onset of exhumation. Infiltration of fluids along pre-existing fracture pathways and along mineral inclusion boundaries triggered breakdown of the original garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown garnet rings. This breakdown of garnet cores and inward re-growth at the outer ring produced the atoll structure. Calibrated geo-thermobarometers and mineral equilibria reflect that the Tso Morari eclogites attain peak pressures prior to peak temperatures representing a clockwise path of evolution.

  2. A Study of Defect Behavior in Almandine Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Dachs, E.; Tipplet, G.; Rossman, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    Transport and diffusion in crystals are controlled by defects. However, a good understanding of the defect types in many silicates, including garnet, is not at hand. We undertook a study on synthetic almandine, ideal end-member Fe3Al2Si3O12, to better understand its precise chemical and physical properties and defect behavior. Crystals were synthesized at high pressures and temperatures under different fO2 conditions using various starting materials with H2O and without. The almandine obtained came in polycrystalline and single-crystal form. The synthetic reaction products and crystals were carefully characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analysis and with 57Fe Mössbauer, UV/VIS single-crystal absorption and IR single-crystal spectroscopy. Various possible intrinsic defects, such as the Frenkel, Schottky and site-disorder types, along with Fe3+, in both synthetic and natural almandine crystals, were analyzed based on model defects expressed in Kröger-Vink notation. Certain types of minor microscopic- to macroscopic-sized precipitation or exsolution phases, including some that are nanosized, that are observed in synthetic almandine (e.g., magnetite), as well as in more compositionally complex natural crystals (e.g., magnetite, rutile, ilmenite), may result from defect reactions. An explanation for their origin through minor amounts of defects in garnet has certain advantages over other models that have been put forth in the literature that assume strict garnet stoichiometry for their formation and/or open-system atomic transport over relatively long length scales. Physical properties, including magnetic, electrical conductivity and diffusion behavior, as well as the color, of almandine are also analyzed in terms of various possible model defects. It is difficult, if not impossible, to synthesize stoichiometric end-member almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12, in the laboratory, as small amounts of extrinsic OH- and/or Fe3+ defects, for example

  3. Microstructures and physical properties of waste garnets as a promising construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Lateef Muttashar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrial growth has witnessed the ever-increasing utilization of sand from rivers for various construction purposes, which caused an over-exploitation of rivers’ beds and disturbed the eco-system. strong engineering properties of waste garnets offer a recycling alternative to create efficient construction materials. Recycling of garnets provides a cost-effective and environmentally responsible solution rather than dumping it as industrial waste. In this spirit, this article presents an investigation into the capacity of spent garnets as sand replacement. The main parameters studied were the evolution of leaching performance, microstructure of the raw spent garnet and sand specimens. The microstructures, boning vibrations and thermal properties of the raw materials were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. Admirable features of the results suggest that the spent garnet is proven to be suitable replacement of sand. It is established that proper exploitation of spent garnet as an alternative to sand could save the earth from depleting the natural resources which is essential for sustainable development. Keywords: Spent garnet, Sand, Micro-structures, Recycling, Concrete

  4. Study of the provenance of Belgian Merovingian garnets by PIXE at IPNAS cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, F.; Vrielynck, O.; Laclavetine, K.; Chene, G.; Strivay, D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent archaeological excavation in Belgium reveals one of the biggest Merovingian necropolis ever found in this country. This necropolis contains 436 tombs with a period of occupation of almost two centuries. Some of these tombs were very rich, especially two of them, and delivered an important funerary furniture. About 60 jewels inlaid with red garnets have been found, most of them of 'cloisonne' style (namely about 450 garnets). The new extracted beam set-up of the IPNAS cyclotron (University of Liege, Belgium) has been improved in order to analyse by PIXE these garnets and try to determine their provenance. These analyses reveal that the garnets found in the necropolis of Grez-Doiceau are very homogeneous in composition (almandine garnets) and are coming almost from a unique source. These results have been compared to previous studies led in France during these past five years. This permits to identify the source of almandine garnet situated in India and to highlight differences in garnet supply between France and Belgium in Merovingian times

  5. Efficient spin transport through polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Gomes, J. P.; Assis, H. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2017-01-01

    By using the spin pumping process, we show that it is possible to transport a pure spin current across layers of conducting polyaniline (PANI) with several hundred nanometers sandwiched between a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a thin layer of platinum. The spin current generated by microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the YIG film, injected through the YIG/PANI interface, crosses the whole PANI layer and then is injected into the Pt layer. By means of the inverse spin Hall effect in the Pt, the spin current is converted into charge current and electrically detected as a dc voltage. We measured a spin diffusion length in PANI of 590 ± 40 nm, which is very large compared with normal metals, demonstrating that PANI can be used as an efficient spin current conductor and poor charge current conductor, opening the path towards spintronics applications based in this very attractive material.

  6. Optical Manipulation of a Magnon-Photon Hybrid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio, C; Carugno, G; Guarise, M; Ortolan, A; Ruoso, G

    2017-03-10

    We demonstrate an all-optical method for manipulating the magnetization in a 1-mm yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) sphere placed in a ∼0.17  T uniform magnetic field. A harmonic of the frequency comb delivered by a multi-GHz infrared laser source is tuned to the Larmor frequency of the YIG sphere to drive magnetization oscillations, which in turn give rise to a radiation field used to thoroughly investigate the phenomenon. The radiation damping issue that occurs at high frequency and in the presence of highly magnetizated materials has been overcome by exploiting the magnon-photon strong coupling regime in microwave cavities. Our findings demonstrate an effective technique for ultrafast control of the magnetization vector in optomagnetic materials via polarization rotation and intensity modulation of an incident laser beam. We eventually get a second-order susceptibility value of ∼10^{-7}  cm^{2}/MW for single crystal YIG.

  7. Effects of Iron and Aluminum on Phase Boundaries at 600-800 km Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sang-Heon; Ye, Yu; Prakapenka, Vitali; Meng, Yue

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution seismic studies have reported complex discontinuity structures at 600-800 km depths. However, the origin of the structures have not been well understood. In order to understand compositional effects, we have measured the post-spinel, post-garnet, and post-ilmenite phase boundaries in MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (iron free) and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO (iron bearing) systems with pyrolitic oxide ratios. In-situ X-ray diffraction measurements were performed at 20-30 GPa and 1500-2300 K in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell at the GSECARS and HPCAT sectors of the Advanced Photon Source. We use the Pt and Au pressure scales for the iron-free and iron-bearing compositions, respectively. The Pt and Au scales were calibrated with respect to each other in separate experiments. In most experiments, Ar was cryogenically loaded in the sample chamber as a thermal insulation and pressure transmitting medium, except for a few experiments where a KCl medium was used. At temperatures above 1900 K, the post-garnet transition occurs at higher pressures than the post-spinel transition in both the iron-free and iron-bearing systems. At lower temperatures, while the post-ilmenite transition occurs at nearly same pressures as the post-spinel transition in the iron-bearing system, the post-ilmenite transition occurs at slightly higher pressure (1 GPa) than the post-spinel transitions in the iron-free system. In the iron-free system, akimotoite is stable to much higher temperature (2300 K) than previously thought. In the iron-bearing system, the stability of akimotoite is limited to 2050 K. Our data indicate that Al partitions more into akimotoite than garnet in the iron-free system, which is the opposite to what has been found in iron-bearing systems. The high Al content in akimotoite seems to be responsible for the high-temperature stability of akimotoite in the iron-free system. The Clapeyron slope of the post-garnet boundary is greater by a factor of 2.5 in the iron-bearing system

  8. Optical spectroscopy of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canimoglu, A.; Karabulut, Y.; Ayvacikli, M.; Muresan, L.E.; Perhaita, I.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Karali, T.; Can, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report our results referring to the preparation of Ce doped Y 2.22 MgGa 2 Al 2 SiO 12 , Y 1.93 MgAl 4 SiO 12 and Y 2.22 Gd 0.75 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 using solid state reaction at high temperature. Several complementary methods (i.e. powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) were studied to examine the effects of the synthesis procedure on the morphology and structure. XRD analyses revealed that all compounds include yttrium aluminate phase with garnet structure. Cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out for clarification of relationship between host lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. Luminescence emission of phosphors is peaked at 530 nm assigned to 5d-4f transitions of the dopant Ce 3+ ions with a broad emission band in 400–700 nm range. Under electron irradiation, the emission spectrum of Ce doped (YGd) 3 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 is well defined and has a characteristic fairly narrow and sharp emission band peaking at 312 nm and 624 nm corresponding to transition of 6 P 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 and 6 G J → 6 P J (Gd 3+ ), respectively. We suggest some of phosphors might be excellent phototherapy phosphor materials under electron excitation. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Multicomponent Garnets were prepared solid state reaction method. • The shape and size of phosphor particles were examined. • The narrow band UV B emission due to Gd 3+ ions were observed.

  9. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  10. Effect of Sn doping on the room temperature magnetodielectric properties of yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhizhi; Chen, Fu; Li, Junnan; Feng, Zekun; Nie, Yan, E-mail: nieyan@hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-21

    The structures, magnetic properties, permittivity spectra, and magnetodielectric (MD) effects of polycrystalline Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5−x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 12} compounds prepared by solid state reactions were systematically investigated. The substitution of Sn{sup 4+} leads to lattice expansion and the donation of excess electrons in ceramics, which affects the concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, space charge, and electric dipole. As a result, as the amount of Sn dopant increases, so does saturation magnetization and permittivity in the low frequency band. The MD coefficient ([ε{sub r}(H) − ε{sub r}(0)]/ε{sub r}(0)) of lightly doped samples (x ≤ 0.05) is negative in the entire frequency band, reaching −2.3% at 350 MHz and 0.6 T for Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.95}Sn{sub 0.05}O{sub 12} ceramics. The MD coefficient of heavily doped samples (x > 0.05) is positive in the low frequency band, reaching 0.83% at 10 MHz and 0.6 T for Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.925}Sn{sub 0.075}O{sub 12} ceramics, and then decreasing with the increasing frequency, gradually becoming negative in the high frequency band. A detailed explanation is provided based on the origin of permittivity. This study provides a new methodology according to which the MD materials may be designed in order to satisfy the requirements of engineering applications.

  11. Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janantha, P. A. Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A.; Wu, Mingzhong

    2017-07-01

    The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y3Fe5O12 thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  12. Photoinduced domain structures in monocrystalline films of yttrium-iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, R.A.; Vladimirov, I.V.; Setchenkov, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Results of investigating the domain structure in Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 epitaxial films under polarized light effect are presented. The domain structure was observed using Faraday effect at 80 K, crystallographic directions were determined by X-ray method. The sample structure is shown to consist of macrodomains, which parallel boundaries are oriented on (011), (110), (101) and are reoriented under the light effect, therewith easiest magnetization axes are brought about perpendicular to vector E of the affecting light. When explaining such changes in domain structure elastic stresses and induced anisotropy of elastic nature must be taken accout of

  13. Magnetic field dependence of the magnon spin diffusion length in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L. J.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an external magnetic field on the diffusive spin transport by magnons in the magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12, using a nonlocal magnon transport measurement geometry. We observed a decrease in magnon spin diffusion length lambda(m) for increasing field strengths, where

  14. Variety in chemical zonation of garnet in eclogite from Nové Dvory, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, D.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 150, - (2005) ISSN 1609-0144. [International eclogite conference /7./. 03.07.2005-09.07.2005, Graz] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet * zonation * eclogite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Temperature effect on elastic properties of yttrium ferrite garnet Y3Fe5O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenkov, Yu.A.; Nikanorov, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    One studied temperature dependence of all independent elastic constants describing comprehensively elastic anisotropy of yttrium ferrite garnet within temperature wide range covering T c . One measured the Young modules for [100] and [110] crystallographic directions and the module of shift for [100] direction of specially pure single crystal of yttrium ferrite garnet within 20-600 deg C temperature range. One analyzed behavior of elastic modules and of elastic anisotropy factor near the critical temperature of magnetic phase transition [ru

  16. The Friningen Garnet Peridotite (central Swedish Caledonides). A good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present pseudosections of Cr-bearing garnet peridotite that together with new mineral-chemical data allow quantification of the early PT conditions of the original lithospheric mantle assemblage (M1) of the Friningen Garnet Peridotite (FGP) located in the central/middle belt of the Seve Nappe Complex in central Sweden. Results indicate that the early, coarse grained, olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + "high Cr" garnet assemblage (M1a) was formed at 1100 ± 100 °C and 5.0 ± 0.5 GPa. These metamorphic conditions were followed by an inferred late Proterozoic exhumation event down to 850-900 °C and 1.5 GPa (M1b). The latter PT estimate is based on the breakdown of high-Cr M1a garnet (Cr# = 0.065) + olivine into an orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel (Cr# = 0.15-0.25) ± pargasite kelyphite (M1b) and the exsolution of garnet from Al-rich orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. The M1b kelyphite is overprinted by an early-Caledonian UHPM mineral assemblage (M2; T = 800 °C and P = 3.0 GPa), equivalent to the earlier discovered UHP assemblage within an eclogitic dyke that cross-cuts FGP. In the garnet peridotite M2 is displayed by low-Cr garnet (Cr# = 0.030) growing together with spinel (Cr# = 0.35-0.45), both these minerals form part of the olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet + spinel + pargasite M2 assemblage. The formation of plagioclase + diopside symplectites after omphacite and breakdown of kyanite to sapphirine + albite in internal eclogite and the breakdown of M2 olivine + garnet to amphibole + orthopyroxene + spinel assemblages (M3) in garnet peridotite indicate post-UHP isothermal decompression down to 750-800 °C and 0.8-1.0 GPa (= M3). Multiphase solid-and fluid inclusion assemblages composed of Sr-bearing magnesite, dolomite or carbon decorate linear defect structures within M1a-b minerals and/or form subordinate local assemblages together with M2 minerals. The latter are interpreted as evidence for infiltration of early-Caledonian COH

  17. Sound velocities of skiagite-iron-majorite solid solution to 56 GPa probed by nuclear inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiukov, D. M.; Ismailova, L.; Kupenko, I.; Cerantola, V.; Sinmyo, R.; Glazyrin, K.; McCammon, C.; Chumakov, A. I.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.

    2018-05-01

    High-pressure experimental data on sound velocities of garnets are used for interpretation of seismological data related to the Earth's upper mantle and the mantle transition zone. We have carried out a Nuclear Inelastic Scattering study of iron-silicate garnet with skiagite (77 mol%)-iron-majorite composition in a diamond anvil cell up to 56 GPa at room temperature. The determined sound velocities are considerably lower than sound velocities of a number of silicate garnet end-members, such as grossular, pyrope, Mg-majorite, andradite, and almandine. The obtained sound velocities have the following pressure dependencies: V p [km/s] = 7.43(9) + 0.039(4) × P [GPa] and V s [km/s] = 3.56(12) + 0.012(6) × P [GPa]. We estimated sound velocities of pure skiagite and khoharite, and conclude that the presence of the iron-majorite component in skiagite strongly decreases V s . We analysed the influence of Fe3+ on sound velocities of garnet solid solution relevant to the mantle transition zone and consider that it may reduce sound velocities up to 1% relative to compositions with only Fe2+ in the cubic site.

  18. A NEW INTERPRETATION FOR THE GARNET ZONING IN METAPELITIC ROCKS OF THE SILGARÁ FORMATION, SOUTHWESTERN SANTANDER MASSIF, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos Reyes Carlos Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A Barrovian sequence of the Silgará Formation at the southwestern Santander Massif, Colombian Andes, contains zoned garnets in which major and trace element zoning correlates with distribution of mineral inclusions, which may indicate that garnet growth rate varied through time and affected both composition and texture ofgarnets, although different garnet producing reactions have also played an important role in the chemical zoning of garent. However, a local metasomatism process associated to the action of late magmatic fluids associated to the emplacement of the Pescadero Pluton (external forcing mechanism would be also considered. In particular, Ca, Mn and Y zoning patterns in some garnets correspond with inclusion-rich vs. inclusion-free zones, althoughthe distribution of inclusions does not correlate with chemical zoning (i.e., the same inclusions are found in Ca-rich and Ca-poor zones of the garnet. There is a similar lack of correlation with accessory phases (apatite, monazite, xenotime, ilmenite or rutile. In a garnet from the garnet-staurolite zone, a high Mn core containsabundant and randomly oriented apatite, monazite and ilmenite inclusions, while a euhedral low Ca mantle zone is inclusion-free and the high Ca / low Mn rim zone contains apatite, monazite and ilmenite aligned parallel to the margins of the garnet. Inclusions in garnet can also represent mineral phases were not completely consumed during garnet growth. Association of garnet zoning trends and patterns with inclusion distribution may help differentiatebetween processes that identically affect major-element zoning but that produced variable textures in the garnet.

  19. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of terbium-gallium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyushkin, A. V.; Taldenkov, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of paramagnetic Tb 3 Ga 5 O 12 (TbGG) terbium-gallium garnet single crystals is investigated at temperatures from 0.4 to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 3.25 T. A minimum is observed in the temperature dependence κ(T) of thermal conductivity at T min = 0.52 K. This and other singularities on the κ(T) dependence are associated with scattering of phonons from terbium ions. The thermal conductivity at T = 5.1 K strongly depends on the magnetic field direction relative to the crystallographic axes of the crystal. Experimental data are considered using the Debye theory of thermal conductivity taking into account resonance scattering of phonons from Tb 3+ ions. Analysis of the temperature and field dependences of the thermal conductivity indicates the existence of a strong spin-phonon interaction in TbGG. The low-temperature behavior of the thermal conductivity (field and angular dependences) is mainly determined by resonance scattering of phonons at the first quasi-doublet of the electron spectrum of Tb 3+ ion.

  20. Immiscible melt droplets in garnet, as represented by ilmenite-magnetite-spinel spheroids in an eclogite-garnet peridotite association, Blanský les Granulite Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, S.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Erban, V.; Halodová, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2016), s. 82-92 ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : eclogite * Fe-Ti-rich melt * garnet peridotite * garnetite * Ilmenite-magnetite-spinel * Invited Centennial article * Moldanubian Zone * UHP crystallization Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2016

  1. The major and trace element geochemistry of garnets from the Vargem 1 Kimberlite pipe, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esperanca, S.; Murray, D.C.; Lambert, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    ICP-MS minor and trace element analysis of four single red garnets and two purple garnet composites show that: Ni contents of the bulk garnets are consistent with temperatures of equilibration in the range of 1050-1100 C; the amount of LREE enrichment appears to correlate with increasing CR contents in the garnets and, overall, the REE patterns of the six samples show normal rather than sinusoidal characteristics; relative to primitive mantle, the incompatible-element enrichment is selective across the samples but Pb shows a positive anomaly relative to La, Ce and Sr. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Melts of garnet lherzolite: experiments, models and comparison to melts of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Timothy L.; Holbig, Eva S.; Barr, Jay A.; Till, Christy B.; Krawczynski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibrium experiments on a compositionally modified olivine leucitite from the Tibetan plateau have been carried out from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1,380–1,480 °C. The experiments-produced liquids multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite phase assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel ± garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data are utilized to develop a predictive model for garnet lherzolite melting of compositionally variable mantle under anhydrous conditions over the pressure range of 1.9–6 GPa. The model estimates the major element compositions of garnet-saturated melts for a range of mantle lherzolite compositions and predicts the conditions of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions at above-solidus temperatures and pressures. We compare our predicted garnet lherzolite melts to those of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite and develop criteria for distinguishing among melts of these different source types. We also use the model in conjunction with a published predictive model for plagioclase and spinel lherzolite to characterize the differences in major element composition for melts in the plagioclase, spinel and garnet facies and develop tests to distinguish between melts of these three lherzolite facies based on major elements. The model is applied to understand the source materials and conditions of melting for high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, basanite–nephelinite lavas erupted early in the evolution of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, as well as younger tholeiitic to alkali lavas from Kilauea.

  3. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  5. Mixed Messages from Garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Wang, D.; Johnson, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Garnet geochronology provides important information on the timing and conditions of metamorphism. As a major indicator mineral formed during metamorphism, its direct dating can not only help establish the timing of metamorphism, provide the "t" for P-T-t paths, but also, if the dated garnet can be placed in a textural context, can provide information on the timing of deformational features. With advances in chemistry and mass spectrometry, garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology has become an important geochronological tool and we can now reliably (if not routinely) date a wide variety of garnet compositions formed under diverse conditions. In the course of dating a variety of lithologies using both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems, however, some intriguing results have emerged. Although there are many examples where the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd systems give the same date within uncertainty, there are also many cases where these systems yield significantly different dates, and the differences between these dates can be considerable—many 10's of Ma of and even 100's of Ma. For example, in garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic gneisses from across the Blue Ridge Province in Virginia, both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd analyses (determined on the same solutions) define narrow time spans, but with the Sm-Nd dates systematically younger (for orthogneisses Lu-Hf dates are 1032 to 1019 Ma whereas Sm-Nd dates are 965 to 949 Ma—a difference of 67 to 80 Ma). There are many other examples of systematically younger Sm-Nd garnet dates in both the literature and with our ongoing research. Potential explanations for these differences include: 1) strong partitioning of Lu into garnet during growth yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth; 2) faster Lu diffusion from high Lu regions after garnet formation, potentially leading to isochron rotation and anomalously old Lu-Hf dates; and 3) differences in closure temperatures of the two isotope systems. We will review several examples of divergent Lu

  6. Lithium Behavior during Growth of Metasedimentary Garnets from the Cignana UHP Locality, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.; Tsujimori, T.; Ota, T.; Shimaki, Y.; Kunihiro, T.; Carlson, W. D.; Nakamura, E.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated major and trace element concentrations and δ7Li in garnets in Lago di Cignana metasedimentary rocks (peak conditions ~550˚C, 2.5-3.0 GPa), following the EPMA-SIMS approach of Tsujimori et al. (2014; IMA conference abstract). Previous work on the devolatilization history of these rocks (Bebout et al., 2013; Cook-Kollars et al., 2014; both in Chemical Geology) provides a petrologic and geochemical context for this study. Lithium is of interest as a tracer of fluid-rock interactions and because of its potential to isotopically fractionate during diffusional processes. All garnets are almandine-rich with strongly decreasing MnO and increasing MgO toward rims. HREEs, Y, and Li also show strong zoning, with elevated concentrations in cores (15-50 ppm Li) and marked high-concentration anomalies (up to 117 ppm Li, 5500 ppm Y), with little or no major element shift, as growth annuli at which some garnets have elevated δ7Li. In all garnets, rutile inclusions appear abruptly at annuli and outward toward rims, accompanied by inclusions of a Ca- and LREE-rich phase and decreased Nb concentrations in garnet. These relationships appear to reflect prograde garnet-forming reaction(s) that in part involved titanite breakdown to stabilize rutile, which resulted in delivery of more abundant Y and HREEs at surfaces of growing garnets to produce growth annuli. The co-enrichment of Li and Y+REEs is attributed to their mutual incorporation via a charge-coupled substitution (Carlson et al., 2014; American Mineralogist); thus the increased Li uptake is a passive consequence of the elevated concentrations of Y+REEs. Distributions of δ7Li are complex, with most garnets showing only subtle core-to-rim variation other than at Y+REE annuli. At annuli, some garnets display elevated δ7Li (by up to 8‰), while others in the same rock do not. Small-scale fluctuations in δ7Li may correlate with abrupt shifts in major and trace element concentrations, suggesting that changes in

  7. High resolution method for the magnetic axis localization for multipole magnets on the base of the garnet films technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Gribkov, V.L.; Liskov, V.A.; Chervonenkis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The methods of stretched wires for the localization of the magnetic axis may be inconvenient sometimes in accelerators and colliders of very high energies because of high gradients, large lengths and small apertures. High gradients may deform the wires due to the nonzero magnetic susceptibility and microscopic ferromagnetic particles on their surface. Long wires have large sagittas and small apertures of magnets limit the transversal working domains for the measuring devices. Precision optics magnets possess extreme parameters, in particular, in interaction regions. The magneto-optic (MO) methods of the measurements present some new possibilities for the solution of the above problems. The use of MO films for magnetic field visualization and mapping was proposed and shown that on the basis of Bi-substituted iron garnet films and MO Faraday effect it's possible to obtain the quantitative vector maps of complicated magnetic field structure. Later this was described on a large scale. This method was discussed in terms of its applicability to the magnetic axis localization in quadrupoles of accelerators. In our opinion, the films technology has great advantages as compared with the colloidal solution. In this paper the principles and variants of the films method are presented and further development of the method under discussion is described

  8. Giant Faraday rotation in Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe5O12 epitaxial garnet films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, M; Singh, Mahi R; Basu, Shantanu; Pinnepalli, Sai

    2012-04-23

    Thin films of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) with x = 0.7 and 0.8 compositions were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition. We investigated the effects of processing parameters used to fabricate these films by measuring various physical properties such as X-ray diffraction, transmittance, magnetization and Faraday rotation. In this study, we propose a phase diagram which provides a suitable window for the deposition of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) epitaxial films. We have also observed a giant Faraday rotation of 1-1.10 degree/µm in our optimized films. The measured Faraday rotation value is 1.6 and 50 times larger than that of CeYIG and YIG respectively. A theoretical model has been proposed for Faraday rotation based on density matrix method and an excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  9. Study of relaxation processes and uniaxial anisotropy in the Europium Gallium Garnet epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.

    1987-04-01

    We report here the magnetic properties of Europium-Gallium Garnet LPE films of the type Eu x Y 3-x Fe 5-y Ga y O 12 (where O< x<1.2 and 1< y<1.1). The mechanism by which the magnetic moments relax in Eu or Sm Garnets is still not fully understood. We have made studies on Eu-Ga garnet films and explain some of the results observed in these films. Pb and Pt ions are always found as impurities in our films. Pb ions contribute to the anisotropy in the film. Most of the experimental results can be explained with the three sub lattice model. The shape of the FMR line width shows strong sensitivity towards the surface impurities. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  10. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  11. Compositional trends among Kaapvaal Craton garnet peridotite xenoliths and their effects on seismic velocity and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt, Derek; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    garnet and clinopyroxene enrichment. Using the parameterization of Schutt and Lesher (2006) we show that at cratonic mantle temperatures and pressures, orthopyroxene enrichment results in little change in bulk density (ρbulk) and shear-wave velocity (VS), but decreases compressional wave velocities (VP......We examine the modes and compositions of garnet-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal Craton to quantify factors governing density and seismic velocity variations within metasomatically altered cratonic mantle. Three distinct compositional trends are resolved by principal component...... analysis. The first reflects differences in residue composition resulting from partial melting. The second is associated with orthopyroxene (opx) enrichment, possibly due to silica addition by subduction zone fluids in the source region of the xenoliths. The third principal component reflects garnet...

  12. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  13. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  14. EPMA major and trace element analysis in garnet and its petrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, A.; Ruffini, R.; Cossio, R.; Olmi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between major and trace element concentrations in garnet performed by electron microprobe (EPMA) technique is reported. Quantitative spot analyses and x-ray maps of major elements (Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca) and the trace element yttrium in garnets from metamorphic rocks are presented. The selected garnet samples come from meta-pelitic and meta-basic specimens belonging to the tectonic unit of the Monte Rosa Nappe (Western Alps). In the metapelites, the quantitative Y distribution maps display a prominent increase at the core, the Y abundance varying by over two orders of magnitude, from about 80 ppm (rim) to over 2100 ppm. (core). The Y profiles show well defined patterns with sharp features that do not correlate with major element distributions. A roughly comparable pattern can be supposed only with Mn. The Y distribution suggests that the diffusion of Y through the garnet is very slow compared to the major elements, thus the Y results are suitable for geothermometric estimates. In the metabasites, the Y spatial distribution is characterized by an increasing content from the core to the rim, displaying a zoning pattern opposite to the metapelite garnet. Quantitative EPMA analyses range from 1100 ppm at the rim to values lower than the detection limit at the core. Therefore, the Y content in the garnet can be related to several chemical and physical variables such as the bulk rock composition and the phase assemblage. In particular, in the xenotime-bearing metapelitic system the Y distribution seems to be correlated with metamorphic peak temperature. (author)

  15. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  16. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  17. Growth and luminescence properties of Pr3+-doped single crystalline films of garnets and perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, Yu.; Savchyn, V.; Zorenko, T.; Pedan, A.; Shkliarskyi, V.

    2010-01-01

    Peculiarities of growth of single crystalline films (SCF) of Pr 3+ doped Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 garnets and YAlO 3 and LuAlO 3 perovskites by the liquid phase epitaxy method from melt-solutions based on PbO-B 2 O 3 flux as well as luminescent and scintillation properties of these SCFs were studied in this work. Dependence the intensity of the Pr 3+ d-f and f-f-luminescence on the activator concentration and influence of Pb 2+ flux dopant on the light yield of SCFs of the mentioned garnets and perovskites were analyzed.

  18. Spectral and luminescence properties of Cr(3+) ad Nd(3+) ions in gallium garnet crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A. L.; Ostroumov, V. G.; Saidov, Z. S.; Smirnov, V. A.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effective peak stimulated-emission cross section of chromium-doped gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnets (GSGG) has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 to the -21st sq cm at room temperature. The values of the energy-gap Delta E(2E-4T2) chromim fluorescence lifetime and the chromium to neodymium energy-transfer parameter C(DA) (Cr-Nd) are determined for several gallium garnets. Temperature-dependent absorption and luminescence spectra of neodymium-doped GGG and GSGG are reported and discussed in the context of their use as laser materials.

  19. Magnetic losses and instabilities in ferrite garnet tuned RF cavities for synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce basic notions and elucidate the main features of magnetic losses and nonlinear effects in high power rf cavities with perpendicularly biased ferrite garnet used for varying the frequency in rapid cycling synchrotrons. A method of analysis is developed using a minimum of specific details. Simple formulae and estimates of the trend of magnetic loss, nonlinear frequency shift and possible instabilities in the cavities as a function of rf power level and ferrite garnet parameters are presented. Numerical examples correspond to the TRIUMF KAON Booster synchrotron. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs

  20. Phonon-impurity relaxation and acoustic wave absorption in yttrium-aluminium garnet crystals with impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.N.; Kotelyanskij, I.M.; Medved', V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental results of investigations of the influence of substitution impurities in the yttrium-aluminium garnet lattice on absorption of high-frequency acoustic waves are presented. It is shown that the phonon-impurity relaxation processses affect at most the wave absorption and have resonance character when the acoustic wave interacts with the thermal phonon group in the vicinity of the perturbed part of the phonon spectrum caused by the impurity. The differences of time values between inelastic and elastic thermal phonons relaxations determined from the data on longitudinal and shear waves in pure and impurity garnet crystals are discussed

  1. Combined iron and magnesium isotope geochemistry of pyroxenite xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton: implications for mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin Miao; Cao, Hui Hui; Mi, Xue; Evans, Noreen J.; Qi, Yu Han; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Hong Fu

    2017-06-01

    We present high-precision iron and magnesium isotopic data for diverse mantle pyroxenite xenoliths collected from Hannuoba, North China Craton and provide the first combined iron and magnesium isotopic study of such rocks. Compositionally, these xenoliths range from Cr-diopside pyroxenites and Al-augite pyroxenites to garnet-bearing pyroxenites and are taken as physical evidence for different episodes of melt injection. Our results show that both Cr-diopside pyroxenites and Al-augite pyroxenites of cumulate origin display narrow ranges in iron and magnesium isotopic compositions (δ57Fe = -0.01 to 0.09 with an average of 0.03 ± 0.08 (2SD, n = 6); δ26Mg = - 0.28 to -0.25 with an average of -0.26 ± 0.03 (2SD, n = 3), respectively). These values are identical to those in the normal upper mantle and show equilibrium inter-mineral iron and magnesium isotope fractionation between coexisting mantle minerals. In contrast, the garnet-bearing pyroxenites, which are products of reactions between peridotites and silicate melts from an ancient subducted oceanic slab, exhibit larger iron isotopic variations, with δ57Fe ranging from 0.12 to 0.30. The δ57Fe values of minerals in these garnet-bearing pyroxenites also vary widely (-0.25 to 0.08 in olivines, -0.04 to 0.25 in orthopyroxenes, -0.07 to 0.31 in clinopyroxenes, 0.07 to 0.48 in spinels and 0.31-0.42 in garnets). In addition, the garnet-bearing pyroxenite shows light δ26Mg (-0.43) relative to the mantle. The δ26Mg of minerals in the garnet-bearing pyroxenite range from -0.35 for olivine and orthopyroxene, to -0.34 for clinopyroxene, 0.04 for spinel and -0.68 for garnet. These measured values stand in marked contrast to calculated equilibrium iron and magnesium isotope fractionation between coexisting mantle minerals at mantle temperatures derived from theory, indicating disequilibrium isotope fractionation. Notably, one phlogopite clinopyroxenite with an apparent later metasomatic overprint has the heaviest δ57Fe

  2. Scintillating screens based on the single crystalline films of multicomponent garnets: new achievements and possibilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Paprocki, K.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Sidletskiy, O.; Gerasymov, I.; Grinyov, B.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2016), s. 497-502 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce dopant * garnets * liquid phase epitaxy * luminescence * scintillators * single crystalline films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2016

  3. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Saito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ=780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ=780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  4. Composition tailoring in the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial film scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 3715-3723 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * liquid phase epitaxy * photoelectron yield * Ce 3+ * multicomponent garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.425, year: 2015

  5. Imaging of propagation dynamics of optically-excited spin waves in a garnet film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the direct imaging of the propagation dynamics of the optically-excited spin waves in a garnet film observed with an all-optical pump-and-probe magneto-optical imaging technique having sub-pico second time-resolution, sub-micrometer spatial resolution, and milli-degrees of accuracy in the rotation angle of the light polarization. (author)

  6. Calculation of the a0 value of the unitary cell of garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, N.R.

    1984-06-01

    The calculation of the a 0 (Angstrom) reticular constant of four samples of garnets, collected in the States of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Bahia, in Brazil, is presented. The objective of this calculation is to determine the molecular composition of samples to complete other experimental studies. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for the preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) powder with small grain size is the subject of this study. Starting materials are sulphates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3Al5O12), the pH during flocculation

  8. Crystal field and magnetism with Wannier functions: rare-earth dopedaluminum garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Novák, Pavel; Laguta, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 12 (2015), 1316-1323 ISSN 1002-0721 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal field * ab initio calculations * garnets * rare earths Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.188, year: 2015

  9. Band-gap and band-edge engineering of multicomponent garnet scintillators from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yadav, S.K.; Uberuaga, B.P.; Nikl, Martin; Jiang, C.; Stanek, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2015), "054012-1"-"054012-9" ISSN 2331-7019 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * electronic band gap structure * garnets * band gap engineering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.061, year: 2015

  10. Influence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals with garnet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Zharikov, E.V.; Laptev, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The in fluence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet, gadolinium-gallium garnet, gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet, and yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet is studied. In addition to basic activator ions these crystals were coactivated also by chromium ions with two wide bands of fundamental absorption within the range of pump tube radiation with maximas close to 450 and 650 nm. The color centers for γ-irradiated samples were observed at 300 K by measuring the adsorption spectra within the 300-800 nm range. Temperature of destruction of the charge trapping sites was determined by the method of thermoluminescence measuring in the 100-500 K temperature range. Detection of recombination center luminescence was accomplished within the 200-1600 nm wavelength range. Chromium ions are found to hinder the formation of color centers as a result of γ-irradiation at room and higher temperatures within the wavelength range over 300 nm; i.e. Cr 3+ ions increase radiation resistance of all the investigated crystals

  11. Investigations of garnets from polymetamorphic rocks of the Lapland Granulite Belt of the Kandalaksha Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz A. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Lapland Granulite Belt is placed on the Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula, Russia. The rocks of this Belt are composed mainly of amphibolites and granulites.Materials and methods: The research were focused on the garnets from the amphibolite and granulite rocks of Lapland Granulite Belt. The petrological methods like polarizing microscopy (PM, SEM-EDS, XRD for powdered samples and single crystal diffraction were used together with IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy and REE analysis by ion–microprobe.Results: It was found that the garnets from studied amphibolite and granulite rocks could be classified to pyralspite group without hydrogarnets components, so they were formed in high metamorphic facies.Conclusions: The joint geological observations and results of the performed experiments suggest that the garnets were subject of a blastesy, i.e. there were formed in long lasting metamorphic processes of low dynamics, except of those garnets from tectonic zones, found in the vicinity of mineral veins.

  12. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mallika K Jonnalagadda

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Shivani Harshe1, Sarah Gain2 and William L Griffin2. 1. Department of ..... M orari complex. L1. -. N ormal. G arnet. T rav erse. Mineral. G arnet. A mp. Garnet. Cp x. G ...... along with white mica occur as shear bands (0.5. GPa and 500 ..... erals in the crust; Treatise on Geochemistry, Amsterdam. Elsevier 3 ...

  13. Influence of neodymium-doping on structure and properties of yttrium aluminium garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; He, W.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of the Nd-doping on the grain formation, the crystal structure, and the fluorescence of the Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG). The results show that Nd-doping leads to the YAG lattice expansion and distortion, and hence to an increase in defect concentration. This is attributed to...

  14. Origin of garnet and clinopyroxene in Kaapvaal low-T peridotite xenoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, N.S.C.; Irvine, G.J.; Davies, G.R.; Pearson, D.G.; Carlson, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed petrographic, major and trace element and isotope (Re-Os) study is presented on 18 xenoliths from Northern Lesotho kimberlites. The samples represent typical coarse, low-temperature garnet and spinel peridotites and span a P-T range from ∼60 to 150 km depth. With the exception of one

  15. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal chemical analysis of formation of solid solutions on the basis of compounds with garnet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'micheva, G.M.; Kozlikin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Crystal chemical formulas permitting to evaluate the character of changes in interatomic distances during isomorphous substitution and, hence, the probability of formation of internal solid solutions and successive isomorphous substitution, are presented. The possibility of formation of introduction solid solutions is considered, using as an example Sc, Y oxides, rare earths with garnet structure

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  19. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  7. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  10. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  11. Garnet - two pyroxene rock from the Gridino complex, Russia: a record of the early metasomatic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunova, Alena A.; Perchuk, Alexei L.

    2010-05-01

    The Gridino complex is one of the oldest high pressure complexes on the Earth. The most spectacular exposures occur in islands and in a 10-50 m wide belt along the shore of the White Sea in the Gridino area. The exotic blocks show wide range of compositions. In addition to predominating amphibolites and eclogites, there are also peridotites, zoisitites and sapphirine-bearing rocks. The peridotites are represented by garnet - two pyroxene rocks and orthopyroxenites. It this paper we present an intriguing results of the petrological study of the garnet- two pyroxene rock. The garnet- two pyroxene rock considered occurs as elliptical body 4×6 m in size within amphibole-biotite gneiss in the island Visokii. The rock consists of mosaic of coarse-grained primary garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Accessories are represented by magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and zircon. Garnet contains inclusions of clinopyroxene, Mg-calcite and chlorite. The chlorite inclusions always intergrow with dendritic mineral enriched in REE (mainly Ce) situated on the wall of vacuole which shows the tendency of negative crystal shape. Similar chlorite inclusions are hosted by clino- and orthopyroxenes. The chlorite is of diabantite composition. The inclusions are often surrounded by the two systems of cracks - radial and concentric, which is really exotic phenomenon for crystalline rock. The primary minerals experienced different degree of the retrograde alteration expressed as amphibolization and/or growth of the orthopyroxene-amphibole-garnet symplectites. The retrogression is patchy in the central part of garnet- two pyroxene body, but intensifies towards the rims where primary minerals are absent. Mineral thermobarometry reveals HP rock equilibration at 670-750 оС and 14-20 kbar followed by subisothermal decompression down to 640-740 оС and 6-14 kbar. Specific composition of the chlorite and its association with REE phase in all rock-forming minerals suggests that anhydrous HP

  12. Origin of sapphirine- and garnet-bearing clinopyroxenite xenoliths entrained in the Jiande basalts, SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liang, Zi; Su, Ben-Xun; Zhu, Bin; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah

    2018-04-01

    We present petrological and geochemical data of sapphirine- and garnet-bearing clinopyroxenite xenoliths entrained in the Jiande Cenozoic basalts, SE China, to investigate their igneous and metamorphic history, and reconstruct of the thermal-tectonic evolution of the lithospheric mantle. These xenoliths have an unusual mineral association consisting of clinopyroxene + garnet/kelyphite + spinel (±sapphirine). Clinopyroxene has high Mg# (89-93) and displays convex-upward REE pattern. Garnet, partially to completely kelyphitized, is rich in pyrope end-member. It usually includes relics of spinel, suggesting that garnet was formed at the expense of spinel. The spinel has high MgO (20.8-22.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (64.8-67.9 wt%) contents. Sapphirine, forming a rim on spinel, has homogeneous SiO2 (14.5-14.9 wt%), Al2O3 (60.9-61.7 wt%) and MgO (19.7-20.1 wt%) contents, interpreted to be of metamorphic origin. The subsolidus reaction for the formation of sapphirine is as follows: spinel + garnet = sapphirine + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene. Thus, the earliest mineral assemblage recorded in these xenoliths was spinel + clinopyroxene. The clinopyroxene in the Jiande clinopyroxenite xenoliths has Li abundances (1.04-1.63 ppm) similar to high-P mafic cumulate but much lower than those in crustal eclogite. In addition, the clinopyroxene and garnet do not show positive Eu anomalies. Therefore, the protolith of these three clinopyroxenite xenoliths was most likely a pyroxenite, originating as clinopyroxene + spinel cumulates from mafic melts percolating through the mantle. Many reaction textures such as formation of garnet and sapphirine were developed during decompression possibly coupled with cooling and melt percolation. During this process, the earlier composition of clinopyroxene and spinel also changed. The latest P-T conditions recorded in these xenoliths were at pressure of 8-10 kbar and temperatures of 1069-1094 °C. These observations imply that these rocks have been

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  14. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6.0Ma, 2612.4×6.0Ma, 2605.0×5.5Ma, and 2567.3×8.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.6×4.6 Ma (2σ). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late

  16. Faraday effect in Gd3Al5O12 and Gd3Ga5O12 rare earth garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, U.V.; Klochkov, A.A.; Popov, A.I.; Sokolov, Y.B.

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion of the Faraday rotation of the garnets Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 and Gd 3 Al 5 O 12 in the 440--700-nm region in the 85--295-K temperature interval and the spectral dependence of the Faraday effect in the garnets Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 and Y 3 Al 5 O 12 for wavelengths from 250 to 700 nm are investigated. The contributions to the Faraday rotation caused by the Gd 3+ ions and the diamagnetic lattice of the garnets are separated

  17. Grain growth kinetics of ringwoodite and majorite garnet mixtures and implications for the rheology of the transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezad, I.; Dobson, D. P.; Brodholt, J. P.; Thomson, A.; Hunt, S.

    2017-12-01

    The grain size of the transition zone is a poorly known but important geophysical parameter. Among others, the grain size may control the rheology, seismic attenuation and radiative thermal conductivity of the mantle. However, the grain size of the transition zone minerals ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and majorite garnet MgSiO3 under appropriate zone conditions is currently unknown and there are very few experiments with which to constrain it. In order to determine the grain size of the transition zone, the grain growth kinetics must be determined for a range of mantle compositions. We have, therefore, experimentally determined the grain growth kinetics of the lowermost transition zone minerals through multi anvil experiments at University College London (UCL). This is achieved through a comprehensive set of time series experiments at pressures of 21 GPa and temperatures relevant to the transition zone. We have also determined the effect of varying water content, oxygen fugacity, iron content and aluminium content also discussed by Dobson and Mariani., (2014). Our initial grain growth experiments conducted at 1200°C and 1400°C at 18 GPa show extremely slow grain growth kinetics; time series experiments extended to 105.8 seconds are unable to produce grains larger than 100 nm. This suggests that fine-grained material at the base of the transition zone will persist on geological timescales. Such small grains size suggests that diffusion creep might be the dominant deformation mechanism in this region. Reference: Dobson, D.P., Mariani, E., 2014. The kinetics of the reaction of majorite plus ferropericlase to ringwoodite: Implications for mantle upwellings crossing the 660 km discontinuity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 408, 110-118. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.10.009

  18. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  19. The Lu-Hf isotope composition of cratonic lithosphere: disequilibrium between garnet and clinopyroxene in kimberlite xenoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, N.S.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Pearson, D.G.; Davies, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    12th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference Davos Switzerland, The Lu-Hf isotope composition of cratonic lithosphere: disequilibrium between garnet and clinopyroxene in kimberlite xenoliths (DTM, Carnegie Institution of Washington), Pearson, D.G. (University of Durham)

  20. Investigation on the elastic properties of Gd-Sc-Al garnet by the Mandelstam-Brillouin light scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharikov, E.V.; Zagumennyj, A.I.; Kitaeva, V.F.; Lutts, G.B.; Terskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Gd-Sc-Al garnet (GSAG) crystals grown from the melt with composition Gd 2.88 Sc 1.89 Al 3.23 O 12 , were investigated. The GSAG doped with chromium was also studied. The Mandelstam-Brillouin (MB) light scattering in the GSAG crystals was observed. The garnet elastic components were determined using the data on the MB component shifts, the products of the elastic constants by molar volume were calculated as well. The GSAG is elastically anisotropic. The doping addition introduction do not cause noticeable change in the elastic properties. The obtained values of elastic constants and their combinations for GSAG were compared with the data for aluminium and gallium garnets. The comparison has shown that the values of elastic constants for GSAG is closer to those for Gd-Sc-Ga garnet than to the corresponding values for the Y-Al one

  1. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  2. Mechanical properties and microstructure of stir casted Al/B{sub 4}C/garnet composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rathinam Ashok [Chendhuran College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Sait, Abdullah Naveen [Chendhuran College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India); Subramanian, Karuppazhi [Government College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites are one of the advanced engineering materials that have been developed for low weight and high strength applications in automotive industries due to high specific strength and good wear resistance. In this context, aluminum alloy boron carbide and garnet composites were fabricated by the stir casting process. The microstructural examination was done by using a scanning electron microscope to assess the distribution of particulates in the aluminum matrix. The composites were characterized by hardness and tensile tests. The wear behavior of the composites was analyzed with the help of a pin-on-disc wear test. By increasing the amount of garnet in the composite, it has been observed that the tensile strength and hardness increase. The wear test analysis proved that the addition of reinforcements reduces the wear rate behavior of composite.

  3. Determination of rare earth element content in yttrium aluminium garnet crystals by absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejl'man, M.L.; Kolomijtsev, A.I.; Baskakova, Z.M.; Bagdasarov, Kh.S.; Kevorkov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of determination of relative and absolute contents of impurity trivalent REE ions in yttrium aluminium garnet of (YAG) monocrystals has been studied by the absorption spectrophotometry method. Absorption spectra in UV and visible regions YAG monocrystals doped by REE are studied. For each admixture the characteristic lines or absorption bands not overlapping with lines of other admixtures are defined and investigated. The extinction coefficients of characteristic lines are determined which allow one to measure absolute REE admixture concentrations in garnet crystals. A conclusion is drawn that the absorption spectrophotometry method permits to measure REE admixture content in YAG monocrystals within the concentration range of approximately 1x10sup(-3)-5 mas. % with an accuracy not less than 20% (with sample thickness of approximately 1 cm)

  4. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Garnet is a key mineral in metamorphic petrology for constraining pressure, temperature and time paths. Garnet can preserve multiple growth stages due to its wide P-T stability field and the relatively slow diffusivity for major and trace elements at sub-solidus temperatures. Pressure-temperature-time-fluid paths of the host rock may be reconstructed by combining metamorphic petrology with microscale trace element and oxygen isotope measurements in garnet. Subduction zones represent relevant geological settings for geochemical investigation of element exchanges during aqueous fluid-rock interactions. The Sesia Zone consists of a complex continental sequence containing a variety of mono-metamorphic and poly-metamorphic lithologies such as metagranitoids, sediments and mafic boudins. The precursor Varisican-Permian amphibolite-facies basement (6-9 kbar 650-850°C; Lardeaux and Spalla, 1991; Robyr et al., 2013) experienced high pressure metamorphism (15-22 kbar 500-550°C; Regis, et al. 2014; Robyr et al., 2013) during Alpine subduction. In different lithologies of the Internal Complex (Eclogitic Micaschist Complex), including metabasites from the Ivozio Complex, Ti-rich metasediments from Val Malone and pre-Alpine Mn-quartzites associated to metagabbros from Cima Bonze, garnet is abundant and shows a variety of complex textures that cannot be reconciled with typical growth zoning, but indicate resorption and replacement processes and possible metasomatism. In-situ, microscale oxygen isotopes analysis of garnet zones was performed by ion microprobe with the SwissSIMS Cameca IMS 1280-HR at University of Lausanne and SHRIMP-SI at the Australian National University. Each sample has a distinct δ18O composition, and the δ18O values show different degrees of variation between domains. Homogeneously low values of < 5‰ are measured in the garnets from the Ivozio Complex metagabbro. Intragrain variations of up to 3.5‰ in the porphyroblasts from Val Malone metasediments

  5. High-frequency domain wall excitations in magnetic garnet films with in-plane magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synogach, V.T.; Doetsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic garnet films of compositions (YBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 and (LuBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 are grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on [110]- and [100]-oriented substrates of gadolinium gallium garnet, respectively. All films have in-plane magnetization. 180 degree and 90 degree domain walls in these films are studied by microwave technique. In addition to the known low-frequency mode of wall translation new multiple resonant modes of both 90 degree and 180 degree domain walls with very small linewidth (4.2 MHz) are observed at frequencies near 1 GHz. Resonances are effectively excited by an rf magnetic field which is parallel or perpendicular to the wall plane. Resonance frequencies are shown to have nonlinear dispersion dependence on the mode number: they decrease with increasing in-plane magnetic field normal to the wall plane. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis using selected thermodynamic property characterizations for gadolinium gallium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Magneto-thermodynamic property characterizations were selected, adapted, and compared to material property data for gadolinium gallium garnet in the temperature range 4--40 K and magnetic field range 0--6 T. The most appropriate formulations were incorporated into a model in which methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges were used to make limitation and relative performance assessments of Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. Analysis showed that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as those for materials previously examined, substantial improvements in cooling capacity/temperature lift combinations can be achieved using regenerative cycles within specified fields limits if significant loss mechanisms are mitigated

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  10. Recurrent thermo-luminescence phenomenon in yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamov, A.Kh.; Nuritdinov, I.; Esanov, Z.U.; Eshchanov, B.Kh.; Khayitov, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The crystals of yttrium-aluminum garnet Y 2 Al 2 O 1 2 activated by cerium and praseodymium ions by their thermal and chemical durability as well as fast response are perspective scintillation materials. In this work the capture centres formed by action of the ionizing radiation on pure and doped by praseodymium and cerium crystals were investigated. The samples were grown using Chokhralsky method

  11. Oxygen isotopes in garnet and accessory minerals to constrain fluids in subducted crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Regis, Daniele; Rosa Scicchitano, Maria; Vho, Alice; Williams, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. Garnet and U-Pb accessory minerals constitute some of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals in subducted crust and can preserve multiple growth zones that track the metamorphic evolution of the sample they are hosted in. Microbeam investigation of the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (oxygen and U-Pb) of garnet and accessory minerals is used to track significant fluid-rock interaction at different stages of the subduction system. This approach requires consideration of the diffusivity of oxygen isotopes particularly in garnet, which has been investigated experimentally. The nature of the protolith and ocean floor alteration is preserved in relict accessory phases within eclogites that have been fully modified at HP conditions (e.g. Monviso and Dora Maira units in the Western Alps). Minerals in the lawsonite-blueschists of the Tavsanli zone in Turkey record pervasive fluid exchange between mafic and sedimentary blocks at the early stage of subduction. High pressure shear zones and lithological boundaries show evidence of intense fluid metasomatism at depth along discontinuities in Monviso and Corsica. In the UHP oceanic crust of the Zermatt-Saas Zone, garnet oxygen isotopes and tourmaline boron isotopes indicate multistage fluid infiltration during prograde metamorphism. Localized exchanges of aqueous fluids are also observed in the subducted continental crust of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone. In most cases analyses of distinct mineral zones enable identification of multiple pulses of fluids during the rock evolution.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Yttrium-Aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, J.; Niznansky, D.; Houzvicka, J.; Nikl, M.; Cerny, R.

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the preparation of powders and transparent yttrium aluminium garnet (Y 3 Al 5 O 12 - YAG) from nanopowders. Stoichiometric amounts of nanocrystalline Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 were mixed and chemically pretreated using different basic agents and using ultrasonic bath. Resulting mixture was dried, pressed and heated up to 1750°C. Final material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, DTA and optical and electron microscopy

  13. Enhancement of Faraday rotation at photonic-band-gap edge in garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.G.; Fedyanin, A.A.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Kobayashi, D.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral dependences of Faraday rotation angle in one-dimensional garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals are considered. The enhancement of Faraday angle is demonstrated at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be associated with the optical field localization in the magnetic layers of the structure. The advantages of magnetophotonic crystals in comparison with traditional magnetic microcavities are discussed. The specially designed microcavity structures optimized for the Faraday effect enhancement at the PBG edge are suggested

  14. Effect of recording condition on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram with magnetic garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yuichi, E-mail: nakamura@ee.tut.ac.jp; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-09-14

    A holographic memory has been attracting attention as recording media with high recording density and high data transfer rate. We have studied the magnetic garnets as a rewritable and long life media for magnetic holography. However, since the signal intensity of reconstructed image was relatively low, the effects of recording conditions on the diffraction efficiency of magnetic hologram were investigated with experiments and the numerical simulation using COMSOL multi-physics. The diffraction efficiency tends to decrease as increasing the spatial frequency, and the use of short pulse laser with the pulse width of 50 ps was found to be effective to achieve high diffraction efficiency. This suggests that the formation of clear magnetic fringe similar to interference pattern can be obtained by the use of short pulse laser since undesirable heat diffusion during radiation does not occur. On the other hand, the diffraction efficiency increased as increasing the film thickness up to 3.1 μm but was saturated in the garnet film thicker than 3.1 μm in the case of spatial frequency of 1500 line pair/mm. The numerical simulation showed that the effective depth of magnetic fringe was limited about 1.8 μm irrespective of the garnet film thickness because the fringes were connected by thermal diffusion near the surface of the film, and the effective depth is limited due to this connection of the magnetic fringe. Avoiding this fringe connection, much higher diffraction efficiency will be achieved.

  15. Uranium-thorium disequilibria and partitioning on melting of garnet peridotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, P.

    1993-01-01

    The abundances of isotopes in the 238 U decay series can be used as both tracers and chronometers of magmatic processes. In the subsolidus asthenosphere, the activity of each daughter isotope (defined as the product of its concentration and decay constant, and denoted by parentheses) is assumed to be equal to that of its parent. By contrast, ( 230 Th/ 238 U) is greater than unity in most recent mid-ocean-ridge and ocean-island basalts, implying that thorium is more incompatible (that is, it is partitioned into the melt phase more strongly) than uranium. Melting of spinel peridotite cannot produce the ( 230 Th) excesses, because measured partition coefficients for pyroxenes and olivine demonstrate that uranium is more incompatible than thorium for this rock. Here I report garnet-melt partitioning data which show that for this mineral-melt pair thorium does behave more incompatibility than uranium, thus supporting the suggestion that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORB) are produced by melting initiated at depths where garnet is stable. Using these data, I show that the observed ( 230 Th/ 238 U) ratios of MORB and most ocean-island basalts can be explained by slow, near-fractional melting initiated in the garnet stability field. (author)

  16. Optical properties of pure and Ce3+ doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvorotka, I.I.; Sugak, D.; Wierzbicka, A.; Wittlin, A.; Przybylińska, H.; Barzowska, J.; Barcz, A.; Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J.; Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M.; Ma, Chong-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce 3+ related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce 3+ by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG

  17. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  18. The Effect of fO2 on Partition Coefficients of U and Th between Garnet and Silicate Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; He, Z.; Schmidt, M. W.; Li, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Garnet is one of the most important minerals controlling partitioning of U and Th in the upper mantle. U is redox sensitive, while Th is tetra-valent at redox conditions of the silicate Earth. U-series disequilibria have provided a unique tool to constrain the time-scales and processes of magmatism at convergent margins. Variation of garnet/meltDU/Th with fO2 is critical to understand U-series disequilibria in arc lavas. However, there is still no systematic experimental study about the effect of fO2 on partitioning of U and Th between garnet and melt. Here we present experiments on partitioning of U, Th, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, and REE between garnet and silicate melts at various fO2. The starting material was hydrous haplo-basalt. The piston cylinder experiments were performed with Pt double capsules with C-CO, MnO-Mn3O4 (MM), and hematite-magnetite (HM) buffers at 3 GPa and 1185-1230 oC. The experiments produced garnets with diameters > 50μm and quenched melt. Major elements were measured by EMPA at ETH Zurich. Trace elements were determined using LA-ICP-MS at Northwestern University (Xi'an, China) and SIMS (Cameca1280 at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing, China), producing consistent partition coefficient data for U and Th. With fO2 increasing from CCO to MM and HM, garnet/meltDU decreases from 0.041 to 0.005, while garnet/meltDTh ranges from 0.003 to 0.007 without correlation with fO2. Notably, garnet/meltDTh/U increases from 0.136 at CCO to 0.41 at HM. Our results indicate that U is still more compatible than Th in garnet even at the highest fO2 considered for the subarc mantle wedge (~NNO). Therefore, we predict that if garnet is the dominant phase controlling U-Th partitioning during melting of the mantle wedge, melts would still have 230Th excess over 238U. This explains why most young continental arc lavas have 230Th excess. If clinopyroxene is the dominant residual phase during mantle melting, U could be more incompatible than Th at high fO2

  19. Minor elements, HREE and d18O distribution in UHP garnets from the Dora-Maira massif (western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, F.; Chazot, G.; Vielzeuf, D.; Chopin, C.

    2003-04-01

    The spatial distribution of minor elements, HREE and δ18O in garnet can be used as a probe of the availability and mobility of those elements and isotopes at the time of crystal growth, provided that the initial record was not significantly modified by intracrystalline diffusion and that growth took place under nearly constant pressure and temperature conditions. Garnets from three different Dora-Maira rock-types have been studied, (1) nearly pure pyrope (GT1) from the magnesian coesite-bearing quartzites, (2) almandine/pyrope dominant garnets (GT2) from jadeite-quartzite veins which crosscut the Mg-quartzite body, (3) almandine/grossular dominant garnets (GT3) from the country-rock gneiss, sampled in the vicinity of the quartzites. In GT1, minor elements are mainly Fe, Na and P. Na and P are incorporated according to a Na^+ + P5+ = Me2+ + Si4+ substitution with P_2O_5 contents up to 2000 to 2500 ppm. HREE concentrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS, vary by 2 orders of magnitude from core to rim. The δ18O ratio (Cameca 1270, Nancy), around 5 ppm (SMOW), is constant within error throughout the analysed crystals. In GT2, the situation is different since HREE concentrations appear remarkably constant within a given crystal and from one crystal to the other. In contrast with GT1, Na in GT2 is partly charge-balanced by yttrium incorporation. The δ18O ratio in GT2 of around 7 ppm is close to that encountered in GT3 (gneiss) between 7 and 8 ppm. In GT3, phosphorus content is close to detection limit (P_2O_5 below 300 ppm). HREE concentrations are highly variable from one crystal to the other and unfortunately, the size of garnet crystals does not allow profiling. Although δ18O ratio in garnet is imposed by the bulk-rock isotopic composition, HREE distribution is dominated by element availability through the fluid composition and/or absence/presence of accessory phases. The decrease in HREE and P concentration from GT1 cores to rims suggest that these elements are

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  9. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  17. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  1. Garnet film rotator applied in polarizing microscope for domain image modulation (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Numata, T.; Inokuchi, S.

    1991-04-01

    A garnet film polarization rotator placed before the analyzer in a polarizing microscope was investigated to obtain the difference image of a positive and a negative one of magnetic domain in real time along with an image processor. In the difference image, a nonmagnetic image can be reduced and hence the weak magnetic contrast enhanced. Theoretical calculation of S/N and contrast C of the domain image as a function of the rotation shows they take maxima at the rotation angle of 2.6° and 0.1°, respectively, with the extinction ratio of e=4×10-6 of a polarizing microscope. Thus, since the thickness of the garnet film required is 1 μm or so, the absorption by the garnet rotator does not bring a serious problem even in a visible region for the domain observation. The optimum rotation of the rotator for a high quality observation was obtained by a quantitative study of images obtained experimentally as well as by a visual evaluation. A magnetically unsaturated garnet film with perpendicular magnetization (i.e., multidomain) was employed as a rotator, in which the polarization rotation angle θm of the undeflected beam with respect to the light diffraction could be continuously varied by an applied magnetic field. The dependences of S/N and C on θm were measured, resulting in a well agreement between the measured and the calculated. The visually best image was obtained at θm=0.5° which made the product of S/N and C maximum. The domain image of the Kerr rotation angle of θk=0.22° was observed in S/N=47 dB and C=0.4 when Ar+ laser (λ=515 nm) of tenths of a watt was employed as a light source. Since the domain image with 47 dB S/N does not need an image summation for a noise reduction, a garnet film rotator makes it possible to invert the contrast of a domain image in a real time for an improved domain observation.

  2. Single-nitrogen-vacancy-center quantum memory for a superconducting flux qubit mediated by a ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Yu; Lin, Guin-Dar; Twamley, Jason; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We propose a quantum memory scheme to transfer and store the quantum state of a superconducting flux qubit (FQ) into the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond via yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a ferromagnet. Unlike an ensemble of NV centers, the YIG moderator can enhance the effective FQ-NV-center coupling strength without introducing additional appreciable decoherence. We derive the effective interaction between the FQ and the NV center by tracing out the degrees of freedom of the collective mode of the YIG spins. We demonstrate the transfer, storage, and retrieval procedures, taking into account the effects of spontaneous decay and pure dephasing. Using realistic experimental parameters for the FQ, NV center and YIG, we find that a combined transfer, storage, and retrieval fidelity higher than 0.9, with a long storage time of 10 ms, can be achieved. This hybrid system not only acts as a promising quantum memory, but also provides an example of enhanced coupling between various systems through collective degrees of freedom.

  3. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: ivan.maksymov@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  4. Strain-dependent evolution of garnets in a high pressure ductile shear zone using Synchroton x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, Alice; Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca; John, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Synkinematic reaction microfabrics carry important information on the kinetics, timing and rheology of tectonometamorphic processes. Despite being routinely interpreted in metamorphic and structural studies, reaction and deformation microfabrics are usually described in two dimensions. We applied Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in 3D. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway) previously described by John et al., (2009), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets. Our microtomographic data allowed us to quantify changes to the garnet volume, their shapes and their spatial arrangement. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the x-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. This allowed us to extrapolate our interpretation of the metamorphic microfabric evolution to the third dimension, effectively yielding a 4-dimensional dataset. We found that: - The x-ray absorption contrast between individual mineral phases in our microtomographic data is sufficient to allow the same petrographic observations than in light- and electron microscopy, but extended to 3D. - Amongst the major constituents of the synkinematic reactions, garnet is the only phase that can be segmented confidently from the microtomographic data. - With increasing deformation, the garnet volume increases from about 9% to 25%. - Garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. This may indicate that the reaction progressed preferentially in some directions, but also leaves pathways for element transport to and from the olivines that are

  5. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  7. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  8. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  9. Investigation of non-reciprocal magnon propagation using lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film using lock-in thermography (LIT). This originates from the non-reciprocal propagation of magnons, which leads to an asymmetric heat transport. To excite the spin waves we use two different respective antenna geometries: a coplanar waveguide (CPW) or a ‘microstrip’-like antenna on top of the YIG. By using the CPW and comparing the results for the Damon-Eshbach and the backward volume modes we are able to show that the origin of the asymmetric heat profile are indeed the non-reciprocal spin waves. Using the ‘microstrip’-like geometry we can confirm these results and we can even observe a distinct excitation profile along the antenna due to small field inhomogeneities.

  10. Simulation of the channelling of ions from MeV C{sub 60} in crystalline solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, A [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Sinclair, L [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tanushev, N [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tombrello, T [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Nardi, E [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2007-06-14

    Simulations were performed describing the motion and breakup of energetic C{sub 60} ions interacting with crystalline targets. A hybrid algorithm was used that employs a binary collision model for the scattering of the carbon ions by the atoms of the solid, and molecular dynamics for the Coulomb interactions of the 60 carbon ions with one another. For the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), directions such as [1 1 0], [1 0 0], [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] demonstrate channelling for a large fraction of the C ions. For directions such as [1 1 1], [2 1 1] and [7 5 3] the trajectories show no more channelling than for random directions. The effects of tilt, shielding and wake-field interactions were investigated for YIG and {alpha}-quartz.

  11. Simulation of the channelling of ions from MeV C60 in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A; Sinclair, L; Tanushev, N; Tombrello, T; Nardi, E

    2007-01-01

    Simulations were performed describing the motion and breakup of energetic C 60 ions interacting with crystalline targets. A hybrid algorithm was used that employs a binary collision model for the scattering of the carbon ions by the atoms of the solid, and molecular dynamics for the Coulomb interactions of the 60 carbon ions with one another. For the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), directions such as [1 1 0], [1 0 0], [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] demonstrate channelling for a large fraction of the C ions. For directions such as [1 1 1], [2 1 1] and [7 5 3] the trajectories show no more channelling than for random directions. The effects of tilt, shielding and wake-field interactions were investigated for YIG and α-quartz

  12. Magnetic spectra and Richter aftereffect relaxation in Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3−x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Xian; Feng, Zekun, E-mail: fengzekun@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electric Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The static and dynamic magnetic properties of cerium (Ce) doped yttrium iron garnet Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3−x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) ferrites (YIG) have been reported in this work. The ferrites were fabricated by the traditional solid-state reaction method. All ferrite samples reveal pure garnet structure identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The substitution of cerium not only enhances the saturation magnetization of the samples, but also regulates the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K{sub 1}. Obvious differences in permeability spectra over a frequency of 1 MHz - 1 GHz can be observed. It is verified that the permeability dispersion and magnetic losses of Ce-doped YIG ferrite contain the contribution of Richter aftereffect relaxation due to the existence of Fe{sup 2+} ions. The fitting results of the permeability spectra applied three-mechanism model is in good agreement with experimental data, which successfully explains the mechanisms of magnetic losses observed at 1 MHz to 1 GHz for Ce-doped YIG ferrite. In addition, the frequency shift of Richter aftereffect has also been discussed.

  13. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  14. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  15. Defect-property correlations in garnet crystals. III. The electrical conductivity and defect structure of luminescent nickel-doped yttrium aluminum garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, S.R.; Tuller, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The conduction mechanisms in nickel-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ni:YAG) have been studied as a function of temperature and partial pressue of oxygen. ac conductivity and ionic transference measurements show that Ni:YAG is a mixed ionic-electronic conductor with an ionic mobility characterized by an activation energy of 2.0--2.2 eV. The reduction of Ni +3 to Ni +2 causes an increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration and a concurrent rise in the magnitude of the ionic conductivity. Codoping with zirconium, on the other hand, fixes the nickel in the divalent state, increases the n-type conductivity, and lowers the degree of ionic conductivity. A defect model is presented which is consistent with all of these observations

  16. On the nature and origin of garnet in highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: implications for continent stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    The nature and timescales of garnet formation in the Earth's subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) are important to our understanding of how this rigid outer shell has evolved and stabilised since the Archean. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of pyrope garnet in the sub-cratonic mantle remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. The paradox is that garnet often occurs in mantle lithologies (dunites and harzburgites) which represent residues of major melting events (up to 40 %) whereas experimental studies on fertile peridotite suggest this phase should be exhausted by years. The garnets display systematic trends from ultra-depleted to enriched compositions that have not been recognised in peridotite suites from elsewhere (Gibson et al., 2013). Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element (REE) patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed by Stachel et al. (2004) to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism. These rare ultra-depleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with highly-refractory olivine (Fo95.4) and orthopyroxene (Mg#=96.4). These phases are all more magnesian than generally encountered in global samples of depleted mantle, i.e. harzburgites and diamond inclusion suites. The Tanzanian ultra-depleted garnets form interconnecting networks ('necklaces') around grains of orthopyroxene, which is of key importance to their origin. This close spatial relationship of garnet and orthopyroxene together with the major, trace and REE contents of the ultra-depleted garnets, are consistent with an origin by isochemical exsolution. The significance of ultra-depleted low-Cr garnets has not previously been recognised in global suites of mantle xenoliths or diamond inclusions: they appear to have been overlooked, primarily

  17. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  20. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  1. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  4. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  5. The ninth conference of Czechoslovak physicists. Part 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosek, F.; Cimpl, Z.; Pantoflicek, J.

    1987-01-01

    The two volume proceedings contain papers and posters presented at the symposium. A total of 21 papers have been incorporated in INIS. The subject areas of the papers included: problems of the neutrino physics, new ideas of space-time and particles, the Czechoslovak project of the source of synchronous radiation, thermonuclear reaction, the study of amorphous substances using the EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) method, electron structure and the magnetism of 5f systems, hyperfine interaction in substituted YIG's (Yttrium Iron Garnets), Moessbauer spectroscopy of amorphous substances, superliquid phase of 3 He, results attained in subnuclear and nuclear physics. (J.P.)

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance facility for investigation of a disk of the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, H.; Walters, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    By means of the facility there can be determined the distribution of the water content or of the relaxation-time constants in cross-sectional deils or volumes of the patient. The magnetic field applied is described in form of pulses. In order to achieve the required equal field integrals there is performed an inquiry on the magnetic field at times predetermined for the gradient-pulse shape. The gradient-pulse shape itself is sinusoidal or deformed-sinusoidal. In the circuit for field measurement and error signal there are used Yttrium-Iron-Garnet (YIG) oscillator probes. (RW) [de

  7. Partículas nanométricas de ferritas de ítrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoi Ricardo H. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of yttrium iron garnet (YIG were obtained by coprecipitation. The particles were prepared by hydrolysis in acid medium with addition of ammonia or urea, for homogeneous nucleation, at 90ºC. Different compositions and spherical morphologies were achieved by changing reactants concentrations and precipitation agent. X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis and electrophoretic mobility were carried out on these particles to investigate the obtained phase, phase transition temperature, morphology, particle size and zeta potential, respectively.

  8. Rapid Thermal Annealing of Cathode-Garnet Interface toward High-Temperature Solid State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Fu, Kun; Gong, Yunhui; Yang, Chunpeng; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chengwei; Kuang, Yudi; Pastel, Glenn; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-09

    High-temperature batteries require the battery components to be thermally stable and function properly at high temperatures. Conventional batteries have high-temperature safety issues such as thermal runaway, which are mainly attributed to the properties of liquid organic electrolytes such as low boiling points and high flammability. In this work, we demonstrate a truly all-solid-state high-temperature battery using a thermally stable garnet solid-state electrolyte, a lithium metal anode, and a V 2 O 5 cathode, which can operate well at 100 °C. To address the high interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and cathode, a rapid thermal annealing method was developed to melt the cathode and form a continuous contact. The resulting interfacial resistance of the solid electrolyte and V 2 O 5 cathode was significantly decreased from 2.5 × 10 4 to 71 Ω·cm 2 at room temperature and from 170 to 31 Ω·cm 2 at 100 °C. Additionally, the diffusion resistance in the V 2 O 5 cathode significantly decreased as well. The demonstrated high-temperature solid-state full cell has an interfacial resistance of 45 Ω·cm 2 and 97% Coulombic efficiency cycling at 100 °C. This work provides a strategy to develop high-temperature all-solid-state batteries using garnet solid electrolytes and successfully addresses the high contact resistance between the V 2 O 5 cathode and garnet solid electrolyte without compromising battery safety or performance.

  9. Synthesis and luminescent study of Ce3+-doped terbium–yttrium aluminum garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotsenko, V.P.; Berezovskaya, I.V.; Zubar, E.V.; Efryushina, N.P.; Poletaev, N.I.; Doroshenko, Yu.A.; Stryganyuk, G.B.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ce 3+ -doped garnets (TYAG) were prepared using nanostructured reagents. ► The Ce 3+ ions cause a very efficient yellow emission of the samples. ► The reasons for the long wavelength position of this emission are discussed. ► Contribution from Al atoms to the conduction band of TYAG is quite essential. - Abstract: Terbium–yttrium aluminum garnets (TYAG) doped with Ce 3+ ions have been prepared by solid state reactions between nanostructured oxides of aluminum and rare earths. The luminescent properties of Ce 3+ ions in (Tb 0.8 Y 0.2 ) 3(1−x) Ce 3x Al 5 O 12 (x = 0.03) have been studied upon excitation in the 2–20 eV region. The substitution of Tb 3+ for Y 3+ in the garnet structure results in broadening the emission band and shifting its maximum towards the longer wavelengths. It was found that in addition to the 4f n → 4f n−1 5d excitation bands of Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ ions, the excitation spectra for the Ce 3+ emission contain broad bands at 6.73 and ∼9.5 eV. These bands are attributed to the Ce 3+ -bound exciton formation and O 2p → Al 3s, 3p transitions, respectively. In contrast to the predictions based on the results of electronic structure calculations on Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and Tb 4 Al 2 O 9 , the threshold of interband transitions in TYAG is at high energies (⩾7.3 eV), and contributions from Al tetr and Al oct atoms to the conduction-band density of states are evaluated as quite essential.

  10. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  11. Effects of Sublattice Symmetry and Frustration on Ionic Transport in Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinsky, Boris; Akhade, Sneha A.; Hirel, Pierre; Hashibon, Adham; Elsässer, Christian; Mehta, Prateek; Logeat, Alan; Eisele, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We use rigorous group-theoretic techniques and molecular dynamics to investigate the connection between structural symmetry and ionic conductivity in the garnet family of solid Li-ion electrolytes. We identify new ordered phases and order-disorder phase transitions that are relevant for conductivity optimization. Ionic transport in this materials family is controlled by the frustration of the Li sublattice caused by incommensurability with the host structure at noninteger Li concentrations, while ordered phases explain regions of sharply lower conductivity. Disorder is therefore predicted to be optimal for ionic transport in this and other conductor families with strong Li interaction.

  12. Room Temperature Elastic Moduli and Vickers Hardness of Hot-Pressed LLZO Cubic Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    4140-steel [29] as well as composites such as Al/Al2O3 [30] and Ni– YSZ cermets [27]. The RUS apparatus used in this study consists of a computer...Microstructure and lattice parameter of LLZO specimens In this study , the LLZO microstructure was observed on a (i) fracture surface of LLZO-01 (Fig. 1a) and... study are consistent with the trend (Eq. 2) of a power law decrease in mechanical properties with increasing lattice parameter observed for other garnet

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of solid-phase reactions of formation of yttrium ferrite with garnet structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashchenko, V P; Yakushevskaya, F T; Chalyi, V P

    1977-04-01

    The perovskite phase is formed in the process of ferrogarnet formation both from the mixture of Y and Fe oxides and from mutually precipitated carbonates. The amount of the perovskite phase decreases with increasing duration of annealing. The process of the ferritoformation in the investigated systems can be presented as isovalent cationic substitution on the basis of the crystalline structure of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with the formation of the perovskite structure. When the Fe concentration in orthoferrite increases, the phase with a garnet structure is formed.

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of yttrium ferrites with structures of perovskite and garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, E V; Shapovalov, A G; Aksel' rod, N L; Pazdnikov, I P [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1980-09-01

    The solid phase synthesis of yttrium ferrites having a perovskite- and garnet-like structure has been investigated in the temperature range from 800 to 1500 deg C and temper times of up to 80 hours by reaction zone simulation and magnetic phase analysis. It is shown that for conversion degrees d<0.15 the reactions are diffusion-controlled. The rate constants and effective diffusion in the formation of YFeO/sub 3/ and Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ have been determined.

  15. Cerium-doped single crystal and transparent ceramic lutetium aluminum garnet scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Speaks, Derrick T.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chai, B.H.T.; Porter-Chapman, Yetta; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    For rapid, unambiguous isotope identification, scintillator detectors providing high-resolution gamma ray spectra are required. We have fabricated Lutetium Aluminum Garnet (LuAG) using transparent ceramic processing, and report a 2-mm thick ceramic exhibiting 75% transmission and light yield comparable to single-crystal LuAG:Ce. The LuAG:Ce luminescence peaks at 550 nm, providing an excellent match for Silicon Photodiode readout. LuAG is dense (6.67 g/cm 3 ) and impervious to water, exhibits good proportionality and a fast decay (∼40 ns), and we measure light yields in excess of 20,000 photons/MeV

  16. Synthesis and characterization of charge-substituted garnets YCaLnGa5O12 (Ln = Ce,Pr,Tb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramsch, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A low temperature method is described for the preparation of the new garnet compounds YCaLnGa 5 O l2 (Ln=Ce, Pr, Th). In this set of compounds (Ca 2+ + Ln 4+ ) replaces 2 Y 3+ in the parent gallium based garnet Y 3 Ga 5 O l2 in order to stabilize as effectively as possible the Ln 4+ species in the eight-coordinate ''A'' site of the garnet structure. Characterization of the oxides by x-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis is discussed with regard to the structural relationship of the substituted compound to the parent material. The tetravalent ions Pr 4+ and Tb 4+ exhibit increased thermal stability in reducing conditions as compared to the Ln 4+ states in the fluorite (LnO 2 ) and perovskite (BaLnO 3 ) type structures. This result is discussed with reference to the complex crystal chemistry of these systems

  17. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  18. Present understanding of the stability of Li-stuffed garnets with moisture, carbon dioxide, and metallic lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Kyle; Samson, Alfred Junio; Narayanan, Sumaletha; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2018-06-01

    Fast lithium-ion conducting garnet-type metal oxides are promising membranes for next-generation all-solid-state Li batteries and beyond Li-ion batteries, including Li-air and Li-S batteries, due to their high total Li-ion conductivity and excellent chemical stability against reaction with elemental Li. Several studies have been reported on structure-chemical composition-ionic conductivity property in Li-stuffed garnet-type metal oxides. Here, an overview of the chemical and electrochemical stability of lithium-based garnets against moisture/humidity, aqueous solutions, carbon dioxide, sulfur, and metallic lithium are analyzed. Moisture and aqueous stability studies focus on understanding the crystal structure stability, the proton exchange capacity as a function of Li content in Li-stuffed garnets, and how the protonated species affect the crystal structure and mass transport properties. H+/Li+ exchange was found to be in the range of 2-100%. Stability concerning Li-ion conductivity and morphology under carbon dioxide are discussed. Interfacial chemical stability with lithium metal characterized by electrochemical stability window, Li dendrite formation and area specific resistance (ASR) for the reaction Li ⇌ Li+ +e- are presented. Recent attempts to suppress dendrite formation and to reduce ASR via surface modification are also highlighted. Li and Li-stuffed garnet interface ASR values are shown to be as high as >2000 Ω cm2 and as low as 1 Ω cm2 at room temperature for surface modified Li-stuffed samples. Furthermore, recent studies on Li-S battery utilizing chemically stable Li - garnet electrolyte are also discussed.

  19. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelli, A.; Wu, Z.; Mottana, A.; Giuli, G.; Paris, E.; Seifert, F.

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells

  20. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati; Wu, Z. [CNRS UMR 110, Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Nantes Cedex (France). Institut de materiaux de Nantes; Mottana, A. [Roma III Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche; Giuli, G.; Paris, E. [Camerino Univ., Camerino (Italy).Diparimento di Scienze della Terra; Seifert, F [Univ. Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Italy). Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells.

  1. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  2. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  3. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoi, R., E-mail: bugoi@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Măgurele 077125 (Romania); Oanţă-Marghitu, R., E-mail: rodicamarghitu@yahoo.com [Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României, Bucureşti 030026 (Romania); Calligaro, T., E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  4. Hysteresis loop design by geometry of garnet film element with single domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidanov, V A; Vetoshko, P M; Stempkovskiy, A L

    2011-01-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of magnetostatic stable states of two-domain structure in Bi-substituted uniaxial garnet film elements was made. Single domain walls (DW) between two opposite normally magnetized parts in isolated rectangular strip and strip-like bridge are found to exhibit different behavior. DW inside strip (bridge) suffers increasing repulsion (attraction) from nearest edge when shifted from element center. DW position center position is stable in isolated strip but bridge is magnetized spontaneously to one of two saturated states in zero external field. Isolated strip magnetization process occurs reversibly while bridge magnetization reversal occurs by coercive manner. Strip susceptibility and bridge coercive field are entirely defined by magnetostatic barrier created by element boundary stray field in case of constant DW length during magnetization reversal. Variation of strip and bridge boundary shape along DW trajectory gives the opportunity to create additional controllable potential profile due to DW surface energy modulation by DW length. Garnet elements with high Faraday rotation and low light switching field were developed for fine magnetic sensing and optical data processing applications.

  5. The first discovery of Hadean zircon in garnet granulites from the Sutam River (Aldan Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhovskii, M. Z.; Kuz'min, M. I.; Bayanova, T. B.; Lyalina, L. M.; Makrygina, V. A.; Shcherbakova, T. F.

    2017-09-01

    For the first time in Russia, a Hadean zircon grain with an age of 3.94 Ga (ID-TIMS) has been discovered in high-aluminous garnet granulites of the Aldan Shield among the U-Pb zircons with an age from 1.92 Ga. In this connection, the problems of its parental source, the petrogenesis of granulites that captured this zircon, and the mechanism of occurrence of these deep rocks in the upper horizons of the crust have been solved. The comparison of the geochemistry of garnet granulites and the middle crust has shown that the granulites are enriched in the entire range of rare-earth elements (except for the Eu minimum), as well as in Al2O3, U, and Th and are depleted in the most mobile elements (Na, Ca, Sr). In the upper part of the allitic weathering zone of the middle crust, which formed under conditions of arid climate, this zircon grain was originated from the weathered granites from the middle crust. In the latter case, they were empleced discretely in the upper granite-gneiss crust under high pressure conditions (the rutile age is 1.83-1.82 Ga). The zircon with an age of 3.94 Ga is comparable to the Hadean zircons from orthogneisses of the Acasta region (Canadian Shield, 4.03-3.94 Ga).

  6. Yttrium aluminium garnet under pressure: Structural, elastic, and vibrational properties from ab initio studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa

  7. Study on bubble properties and disorder degree in ion-implanted ferrite-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikauskas, V.S.; Markyalis, A.V.; Pranyavichyus, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    The disorder degree in crystalline garnet films of (BiTm) 3 (FeGa) 5 O 2 composition arising due to ion implantation was studied by the proton backscattering method. The epitaxial films were grown on nonmagnetic substrates of gallium-gadolinium garnets cutted in the (111) plane. Neon ions with 100 keV energy were implanted in the dose range of 6x10 13 -2x10 14 cm -2 . The initial energy of the backscattered protons was 450 keV. The defect maximum was located at the depth of approximately 0.15 μk. The amorphization degeee at the defect maximum was calculated at different radiation doses. At 10 14 and 2x10 14 cm -2 doses the amorphization degree was the same and was equal to 0.8. The bubble parameters were studied. It is obtained that the threshold value of the neon ion dose corresponds to the minimum interval of the collapse fields ( [ru

  8. Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.

  9. Metamorphic history of garnet-rich gneiss at Ktiš in the Lhenice shear zone, Moldanubian Zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, inferred from inclusions and compositional zoning of garnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, T.; Hirajima, T.; Kawakami, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 124, 1/2 (2011), s. 46-65 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Lhenice shear zone * garnet * P-T path * partial melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2011

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  6. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  7. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  15. Scintillation response of Ce3+ doped GdGa-LuAG multicomponent garnet films under e-beam excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Bok, Jan; Hanuš, M.; Schauer, Petr; Nikl, Martin

    169 Part B, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 674-677 ISSN 0022-2313 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : multicomponent garnets * cathodoluminescence * LuAG:Ce * scintillation * liquidphaseepitaxy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  16. Y3Fe5O12 nanoparticulate garnet ferrites: Comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization fabricated by various routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Murtaza, G.; Raza, Rizwan; Shaukat, S. F.; Asif, M. H.; Nasir, Nadeem; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Nazir, M. S.; Raza, M. R.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of synthesis methods such as sol-gel (SG), self combustion (SC) and modified conventional mixed oxide (MCMO) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the (Y3Fe5O12) garnet ferrites have been studied in the present work. The samples of Y3Fe5O12 were sintered at 950 °C and 1150 °C (by SG and SC methods). For MCMO route the sintering was done at 1350 °C for 6 h. Synthesized samples prepared by various routes were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Impedance network analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural analysis reveals that the samples are of single phase structure and shows variations in the particle sizes and cells volumes, prepared by various routes. FESEM and TEM images depict that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature from 40 nm to 100 nm.Magnetic measurements reveal that garnet ferrite synthesized by sol gel method has high initial permeability (60.22) and low magnetic loss (0.0004) as compared to other garnet ferrite samples, which were synthesized by self combustion and MCMO methods. The M-H loops exhibit very low coercivity which enables the use of these materials in relays and switching devices fabrications. Thus, the garnet nanoferrites with low magnetic loss prepared by different methods may open new horizon for electronic industry for their use in high frequency applications.

  17. Rare-earth antisites in lutetium aluminum garnets: influence on lattice parameter and Ce.sup.3+./sup. multicenter structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Przybylińska, H.; Wittlin, A.; Ma, C.G.; Brik, M.G.; Kamińska, A.; Sybilski, P.; Zorenko, Yu.; Nikl, Martin; Gorbenko, V.; Fedorov, A.; Kučera, M.; Suchocki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2014), s. 1515-1519 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : garnets * scintillators * laser materials * phosphors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  18. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu 3 Ga 5 O 12 nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu 3 Ga 5 O 12 nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy 3+ ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy 3+ concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy 3+ ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy 3+ ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy 3+ concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy 3+ ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications

  19. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  7. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  8. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  9. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  12. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  1. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  4. Bulk magnon spin current theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, S.M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla, 306 Santiago (Chile); Cunha, R.O.; López Ortiz, J.C.; Azevedo, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) consists in the generation of a spin current parallel to a temperature gradient applied across the thickness of a bilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI), such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and a metallic layer (ML) with strong spin orbit coupling, such as platinum. The LSSE is usually detected by a DC voltage generated along the ML due to the conversion of the spin current into a charge current perpendicular to the static magnetic field by means of the inverse spin Hall effect. Here we present a model for the LSSE that relies on the bulk magnon spin current created by the temperature gradient across the thickness of the FMI. We show that the spin current pumped into the metallic layer by the magnon accumulation in the FMI provides continuity of the spin current at the FMI/ML interface and is essential for the existence of the LSSE. The results of the theory are in good agreement with experimental LSSE data in YIG/Pt bilayers on the variation of the DC voltage with the sample temperature, with the FMI layer thickness and with the intensity of high magnetic fields. - Highlights: • We present a theory for the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect based on bulk magnons. • The model explains quantitatively the measured voltage in YIG/Pt created by the LSSE. • The model explains quantitatively the temperature dependence of LSSE measured in YIG/Pt. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE with YIG thickness. • The model agrees qualitatively with the measured dependence of LSSE on magnetic field.

  5. Differential equilibration and intergranular diffusion of trace elements during rapid regional metamorphism: constraints from LA-ICP-MS mapping of a garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-12-01

    Trace element zoning contained within a metapelitic garnet population yields information pertaining to a more complex prograde reaction history than is evident in major element zoning patterns and other conventional analyses. In particular, while trace elements may not act as a rate-limiting component for garnet crystallization, their incorporation into garnet growth surfaces provides a nuanced insight into the crystallization history of the population, and the extent of equilibration of trace elements in the matrix. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS raster maps of trace element concentrations from several population-representative, centrally sectioned garnets from a garnet-grade metapelite of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Equilibrium forward modeling of garnet crystallization and simulation of diffusional modification indicates that the garnet population crystallized rapidly over <1 Myr between 515 °C/4.5 kbar and 565 °C/5.5 kbar, as a consequence of high heating rates during regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. While the rate of diffusional homogenization of major divalent cations is interpreted to have exceeded the rate of interfacial advance (yielding simple prograde growth zoning), trace element distributions record a more complex transport history. In particular, yttrium and the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) document a transition from an overprinted sigmoidal core to concentric repeated HREE and yttrium annuli in all crystals. This suggests that there was a discrete increase in the length scale of equilibration along the advancing garnet interface at some point in the growth history. However, there is no evidence for a coeval change in HREE transport thorough the intergranular network. Conversely, spiral core-to-rim zoning of chromium indicates the element remains almost completely immobile in the matrix over the duration of garnet growth.

  6. Magnetic properties of Kramers rare earth ions in aluminium and gallium garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capel, H.

    1964-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Kramers rare earth ions in aluminium and gallium garnets (MAlG and MGaG) are discussed by means of a molecular field treatment. The symmetry properties of the space group permit to establish a parametrization for the magnetic dipolar and exchange couplings. The magnetic properties of the system can be expressed in terms of these parameters and the g factors of the rare earth ions. We have calculated the transition temperatures, the sub-lattice magnetizations, the susceptibility in the paramagnetic region and the antiferromagnetic susceptibility for a special type of magnetic ordering. The influence of the excited Kramers doublets is described by means of a generalization of the usual g tensor. (authors) [fr

  7. Growth of rare-earth doped single crystal yttrium aluminum garnet fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Subhabrata; Nie, Craig D.; Harrington, James A.; Cheng, Long; Rand, Stephen C.; Li, Yuan; Johnson, Eric G.

    2018-02-01

    Rare-earth doped single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fibers have great potential as high-power laser gain media. SC fibers combine the superior material properties of crystals with the advantages of a fiber geometry. Improving processing techniques, growth of low-loss YAG SC fibers have been reported. A low-cost technique that allows for the growth of optical quality Ho:YAG single crystal (SC) fibers with different dopant concentrations have been developed and discussed. This technique is a low-cost sol-gel based method which offers greater flexibility in terms of dopant concentration. Self-segregation of Nd ions in YAG SC fibers have been observed. Such a phenomenon can be utilized to fabricate monolithic SC fibers with graded index.

  8. Challenges and perspectives of garnet solid electrolytes for all solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Geng, Zhen; Han, Cuiping; Fu, Yongzhu; Li, Song; He, Yan-bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-06-01

    Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes recently have attracted tremendous interest as they have the potential to enable all solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) owing to high ionic conductivity (10-3 to 10-4 S cm-1), negligible electronic transport, wide potential window (up to 9 V), and good chemical stability. Here we present the key issues and challenges of LLZO in the aspects of ion conduction property, interfacial compatibility, and stability in air. First, different preparation methods of LLZO are reviewed. Then, recent progress about the improvement of ionic conductivity and interfacial property between LLZO and electrodes are presented. Finally, we list some emerging LLZO-based solid-state batteries and provide perspectives for further research. The aim of this review is to summarize the up-to-date developments of LLZO and lead the direction for future development which could enable LLZO-based ASSLBs.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of the low-temperature yttrium-aluminium garnet synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, Yu.D.; Danchevskaya, M.N.; Yanchenko, P.A.; Murav'eva, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Kinetics and formation mechanism of finely crystalline yttrium-aluminium garnet (YAG) during hydrothermal and hot steam treatment of stoichiometric mixture of oxides in the range of temperature 200-400 Deg C and pressures of 1.5-26 MPa were studied. It is ascertained that formation of YAG occurs via intermediate stage of Y(OH) 3 structure formation, whereas the aluminia component is X-ray amorphous. Kinetics of YAG formation is described by the equation of solid phase transformation with the limiting stage of nucleation. The YAG formed contains 7-5 % of water, which corresponds to hydrogarnet structure. Unit cell parameters of the YAG samples synthesized are somewhat high and after heating up to 1200 Deg C they decrease [ru

  10. Barkhausen effect in a garnet film studied by ballistic hall micromagnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D A; Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K

    2005-01-01

    The movement of a micrometer-size section of a single domain wall in a uniaxial garnet film was studied using a ballistic Hall micromagnetometer at 77 K and 4.2 K. The wall propagated in characteristic Barkhausen jumps, with the jump size distribution following the power-law relation, P(S) ∝ S -τ . The scaling exponent, τ, was measured as 1.14 ± 0.05 at both temperatures. This is the first measurement of this exponent using such a device, and the first for a single wall in a two-dimensional sample with a low concentration of pinning centres, in which the magnetization of the sample is perpendicular to the surface

  11. Microtensile bond strength of composite resin to human enamel prepared using erbium: Yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2007-02-01

    The Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser used for preparation of cavity can alter the substrate and it could influence the bond strength of enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser's energy using microtensile bond test. Three groups were obtained (cavity preparation) and each group was divided into two subgroups (adhesive system). After that the adhesive protocol was performed, sections with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm2 (+/-0.2 mm2) were obtained. The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength for lased groups (p adhesive system was used the laser 300 mJ subgroup showed higher bond strength compared to the laser 250 mJ (p adhesive procedures than conventional bur-cut cavities. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Tobar, Michael E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Bushev, Pavel [Experimentalphysik, Universität des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 10{sup 6} are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of the phenomenon is demonstrated.

  13. Effect of substrate crystallographic orientation of garnet-ferrite film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burym, Yu.A.; Dubinko, S.V.; Mitsaj, Yu.N.; Borovitskaya, L.N.; Prokopov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of garnet-ferrite films with a composition (YbGdPrBi) 3 (FeAlGa) 5 O 12 grown under identical conditions on variously oriented substrates, have been studied. The substrate orientation was changed in such a way that the vector of the substrate normal was in the [110] plane between the [111] and [112] directions. We have found that the substrate misorientation leads to an inclined position of the easy magnetization axis (EMA) and a reduction of the film growth rate. The change of the film physical properties (Faraday rotation, Curie temperature, magnetization) indicates the film composition variation with the substrate orientation change. The temperature dependence of the EMA slope angle in the studied samples is determined by the magnetoelastic contribution to the anisotropy constants. (author)

  14. The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhou, Tao-fa; White, Noel C.; Zhang, Le-jun; Fan, Yu; Wang, Fang-yue; Chen, Xue-feng

    2018-03-01

    Xinqiao is a large copper-gold deposit and consists of two major mineralization types: stratabound and skarn. The skarn occurs along the contact between a quartz diorite intrusion and Carboniferous-Triassic limestone. Xinqiao has a strongly developed skarn zone, including endoskarn and exoskarn; the exoskarn is divided into proximal and distal exoskarn. We present systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for garnets from the skarn zone, discuss the factors controlling the incorporation of trace elements into the garnets, and constrain the formation and evolution of the garnet from skarn zone in Xinqiao deposit. Grossular (Adr20-44Grs56-80) mostly occurs in endoskarn and has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns, with small Eu anomalies and low ∑REE. Garnets from the exoskarn show complex textures and chemical compositions. The composition of garnets range from Al-rich andradite (Adr63-81Grs19-47) to andradite (Adr67-98Grs2-33). Garnet in endoskarn has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns. Al-rich andradite in proximal skarn has small Eu anomalies and moderate ∑REE. Andradite from distal exoskarn shows strong positive Eu anomalies and has variable ∑REE. The U, Y, Fe and Al relationship with ∑REE shows that two mechanisms controlled incorporation of REE into the garnets: crystal chemistry (substitution and interstitial solid solution) mainly controlled in the endoskarn garnet (grossular) and the proximal exoskarn (Al-rich andradite), and fluid and rock chemistry (surface adsorption and occlusion) controlled REEs in the distal exoskarn. Furthermore, Al has a negative relationship with ∑REE indicating that REE3+ did not follow a coupled, YAG-type substitution into the garnets. Variations in textures and trace and rare earth elements of garnets suggest that the garnets in the endoskarn formed by slow crystal growth at low W/R ratios and near-neutral pH in a closed system during periods of diffusive metasomatism

  15. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  16. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 , LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li 2 CO 3 . Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 . Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g -1 carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  17. High field magnetic anisotropy in praseodymium gallium garnet at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yue Yuan; Liu Gongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A detailed analysis of crystal field effect is presented, and a set of new crystal field parameters is given to study the magnetic behaviors of the paramagnetic praseodymium gallium garnet (PrGaG). → The contribution of the exchange interaction between the praseodymium ions to the magnetic properties of PrGaG is further explored. Meanwhile, some characteristics of exchange interaction are revealed. → With the consideration of crystal field and exchange interaction, the available experiments are successfully fitted by our theoretical model. → Our theory suggests that PrGaG is ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures, and the exchange interaction is anisotropic. - Abstract: In this paper, with the consideration of crystal field and exchange interaction between the rare-earth Pr 3+ ions, the magnetic anisotropy in praseodymium gallium garnet (PrGaG) in high magnetic fields and at low temperatures is theoretically analyzed. A set of relatively suitable CF parameters is obtained by studying the influence of the variations of nine CF parameters on the magnetization. However, only taking crystal field effect into account, theoretical calculations indicate that the experiments cannot be excellently interpreted. Then, the exchange interaction between Pr 3+ ion, which can be described as an effective exchange field H v = vM = vχH e = ηH e , is further considered. On the other hand, by evaluating the variation of the parameter η with the magnetic fields, our theory implies that PrGaG exhibits ferrimagnetic ordering at low temperatures, and the exchange interaction in PrGaG displays obvious anisotropy. Also, the theoretical data show better agreements with the experimental results.

  18. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  19. Magnetoelectric effect in structures which consist from ferrimagnetic and piezoelectric components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovs'kij, V.Je.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) properties of the structure which consists from mechanically connected magnetostriction and piezoelectric plates were investigated on example of the yttrium-ferrite-garnet (YIG) - piezoelectric. The laser polarimeter is using

  20. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  1. Synthesis of crystalline Ce-activated garnet phosphor powders and technique to characterize their scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E.; Fedorov, A.; Radiuk, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Dosovitskiy, G.; Vashchenkova, E.; Kuznetsova, D.; Retivov, V.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.; Sandu, R.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on a process of preparation of garnet phosphor powders and a technique for light yield evaluation of strongly light scattering samples. Powders of scintillation compounds could be used as individual materials or as samples for express tests of scintillation properties. However, estimation of their light yield (LY) is complicated by strong light scattering of this kind of materials. Ce3+-activated yttrium-aluminum and gallium-gadolinium-aluminum garnet phosphor powders, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce) and Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (GGAG:Ce), were obtained using a modified coprecipitation technique. Ga tends to residue in mother liquor in ammonia media, but the modification allows to avoid the loss of components. We propose an approach for sample preparation and LY measurement setup with alpha particles excitation, allowing to decrease light scattering influence and to estimate a light yield of powder samples. This approach is used to evaluate the obtained powders.

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  4. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  5. Energy resolution studies of Ce- and Pr-doped aluminum and multicomponent garnets: the escape and photo-peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Beitlerová, Alena; Průša, Petr; Blažek, K.; Horodysky, P.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Nikl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2016), s. 701-705 ISSN 0022-2313. [International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter /17./. Wroclaw, 13.07.2014-18.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multicomponent garnets * energy resolution * photo and escape peaks * Ce and Pr dopants * pulse height spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  6. Garnet Pyroxenites from Kaula, Hawaii: Implications for Plume-Lithosphere Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimis, M.; Garcia, M. O.; Norman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    The presence of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths on Oahu and Kaula Islands, Hawaii, provides the rare opportunity to investigate the composition of the deeper oceanic mantle lithosphere and the nature of plume-lithosphere interaction in two dimensions, downstream from the center of the Hawaiian plume. Kaula (60 miles SW of Kauai) is on the same bathymetric shallow as Kauai and the Kaula-Niihau-Kauai islands form a cross-trend relationship to the Hawaiian Island ridge. Here, we present the first Sr-Nd isotope data on clinopyroxenes (cpx) from Kaula pyroxenites, and we compare them with the Salt Lake Crater (SLC) pyroxenites from Oahu. The Kaula cpx major element compositions overlap those of the (more variable) SLC pyroxenites (e.g. Mg# = 0.79-0.83), except for their higher Al2O3 contents (9% vs. 5-8%) than the SLC. The Kaula cpx are LREE enriched with elevated Dy/Yb ratios, similar to the SLC pyroxenites and characteristic of the presence of garnet that preferentially incorporates the HREE. In Sr-Nd isotope space, the Kaula pyroxenite compositions (87Sr/86Sr= 0.70312-0.70326, ɛNd= 7.2-8.6) overlap those of both the Oahu-Kauai post erosional lavas and the SLC pyroxenites, falling at the isotopically depleted end of the Hawaiian lava compositions. The depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the Kaula pyroxenites suggest that they are not related to the isotopically enriched shield stage Hawaiian lavas, either as a source material (i.e. recycled eclogite) or as cumulates. Their elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to MORB also suggests that they are not likely MORB-related cumulates. The similarities between the Oahu and Kaula pyroxenites, some 200 km apart, suggest the widespread presence of pyroxenitic material in the deeper (>60km) Pacific lithosphere between Oahu and Kaula-Kauai, as high pressure cumulates from melts isotopically similar to the secondary Hawaiian volcanism. The presence of this material within the lower lithosphere is consistent with seismic observations

  7. Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Luo, Zhaohua; Jiang, Haochuan; Meng, Fang; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent garnet materials can be made in optical ceramic as well as single crystal form due to their cubic crystal structure. In this work, high-quality Gd 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 :0.2 at% Ce (GGAG:Ce) single crystal and (Gd,Lu) 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 :1 at% Ce (GLuGAG:Ce) optical ceramics were fabricated by the Czochralski method and a combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and annealing treatment, respectively. Under optical and X-ray excitation, the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic exhibits a broad Ce 3+ transition emission centered at 550 nm, while the emission peak of the GGAG:Ce single crystal is centered at 540 nm. A self-absorption effect in GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic results in this red-shift of the Ce 3+ emission peak compared to that in the GGAG:Ce single crystal. The light yield under 662 keV γ-ray excitation was 45,000±2500 photons/MeV and 48,200±2410 photons/MeV for the GGAG:Ce single crystal and GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic, respectively. An energy resolution of 7.1% for 662 keV γ-rays was achieved in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic with a Hamamatsu R6231 PMT, which is superior to the value of 7.6% for a GGAG:Ce single crystal. Scintillation decay time measurements under 137 Cs irradiation show two exponential decay components of 58 ns (47%) and 504 ns (53%) for the GGAG:Ce single crystal, and 84 ns (76%) and 148 ns (24%) for the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic. The afterglow level after X-ray cutoff in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic is at least one order of magnitude lower than in the GGAG:Ce single crystal. - Highlights: • GGAG:Ce single crystal and GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramics were fabricated. • The light yield of both ceramic and crystal G(Lu)GAG:Ce reached the level of 45,000 photons/MeV. • GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic showed a better energy resolution of 7.1% for 662 keV. • GLuGAG:Ce ceramics exhibited lower afterglow level than that of GGAG:Ce single crystals. • The possible optimization strategies for multicomponent aluminate garnets are discussed

  8. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  9. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The solubility and site preference of Fe3+ in Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenwander, D.; Geiger, C. A.; Tribus, M.; Tropper, P.; Wagner, R.; Tippelt, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Amthauer, G.

    2015-10-01

    A series of Fe3+-bearing Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe3+ pfu could be incorporated in Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnet solid solutions. At Fe3+ concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe3+ contents lower than 0.52 Fe3+ pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a0, for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a0≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe3+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO3 in syntheses with Fe3+ contents greater than 0.16 Fe3+ pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets, as determined by electron microprobe (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li6.89Fe0.03La3.05Zr2.01O12, Li6.66Fe0.06La3.06Zr2.01O12, Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12, and Li6.19Fe0.19La3.02Zr2.04O12. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 garnet indicates that most Fe3+ occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe3+ in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 this Fe3+ has a distorted 4-fold coordination.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your ... very young red blood cells. Peripheral smear to see if your red blood ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...