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Sample records for iron doped lithium

  1. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  2. Iron doping of lithium niobate by thermal diffusion from thin film: study of the treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, Maria Vittoria; Zaltron, Annamaria; Bazzan, Marco; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia [Universita di Padova (Italy); CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Mignoni, Sabrina; Fontana, Marc [Universite de Metz et Supelec, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Metz (France)

    2011-07-15

    Thermal diffusion from thin film is one of the most widespread approaches to prepare iron doped regions in lithium niobate with limited size for photorefractive applications. In this work, we investigate the doping process with the aim of determining the best process conditions giving a doped region with the characteristics required for photorefractive applications. Six samples were prepared by changing the atmosphere employed in the diffusion treatment in order to obtain different combination of diffusion profiles and reduction degrees and also to check the effect of employing a wet atmosphere. The compositional, optical, and structural properties are then extensively characterized by combining Secondary ion Mass Spectrometry, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometry, High Resolution X-Rays Diffraction, and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Moreover, the sample topography was checked by Atomic Force Microscopy. An analysis of all our data shows that the best results are obtained performing a double step process, i.e. diffusion in oxidizing atmosphere and subsequent reduction at lower temperature in an hydrogen-containing atmosphere. (orig.)

  3. Numerical and Experimental Study of Optoelectronic Trapping on Iron-Doped Lithium Niobate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gazzetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OET are a promising technique for the realization of reconfigurable systems suitable to trap and manipulate microparticles. In particular, dielectrophoretic (DEP forces produced by OET represent a valid alternative to micro-fabricated metal electrodes, as strong and spatially reconfigurable electrical fields can be induced in a photoconductive layer by means of light-driven phenomena. In this paper we report, and compare with the experimental data, the results obtained by analyzing the spatial configurations of the DEP-forces produced by a 532 nm laser beam, with Gaussian intensity distribution, impinging on a Fe-doped Lithium Niobate substrate. Furthermore, we also present a promising preliminary result for water-droplets trapping, which could open the way to the application of this technique to biological samples manipulation.

  4. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  5. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  6. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  7. Gamma ray interactions with undoped and CuO-doped lithium disilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbatal, H.A.; Mandouh, Z.; Zayed, H.; Marzouk, S.Y.; Elkomy, G.; Hosny, A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible absorption of undoped lithium disilicate glass reveals strong UV absorption and no visible bands could be identified. Such UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within raw materials used for the preparation of this glass. Optical absorption of the CuO-doped samples show an extra broad visible band centered at 780 nm and in high CuO contents samples obvious splitting to several component peaks are observed. This characteristic visible absorption of copper-doped samples is correlated with the presence of Cu +2 ions in octahedral coordination with tetragonal distortion. Gamma irradiation of the prepared samples produces radiation-induced defects, which are related to the sharing of host lithium disilicate glass, trace iron impurities and copper iron in their formation. The visible spectrum of the CuO samples shows shielding effect towards successive gamma irradiation.

  8. Copper-substituted, lithium rich iron phosphate as cathode material for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.B.; Cho, S.H.; Heo, J.B.; Aravindan, V.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-free, copper-doped, lithium rich iron phosphates, Li 1+x Fe 1-y Cu y PO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.005), have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the optimization, the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 phase showed superior performances in terms of phase purity and high discharge capacity. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared to LiFePO 4 , Li 1.05 FePO 4 , LiFe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 , and materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted to ensure copper doping. Only smooth surface morphologies were observed for lithium rich iron phosphates, namely Li 1.05 FePO 4 and Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 . The Li/Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 cell delivered an initial discharge capacity of 145 mAh/g and was 18 mAh/g higher than the Li/LiFePO 4 cell without any carbon coating effect. Cyclic voltammetry revealed excellent reversibility of the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 material. High rate capability studies were also performed and showed a capacity retention over 95% during the cycling. We concluded that substituted Li and Cu ions play an important role in enhancing battery performance of the LiFePO 4 material through improving the kinetics of the lithium insertion/extraction reaction on the electrode.

  9. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  10. Iron site location in Fe-diffused lithium niobate crystals by combined RBS-PIXE-NRA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltron, A. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N., E-mail: nicola.argiolas@unipd.it [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Bazzan, M. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ciampolillo, M.V.; Bacci, L.; Sada, C. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Iron diffused x-cut lithium niobate samples have been studied from a structural point of view by ion beam analysis techniques in channeling conditions. The aim of this work is to determine the most probable position of iron atoms after high temperature diffusion treatment in pure oxygen atmosphere and to verify their location after an additional full reducing annealing at low temperature. The results are compared with the bulk doping case that can be considered the final equilibrium state of the diffusion process. By comparing the iron signal with niobium and lithium counterparts in angular scans along proper crystallographic directions, we demonstrate that iron occupies in any case the lithium site or a very close position regardless of the reduction degree, just as in the case of bulk doped samples.

  11. Growth and characterization of pure and lithium doped strontium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The effect of lithium ion as dopant on the size and transparency of strontium tartrate tetrahydrate. (SrC4H4O6⋅4H2O) crystals are presented in this paper. Growth of single crystals of undoped and lithium doped strontium tartrate tetrahydrate by controlled diffusion of strontium nitrate into the gel charged with.

  12. Atomic Iron Catalysis of Polysulfide Conversion in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Qi; Chen, Renjie; Ni, Mei; Utetiwabo, Wellars; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yang, Wen

    2018-06-13

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have been regarded as promising candidates for energy storage because of their high energy density and low cost. It is a main challenge to develop long-term cycling stability battery. Here, a catalytic strategy is presented to accelerate reversible transformation of sulfur and its discharge products in lithium-sulfur batteries. This is achieved with single-atomic iron active sites in porous nitrogen-doped carbon, prepared by polymerizing and carbonizing diphenylamine in the presence of iron phthalocyanine and a hard template. The Fe-PNC/S composite electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity (427 mAh g -1 ) at a 0.1 C rate after 300 cycles with the Columbic efficiency of above 95.6%. Besides, the electrode delivers much higher capacity of 557.4 mAh g -1 at 0.5 C over 300 cycles. Importantly, the Fe-PCN/S has a smaller phase nucleation overpotential of polysulfides than nitrogen-doped carbon alone for the formation of nanoscale of Li 2 S as revealed by ex situ SEM, which enhance lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2 S, and therefore a high rate performance and remarkable cycle life of Li-sulfur batteries were achieved. Our strategy paves a new way for polysulfide conversion with atomic iron catalysis to exploit high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

  13. Lithium Iron Orthosilicate Cathode: Progress and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jiangfeng [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Jiang, Yu [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Li, Liang [College; amp, Physics (CECMP), Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China; Lu, Jun [Chemical

    2017-07-18

    The pursuit of cathodes with a high capacity is remarkably driven by the ever increasing demand of high-energy lithium ion batteries in electronics and transportation. In this regard, polyanionic lithium iron orthosilicate (Li2FeSiO4) offers a promising opportunity because it affords a high theoretical capacity of 331 mAh g–1. However, such a high theoretical capacity of Li2FeSiO4 has frequently been compromised in practice because of the extremely low electronic and ionic conductivity. To address this issue, material engineering strategies to boost the Li storage kinetics in Li2FeSiO4 have proven indispensable. In this Perspective, we will briefly present the structural characteristics, intrinsic physicochemical properties, and electrochemical behavior of Li2FeSiO4. We particularly focus on recent materials engineering of silicates, which is implemented mainly through advanced synthetic techniques and elaborate controls. This Perspective highlights the importance of integrating theoretical analysis into experimental implementation to further advance the Li2FeSiO4 materials.

  14. Incorporation mechanism for doping of metal ions into a passivating film at the lithium/thionyl chloride interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, V. G.; Shikin, V. I.

    1993-05-01

    Effects of iron and titanium ions on corrosion processes of lithium in thionyl chloride electrolytes have been studied. Laws for the growth of the passivating film on the type and concentration of doped ions have been established, and equations for these are suggested. A stepwise mechanism of dopant incorporation into passivating film structure is presented.

  15. Incorporation mechanism for doping of metal ions into a passive film at the lithium/thionyl chloride interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.G. (Siberian Inst. of Tech., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Lab. of Electrochemistry); Shilkin, V.I. (Siberian Inst. of Tech., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Lab. of Electrochemistry)

    1993-05-01

    Effects of iron and titanium ions on corrosion processes of lithium in thionyl chloride electrolytes have been studied. Laws for the growth of the passivating film on the type and concentration of doped ions have been established, and equations for these are suggested. A stepwise mechanism of dopant incorporation into passivating film structure is presented. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion of iron in lithium niobate: a secondary ion mass spectrometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, M.V.; Argiolas, N.; Zaltron, A.; Bazzan, M.; Sada, C. [University of Padova, Physics Department (Italy); CNISM, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Iron-doped X-cut lithium niobate crystals were prepared by means of thermal diffusion from thin film varying in a systematic way the process parameters such as temperature and diffusion duration. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was exploited to characterize the iron in-depth profiles. The evolution of the composition of the Fe thin film in the range between 600 C and 800 C was studied, and the diffusion coefficient at different temperatures in the range between 900 C and 1050 C and the activation energy of the diffusion process were estimated. (orig.)

  17. Thermal property of holmium doped lithium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, V. L.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    The new glass system of holmium doped lithium lead borate glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The thermal stability of the different compositions of Ho3+ ions doped lithium lead borate glasses were studied by using TG-DTA. The Tg values are ranging from 439 to 444 °C with respect to the holmium concentration. Physical parameters like polaron radius(rp), inter-nuclear distance (ri), field strength (F) and polarizability (αm) of oxide ions were calculated using appropriate formulae.

  18. Development of lithium doped radiation resistent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Lithium-doped solar cells have been fabricated with initial lot efficiencies averaging 11.9 percent in an air mass zero (AMO) solar simulator and a maximum observed efficiency of 12.8 percent. The best lithium-doped solar cells are approximately 15 percent higher in maximum power than state-of-the-art n-p cells after moderate to high fluences of 1-MeV electrons and after 6-7 months exposure to low flux irradiation by a Sr-90 beta source, which approximates the electron spectrum and flux associated with near Earth space. Furthermore, lithium-doped cells were found to degrade at a rate only one tenth that of state-of-the-art n-p cells under 28-MeV electron irradiation. Excellent progress has been made in quantitative predictions of post-irradiation current-voltage characteristics as a function of cell design by means of capacitance-voltage measurements, and this information has been used to achieve further improvements in lithium-doped cell design.

  19. Development of revitalisation technique for impaired lithium doped germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.S.B.; Rafi Ahmed, A.G.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors play very significant role in photon detection and are important tools in the field of gamma spectroscopy. Lithium doped germanium detectors belong to this category. The development of revitalisation technique for these impaired detectors are discussed in this report

  20. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  1. Ferromagnetic properties of manganese doped iron silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reyes, Angel; Fonseca, Luis F.; Sabirianov, Renat

    We report the synthesis of high quality Iron silicide (FeSi) nanowires via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The materials exhibits excellent magnetic response at room temperature, especially when doped with manganese showing values of 2.0 X 10-04 emu for the FexMnySi nanowires. SEM and TEM characterization indicates that the synthesized nanowires have a diameter of approximately 80nm. MFM measurements present a clear description of the magnetic domains when the nanowires are doped with manganese. Electron Diffraction and XRD measurements confirms that the nanowires are single crystal forming a simple cubic structure with space group P213. First-principle calculations were performed on (111) FeSi surface using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The exchange correlations were treated under the Ceperley-Alder (CA) local density approximation (LDA). The Brillouin Zone was sampled with 8x8x1 k-point grid. A total magnetic moment of about 10 μB was obtained for three different surface configuration in which the Iron atom nearest to the surface present the higher magnetization. To study the effect of Mn doping, Fe atom was replaced for a Mn. Stronger magnetization is presented when the Mn atom is close to the surface. The exchange coupling constant have been evaluated calculating the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic configurations.

  2. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO 3 ) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO 3 crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe 2+ . During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe 2+ concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10 -6 for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10 -1 for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from Fe 2+ . A microscopic shock-wave model is developed that explains the observed absorption front by

  3. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  4. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  5. Iron solubility in highly boron-doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugo, S.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.; Weber, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    We have directly measured the solubility of iron in high and low boron-doped silicon using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Iron solubilities were measured at 800, 900, 1000, and 1100thinsp degree C in silicon doped with either 1.5x10 19 or 6.5x10 14 thinspboronthinspatoms/cm 3 . We have measured a greater iron solubility in high boron-doped silicon as compared to low boron-doped silicon, however, the degree of enhancement is lower than anticipated at temperatures >800thinsp degree C. The decreased enhancement is explained by a shift in the iron donor energy level towards the valence band at elevated temperatures. Based on this data, we have calculated the position of the iron donor level in the silicon band gap at elevated temperatures. We incorporate the iron energy level shift in calculations of iron solubility in silicon over a wide range of temperatures and boron-doping levels, providing a means to accurately predict iron segregation between high and low boron-doped silicon. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. An improved PNGV modeling and SOC estimation for lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Because lithium iron phosphate battery has many advantages, it has been used more and more widely in the field of electric vehicle. The lithium iron phosphate battery, presents the improved PNGV model, and the batteries charge discharge characteristics and pulse charge discharge experiments, identification of parameters of the battery model by interpolation and least square fitting method, to achieve a more accurate modeling of lithium iron phosphate battery, and the extended Calman filter algorithm (EKF) is completed state nuclear power battery (SOC) estimate.

  7. Study of adsorption properties on lithium doped activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los, S.; Daclaux, L.; Letellier, M.; Azais, P.

    2005-01-01

    A volumetric method was applied to study an adsorption coefficient of hydrogen molecules in a gas phase on super activated carbon surface. The investigations were focused on getting the best possible materials for the energy storage. Several treatments on raw samples were used to improve adsorption properties. The biggest capacities were obtain after high temperature treatment at reduced atmosphere. The adsorption coefficient at 77 K and 2 MPa amounts to 3.158 wt.%. The charge transfer between lithium and carbon surface groups via the doping reaction enhanced the energy of adsorption. It was also found that is a gradual decrease in the adsorbed amount of H 2 molecules due to occupation active sites by lithium ions. (author)

  8. Optical and physical properties of samarium doped lithium diborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharaju, N.; Sardarpasha, K. R.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ doped lithium di-borate glasses with composition 30Li2O-60B2O3-(10-x) PbO, (where 0 molar volume with samarium ion content indicates the openness of the glass structure. The gradual increase in average separation of boron-boron atoms with VmB clearly indicates deterioration of borate glass network, which in turn leads to decrease in the oxygen packing density. The replacements of Sm2O3 for PbO depolymerise the chain structure and that would increase the concentration of non-bridging oxygens. The marginal increase of optical band gap energy after 1.0 mol.% of Sm2O3 is explained by considering the structural modification in lead-borate. The influence of Sm3+ ion on physical and optical properties in lithium-lead-borate glasses is investigated and the results were discussed in view of the structure of borate glass network.

  9. Photoluminescence of Copper-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Pyatyshev, A. Yu.; Sidorov, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of copper-doped lithium niobate single crystals is studied using different UV-Vis light-emitting diodes and a pulse-periodic laser with a wavelength of 266 nm as excitation radiation sources. With the resonance excitation from a 527-nm light-emitting diode, the intensity of PL increases sharply (by two orders of magnitude). When using a 467-nm light-emitting diode for excitation, the PL spectrum is characterized by the presence of multiphonon lines in the range of 520-620 nm.

  10. Effect of iron doping on Y-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Halim Shaari; Mansor Hashim; Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Laily Rafiah Abdullah

    1991-01-01

    Study on the effect of iron doping at different values of doping percentage (0.00< x<0.06) and hence the influence of magnetic iron on Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor has been carried out. The conventional technique of sintering is used in preparing the ceramic materials. The crystal structure and their lattice parameters are determined from X-ray diffraction measurements. Observation on the dependence of resistance on temperature is made between room temperature to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, using four-probe techniques. Magnetisation properties namely the Meissner Effect is also observed by levitating a small piece of permanent magnet on the cooled sample. The X-ray diffraction data show that the phase transitions have been observed; from orthorhombic to tetragonal when the iron doping exceeded ∼0.02. Transition temperature, Tc decrease from ∼87.7K to ∼83K. Meissner Effect is observed for sample doped up to 2% only

  11. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Rasid, A.; Wagiran, H.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass system with empirical formula (70–x) B 2 O 3 –30 Li 2 O–(x) Dy 2 O 3 (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 mol%) were prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The dosimetric measurements were performed by irradiating the samples to 6 MV photon beam using linear accelerator (LINAC) over a dose range of 0.5–5.0 Gy. The glass series of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass produced the best thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve with the highest intensity peak from sample with 1.0 mol% Dy 2 O 3 concentration. Minimum detectable dose was detected at 2.24 mGy, good linearity of regression coefficient, high reproducibility and high sensitivity compared to the undoped glass are from 1.0 mol% dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. The results indicated that the series of dysprosium doped lithium glasses have a great potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). - Highlights: • TL response of undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass subjected to 6 MV photons irradiation at low dose range. • TL linear response of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. • The sensitivity of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass is approximately 93 times higher than undoped glass

  12. Lithium ion conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with Lithium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, R.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Shilpa, R.; Moniha, V.

    2018-04-01

    The Biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with lithium nitrate of different concentrations have been prepared by solution casting technique. The decrease in crystalline nature of the biopolymer has been identified by XRD analyses. The complex formation between the polymer and the salt has been revealed using FTIR analysis. The ionic conductivity has been explored using A.C. impedance spectroscopy which reveals that the biopolymer containing 30 wt% Pectin: 70wt%LiNO3 has highest ionic conductivity of 3.97 × 10-3 Scm-1.

  13. Density functional theory prediction for diffusion of lithium on boron-doped graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shuanghong; Ren Zhaoyu; Wan Lijuan; Zheng Jiming; Guo Ping; Zhou Yixuan

    2011-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) investigation shows that graphene has changed from semimetal to semiconductor with the increasing number of doped boron atoms. Lithium and boron atoms acted as charge contributors and recipients, which attracted to each other. Further investigations show that, the potential barrier for lithium diffusion on boron-doped graphene is higher than that of intrinsic graphene. The potential barrier is up to 0.22 eV when six boron atoms doped (B 6 C 26 ), which is the lowest potential barrier in all the doped graphene. The potential barrier is dramatically affected by the surface structure of graphene.

  14. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA Phase I STTR effort, the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate (5% MgO:LN) will be established....

  15. Iron single crystal growth from a lithium-rich melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, M.; Schumann, H.; Jantz, S. G.; Breitner, F. A.; Leineweber, A.; Jesche, A.

    2018-03-01

    α -Fe single crystals of rhombic dodecahedral habit were grown from a Li84N12Fe∼3 melt. Crystals of several millimeter along a side form at temperatures around T ≈ 800 ° C. Upon further cooling the growth competes with the formation of Fe-doped Li3N. The b.c.c. structure and good sample quality of α -Fe single crystals were confirmed by X-ray and electron diffraction as well as magnetization measurements and chemical analysis. A nitrogen concentration of 90 ppm was detected by means of carrier gas hot extraction. Scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any sign of iron nitride precipitates.

  16. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na) 4 Cl and Fe TCPP(Na) 4 Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established . The variables (Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2 5-1 type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  17. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R. [Soap Paulo Univ (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Biazzotto, Juliana C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Mello, Cesar A.; Oliveira, Daniela C. de [Universidade de Franca , SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe (PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na){sub 4}Cl and Fe TCPP(Na){sub 4} Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established. The variables Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2{sup 5-1} type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  18. Corrosion of iron-base alloys by lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A review of corrosion mechanisms operating in lithium-iron-base alloy systems is presented along with data obtained with thermal-convection loops of niobium-stabilized 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel and types 304L and 321 stainless steels. A corrosion rate of 2.3 μm/year (0.09 mil/year) was obtained on the 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel at 600 0 C. Considerably more mass transport of alloying constituents and a maximum corrosion rate of about 14 μm/year (0.55 mil/year) was obtained with the austenitic stainless steels. Results of metallography, x-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and weight-change data are presented and discussed

  19. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yuki [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ion battery.

  20. Lithium doping on covalent organic framework-320 for enhancing hydrogen storage at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Liangzhi; Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) combines with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are performed to explore the effect of Li doping on the hydrogen storage capability of COF-320. The results show that the interaction energy between the H 2 and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. GCMC simulations are employed to study the hydrogen uptake of Li-doped COF-320 at ambient temperature, further confirm that the lithium doping can improve the hydrogen uptake at ambient temperature. Our results demonstrate that Li-doped COFs have good potential in the field of hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. The optimized cluster model used here to represent the COF-320 and possible adsorption sites (A, B, C) for adsorption of metals in the COF-320. The dangling bonds are terminated by H atoms. C, H, and N atoms are shown as gray, white, and blue colors, respectively. Fig. 2. The adsorption isotherm of H 2 in the pristine and Li-doped COF-320 at 298 K. - Highlights: • The binding sites of single and two lithium atoms in COF-320 were studied. • The interaction energy between the H 2 and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. • H 2 uptakes on the Li-doped COFs obtain significant improvement at ambient temperature. • Lithium-doping is a successful strategy for improving hydrogen uptake.

  1. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F.; Munoz, I.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO 4 ). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  2. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  3. The study on microstructure and microwave-absorbing properties of lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Sun Kangning [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xiaowenhoulvbu1@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Chang; Leng Liang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper were prepared by means of a combination of sol-gel method and subsequent calcination. The crystalline phase and microstructure of different doped lithium zinc ferrites were measured by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy analysis. The results indicate that there are no remarkable differences in phase composition between pure lithium zinc ferrite and the as-doped lithium zinc ferrites. The effects of magnesium and copper dopants on microwave absorption in low-frequency region were investigated by the transmission/reflection coaxial line method. It was found from the present work that doping with copper improved microwave-absorbing properties, while doping with magnesium had little effect on microwave absorption of pure lithium zinc ferrite.

  4. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  5. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  6. How lithium atoms affect the first hyperpolarizability of BN edge-doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yao-Dong; Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Qiao-Ling; Liu, Fa-Kun; Tang, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    How do lithium atoms affect the first hyperpolarizability (β0) of boron-nitrogen (BN) edge-doped graphene. In this work, using pentacene as graphene model, Lin@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Lin@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene (n = 1, 5) were designed to study this problem. First, two models (BN-1 edge-doped pentacene, and BN-2 edge-doped pentacene ) were formed by doping the BN into the pentacene with different order, and then Li@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li@ BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were obtained by substituting the H atom in BN edge-doped pentacene with a Li atom. The results show that the first hyperpolarizabilities of BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li@BN-1 edge-doped pentacene were 4059 a.u. and 6249 a.u., respectively; the first hyperpolarizabilities of BN-2 edge-doped pentacene and Li@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were 2491 a.u. and 4265 a.u., respectively. The results indicate that the effect of Li substitution is to greatly increase the β0 value. To further enhance the first hyperpolarizability, Li5@ BN-1 edge-doped pentacene and Li5@BN-2 edge-doped pentacene were designed, and were found to exhibit considerably larger first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) (12,112 a.u. and 7921a.u., respectively). This work may inspire further study of the nonlinear properties of BN edge-doped graphene.

  7. Lithium doping on covalent organic framework-320 for enhancing hydrogen storage at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Liangzhi, E-mail: 15004110853@163.com; Liu, Qing

    2016-12-15

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) combines with grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are performed to explore the effect of Li doping on the hydrogen storage capability of COF-320. The results show that the interaction energy between the H{sub 2} and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. GCMC simulations are employed to study the hydrogen uptake of Li-doped COF-320 at ambient temperature, further confirm that the lithium doping can improve the hydrogen uptake at ambient temperature. Our results demonstrate that Li-doped COFs have good potential in the field of hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. The optimized cluster model used here to represent the COF-320 and possible adsorption sites (A, B, C) for adsorption of metals in the COF-320. The dangling bonds are terminated by H atoms. C, H, and N atoms are shown as gray, white, and blue colors, respectively. Fig. 2. The adsorption isotherm of H{sub 2} in the pristine and Li-doped COF-320 at 298 K. - Highlights: • The binding sites of single and two lithium atoms in COF-320 were studied. • The interaction energy between the H{sub 2} and the Li-doped COF-320 is about three times higher than that of pristine COF-320. • H{sub 2} uptakes on the Li-doped COFs obtain significant improvement at ambient temperature. • Lithium-doping is a successful strategy for improving hydrogen uptake.

  8. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rasid, A.; Wagiran, H.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ali, H.

    2015-07-01

    Undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass system with empirical formula (70-x) B2O3-30 Li2O-(x) Dy2O3 (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 mol%) were prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The dosimetric measurements were performed by irradiating the samples to 6 MV photon beam using linear accelerator (LINAC) over a dose range of 0.5-5.0 Gy. The glass series of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass produced the best thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve with the highest intensity peak from sample with 1.0 mol% Dy2O3 concentration. Minimum detectable dose was detected at 2.24 mGy, good linearity of regression coefficient, high reproducibility and high sensitivity compared to the undoped glass are from 1.0 mol% dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. The results indicated that the series of dysprosium doped lithium glasses have a great potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD).

  9. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  10. Effect of iron ions on corrosion of lithium in a thionyl chloride electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, A.V.; Churikov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the iron electrolyte addition on the growth rate of the passivating layer on lithium in the LiAlCl 4 1 M solution in thionyl chloride is experimentally studied. It is established, that kinetic curved in the first 10 hours of the Li-electrode contact with electrolyte are described by the equation, assuming mixed diffusion kinetic control over the corrosion process. It is shown that introduction of Fe 3+ into electrolyte causes increase in both ionic and electron conductivity constituents. Increase in the electron carrier concentration is the cause of lithium corrosion in the iron-containing thionyl chloride solutions [ru

  11. Effect of lithium doping in BaTiO3 ceramics for vibration sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, E.; Murugan, S.; Jayakumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Phase pure undoped and Lithium doped BaTiO3 particles have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method. Substitution of Lithium at the Ba2+ site in BaTiO3 lattice has been investigated. The structural, vibrational, electrical and mechanical characterization have been carried out. The poled samples were used as a sensing element for the detection of mechanical oscillations and the presence of 80 Hz pulse in the output spectrum manifest the response of the sensor element to the applied mechanical stress. In comparison with pure BaTiO3 the sensitivity of Li doped BaTiO3 is 14 times greater than the pure BaTiO3. This confirms that Li doped BaTiO3 could be an efficient candidate for the functionalization of vibration sensors in space application.

  12. Characteristics of Vanadium Doped And Bamboo Activated Carbon Coated LiFePO4 And Its Performance For Lithium Ion Battery Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrijon Sofyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium doped and bamboo activated carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 used for lithium ion battery cathode has been successfully prepared. Lithium iron phosphate was prepared through a wet chemical method followed by a hydrothermal process from the starting materials of LiOH, NH4H2PO4, and FeSO4.7H2O. The dopant variations of 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% of vanadium and a fixed 3 wt.% of bamboo activated carbon were carried out via a solid-state reaction process each by using NH4VO3 as a source of vanadium and carbon pyrolyzed from bamboo tree, respectively. The characterization was carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD for the phase formed and its crystal structure, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for the surface morphology, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS for the conductivity, and battery analyzer for the performance of lithium ion battery cathode. The XRD results show that the phase formed has an olivine based structure with an orthorhombic space group. Morphology examination revealed that the particle agglomeration decreased with the increasing level of vanadium concentrations. Conductivity test showed that the impedance of solid electrolyte interface decreased with the increase of vanadium concentration indicated by increasing conductivity of 1.25 x 10-5 S/cm, 2.02 x 10-5 S/cm, 4.37 x 10-5 S/cm, and 5.69 x 10-5 S/cm, each for 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% vanadium, respectively. Vanadium doping and bamboo activated carbon coating are promising candidate for improving lithium ion battery cathode as the initial charge and discharge capacity at 0.5C for LiFePO4/C at 7 wt.% vanadium is in the range of 8.0 mAh/g.

  13. Enhanced oxidation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composites by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Long; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xueting; Wu, Songsong; Wen, Guangwu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • C f /LAS composites exhibit enhanced oxidation resistance by boron doping. • Boron doping is beneficial to the improvement of graphitization degree of carbon fibers. • Graphitization of carbon fibers together with the decrease of viscosity of LAS matrix is responsible to the enhancement of oxidation resistance of C f /LAS composites. - Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced lithium aluminosilicate matrix composites (C f /LAS) modified with boron doping were fabricated and oxidized for 1 h in static air. Weight loss, residual strength and microstructure were analyzed. The results indicate that boron doping has a remarkable effect on improving the oxidation resistance for C f /LAS. The synergism of low viscosity of LAS matrix at high temperature and formation of graphite crystals on the surface of carbon fibers, is responsible for excellent oxidation resistance of the boron doped C f /LAS.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium-Doped Lanthanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    made of the above materials showed very promising features for future development of microbatteries. Solid electrolytes with ... promising option to meet such demands because of their inherent .... derivatives, show the highest bulk lithium ion.

  15. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of lattice defect structures in a series of Zn, Fe-doped nonstoichiometric lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fengyun; Lue Qiang; Sun Liang; Li Hongtao; Zhen Xihe; Xu Yuheng; Zhao Liancheng

    2006-01-01

    A series of the double doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 , LN) single crystals had been grown by Czochralski method. The Curie temperatures of various concentrations doped or [Li]/[Nb] ratio LN crystals measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) were discussed to investigate their defect structures with Safaryan et al. new approach about LN lattice defect structure using Curie temperatures calculated. Infrared transmission spectra of various concentrations doped were used to compare the investigation above. The results show that the lithium vacancy model is the more probable to describe the lattice defect structure of the doped LN single crystal

  17. Review of lithium iron-base alloy corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.; Morris, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted on the compatibility of ferrous alloys with lithium, with the emphasis on austenitic stainless steels. The information is summarized and is divided into two sections. The first section gives a brief summary and the second is an annotated bibliography. Comparisons of results are complicated by differences in lithium purity, alloy composition, alloy treatment, flow rates, and lithium handling procedures. For long-term application, austenitic stainless steels appear to be limited to about 500 0 C. While corrosion can probably not be decreased to zero, a considerable reduction to tolerable and predictable amounts appears possible

  18. SnO2 nanocrystals anchored on N-doped graphene for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jinxian; Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Jianwei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-02-28

    A SnO2-N-doped graphene (SnO2-NG) composite is synthesized by a rapid, facile, one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The composite exhibits excellent lithium storage capability and high durability, and is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Improved terbium-doped, lithium-loaded glass scintillator fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, G.B.; McCollum, T.; Spowart, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved terbium-doped, 6 Li-loaded glass scintillator has been drawn into fibers. Tests indicate that the neutron detection response of the fibers is superior to the response with fibers drawn from the original terbium-doped glass. The new fibers offer less attenuation (1/e length of ∝40 cm) and improved gamma ray/neutron discrimination. The improved fibers will be incorporated in a scintillator fiber optic long counter for neutron detection. (orig.)

  20. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  1. Synthesis and lithium storage properties of Zn, Co and Mg doped SnO2 Nano materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Palaniyandy, Nithyadharseni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that magnesium and cobalt doped SnO2 (Mg-SnO2 and Co-SnO2) nanostructures have profound influence on the discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) employing pure SnO2 and zinc doped SnO2 (Zn-Sn...

  2. Influence of lithium doping on the structural and electrical characteristics of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johny, T. Anto [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Kumar, Viswanathan, E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Imai, Hideyuki; Kanno, Isaku [Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-30

    Thin films of undoped and lithium-doped Zinc oxide, (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O; x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 were prepared by sol-gel method using spin-coating technique on silicon substrates [(111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si)]. The influence of lithium doping on the structural, electrical and microstructural characteristics have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, leakage current, piezoelectric measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity of the ZnO film is found to increase markedly with low levels (x {<=} 0.05) of lithium doping thereby enhancing their piezoelectric applications. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sub 31}{sup Low-Asterisk} has been determined for the thin films having the composition (Zn{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05})O, to study their suitability for piezoelectric applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preferentially c-axis oriented (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O films were spin-coated on glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films exhibit dense columnar microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low levels of lithium doping, increases the electrical resistivity of ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films show high values of transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sup Low-Asterisk }{sub 31}.

  3. Novel Mesoporous Flowerlike Iron Sulfide Hierarchitectures: Facile Synthesis and Fast Lithium Storage Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanning Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3D flowerlike iron sulfide (F-FeS is successfully synthesized via a facile one-step sulfurization process, and the electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs are investigated. Compared with bulk iron sulfide, we find that the unique structural features, overall flowerlike structure, composed of several dozen nanopetals and numerous small size iron sulfide particles embedded within the fine nanopetals, and hierarchical pore structure features provide signification improvements in lithium storage performance, with a high-rate discharge capacity of 779.0 mAh g−1 at a rate of 5 A g−1, due to effectively alleviating the volume expansion during the lithiation/delithiation process, and shorting the diffusion length of both lithium ion and electron. Especially, an excellent cycling stability are achieved, a high discharge capacity of 890 mAh g−1 retained at a rate of 1.0 A g−1, suggesting its promising applications in lithium ion batteries (LIBs.

  4. Influence of calcium and lithium on the densification and electrical conductivity of gadolinia-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Tatiane Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the use of calcium and lithium as sintering aid to gadolinia-doped ceria was systematically investigated. The main purpose was to verify the influence of these additives on the densification and electrical conductivity of sintered ceramics. Powder compositions containing up to 1.5 mol% (metal basis) of calcium or lithium were prepared by both solid state reaction and oxalate coprecipitation methods. The main characterization techniques were thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity by impedance spectroscopy. Both additives promoted densification of gadolinia-doped ceria. The densification increases with increasing the additive content. Different effects on microstructure and electrical conductivity result from the method of preparation, e.g., solid state reaction or coprecipitation. Calcium addition greatly enhances the grain growth compared to lithium addition. The electrical conductivity of specimens containing a second additive is lower than that of pure gadolinia-doped ceria. Both additives influence the intergranular conductivity and favor the exudation of gadolinium out of the solid solution. (author)

  5. Development of Iron Doped Silicon Nanoparticles as Bimodal Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kamali, Saeed; Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of water-soluble allylamine terminated Fe doped Si (SixFe) nanoparticles as bimodal agents for optical and magnetic imaging. The preparation involves the synthesis of a single source iron containing precursor, Na4Si4 with x% Fe (x = 1, 5, 10), and its subsequent reaction with NH4Br to produce hydrogen terminated SixFe nanoparticles. The hydrogen-capped nanoparticles are further terminated with allylamine via thermal hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the average particle diameter is ~3.0±1.0 nm. The Si5Fe nanoparticles show strong photoluminescence quantum yield in water (~ 10 %) with significant T2 contrast (r2/r1value of 4.31). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopies indicate that iron in the nanoparticles is in the +3 oxidation state. Analysis of cytotoxicity using the resazurin assay on HepG2 liver cells indicates that the particles have minimal toxicity. PMID:22616623

  6. Lithium-doped hydroxyapatite nano-composites: Synthesis, characterization, gamma attenuation coefficient and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, H.; Yahia, I. S.; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Awwad, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-hydroxyapatite (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% Li-HAp) nano-composites were synthesized by sol-gel technique followed by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman techniques. Gamma attenuation coefficient and the dielectric properties for all composites were investigated. The crystallinity degree of Li-doped HAp was higher than that of un-doped HAp. Gamma attenuation coefficient values increased from 0.562 cm-1 for 0 wt% Li-HAp to 2.190 cm-1 for 40 wt% Li-HAp. The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency. The concentration of Li affect the values of dielectric constant where Li doped HAp of low dielectric constant can have an advantage for healing in bone fractures. The calcium to phosphorus ratio decreased from 1.43 to 1.37 with the addition of lithium indicating the Ca deficiency in the studied composites. Our findings lead to the conclusion that Li-HAp is a new nano-composite useful for medical applications and could be doped with gamma shield materials.

  7. Effect of Fe Doping by Thermal in-Diffusion on the Defect Structure of Lithium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignoni, S; Zaltron, A; Ciampolillo, M V; Bazzan, M; Argiolas, N; Sada, C; Fontana, M D, E-mail: zaltronam@padova.infm.it

    2010-11-15

    In this work we investigate the iron incorporation in thermally diffused Fe doped LN, by combining two experimental techniques, i.e. micro-Raman spectroscopy and proton induced X rays emission. Our results point out that in substituting for Li, Fe ions induces a decrease of Nb{sub Li} antisite defects and rearrangement of the Nb sublattice.

  8. First principles calculation of lithium-phosphorus co-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the density of states (DOS and the Mulliken population of the diamond and the co-doped diamonds with different concentrations of lithium (Li and phosphorus (P by the method of the density functional theory, and analyze the bonding situations of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films and the impacts of the Li-P co-doping on the diamond conductivities. The results show that the Li-P atoms can promote the split of the diamond energy band near the Fermi level, and improve the electron conductivities of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films, or even make the Li-P co-doped diamond from semiconductor to conductor. The affection of Li-P co-doping concentration on the orbital charge distributions, bond lengths and bond populations is analyzed. The Li atom may promote the split of the energy band near the Fermi level and also may favorably regulate the diamond lattice distortion and expansion caused by the P atom.

  9. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Well-ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon materials were prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile in SBA-15 template. The composite of sulfur and nitrogen-doped carbon was successfully used as a cathode material for lithium sulfur battery. - Highlights: • N-doped mesoporous carbons were prepared with PAN as carbon source. • Highly ordered pore system facilitates sulfur loading. • Ladder-type carbon matrix provides good structural stability for confining sulfur. • N-doping ensures an improved absorbability of soluble polysulfides. - Abstract: Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g{sup −1} and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  10. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Meatza, I. de [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Martin, M.I., E-mail: imartin@ietcc.csic.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Bengoechea, M. [Dpto. Energia, CIDETEC, Po Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, I. [Dpto. I-D-i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Rabanal, M.E., E-mail: mariaeugenia.rabanal@uc3m.e [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and IAAB, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  11. Morphological, structural and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Meatza, I. de; Martin, M.I.; Bengoechea, M.; Cantero, I.; Rabanal, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of materials for lithium ion batteries, the lithium iron phosphate LiFePO 4 has been proven for use as a positive electrode due to its good resistance to thermal degradation and overcharge, safety and low cost. The use of nanostructured materials would improve its efficiency. This work shows the results of the synthesis of nanostructured materials with functional properties for lithium batteries through aerosol techniques. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows synthesizing nanostructured particles with spherical geometry, not agglomerates, with narrow distribution of particle size and homogeneous composition in respect to a precursor solution. Experimental techniques were focused on the morphological (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD and HRTEM-SAED), chemical (EDS) and electrochemical characterization.

  12. Bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets for ultrafast lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Wei, Xian-Yong; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Jiang, Chen-Hui; Wu, Chao; Ma, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Xing; Zong, Zhi-Min; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-06-07

    A facile bottom-up strategy was developed to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGSs) from glucose using a sacrificial template synthesis method. Three main types of nitrogen dopants (pyridinic, pyrrolic and graphitic nitrogens) were introduced into the graphene lattice, and an inimitable microporous structure of NGS with a high specific surface area of 504 m(2) g(-1) was obtained. Particularly, with hybrid features of lithium ion batteries and Faradic capacitors at a low rate and features of Faradic capacitors at a high rate, the NGS presents a superior lithium storage performance. During electrochemical cycling, the NGS electrode afforded an enhanced reversible capacity of 832.4 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and an excellent cycling stability of 750.7 mA h g(-1) after 108 discharge-charge cycles. Furthermore, an astonishing rate capability of 333 mA h g(-1) at 10,000 mA g(-1) and a high rate cycle performance of 280.6 mA h g(-1) even after 1200 cycles were also achieved, highlighting the significance of nitrogen doping on the maximum utilization of graphene-based materials for advanced lithium storage.

  13. Bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets for ultrafast lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Wei, Xian-Yong; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Jiang, Chen-Hui; Wu, Chao; Ma, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Xing; Zong, Zhi-Min; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-05-01

    A facile bottom-up strategy was developed to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGSs) from glucose using a sacrificial template synthesis method. Three main types of nitrogen dopants (pyridinic, pyrrolic and graphitic nitrogens) were introduced into the graphene lattice, and an inimitable microporous structure of NGS with a high specific surface area of 504 m2 g-1 was obtained. Particularly, with hybrid features of lithium ion batteries and Faradic capacitors at a low rate and features of Faradic capacitors at a high rate, the NGS presents a superior lithium storage performance. During electrochemical cycling, the NGS electrode afforded an enhanced reversible capacity of 832.4 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and an excellent cycling stability of 750.7 mA h g-1 after 108 discharge-charge cycles. Furthermore, an astonishing rate capability of 333 mA h g-1 at 10 000 mA g-1 and a high rate cycle performance of 280.6 mA h g-1 even after 1200 cycles were also achieved, highlighting the significance of nitrogen doping on the maximum utilization of graphene-based materials for advanced lithium storage.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lithium fluoride nano crystals doped with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario M, B. R.; Ramirez C, G.; Encarnacion E, E. K.; Sosa A, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) is the emission of light by certain materials to be heated below its incandescence temperature, having previously been exposed to an exciting agent such as ionizing radiation. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is the thermoluminescent material used in the manufacture of Tl-100 dosimeters. What morphological characteristics (size, crystallinity) do the nano crystals of pure lithium fluoride (LiF) have when doped with silver (Ag) by the precipitation method? The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the LiF nano crystals doped with silver (Ag) in concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.2%. The samples were synthesized using as reagents; distilled water, ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F), lithium chloride (LiCl), silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ); and materials such as: 0.1 mg precision balance, spatulas, test piece, magnetic stirrer, beaker, volumetric flask, burette, burette clamp, key and magnetic stirring wand. In the characterization process we used and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with which we obtained the X-ray diffraction spectrum with well-defined peaks that are characteristic of LiF. Using the Scherrer equation we calculate the sizes of nano crystals. This study demonstrates that is possible to synthesize LiF using new dopant materials. (Author)

  15. Power capability evaluation for lithium iron phosphate batteries based on multi-parameter constraints estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.

  16. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8-derived N-doped porous carbon coated olive-shaped FeOx nanoparticles for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qingmeng; Zhao, Kuangmin; He, Zhen; Liu, Suqin; Li, Aikui

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new strategy to uniformly coat zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) on iron oxides containing no Zn to obtain an α-Fe2O3@ZIF-8 composite. After carbonization, the α-Fe2O3@ZIF-8 transforms into iron oxides@N-doped porous carbon (FeOx@NC). The uniform N-doped porous carbon layer gives rise to a superior electrical conductivity, highly-increased specific BET surface area (179.2 m2 g-1), and abundant mesopores for the FeOx@NC composite. When served as the LIB anode, the FeOx@NC shows a high reversible capacity (of 1064 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1), excellent rate performance (of 198.1 mA h g-1 at 10000 mA g-1) as well as brilliant long-term cyclability (with a capacity retention of 93.3% after 800 cycles), which are much better than those of the FeOx@C and pristine FeOx anodes. Specifically, the Li-ion intercalation pseudocapacitive behavior of the FeOx@NC anode is improved by this N-doped porous carbon coating, which is beneficial for rapid Li-ion insertion/extraction processes. The excellent electrochemical performance of FeOx@NC should be ascribed to the increased electrolyte penetration areas, improved electrical conductivity, boosted lithium storage kinetics, and shortened Li-ion transport length.

  17. Sonochemically synthesized iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Influence of precursor composition on characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anirban; Maitra, Saikat; Ghosh, Sobhan; Chakrabarti, Sampa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sonochemical synthesis of iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Green synthesis without alkali at room temperature. • Characterization by UV–vis spectroscopy, FESEM, XRD and EDX. • Influence of precursor composition on characteristics. • Composition and characteristics are correlated. - Abstract: Iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized sonochemically from aqueous acetyl acetonate precursors of different proportions. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Influences of precursor mixture on the characteristics have been examined and modeled. Linear correlations have been proposed between dopant dosing, extent of doping and band gap energy. Experimental data corroborated with the proposed models.

  18. Influence of iron doping on tetravalent nickel content in catalytic oxygen evolving films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nancy; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Hadt, Ryan G.; Hayes, Dugan; Kempa, Thomas J.; von Cube, Felix; Bell, David C.; Chen, Lin X.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2017-01-30

    Iron doping of nickel oxide films results in enhanced activity for promoting the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Whereas this enhanced activity has been ascribed to a unique iron site within the nickel oxide matrix, we show here that Fe doping influences the Ni valency. The percent of Fe3+ doping promotes the formation of formal Ni4+, which in turn directly correlates with an enhanced activity of the catalyst in promoting OER. The role of Fe3+ is consistent with its behavior as a superior Lewis acid.

  19. Synthesis of lithium doped zinc oxide by sol gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziane, K; Elhichou, A; Elhamidi, A; Almaggoussi, A; CHHIBA, M

    2016-01-01

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposed on glass substrate using spin coating technique. The effects of Li on structural and optical properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that Li incorporation leads to the great improvement of the crystalline quality of ZnO thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that nanowires are aligned nearly perpendicular to the substrate plane and are affected significantly by Li incorporation. The optical transmission of the films was higher than 80% in the visible region. It is found that the optical gap and the refractive index remain practically constant. (paper)

  20. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denayer, Jessica [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Bister, Geoffroy [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Laboratory LPS, University of Namur, rue de bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Aubry, Philippe [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Vertruyen, Bénédicte [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Henrist, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.henrist@ulg.ac.be [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Cloots, Rudi [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted USP: a novel and low cost process to obtain high quality nickel oxide films, with or without lithium dopant. • Increased uniformity and reduced light scattering thanks to the addition of a surfactant. • Improved electrochromic performance (coloration efficiency and contrast) for lithium-doped films by comparison with the undoped NiO film. - Abstract: Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  1. Boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2/graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2/graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600 mA h g(-1) at 3.2 A g(-1), and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2-based anode materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Oxygen- and Lithium-Doped Hybrid Boron-Nitride/Carbon Networks for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeganfar, Farzaneh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-12-20

    Hydrogen storage capacities have been studied on newly designed three-dimensional pillared boron nitride (PBN) and pillared graphene boron nitride (PGBN). We propose these novel materials based on the covalent connection of BNNTs and graphene sheets, which enhance the surface and free volume for storage within the nanomaterial and increase the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen uptake capacities. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations show that these lithium- and oxygen-doped pillared structures have improved gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen capacities at room temperature, with values on the order of 9.1-11.6 wt % and 40-60 g/L. Our findings demonstrate that the gravimetric uptake of oxygen- and lithium-doped PBN and PGBN has significantly enhanced the hydrogen sorption and desorption. Calculations for O-doped PGBN yield gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacities greater than 11.6 wt % at room temperature. This increased value is attributed to the pillared morphology, which improves the mechanical properties and increases porosity, as well as the high binding energy between oxygen and GBN. Our results suggest that hybrid carbon/BNNT nanostructures are an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage, owing to the combination of the electron mobility of graphene and the polarized nature of BN at heterojunctions, which enhances the uptake capacity, providing ample opportunities to further tune this hybrid material for efficient hydrogen storage.

  3. Simultaneous Perforation and Doping of Si Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guangxin; Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuqiang; Chen, Chuanlu; Li, Jinlei; Jin, Yan; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Jia

    2017-12-27

    Silicon nanostructures have served as promising building blocks for various applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, thermoelectrics, and solar energy conversions. Particularly, control of porosity and doping is critical for fine-tuning the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of these silicon nanostructures. However, perforation and doping are usually separated processes, both of which are complicated and expensive. Here, we demonstrate that the porous nano-Si particles with controllable dopant can be massively produced through a facile and scalable method, combining ball-milling and acid-etching. Nano-Si with porosity as high as 45.8% can be achieved with 9 orders of magnitude of conductivity changes compared to intrinsic silicon. As an example for demonstration, the obtained nano-Si particles with 45.8% porosity and 3.7 atom % doping can serve as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries with 2000 mA h/g retained over 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 C, excellent rate performance with 1600 mA h/g at the current density of 5 C, and a stable cycling performance of above 1500 mA h/g retained over 940 cycles at the current density of 1 C with carbon coating.

  4. Structural properties of lithium borate glasses doped with rare earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazini D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on lithium triborate glass (LBO in the system (1-x|3B2O3.Li2O| (xNb2O5 yPr3+ zYb3+ wNd3+ with 0 <= x <= 20 mol% (y, z and w in mol%. The samples were studied by Raman spectroscopy, infrared absorption and differential thermal analysis. Pr3+-doped LBO and Pr3+/Yb3+-doped LBO samples show an increase of the glass transition and crystallization temperatures and a decrease of the fusion temperature associated with the increase of the praseodymium concentration in the LBO matrix. For the Nd3+-doped LBO and Pr3+/Yb3+-doped (LBO+Nb2O5 samples, a decrease of the glass transition temperature of the samples was observed. The increase of the rare earth doping leads to an increase of the difference between the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures. From infrared analysis it was possible to identify all the modes associated to the B-O structure. The NbO6 octahedra was also identified by IR spectroscopy for samples with x=5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% and y=0.05, z=1.1 mol%. Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of boroxol rings, tetrahedral and triangular coordination for boron. For samples containing niobium, the Raman spectra show the vibrational mode associated with the Nb-O bond in the niobium octahedra (NbO6.

  5. Self-assembled Targeting of Cancer Cells by Iron(III)-doped, Silica Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, K.K. Pohaku; Sandoval, S.; Cortes-Mateos, M. J.; Alfaro, J.G.; Kummel, A. C.; Trogler, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Iron(III)-doped silica nanoshells are shown to possess an in vitro cell-receptor mediated targeting functionality for endocytosis. Compared to plain silica nanoparticles, iron enriched ones are shown to be target-specific, a property that makes them potentially better vehicles for applications, such as drug delivery and tumor imaging, by making them more selective and thereby reducing the nanoparticle dose. Iron(III) in the nanoshells can interact with endogenous transferrin, a serum protein ...

  6. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  7. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  8. Radiation-damage-assisted ferroelectric domain structuring in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentjens, L.; Peithmann, K.; Maier, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Jungk, T.

    2009-06-01

    Irradiation of 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3:Mg) with high-energy, low-mass 3He ions, which are transmitted through the crystal, changes the domain reversal properties of the material. This enables easier domain engineering compared to non-irradiated material and assists the formation of small-sized periodically poled domains in LiNbO3:Mg. Periodic domain structures exhibiting a width of ≈520 nm are obtained in radiation-damaged sections of the crystals. The ferroelectric poling behavior between irradiated and non-treated material is compared.

  9. Processing line for industrial radiation-thermal synthesis of doped lithium ferrite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Galtseva, O. V.; Vasendina, E. A.; Vlasov, V. A.; Nikolaev, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper considers the issues of industrial production of doped lithium ferrite powders by radiation-thermal method. A technological scheme of the processing line is suggested. The radiation-thermal technological scheme enables production of powders with technical characteristics close to the required ones under relatively low temperature annealing conditions without intermediate mixing. The optimal conditions of the radiation-thermal synthesis are achieved isothermally under irradiation by the electron beam with energy of 2.5 MeV in the temperature range of 700-750 0C within- 120 min.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Boron-Doped Iron Oxides for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine by boron-doped iron oxides under visible light irradiation was investigated. In this work, boron-doped goethite and hematite were successfully prepared by sol-gel method with trimethylborate as boron precursor. The powders were characterized by XRD, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and porosimetry analysis. The results showed that boron doping could influence the crystal structure, enlarge the BET surface area, improve light absorption ability, and narrow their band-gap energy. The photocatalytic activity of B-doped iron oxides was evaluated in the degradation of atrazine under the visible light irradiation, and B-doped iron oxides showed higher atrazine degradation rate than that of pristine iron oxides. Particularly, B-doped goethite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than B-doped hematite.

  11. Structure and transport investigations on lithium-iron-phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banday, Azeem; Sharma, Monika; Murugavel, Sevi

    2016-01-01

    Cathode materials for Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB’s) are being constantly studied and reviewed especially in the past few decades. LiFePO_4 (LFP) is one of the most potential candidates in the pedigree of cathode materials and has been under extensive study ever since. In this work, we report the synthesis of amorphous analogs of crystallite LFP by conventional melt quenching method. Thermal study by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the glass transition T_g and crystallization T_c temperatures on the obtained glass sample Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy is being used to investigate the structural properties of the glass sample. The intrinsic electrical conductivity measurements were done using broad-band impedance spectroscopy with wide different temperature ranges. The conduction mechanism is described by non-adiabatic small polaron hopping between nearest neighbors. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that the glassy LFP is more suitable cathode material as compared to its crystalline counterpart.

  12. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2007-02-20

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  13. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  14. Lithium doped calcium phosphate cement maintains physical mechanical properties and promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Renchong; Li, Baichuan; Liang, Wei; Pan, Haobo; Cui, Xu; Tang, Jingli; Li, Bing

    2017-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been widely used in bone tissue repairing due to its physical mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Addition of trace element to CPC has shown promising evidence to improve the physical properties and biological activities of CPC. Lithium (Li) has effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we incorporated Li to CPC and examined the physical properties of Li/CPC and its effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. We found that Li doped CPC maintained similar setting time, pore size distribution, compressive strength, composition, and morphology as CPC without Li. Additionally, Li doped CPC improved osteoblast proliferation and differentiation significantly compared to CPC without Li. To our knowledge, our results, for the first time, show that Li doped CPC has beneficial effect on osteoblast in cell culture while keeps the excellent physical-mechanical properties of CPC. This study will lead to potential application of Li doped CPC in bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 944-952, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phase transition in lithium ammonium sulphate doped with cesium metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Kandil, S. H.

    2000-07-01

    Effects of doped cesium (C s+) metal ions (with different molar ratios n) on the phase transition of lithium ammonium sulphate LiNH 4SO 4 system have been studied by measuring the specific heat Cp( T) of the doped systems in the temperature range from 400 to 480 K. The study shows a peculiar phase transition of the pure system ( n=0) characterized by double distinct peaks, changed to a single sharp and narrow one as a result of the doping process. The measurements exhibit different effects of enhanced molar ratios of dopants on the phase transition behaviour of this system. At low dopant content ( n≤3%), the excess specific heat (Δ Cp) max at the transition temperature T1 decreases till a minimum value at n=0.8%, then it increases gradually. In this case, Δ Cp( T) behaviour is varied quantitatively and not modified. Enhanced dopant content ( n>3%) has a pronounced effect on the critical behaviour, which is significantly changed and considerably modified relative to the pure system. In addition, broadening of the critical temperature region, and decrease of (Δ Cp) max associated with changes of the Landau expansion coefficients are obtained and discussed. The study deals with the contribution of the thermally excited dipoles to the specific heat in the ferroelectric region and shows that their energy depends on doping.

  16. First-principles investigation of adsorption and diffusion of Li on doped silicenes: Prospective materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, Mohammad Jafar; Mousavi-Khoshdel, Morteza; Targholi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the adsorption energies and diffusion characteristics of Li atom on doped silicenes using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results show that the Li adsorption energy on doped silicenes is larger than pristine silicene. Based on our calculations, Al- and B-doped silicenes, due to creating an electron-deficient center in silicene, show a stronger interaction with Li atom compared to P- and N-doped silicenes. The obtained data for surface and perpendicular diffusion of Li atom show the easier mobility of Li on some doped silicenes compared to pristine silicene. According to our results, doping silicene with nitrogen and phosphorus atoms facilitates the Li surface mobility (diffusion barrier of 0.05 and 0.11 eV, respectively versus 0.18 eV for pure silicene) while, doping with aluminum, speed Li perpendicular diffusion (1.47 eV versus 1.67 eV for pristine silicene). The adsorption energy and diffusion barrier values, show the advantage of doped silicenes for use in LIBs with respect to pure silicene. - Highlights: • Calculation of adsorption energy of lithium on pristine and doped silicenes. • Surface and perpendicular diffusion barrier of Li on doped silicenes. • Examination of electronic structure of Li adsorbed doped silicenes.

  17. First-principles investigation of adsorption and diffusion of Li on doped silicenes: Prospective materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Mohammad Jafar; Mousavi-Khoshdel, Morteza, E-mail: mmousavi@iust.ac.ir; Targholi, Ehsan

    2017-05-01

    In this report, we investigate the adsorption energies and diffusion characteristics of Li atom on doped silicenes using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results show that the Li adsorption energy on doped silicenes is larger than pristine silicene. Based on our calculations, Al- and B-doped silicenes, due to creating an electron-deficient center in silicene, show a stronger interaction with Li atom compared to P- and N-doped silicenes. The obtained data for surface and perpendicular diffusion of Li atom show the easier mobility of Li on some doped silicenes compared to pristine silicene. According to our results, doping silicene with nitrogen and phosphorus atoms facilitates the Li surface mobility (diffusion barrier of 0.05 and 0.11 eV, respectively versus 0.18 eV for pure silicene) while, doping with aluminum, speed Li perpendicular diffusion (1.47 eV versus 1.67 eV for pristine silicene). The adsorption energy and diffusion barrier values, show the advantage of doped silicenes for use in LIBs with respect to pure silicene. - Highlights: • Calculation of adsorption energy of lithium on pristine and doped silicenes. • Surface and perpendicular diffusion barrier of Li on doped silicenes. • Examination of electronic structure of Li adsorbed doped silicenes.

  18. Pseudocapacitance of amorphous TiO2@nitrogen doped graphene composite for high rate lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Xue, Pan; Lai, Chao; Qiu, Jingxia; Ling, Min; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-01-01

    The high rate applications such as electric vehicles of the traditional lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are commonly limited by their insufficient electron conductivity and slow mass transport of lithium ions in bulk electrode materials. In order to address these issues, in this work, a simple and up-scalable wet-mechanochemical (wet-ball milling) route has been developed for fabrication of amorphous porous TiO 2 @nitrogen doped graphene (TiO 2 @N-G) nanocomposites. The amorphous phase, unique porous structure of TiO 2 and the surface defects from nitrogen doping to graphene planes have incurred surface controlled reactions, contributing pseudocapacitance to the total capacity of the battery. It plays a dominant role in producing outstanding high rate electrochemical performance, e.g., 182.7 mAh/g (at 3.36 A/g) after 100 cycles. The design and synthesis of electrode materials with enhanced conductivity and surface pseudocapacitance can be a promising way for high rate LIBs.

  19. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  20. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Strong lithium polysulfide chemisorption on electroactive sites of nitrogen-doped carbon composites for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail L; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; Wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm(-2)) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm(-2), which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobino, M.; Marshall, G.D.; Xiong, C.; Clark, A.S.; Bonneau, D.; Natarajan, C.M.; Tanner, M.G.; Hadfield, R.H.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Zwiller, V.; Marangoni, M.; Ramponi, R.; Thompson, M.G.; Eggleton, B.J.; O'Brien, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate photon-pair generation in a reverse proton exchanged waveguide fabricated on a periodically poled magnesium doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate substrate. Detected pairs are generated via a cascaded second order nonlinear process where a pump laser at wavelength of 1.55 ?m is first

  3. Appearance of small polaron hopping conduction in iron modified cobalt lithium bismuth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahiya, M. S.; Khasa, S., E-mail: skhasa@yahoo.com; Yadav, Arti [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, India-131039 (India); Agarwal, A. [Applied Physics Department, Guru Jambheshwara University of Science and Technology, Hisar, India-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Lithium bismuth borate glasses containing different amounts of cobalt and iron oxides having chemical composition xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}•(20-x)CoO•30Li{sub 2}O•10Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}•40B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% abbreviated as CFLBB1-5 respectively) prepared via melt quench technique have been investigated for their dc electrical conductivity. The amorphous nature of prepared glasses has been confirmed through X-ray diffraction measurements. The dc electrical conductivity has been analyzed by applying Mott’s small polaron hopping model. Activation energies corresponding to lower and higher temperature region have been evaluated. The iron ion concentration (N), mean spacing between iron ions (R) and polaron radius (R{sub p}) has been evaluated using the values of phonon radius (R{sub ph}) and Debye temperature (θ{sub D}). The glass sample without iron (CFLBB1) shows ionic conductivity but the incorporation of iron in the glass matrix results in the appearance of electronic conductivity.

  4. Thermal behavior of an experimental 2.5-kWh lithium/iron sulfide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. C.; Olszanski, T. W.; Gibbard, H. F.

    1981-10-01

    The thermal energy generation and the gross thermal energy balance in the battery systems was studied. High temperature lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicle applications were developed. The preferred battery temperature range during operation and idle periods is 400 to 500 C. Thermal management is an essential part of battery design, the battery requires a thermal insulation vessel to minimize heat loss and heating and cooling systems to control temperature. Results of temperature measurements performed on a 2.5-kWh battery module, which was built to gain information for the design of larger systems are reported.

  5. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  6. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Cu2O doped Calcium Lithium borate glass irradiated with the cobalt-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammadhan, Ismail; Taha, Saddon; Wagiran, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and investigate the thermoluminescence characteristics for the un-doped and Cu 2 O doped calcium lithium borate glass upon adding various Cu 2 O concentrations of 0.005% to 0.1 mol%. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and irradiated with 60 CO gamma-ray having different doses in the range of (0.5–4) Gy, (5–10) Gy, and (20–100) Gy. The amorphous phases were identified for optimization glass samples, effect of heating rate, glowing curves, linearity, sensitivity, fading, reproducibility of response and minimum detectable dose are also studied. The TL sample with 0.02 mol% Cu 2 O concentration has higher response compared to the other samples concentration for a delivered dose of 50 Gy, The recorded glow curves consist a dominant peak at 187 °C for a heating rate of 5 °C s −1 . However, the value of effective atomic number Z eff is 8.84 for 0.02Cu 2 O doped which are near to the atomic number of soft tissue. - Highlights: •We have prepared and investigate the crystalline structure for the un-doped and Cu 2 O doped calcium lithium borate glass are carried out. •Investigate the amorphous structure of calcium lithium borate glass. •Determine the best setting of annealing temperature, annealing time and heating rate for Cu 2 O doped calcium lithium borate glass. •The doping effects of Cu 2 O on the thermoluminescence properties of calcium lithium borate glass subjected gamma radiations. •The new dosimeter showed simple glow curve with single prominent peak centred at 187 °C and linear dose–response range 0.5–100 Gy, good reproducibility, the fading of the signal is relatively slow. •Effective atomic number for Cu 2 O doped Calcium lithium borate close to the effective atomic number of soft tissue.

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Cu{sub 2}O doped Calcium Lithium borate glass irradiated with the cobalt-60 gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammadhan, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.rammadhan@koyauniversity.org [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Health, Koya University, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya 45, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Taha, Saddon [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Health, Koya University, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya 45, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study is to prepare and investigate the thermoluminescence characteristics for the un-doped and Cu{sub 2}O doped calcium lithium borate glass upon adding various Cu{sub 2}O concentrations of 0.005% to 0.1 mol%. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and irradiated with {sup 60}CO gamma-ray having different doses in the range of (0.5–4) Gy, (5–10) Gy, and (20–100) Gy. The amorphous phases were identified for optimization glass samples, effect of heating rate, glowing curves, linearity, sensitivity, fading, reproducibility of response and minimum detectable dose are also studied. The TL sample with 0.02 mol% Cu{sub 2}O concentration has higher response compared to the other samples concentration for a delivered dose of 50 Gy, The recorded glow curves consist a dominant peak at 187 °C for a heating rate of 5 °C s{sup −1}. However, the value of effective atomic number Z{sub eff} is 8.84 for 0.02Cu{sub 2}O doped which are near to the atomic number of soft tissue. - Highlights: •We have prepared and investigate the crystalline structure for the un-doped and Cu{sub 2}O doped calcium lithium borate glass are carried out. •Investigate the amorphous structure of calcium lithium borate glass. •Determine the best setting of annealing temperature, annealing time and heating rate for Cu{sub 2}O doped calcium lithium borate glass. •The doping effects of Cu{sub 2}O on the thermoluminescence properties of calcium lithium borate glass subjected gamma radiations. •The new dosimeter showed simple glow curve with single prominent peak centred at 187 °C and linear dose–response range 0.5–100 Gy, good reproducibility, the fading of the signal is relatively slow. •Effective atomic number for Cu{sub 2}O doped Calcium lithium borate close to the effective atomic number of soft tissue.

  8. N/S Co-doped Carbon Derived From Cotton as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon with large surface areas is prepared using cotton as carbon sources which derived from discard cotton balls. Subsequently, the sulfur-nitrogen co-doped carbon was obtained by heat treatment the carbon in presence of thiourea and evaluated as Lithium-ion batteries anode. Benefiting from the S, N co-doping, the obtained S, N co-doped carbon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. As a result, the as-prepared S, N co-doped carbon can deliver a high reversible capacity of 1,101.1 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles at 0.2 A g−1, and a high capacity of 531.2 mA h g−1 can be observed even after 5,000 cycles at 10.0 A g−1. Moreover, excellently rate capability also can be observed, a high capacity of 689 mA h g−1 can be obtained at 5.0 A g−1. This superior lithium storage performance of S, N co-doped carbon make it as a promising low-cost and sustainable anode for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  9. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  10. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Red Phosphorous Based Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serving as conductive matrix and stress buffer, the carbon matrix plays a pivotal role in enabling red phosphorus to be a promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries. In this paper, nitrogen-doping is proved to effective enhance the interface interaction between carbon and red phosphorus. In detail, the adsorption energy between phosphorus atoms and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon is significantly reduced by nitrogen doping, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption mechanisms are further revealed on the basis of DFT (the first density functional theory calculations. The RPNC (red phosphorus/nitrogen-doped carbon composite material shows higher cycling stability and higher capacity than that of RPC (red phosphorus/carbon composite anode. After 100 cycles, the RPNC still keeps discharge capacity of 1453 mAh g−1 at the current density of 300 mA g−1 (the discharge capacity of RPC after 100 cycles is 1348 mAh g−1. Even at 1200 mA g−1, the RPNC composite still delivers a capacity of 1178 mAh g−1. This work provides insight information about the interface interactions between composite materials, as well as new technology develops high performance phosphorus based anode materials.

  11. Coaxial Manganese Dioxide@N-doped Carbon Nanotubes as Superior Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Jie; Gu, Xin; Jiang, Xiaolei; Chen, Liang; Wang, Nana; Yang, Jian; Ma, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MnO 2 @N-dopedcarbonnanotube(N-CNT) composites are prepared by a facile process. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes exhibit better electrochemical properties than MnO 2 @CNT. • MnO 2 @N-CNT anodes show a capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 after 150 cycles. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been widely applied to transition metal oxides anodes for lithium ion batteries, acting as a buffer, hollow backbone and conductive additive. Since the presence of N in carbon materials can enhance the reactivity and electrical conductivity, N-doped carbon nanotube (N-CNT) might be a better choice than pure CNT, which is exemplified by coaxial manganese dioxide@N-doped carbon nanotubes as a superior anode. The electrochemical properties of MnO 2 @N-CNT are investigated in terms of cycling stability and rate capability. The nanocomposite can deliver a specific capacity of 1415 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g −1 , which is better than that of MnO 2 @commercial CNT and MnO 2 . The excellent performance might be related to the integration of hollow structure, one-dimensional nanoscale size as well as combination with N-doped carbon materials.

  12. Study of Paramagnetic Species in γ-irradiated Lithium Borate Glasses Doped With Cu2+ Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, A.; Abd-Allah, W.M.; El-Alaily, N.A.; Ezz-Eldin, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed alkali borate glasses doped with different concentration of Cu O ranging from (0.1-10) wt% have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared samples were studied by means of density, molar volume, infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements before and after successive gamma irradiation (50-200 kGy). The results showed that the density increase while molar volume decrease with the increase of CuO %. The infrared absorption studies revealed that structure of the glass network consists of BO 3 , BO 4 and B-O-Cu linkages. Gamma irradiation causes minor changes in the IR spectral bands which are related to the bond break of the B-O bond and formation non-bridging oxygen. Gamma irradiation causes irregular change in the intensities of the EPR spectra for samples doped with 0.1, 0.2 and 10 wt % of Cu O, however, no change in the EPR spectra of 2 and 5 wt % of Cu O for all absorbed doses (50-200 kGy). It is expected that the Cu-doped lithium borate glass 2 and 5 wt % of Cu O may be used for radiation shielding.

  13. Effects of Nanofiber Architecture and Antimony Doping on the Performance of Lithium-Rich Layered Oxides: Enhancing Lithium Diffusivity and Lattice Oxygen Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruizhi; Zhang, Zhijuan; Jamil, Sidra; Chen, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xianyou; Yang, Zhenhua; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang

    2018-05-07

    Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) with high specific capacities are favorable cathode materials with high-energy density. Unfortunately, the drawbacks of LLOs such as oxygen release, low conductivity, and depressed kinetics for lithium ion transport during cycling can affect the safety and rate capability. Moreover, they suffer severe capacity and voltage fading, which are major challenges for the commercializing development. To cure these issues, herein, the synthesis of high-performance antimony-doped LLO nanofibers by an electrospinning process is put forward. On the basis of the combination of theoretical analyses and experimental approaches, it can be found that the one-dimensional porous micro-/nanomorphology is in favor of lithium-ion diffusion, and the antimony doping can expand the layered phase lattice and further improve the lithium ion diffusion coefficient. Moreover, the antimony doping can decrease the band gap and contribute extra electrons to O within the Li 2 MnO 3 phase, thereby enhancing electronic conductivity and stabilizing lattice oxygen. Benefitting from the unique architecture, reformative electronic structure, and enhanced kinetics, the antimony-doped LLO nanofibers possess a high reversible capacity (272.8 mA h g -1 ) and initial coulombic efficiency (87.8%) at 0.1 C. Moreover, the antimony-doped LLO nanofibers show excellent cycling performance, rate capability, and suppressed voltage fading. The capacity retention can reach 86.9% after 200 cycles at 1 C, and even cycling at a high rate of 10 C, a capacity of 172.3 mA h g -1 can still be obtained. The favorable results can assist in developing the LLO material with outstanding electrochemical properties.

  14. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Lithium, iron, and barium elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zusi, M.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Esposito, M.; Manara, C. F.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Rigliaco, E.; Getman, F.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: With the purpose of performing a homogeneous determination of elemental abundances for members of the Lupus T association, we analyzed three chemical elements: lithium, iron, and barium. The aims were: 1) to derive the lithium abundance for the almost complete sample ( 90%) of known class II stars in the Lupus I, II, III, and IV clouds; 2) to perform chemical tagging of a region where few iron abundance measurements have been obtained in the past, and no determination of the barium content has been done up to now. We also investigated possible barium enhancement at the very young age of the region, as this element has become increasingly interesting in the last few years following the evidence of barium over-abundance in young clusters, the origin of which is still unknown. Methods: Using the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the Unit 2 (UT2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we analyzed the spectra of 89 cluster members, both class II (82) and class III (7) stars. We measured the strength of the lithium line at λ6707.8 Å and derived the abundance of this element through equivalent width measurements and curves of growth. For six class II stars we also derived the iron and barium abundances using the spectral synthesis method and the code MOOG. The veiling contribution was taken into account in the abundance analysis for all three elements. Results: We find a dispersion in the strength of the lithium line at low effective temperatures and identify three targets with severe Li depletion. The nuclear age inferred for these highly lithium-depleted stars is around 15 Myr, which exceeds by an order of magnitude the isochronal one. We derive a nearly solar metallicity for the members whose spectra could be analyzed. We find that Ba is over-abundant by 0.7 dex with respect to the Sun. Since current theoretical models cannot reproduce this abundance pattern, we investigated whether this unusually large Ba content might be related to effects due to stellar

  15. Effect of Al doping on phase formation and thermal stability of iron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Mukul, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Pandey, Nidhi [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001 (India); Horisberger, Michael [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stahn, Jochen [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-11-25

    In the present work, we systematically studied the effect of Al doping on the phase formation of iron nitride (Fe–N) thin films. Fe–N thin films with different concentration of Al (Al = 0, 2, 3, 6, and 12 at.%) were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen partial pressure between 0 and 100%. The structural and magnetic properties of the films were studied using x-ray diffraction and polarized neutron reflectivity. It was observed that at the lowest doping level (2 at.% of Al), nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase gets formed at a lower nitrogen partial pressure as compared to the un-doped sample. Interestingly, we observed that as Al doping is increased beyond 3 at.%, nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase appears at higher nitrogen partial pressure as compared to un-doped sample. The thermal stability of films were also investigated. Un-doped Fe–N films deposited at 10% nitrogen partial pressure possess poor thermal stability. Doping of Al at 2 at.% improves it marginally, whereas, for 3, 6 and 12 at.% Al doping, it shows significant improvement. The obtained results have been explained in terms of thermodynamics of Fe–N and Al–N. - Highlights: • Doping effects of Al on Fe–N phase formation is studied. • Phase formation shows a non-monotonic behavior with Al doping. • Low doping levels of Al enhance and high levels retard the nitridation process. • Al doping beyond 3 at.% improve thermal stability of Fe–N films.

  16. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a facile synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots (LTO/N,S-GQDs). The unique architecture and the introduction of N,S-GQDs create both ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. The as-prepared LTO/N,S-GQDs anode provides prominent advantage of specific capacity, high-rate performance and cycle stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots hybrid • The synthesis creates a crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO • The unique architecture achieves to maximize the rate performance and enhance the power density • Introduction of N,S-GQDs greatly enhances the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity • The hybrid anode provides an excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries - ABSTRACT: The paper reported a facile synthesis of lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots(LTO/N,S-GQDs). Tetrabutyl titanate was dissolved in tertbutanol and heated to refluxing state by microwave irradiation. Then, lithium acetate was added into the mixed solution to produce LTO precursor. The precursor was hybridized with N,S-GQDs in ethanol. Followed by drying and thermal annealing at 500 °C in Ar/H_2 to obtain LTO/N,S-GQDs. The synthesis creates fully crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO crystals. The unique architecture achieves to maximize the high-rate performance and enhance the power density. More importantly, the introduction of N,S-GQDs don't almost influence on the electrolyte transport, but greatly improve the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity. The LTO/N,S-GQDs anode exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery. The specific discharge capacity is 254.2 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 126.5 mAh g"−"1 at 10C. The capacity remains 96.9% at least after 2000 cycles

  17. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  18. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  19. Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before and after ion beam modification. D R S SOMAYAJULU, C N MURTHY†, D K AWASTHI‡, N V PATEL and M SARKAR. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India. †Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty ...

  20. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 ). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals

  1. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, Yongfa, E-mail: kongyf@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); R and D Center, Taishan Sports Industry Group, Leling 253600 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Shiguo [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xu, Jingjun [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm{sup 2}). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals.

  2. Phosphorus-doped silicon nanorod anodes for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-phosphorus-doped silicon anodes were fabricated on CuO nanorods for application in high power lithium-ion batteries. Since the conductivity of lithiated CuO is significantly better than that of CuO, after the first discharge, the voltage cut-off window was then set to the range covering only the discharge–charge range of Si. Thus, the CuO core was in situ lithiated and acts merely as the electronic conductor in the following cycles. The Si anode presented herein exhibited a capacity of 990 mAh/g at the rate of 9 A/g after 100 cycles. The anode also presented a stable rate performance even at a current density as high as 20 A/g.

  3. Protons in neutron-irradiated and thermochemically reduced MgO crystals doped with lithium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Pareja, R.; Chen, Y.

    1992-01-01

    H - (hydride) ions have been observed in lithium-doped MgO crystals which have been neutron irradiated or thermochemically reduced (TCR). Infrared-absorption measurements have been used to identify the local modes of the H - ions in these crystals. The concentration of the H - ions in the neutron-irradiated crystals is found to be far less than that found in the TCR crystals. The thermal stability of H - and oxygen vacancies in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres are investigated. The emergence of sharp structures due to OH - ions is attributed to the displacements of substitutional Li + ions, leaving behind unperturbed OH - ions, via a mechanism of rapid radiation-induced diffusion during irradiation in a reactor. Results of neutron-irradiated MgO:Li, which had previously been oxidized at high temperature, are also presented

  4. Enabling the high capacity of lithium-rich anti-fluorite lithium iron oxide by simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chun; Yao, Zhenpeng; Lu, Jun; Ma, Lu; Maroni, Victor A.; Li, Liang; Lee, Eungje; Alp, Esen E.; Wu, Tianpin; Wen, Jianguo; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher; Thackeray, Michael M.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Wolverton, Chris; Amine, Khalil

    2017-12-01

    Anionic redox reactions in cathodes of lithium-ion batteries are allowing opportunities to double or even triple the energy density. However, it is still challenging to develop a cathode, especially with Earth-abundant elements, that enables anionic redox activity for real-world applications, primarily due to limited strategies to intercept the oxygenates from further irreversible oxidation to O2 gas. Here we report simultaneous iron and oxygen redox activity in a Li-rich anti-fluorite Li5FeO4 electrode. During the removal of the first two Li ions, the oxidation potential of O2- is lowered to approximately 3.5 V versus Li+/Li0, at which potential the cationic oxidation occurs concurrently. These anionic and cationic redox reactions show high reversibility without any obvious O2 gas release. Moreover, this study provides an insightful guide to designing high-capacity cathodes with reversible oxygen redox activity by simply introducing oxygen ions that are exclusively coordinated by Li+.

  5. The origin of the enhanced performance of nitrogen-doped MoS_2 in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Weijun, Xia; Wu, Zhenjun; Huo, Jia; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    MoS_2 with a similar layered structure to graphene has been widely applied in various areas including lithium ion batteries. However, low conductivity, capacity fading and poor rate performance are still the main challenges for MoS_2 anode materials. In this work, for the first time, we prepared nitrogen-doped MoS_2 (N-MoS_2) nanosheets through a simple two-step method involving the preparation of MoS_2 with defects by the hydrothermal method, followed by sintering in a NH_3 atmosphere. Our electrochemical characterizations and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that nitrogen doping could enhance the electron conductivity and showed higher specific capacity than pristine MoS_2 as anode materials of lithium ion batteries, which can be attributed to the faster transportation of electrons and ions because of nitrogen doping. This work helps us understand the origin of the enhanced performance of N-doped MoS_2 in lithium ion batteries. (paper)

  6. Electrical and dielectric properties of lithium manganate nanomaterials doped with rare-earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Ahmad, Zahoor [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2008-05-01

    Substituted LiR{sub x}Mn{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}O{sub 4} (R = La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}{sub ,} Pr{sup 3+} and x = 0.00 - 0.20) nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel method and the consequent changes in their lattice structure, dielectric and electrical parameters are determined by XRD, ED-XRF, SEM, LCR meter bridge and dc electrical resistivity measurements. Diffraction data show that the samples are single-phase spinel materials with crystallites sizes between 21 and 38 nm. The lattice parameter, cell volume and X-ray density are found to be affected by doping the Li-manganate with the rare-earth elements. The ED-XRF analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the synthesized samples and SEM reveals their morphology. Calculated values of the dielectric constant ({epsilon}) and the dielectric loss (tan {delta}) decrease with the frequency of the applied field. This is attributed to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. Replacement of manganese by the rare-earth elements results in an improvement in the structural stability of the material, which is considered to be useful for enhancement of the cycleability of the compounds when used in lithium rechargeable batteries, and increases significantly the values of {epsilon} and tan {delta} (except for Ce). Lithium manganate nanomaterials with high {epsilon} and low tan {delta} may be attractive for application in memory storage devices. (author)

  7. Effect of powder processing conditions on the electromechanical properties of lithium doped potassium sodium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensur-Alkoy, E.; Berksoy-Yavuz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Lithium doped potassium sodium niobate ceramics with (K0.50−x/2Na0.50−x/2Lix)NbO3 composition where x=0.04 and 0.07 were fabricated by solid state calcination and pressureless sintering methods. However, two different powder processing and calcination routes were used in this study and their effect on the structural and electrical properties were investigated and discussed. The routes were namely loose calcination and compact calcination. A general trend of decreasing grain size was observed in the sintered ceramics prepared from these powders. The most drastic effect was observed on the electromechanical properties of the samples, where the maximum strain of 7% lithium modified sample under an E-field of 50kV/cm was increased from 0.09% to 0.12% by changing processing route. Furthermore, hysteretic behavior of the strain was found to decrease. This tendency was also valid for ferroelectric hysteresis property, with remnant polarization (2Pr) increasing from 23μC/cm2 to 46μC/cm2. The improvements observed in the electrical properties were discussed on the basis of chemical homogeneity and uniform ionic distribution. (Author)

  8. Studies on bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, MV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available at ScienceDirect Electrochimica Acta jo ur nal ho me p age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /e lec tac ta Graphical Abstract Electrochimica Acta xxx (2013) xxx–xxx Studies on Bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy... for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy∗, Thor Wei Jie, Charl J. Jafta, Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Mkhulu K. Mathe, A. Sree Kumaran Nair, Soo Soon Peng, M. Sobri Idris, Geetha Balakrishna, Fabian I. Ezema, B.V.R. Chowdari • Layered compounds, Li...

  9. Galvanomagnetic properties and electronic structure of iron-doped PbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipetrov, E. P., E-mail: skip@mig.phys.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Materials Science, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kruleveckaya, O. V.; Skipetrova, L. A. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A. V. [Faculty of Materials Science, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Slynko, E. I.; Slynko, V. E. [Institute of Materials Science Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsy 58001 (Ukraine)

    2015-11-21

    We synthesize an iron-doped PbTe single-crystal ingot and investigate the phase composition and distribution of the iron impurity along the ingot as well as galvanomagnetic properties in weak magnetic fields (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K, B ≤ 0.07 T) of Pb{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}Te alloys. We find microscopic inclusions enriched with iron and regions with a chemical composition close to FeTe in the heavily doped samples, while the iron impurity content in the main phase rises only slightly along the length of the ingot reaching the impurity solubility limit at approximately 0.6 mol. %. Samples from the initial and the middle parts of the ingot are characterized by p-type metal conductivity. An increase of the iron impurity content leads to a decrease in the free hole concentration and to a stabilization of galvanomagnetic parameters due to the pinning of the Fermi level by the iron resonant impurity level E{sub Fe} lying under the bottom of the valence band (E{sub v} − E{sub Fe} ≈ 16 meV). In the samples from the end of the ingot, a p-n inversion of the conductivity type and an increase of the free electron concentration along the ingot are revealed despite the impurity solubility limit being reached. The kinetics of changes of charge carrier concentration and of the Fermi energy along the ingot is analyzed in the framework of the six-band Dimmock dispersion relation. A model is proposed for the electronic structure rearrangement of Pb{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}Te with doping, which may also be used for PbTe doped with other transition metals.

  10. Tuning hydrogen storage in lithium-functionalized BC2N sheets by doping with boron and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nian-xiang; Zhang, Cheng-hua; Xue, Ying

    2014-10-06

    First-principles calculations are used to explore the strong binding of lithium to boron- and carbon-doped BC2N monolayers (BC2NBC and BC2NCN, respectively) without the formation of lithium clusters. In comparison to BC2N and BC2NCB, lithium-decorated BC2NBC and BC2NCN systems possess stronger s-p and p-p hybridization and, hence, the binding energy is higher. Lithium becomes partially positively charged by donating electron density to the more electronegative atoms of the sheet. Attractive van der Waals interactions are responsible for binding hydrogen molecules around the lithium atoms. Each lithium atom can adsorb three hydrogen molecules on both sides of the sheet, with an average hydrogen binding energy of approximately 0.2 eV, which is in the range required for practical applications. The BC2NBC-Li and BC2NCN-Li complexes can serve as high-capacity hydrogen-storage media with gravimetric hydrogen capacities of 9.88 and 9.94 wt %, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of iron doping concentration on magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.; Layek, Samar; Verma, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO:Fe nanoparticles of mean size 3-10 nm were synthesized at room temperature by simple co-precipitation method. The crystallite structure, morphology and size estimation were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The wurtzite structure of ZnO gradually degrades with the increasing Fe doping concentration. The magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles of ZnO with varying Fe doping concentration was investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Initially these nanoparticles showed strong ferromagnetic behavior, however at higher doping percentage of Fe, the ferromagnetic behavior was suppressed and paramagnetic nature was observed. The enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction between neighboring Fe-Fe ions suppressed the ferromagnetism at higher doping concentrations of Fe. Room-temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy investigation showed Fe 3+ nature of the iron atom in ZnO matrix.

  12. Effect of Metal (Mn, Ti Doping on NCA Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Yong Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NCA (LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05-x MxO2, M=Mn or Ti, x < 0.01 cathode materials are prepared by a hydrothermal reaction at 170°C and doped with Mn and Ti to improve their electrochemical properties. The crystalline phases and morphologies of various NCA cathode materials are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, and particle size distribution analysis. The CV, EIS, and galvanostatic charge/discharge test are employed to determine the electrochemical properties of the cathode materials. Mn and Ti doping resulted in cell volume expansion. This larger volume also improved the electrochemical properties of the cathode materials because Mn4+ and Ti4+ were introduced into the octahedral lattice space occupied by the Li-ions to expand the Li layer spacing and, thereby, improved the lithium diffusion kinetics. As a result, the NCA-Ti electrode exhibited superior performance with a high discharge capacity of 179.6 mAh g−1 after the first cycle, almost 23 mAh g−1 higher than that obtained with the undoped NCA electrode, and 166.7 mAh g−1 after 30 cycles. A good coulombic efficiency of 88.6% for the NCA-Ti electrode is observed based on calculations in the first charge and discharge capacities. In addition, the NCA-Ti cathode material exhibited the best cycling stability of 93% up to 30 cycles.

  13. Optical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy3+ and Sm3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasser Saleh Mustafa Alajerami; Suhairul Hashim; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan; Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Azman Kasim

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed the interesting properties of trivalent lanthanide ions when doped in various types of glasses. Optical and physical properties of lithium magnesium borate glasses doped with Dy 3+ then with Sm 3+ ions were determined by measuring their absorption and luminescence spectra in the visible region. The absorption spectra of Dy 3+ showed eight absorption bands with hypersensitive transition at 1265 nm ( 6 H 15/2 → 6 F 11/2 - 6 H 9/2 ) and three PL emission bands at 588 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 ), 660 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 ) and 775 nm ( 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 ). Regarding the Sm3 + , nine absorption bands were observed with hypersensitive transition at 1237 nm ( 6 H 5/2 - 6 F 7/2 ); the PL spectrum showed four prominent peaks at 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 5/2 (yellow color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 (bright orange color), 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 9/2 (orange reddish color) and 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 11/2 (red color), respectively. Finally, a series of physical parameters such as the oscillator strengths, refractive index, ions concentration, Polaron radius and other parameters were calculated for each dopant.

  14. Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George S; Ferrari, Stefania; Huang, Xiaobin; Bhagat, Rohit; Haddleton, David M; Wan, Chaoying

    2016-01-09

    Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of "conventional" materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur) and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene) nanospheres (OPZs) of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS). The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N₂ sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m²/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge-discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g -1 . This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.

  15. Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Pappas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of “conventional” materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene nanospheres (OPZs of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP and 4,4′-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N2 sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m2/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge–discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g−1. This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.

  16. Effect of rapid thermal treatment on optical properties of porous silicon surface doped lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel, E-mail: haded.ikbel@yahoo.fr; Slema, Sonia Ben; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of porous silicon layers doped with lithium (Li/PS). Surface modification of As-deposited Li/PS samples through thermal annealing were investigated by varying the temperature from 100 °C to 800 °C in an infrared (IR) heated belt furnace. A decrease in the reflectivity to about 6% for Li/PS annealed at 200 °C was obtained. From Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a blue-shift of the gap was observed when the temperature is increased to 800 °C; we correlate these results to the change in chemical composition of the layers in order to find the optimized conditions for a potential application in silicon solar cells. - Highlights: • We have varied the annealing temperature of PS doped with Li. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of temperature. • We observe reduce of Si–O–Li bands with increasing temperature. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  17. Field induced modification of defect complexes in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nadège; Granzow, Torsten [Department of Materials Research and Technology, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Nataf, Guillaume F., E-mail: nataf@lippmann.lu [Department of Materials Research and Technology, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); CEA, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-12-28

    Dielectric constant, thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), and conductivity of undoped and 5% Mg-doped LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals between −100 °C and 200 °C have been investigated. A Debye-like dielectric relaxation with an activation energy of 135 meV is observed in the Mg-doped material, but not in undoped crystals. On heating this relaxation disappears near 140 °C and does not reappear after cooling. Anomalies observed in TSDC around this temperature are attributed to the motion of lithium vacancies, in agreement with conductivity measurements. It is proposed that in thermal equilibrium the electrons from the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donors are trapped in (4Mg{sub Li}{sup •}+4V{sub Li}{sup ′}) defect complexes. High-temperature poling breaks these defect complexes. The transition of the liberated electrons between the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donor centers and the Nb{sub Nb} forming the conduction band gives rise to the observed dielectric relaxation.

  18. Graphene-doped carbon/Fe3O4 porous nanofibers with hierarchical band construction as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhao, Shuyuan; Lian, Yanping; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and thermal treatment. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 show unique dark/light banding with a hierarchical porous structure. • Doped graphene induces a uniform distribution of smaller size Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Doped graphene provides more active sites and accommodate the volume change. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped carbon/Fe 3 O 4 (GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 ) nanofibers are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment for use as lithium-ion battery anode materials. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution containing ferric acetylacetone and graphene oxide nanosheets is used as the electrospinning precursor solution. The resulting porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers show unique dark/light banding and a hierarchical porous structure. These nanofibers have a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 323.0 m 2 /g with a total pore volume of 0.337 cm 3 /g, which is significantly greater than that of a sample without graphene and C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers. The GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofiber electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g after 100 cycles, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability (455 mA/g at 5 A/g). The excellent performance of porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 is attributed to the material’s unique structure, including its striped topography, hierarchical porous structure, and inlaid flexible graphene, which not only provides more accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion and high-efficiency transport pathways for ions and electrons, but also accommodates the volume change associated with lithium insertion/extraction. Moreover, the zero-valent iron and graphene in the porous nanofibers enhance the conductivity of the electrodes.

  19. Stable silicon/3D porous N-doped graphene composite for lithium-ion battery anodes with self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofu; Wen, Guangwu; Song, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We fabricate a novel 3D N-doped graphene/silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes, with Si nanoparticles uniformly dispersed and thoroughly embedded in the N-doped graphene matrix. The favorable structure of the composite results in a BET surface area and an average mesopore diameter of 189.2 m2 g-1 and 3.82 nm, respectively. The composite delivers reversible capacities as high as 1132 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles under a current of 5 A g-1 and 1017 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 A g-1, and exhibits an improved rate capability. The present approach shows promise for the preparation of other high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Structural and Electrochemical Study of Vanadium-Doped TiO2 Ramsdellite with Superior Lithium Storage Properties for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Hoelzel, Markus; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Kuhn, Alois

    2016-04-04

    Titanium-oxide-based materials are considered attractive and safe alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. In particular, the ramsdellite form TiO2 (R) is known for its superior lithium-storage ability as the bulk material when compared with other titanates. In this work, we prepared V-doped lithium titanate ramsdellites with the formula Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 (0≤x≤0.5) by a conventional solid-state reaction. The lithium-free Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds, in which the ramsdellite framework remains virtually unaltered, are easily obtained by a simple aqueous oxidation/ion-extraction process. Neutron powder diffraction is used to locate the Li channel site in Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds and to follow the lithium extraction by difference-Fourier maps. Previously delithiated Ti1-x Vx O2 ramsdellites are able to insert up to 0.8 Li(+) per transition-metal atom. The initial gravimetric capacities of 270 mAh g(-1) with good cycle stability under constant current discharge conditions are among the highest reported for bulk TiO2 -related intercalation compounds for the threshold of one e(-) per formula unit. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of co-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on photoluminescence of cu-doped potassium lithium borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namma, Haydar Aboud; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ariwahjoedi, B. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia and Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University (Iraq); Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The SnO{sub 2} co-doped lithium potassium borate glasses doped with 0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mol% of Cu were synthesized by the melt quenching technique. The SnO{sub 2} co-dope was added to the compounds in the amounts of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mol%. The photoluminescent spectrum for different concentrations of copper was studied. It was observed that the intensity of blue emission (450, 490 nm) varies with concentration mol%. In addition, with different concentration of SnO{sub 2} to 0.10 mol% Cu, the influence of the luminescence has been observed to enhance intensity and shifted to blue and red (490, 535 nm) emissions.

  2. Tracking degradation in lithium iron phosphate batteries using differential thermal voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, Toshio; Merla, Yu; Offer, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing the state-of-health of lithium ion batteries in-operando is becoming increasingly important for multiple applications. We report the application of differential thermal voltammetry (DTV) to lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells for the first time, and demonstrate that the technique is capable of diagnosing degradation in a similar way to incremental capacity analysis (ICA). DTV has the advantage of not requiring current and works for multiple cells in parallel, and is less sensitive to temperature introducing errors. Cells were aged by holding at 100% SOC or cycling at 1C charge, 6D discharge, both at an elevated temperature of 45 °C under forced air convection. Cells were periodically characterised, measuring capacity fade, resistance increase (power fade), and DTV fingerprints. The DTV results for both cells correlated well with both capacity and power, suggesting they could be used to diagnose SOH in-operando for both charge and discharge. The DTV peak-to-peak capacity correlated well with total capacity fade for the cycled cell, suggesting that it should be possible to estimate SOC and SOH from DTV for incomplete cycles within the voltage hysteresis region of an LFP cell.

  3. Electro-thermal analysis of Lithium Iron Phosphate battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, L. H.; Somasundaram, K.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A. A. O.

    2014-03-01

    Lithium ion batteries offer an attractive solution for powering electric vehicles due to their relatively high specific energy and specific power, however, the temperature of the batteries greatly affects their performance as well as cycle life. In this work, an empirical equation characterizing the battery's electrical behavior is coupled with a lumped thermal model to analyze the electrical and thermal behavior of the 18650 Lithium Iron Phosphate cell. Under constant current discharging mode, the cell temperature increases with increasing charge/discharge rates. The dynamic behavior of the battery is also analyzed under a Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule and it is found that heat generated from the battery during this cycle is negligible. Simulation results are validated with experimental data. The validated single cell model is then extended to study the dynamic behavior of an electric vehicle battery pack. The modeling results predict that more heat is generated on an aggressive US06 driving cycle as compared to UDDS and HWFET cycle. An extensive thermal management system is needed for the electric vehicle battery pack especially during aggressive driving conditions to ensure that the cells are maintained within the desirable operating limits and temperature uniformity is achieved between the cells.

  4. Shuttle inhibition by chemical adsorption of lithium polysulfides in B and N co-doped graphene for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fen; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-09-14

    The advance of lithium sulfur batteries is now greatly restricted by the fast capacity fading induced by shuttle effect. Using first-principles calculations, various vacancies, N doping, and B,N co-doping in graphene sheets have been systematically explored for lithium polysufides entrapped in Li-S batteries. The LiS, LiC, LiN and SB bonds and Hirshfeld charges in the Li 2 S 6 adsorbed defective graphene systems have been analyzed to understand the intrinsic mechanism of retaining lithium polysulfides in these systems. Total and local densities of states analyses elucidate the strongest adsorption sites among the N and B-N co-doped graphene systems. The overall electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries varies with the types of defects in graphene. Among the defective graphene systems, only the reconstructed pyrrole-like vacancy is effective for retaining lithium polysulfides. N doping induces a strong LiN interaction in the defective graphene systems, in which the pyrrolic N rather than the pyridinic N plays a dominant role in trapping of lithium polysulfides. The shuttle effect can be further depressed via pyrrolic B,N co-doped defective graphene materials, especially the G-B-N-hex system with extremely strong adsorption of lithium polysulfides (4-5 eV), and simultaneous contribution from the strong LiN and SB interactions.

  5. Enhanced electrochemical properties of vanadium-doped titanium niobate as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Ma, Chenxiang; Du, Chenqiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhe; Qu, Deyang; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Vanadium-doped TiNb 2 O 7 (TNO) samples have been investigated as novel anode active materials for application in lithium-ion batteries. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The XRD results indicate that V-doping expands the lattice parameters of TiNb 2 O 7 samples and facilitates the enhanced lithium ion diffusion. SEM and TEM results show that lattice expansion caused by V-doping doesn’t significantly change the particle size distribution of TiNb 2 O 7 samples. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 anode material displays a highly reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. The initial discharge capacities of TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 are 298.48 mAh g −1 and 171.99 mAh g −1 at 0.3C and 10C, respectively, indicating that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 material can be utilized as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Youlong; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhang, Baofeng; Chen, Yanjun; He, Shengnan

    2018-02-01

    The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g-1 at 25mA g-1 current density from 1.5 V to 4.8 V. Also, it maintains a higher capacity (201 mA h g-1) than F-free Li2MnSiO4 (145 mA h g-1) after 50 cycles.

  7. Enhanced Manifold of States Achieved in Heterostructures of Iron Selenide and Boron-Doped Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cantatore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced superconductivity is sought by employing heterostructures composed of boron-doped graphene and iron selenide. Build-up of a composite manifold of near-degenerate noninteracting states formed by coupling top-of-valence-band states of FeSe to bottom-of-conduction-band states of boron-doped graphene is demonstrated. Intra- and intersubsystem excitons are explored by means of density functional theory in order to articulate a normal state from which superconductivity may emerge. The results are discussed in the context of electron correlation in general and multi-band superconductivity in particular.

  8. Facile synthesis of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Meijie; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Iron nitrides are considered as highly promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their nontoxicity, high abundance, low cost, and higher electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, their limited synthesis routes are available and practical application is still hindered by their fast capacity decay. Herein, a facile and green route is developed to synthesize Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet composite. The size of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe particles is small (10-40 nm) and they are confined in porous N-doped carbon nanosheet. These features are conducive to accommodate volume change well, shorten the diffusion distance and further elevate electrical conductivity. When tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a high discharge capacity of 554 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 389 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 are retained. Even at 2000 mA g-1, a high capacity of 330 mA h g-1 can be achieved, demonstrating superior cycling stability and rate performance. New prospects will be brought by this work for the synthesis and the potential application of iron nitrides materials as an anode for LIBs.

  9. TL and OSL studies on lithium borate single crystals doped with Cu and Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, N.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Tyagi, M.; Ratna, P.; Mishra, D.R.; Singh, S.G.; Tiwari, B.; Soni, A.; Gadkari, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium borate (LBO) single crystals doped with Cu and Ag (0.25 mol% each) (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag) are grown by the Czochralski method. The thermoluminescence readout on Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag crystals showed three glow peaks at∼375, 441 and 516 K for the heating rate of 1 K/s. The thermoluminescence sensitivity of the grown Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag single crystals is found to be 5 times TLD-100 and a linear dose response in the range 1 mGy to 1 kGy. The glow curve deconvolution reveals nearly first order kinetics for all the three peaks with trap depths 0.77, 1.25 and 1.34 eV respectively and corresponding frequency factors 1.6×10 9 , 1.3×10 13 and 6.8×10 11 s −1 . The continuous wave optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) measurements were performed on the LBO:Cu,Ag single crystals using blue light stimulation. The traps responsible for the three thermoluminescence peaks in Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag are found to be OSL sensitive. The qualitative correlation between TL peaks and CW-OSL response is established. The photoluminescence studies show that in case of co-doping of Ag in LBO:Cu the emission at 370 nm in Cu states dominates over the transitions in Ag states implying doping of Ag plays a role as sensitizer when co-doped with Cu and increases overall emission. - Highlights: ► Growth of crack free single crystals of Li2B4O7 :Cu and Ag. ► Study of TL and OSL parameters for Li2B4O7 :Cu and Ag. ► Correlation of OSL with TL peaks. ► Optimization of OSL readout time with respect to residual TL.

  10. Crystal growth and characterization of europium doped lithium strontium iodide scintillator as an ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Samuel

    High performance detectors used in the detection of ionizing radiation is critical to nuclear nonproliferation applications and other radiation detectors applications. In this research we grew and tested Europium doped Lithium Strontium Iodide compound. A mixture of lithium iodide, strontium iodide and europium iodide was used as the starting materials for this research. Congruent melting and freezing temperature of the synthesized compound was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Setaram Labsys Evo DSC-DTA instrument. The melting temperatures were recorded at 390.35°C, 407.59°C and freezing temperature was recorded at 322.84°C from a graph of heat flow plotted against temperature. The synthesized material was used as the charge for the vertical Bridgeman growth, and a 6.5 cm and 7.7cm length boule were grown in a multi-zone transparent Mullen furnace. A scintillating detector of thickness 2.53mm was fabricated by mechanical lapping in mineral oil, and scintillating response and timing were obtained to a cesium source using CS-137 isotope. An energy resolution (FWHM over peak position) of 12.1% was observed for the 662keV full absorption peak. Optical absorption in the UV-Vis wavelength range was recorded for the grown crystal using a U-2900 UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. Absorption peaks were recorded at 194nm, 273nm, and 344nm from the absorbance spectrum, various optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, and optical loss were derived. The optical band gap energy was calculated using Tauc relation expression at 1.79eV.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman , Irina; Ivanova , Oxana; Ivantsov , Ruslan; Velikanov , D.; Zabluda , V.; Zubavichus , Y.; Veligzhanin , A.; Zaikovskiy , V.; Stepanov , S.; Artemenko , Alla; Curély , Jacques; Kliava , Janis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge struct...

  12. Advanced LiTi2(PO4)3@N-doped carbon anode for aqueous lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode was prepared by in-situ coating approach for aqueous lithium ion batteries. • The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon demonstrates excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode has been synthesized by in situ carbon coating approach. The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained by using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon as anode demonstrates much better rate capability than LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon in ALIBs. The optimized anode delivers the discharge capacity of 93.7 mAh g −1 and 74.2 mAh g −1 at rates of 10C and 20C, 22.5 mAh g −1 and 50.0 mAh g −1 larger than that of LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon. Moreover, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon exhibits excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of 84.3% at 5C after 1000 cycles. As verified, the well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer could reduce charge transfer resistance and improve electrical conductivity. The loose nanoporous structure could shorten pathway and facilitate diffusion for Li ion. Therefore, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon gets the superior electrochemical properties benefiting from those two characteristics.

  13. Thermoluminescence study of Mn doped lithium tetraborate powder and pellet samples synthesized by solution combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, A.; Yegingil, Z.; Nur, N.; Kurt, K.; Tuken, T.; Depci, T.; Tansug, G.; Altunal, V.; Guckan, V.; Sigircik, G.; Yu, Y.; Karatasli, M.; Dolek, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics under beta-ray, x-ray and gamma-ray excitations of powder and pellet Mn-doped lithium tetraborates (LTB) which were produced by solution combustion synthesis technique were investigated, and the results were compared with that of TLD-100 chips. The chemical composition and morphologies of the obtained LTB and Mn-doped LTB (LTB:Mn) were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX. LTB:Mn was studied using luminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the effects of sintering and annealing temperatures and times on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LTB:Mn were investigated. The glow curves of powder samples as well as pellet samples exposed to different beta doses exhibited a low temperature peak at about 100 °C followed by an intense principal high temperature peak at about 260 °C. The kinetic parameters (E, b, s) associated with the prominent glow peaks were estimated using T m –T stop , initial rise (IR) and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The TL response of integral TL output increased linearly with increasing the dose in the range of 0.1–10 Gy and was followed by a superlinearity up to 100 Gy both for powder and pellet samples using beta-rays. Powder and pellet LTB:Mn were irradiated to a known dose by a linear accelerator with 6 and 18 MV photon beams, 6–15 MeV electron beams and a traceable 137 Cs beam to investigate energy response. Further, TL sensitivity, fading properties and recycling effects related with beta exposure of LTB:Mn phosphor were evaluated and its relative energy response was also compared with that of TLD-100 chips. The comparison of the results showed that the obtained phosphors have good TL dose response with adequate sensitivity and linearity for the measurement of medical doses.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of Boron-Doped Fullerene Derivatives for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parveen; Kim, Ki Chul; Jang, Seung Soon

    2018-03-19

    The high electron affinity of fullerene C 60 coupled with the rich chemistry of carbon makes it a promising material for cathode applications in lithium-ion batteries. Since boron has one electron less than carbon, the presence of boron on C 60 cages is expected to generate electron deficiency in C 60 , and thereby to enhance its electron affinity. By using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the redox potentials and electronic properties of C 60 and C 59 B. We have found that doping C 60 with one boron atom results in a substantial increase in redox potential from 2.462 V to 3.709 V, which was attributed to the formation of an open shell system. We also investigated the redox and electronic properties of C 59 B functionalized with various redox-active oxygen containing functional groups (OCFGs). For the combination of functionalization with OCFGs and boron doping, it is found that the enhancement of redox potential is reduced, which is mainly attributed to the open shell structure being changed to a closed-shell one. Nevertheless, the redox potentials are still higher than that of pristine C 60 . From the observation that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of closed-shell OCFG- functionalized C 59 B is correlated well with the redox potential, it was confirmed that the spin state is crucial to be considered to understand the relationship between electronic structure and redox properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-14

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg:LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the “up” to the “down” state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg:LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original “up” state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg:LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg:LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg:LN boundary. These alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg:LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.

  16. Effect of co-doping of sodium on the thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, A.; Wagiran, H.; Saeed, M.A.; Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Kadir, A.B.A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5–1000 Gy is investigated. The results show that the thermal fading behaviour is improved significantly. - Highlights: • Dosimetry properties of an improved TL dosimeter. • The dosimeter is made of lithium borate, modified with ZnO, doped with CuO and co-doped with Na 2 O. • With addition of Na to Cu in the ZLB host, TL yield and sensitivity has significantly enhanced. • The fading behaviour has also been minimized significantly. • The new material is also characterized with the linear dose response, and good reproducibility behaviour.

  17. A density functional theory study of the carbon-coating effects on lithium iron borate battery electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftager, Simon; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Vegge, Tejs

    2017-01-01

    a density functional theory (DFT) study of the anchoring configurations of carbon coating on the LiFeBO3 electrode and its implications on the interfacial lithium diffusion. Due to large barriers associated with Li-ion diffusion through a parallel-oriented pristine graphene coating on the FeBO3 and LiFeBO3......Lithium iron borate (LiFeBO3) is a promising cathode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity, inexpensive components and a small volume change during operation. Yet, challenges relating to severe air- and moisture-induced degradation necessitate the application of a protective...... coating on the electrode which also improves the electronic conductivity. However, not much is known about the preferential geometries of the coating as well as how these coating–electrode interfaces influence the lithium diffusion between the coating and the electrode. Here, we therefore present...

  18. Designed fabrication of fluorine-doped carbon coated mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres for improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ming, Hai; Ge, Danhua; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow TiO 2 with mesoporous shell (MHTO) was successfully fabricated by a novel and controllable route, followed by fluorine-doped carbon coating the MHTO (MHTO-C/F), with the aim of enhancing the conductivity and stability of structures. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO) was fabricated via a facile and controllable route, to improve the lithium ion mobility as well as the stability of the architecture. • Fluorine-doped carbon derived from polyvinylidene difluoride was further encapsulated onto TiO 2 hollow spheres to improve the conductivity. • The composites could provide excellent electrochemical performance, which was desirable for the application of TiO 2 as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: In this manuscript, we demonstrated a facile route for the controllable design of “Fluorine (F)-doped carbon” (C/F)-treated TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO-C/F). The fabrication of this distinct mesoporous hollow structures and the C/F coating could effectively improve the electrolyte permeability and architectural stability, as well as electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility. As anticipated, MHTO-C/F has several remarkable electrochemical properties, such as a high specific reversible capacity of 252 mA h g −1 , outstanding cycling stability of more than 210 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, and good rate performance of around 123 mA h g −1 at 5 C (1 C = 168 mA g −1 ). These properties are highly beneficial for lithium storage

  19. Optical Analysis of Iron-Doped Lead Sulfide Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Kumar, K. N.; Khadeer Pasha, S. K.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Chidambaram, K.; Shakil Muhammad, G.

    Iron-doped lead sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film shows a well formed crystalline thin film with face-centered cubic structure along the preferential orientation (1 1 1). The lattice constant is determined using Nelson Riley plots. Using X-ray broadening, the crystallite size is determined by Scherrer formula. Morphology of the thin film was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The optical properties of the film were investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. We observed an increase in the optical band gap from 2.45 to 3.03eV after doping iron in the lead sulfide thin film. The cutoff wavelength lies in the visible region, and hence the grown thin films can be used for optoelectronic and sensor applications. The results from the photoluminescence study show the emission at 500-720nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurements confirmed that the lead sulfide thin film becomes weakly ferromagnetic material after doping with iron.

  20. The secret behind the success of doping nickel oxyhydroxide with iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelsky, Vicky; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2017-03-15

    Discovering better catalysts for water splitting is the holy grail of the renewable energy field. One of the most successful water oxidation catalysts is nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), which is chemically active only as a result of doping with Fe. In order to shed light on how Fe improves efficiency, we perform Density Functional Theory +U (DFT+U) calculations of water oxidation reaction intermediates of Fe substitutional doped NiOOH. The results are analyzed while considering the presence of vacancies that we use as probes to test the effect of adding charge to the surface. We find that the smaller electronegativity of the Fe dopant relative to Ni allows the dopant to have several possible oxidation states with less energy penalty. As a result, the presence of vacancies which alters local oxidation states does not affect the low overpotential of Fe-doped NiOOH. We conclude that the secret to the success of doping NiOOH with iron is the ability of iron to easily change oxidation states, which is critical during the chemical reaction of water oxidation.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  2. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia [Department of Applied Physics, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.

  3. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-01-01

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity

  4. Work function tuning of tin-doped indium oxide electrodes with solution-processed lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow-Yang, C.W., E-mail: cleva@sabanciuniv.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Nanotechnology Application Center, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Jia, J. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Aytun, T. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Zamboni, M.; Turak, A. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Saritas, K. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Shigesato, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    Solution-processed lithium fluoride (sol-LiF) nanoparticles synthesized in polymeric micelle nanoreactors enabled tuning of the surface work function of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films. The micelle reactors provided the means for controlling surface coverage by progressively building up the interlayer through alternating deposition and plasma etch removal of the polymer. In order to determine the surface coverage and average interparticle distance, spatial point pattern analysis was applied to scanning electron microscope images of the nanoparticle dispersions. The work function of the sol-LiF modified ITO, obtained from photoelectron emission yield spectroscopy analysis, was shown to increase with surface coverage of the sol-LiF particles, suggesting a lateral depolarization effect. Analysis of the photoelectron emission energy distribution in the near threshold region revealed the contribution of surface states for surface coverage in excess of 14.1%. Optimization of the interfacial barrier was achieved through contributions from both work function modification and surface states. - Highlights: • Work function of indium tin oxide increased with LiF nanoparticle coverage. • Work function was analyzed via photoelectron emission yield (PEYS). • At higher surface coverage, the energy distribution of PEYS increased. • Pre-threshold increase in PEYS consistent with emission from surface states.

  5. Radiation-induced defects in manganese-doped lithium tetraborate phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalakshmi, O; Jose, M T; Madhusoodanan, U; Sridevi, J; Venkatraman, B; Amarendra, G; Mandal, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lithium tetraborate doped with manganese synthesised by solid-state sintering technique exhibits a dosimetric peak at 280°C. The high-temperature glow curve results in no fading for three months. The sensitivity of Li2B4O7:Mn is determined to be 0.9 times that of TLD-100. The infrared spectrum of this phosphor indicates the presence of bond vibrations corresponding to BO4 tetrahedral and BO3 triangles. The mechanism for thermoluminescence in this phosphor was proposed based on the thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra, kinetic analysis of TL glow curves and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated phosphors. It was identified that oxygen vacancies and Boron oxygen hole centre (BOHC) are the electron and hole trap centres for TL in this phosphor. When the phosphor is heated, the electrons are released from the electron trap and recombine with the trapped holes. The excitation energy during the recombination is transferred to the nearby Mn(2+) ions, which emit light at 580 nm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jaidass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Dy3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x B2O3 - 25 SiO2 -10 Al2O3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy2O3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6. The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (AR, total transition probability rate (AT, radiative lifetime (τR and branching ratios (βR for the excited 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram. Keywords: Condensed matter physics, Engineering, Materials science

  7. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-25

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  8. Ultrafine Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles Encapsulated Hierarchical N-doped Carbon Nanotubes for High-performance Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Nianqing; Zou, Jizhao; Zeng, Xierong; Chen, Yuming; Zhou, Limin; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrafine cobalt sulfide nanoparticles encapsulated in hierarchical N-doped carbon nanotubes show exceptional lithium ion storage as anodes. - Abstract: Nanostructured cobalt sulfide based materials with rational design are attractive for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report a multistep method to synthesize ultrafine cobalt sulfide nanoparticles encapsulated in hierarchical N-doped carbon nanotubes (CoS x @HNCNTs). Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) nanotubes are obtained from the reaction between electrospun polyacrylonitrile/cobalt acetate and 2-methylimidazole, followed by the dissolution of template. Next, a combined calcination and sulfidation process is employed to convert the ZIF-67 nanotubes to CoS x @HNCNTs. Benefited from the compositional and structural features, the as-prepared nanostructured hybrid materials deliver superior lithium storage properties with high capacity of 1200 mAh g −1 at 0.25 A g −1 . More importantly, a remarkable capacity of 1086 mAh g −1 can be maintained after 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g −1 . Even at a high rate of 5 A g −1 , a reversible capacity of 592 mAh g −1 after 1600 cycles can still be achieved.

  9. Facile crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of iron oxides for adsorbents and anode materials of lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Qiao, Wencan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Yashan; Tan, Wenfeng; Qiu, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides exhibit excellent physicochemical properties as functional materials because of the diversity of crystal structure. Nano-sized iron oxides, including akaganite (β-FeOOH), maghemite (γ-Fe_2O_3), ferrihydrite (Fe_5HO_8∙4H_2O) and hematite (α-Fe_2O_3), were prepared by a facile reflux treatment of iron powder in NaClO solution at 50 °C for 12 h. The crystal structures were controlled by adjusting the pH values of reaction systems. Akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite were formed when pHs were adjusted to 2–4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. They showed excellent adsorption performance for As(III), and the adsorption capacity was affected by crystal structure as well as specific surface area. The maximum adsorption capacity for akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite reached 89.8, 79.1, 78.4, and 63.4 mg g"−"1, respectively. Hematite showed lithium storage capacity of 2043 mAh g"−"1 for the first cycle and then kept stable after twenty cycles at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1. The discharge specific capacity stabilized at 639 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles. The as-prepared iron oxides might be applied as potential adsorbents and anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • Nano-sized ferric oxides were fabricated by refluxing iron powder in NaClO solutions. • Crystal structures were controlled by adjusting pHs from 2.0 to 10.0 in systems. • Akaganite exhibited the largest As(III) adsorption capacity of 89.8 mg g"−"1. • Hematite had lithium storage capacity of 639 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles.

  10. Boron-Doped Carbon Nano-/Microballs from Orthoboric Acid-Starch: Preparation, Characterization, and Lithium Ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A boron-doped carbon nano-/microballs (BC was successfully obtained via a two-step procedure including hydrothermal reaction (180°C and carbonization (800°C with cheap starch and H3BO3 as the carbon and boron source. As a new kind of boron-doped carbon, BC contained 2.03 at% B-content and presented the morphology as almost perfect nano-/microballs with different sizes ranging from 500 nm to 5 μm. Besides that, due to the electron deficient boron, BC was explored as anode material and presented good lithium storage performance. At a current density of 0.2 C, the first reversible specific discharge capacity of BC electrode reached as high as 964.2 mAh g–1 and kept at 699 mAh g–1 till the 11th cycle. BC also exhibited good cycle ability with a specific capacity of 356 mAh g–1 after 79 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C. This work proved to be an effective approach for boron-doped carbon nanostructures which has potential usage for lithium storage material.

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties and kinetic parameters of lithium potassium borate glass co-doped with titanium and magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Ramli, A.T.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Saleh, M.A.; Abdul Kadir, A.B.; Saripan, M.I.; Alzimami, K.; Bradley, D.A.; Mhareb, M.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium potassium borate (LKB) glasses co-doped with TiO 2 and MgO were prepared using the melt quenching technique. The glasses were cut into transparent chips and exposed to gamma rays of 60 Co to study their thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The TL glow curve of the Ti-doped material featured a single prominent peak at 230 °C. Additional incorporation of MgO as a co-activator enhanced the TL intensity threefold. LKB:Ti,Mg is a low-Z material (Z eff =8.89) with slow signal fading. Its radiation sensitivity is 12 times lower that the sensitivity of TLD-100. The dose response is linear at doses up to 10 3 Gy. The trap parameters, such as the kinetics order, activation energy, and frequency factor, which are related to the glow peak, were determined using TolAnal software. - Highlights: • Lithium potassium borate glass doped with Ti and Mg was prepared. • The material is close to soft tissues in terms of Zeff. • The radiation sensitivity is about 12 times lower than that of TLD-100. • The signal fades about 8% in 10 days and 17% in 3 months

  12. Site preference of rare earth doping in palladium-iron-arsenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzer, Christine; Schulz, Anne; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The solid solutions (Ca{sub 1-y}RE{sub y}Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8} with RE = La, Ce, and Pr were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction with subsequent Rietveld refinements [(CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}-type structure (''1038 type''), P anti 1, Z = 1]. Substitution levels (Ca/RE, Fe/Pd, and Pd/□) obtained from Rietveld refinements coincide well with the nominal values according to EDS and the linear courses of the lattice parameters as expected from the ionic radii. The RE atoms favor the one out of five calcium sites, which is eightfold coordinated by arsenic. This leads to significant stabilization of the structure, and especially prevents palladium over-doping in the iron-arsenide layers as observed in the pristine compound (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8}. While the stabilization energy is estimated to about 40 kJ.mol{sup -1} by electronic structure calculations, the reason for the diminished Fe/Pd substitution through RE doping is still not yet understood. We suggest that the electrons transferred from RE{sup 3+} to the (Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x})As layer makes higher palladium concentrations unfavorable. Anyway the reduced palladium doping enables superconductivity with critical temperatures up to 20 K (onset) in the RE doped Pd1038 samples, which could not be obtained earlier due to palladium over-doping in the active iron-arsenide layers. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Study on performance of composite polymer films doped with modified molecular sieve for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuqing; Zhang Guodong; Du Tingdong; Zhang Lizao

    2010-01-01

    To improve the tensile strength and ionic conductivity of composite polymer films for lithium-ion batteries, molecular sieves of MCM-41 modified with sulfated zirconia (SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 , SZ), denoted as MCM-41/SZ, were doped into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) matrix to fabricate MCM-41/SZ composite polymer films, denoted as MCM-41/SZ films. Examination by transmission electron microscope (TEM) shows that modified molecular sieves have lower aggregation and a more porous structure. Tensile strength tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical performance of MCM-41/SZ films, and then the electrochemical performance of batteries with MCM-41/SZ films as separators was tested. The results show that the tensile strength (σ t ) of MCM-41/SZ film was up to 7.8 MPa; the ionic conductivity of MCM-41/SZ film was close to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature; and the coulombic efficiency of the assembled lithium-ion battery was 92% at the first cycle and reached as high as 99.99% after the 20th cycle. Meanwhile, the charge-discharge voltage plateau of the lithium-ion battery presented a stable state. Therefore, MCM-41/SZ films are a good choice as separators for lithium-ion batteries due to their high tensile strength and ionic conductivity.

  14. Influence of single and binary doping of strontium and lithium on in vivo biological properties of bioactive glass scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Pintu Kumar; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Nandi, Samit K.; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Datta, Someswar; Sarkar, Soumya; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Nath, Shalini; Balla, Vamsi K.; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Effects of strontium and lithium ion doping on the biological properties of bioactive glass (BAG) porous scaffolds have been checked in vitro and in vivo. BAG scaffolds were prepared by conventional glass melting route and subsequently, scaffolds were produced by evaporation of fugitive pore formers. After thorough physico-chemical and in vitro cell characterization, scaffolds were used for pre-clinical study. Soft and hard tissue formation in a rabbit femoral defect model after 2 and 4 months, were assessed using different tools. Histological observations showed excellent osseous tissue formation in Sr and Li + Sr scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in Li scaffolds. Fluorochrome labeling studies showed wide regions of new bone formation in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples as compared to Li doped samples. SEM revealed abundant collagenous network and minimal or no interfacial gap between bone and implant in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples compared to Li doped samples. Micro CT of Li + Sr samples showed highest degree of peripheral cancellous tissue formation on periphery and cortical tissues inside implanted samples and vascularity among four compositions. Our findings suggest that addition of Sr and/or Li alters physico-chemical properties of BAG and promotes early stage in vivo osseointegration and bone remodeling that may offer new insight in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27604654

  15. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Fe-doped V6O13 as Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped V6O13 was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method after preparing precursor in order to improve the discharge capacity and cycle performance of V6O13 cathode material at high-lithium state. XRD, SEM and XPS were employed to characterize the phase, morphology and valence of the Fe-doped V6O13. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance was analyzed and researched. Different morphologies and electrochemical performances of Fe-doped V6O13 were obtained via doping different contents of Fe3+ ion. The sample 0.02 presented the largest thickness of nanosheets (the thickness of 600-900nm and clearance between layers. The Fe-doped V6O13 has a better electrochemical performance than that of pure V6O13. The sample 0.02 exhibits the best electrochemical performance, the initial discharge specific capacity is 433mAh·g-1 and the capacity retention is 47.1% after 100 cycles.

  16. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dan; Shi Dongqi [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia); Liu Zongwen [University of Sydney, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia); Liu Huakun; Guo Zaiping, E-mail: zguo@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles were homogeneously distributed on the reduced graphene oxide to inhibit the restacking of the neighbouring graphene sheets. The obtained TiO{sub 2}/N-rGO composite exhibits improved cycling performance and rate capability, indicating the important role of reduced graphene oxide, which not only facilitates the formation of uniformly distributed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, but also increases the electrical conductivity of the composite material. The introduction of nitrogen on the reduced graphene oxide has been proved to increase the conductivity of the reduced graphene oxide and leads to more defects. A disordered structure is thus formed to accommodate more lithium ions, thereby further improving the electrochemical performance.

  17. Resilient carbon encapsulation of iron pyrite (FeS2) cathodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tara S.; Tussing, Matthew; Cloud, Jacqueline E.; Yang, Yongan

    2015-01-01

    Converting iron pyrite (FeS2) from a non-cyclable to a cyclable cathode material for lithium ion batteries has been an ongoing challenge in recent years. Herein we report a promising mitigation strategy: wet-chemistry based conformal encapsulation of synthetic FeS2 nanocrystals in a resilient carbon (RC) matrix (FeS2@RC). The FeS2@RC composite was fabricated by dispersing autoclave-synthesized FeS2 nanocrystals in an aqueous glucose solution, polymerizing the glucose in a hydrothermal reactor, and finally heating the polymer/FeS2 composite in a tube furnace to partially carbonize the polymer. The FeS2@RC electrodes showed superior cyclability compared with the FeS2 electrodes, that is, 25% versus 1% of retention at the 20th cycle. Based on electrochemical analysis, XRD study, and SEM characterization, the performance enhancement was attributed to RC's ability to accommodate volume fluctuation, enhance charge transfer, alleviate detrimental side reactions, and suppress loss of the active material. Furthermore, the remaining issues associated with the current system were identified and future research directions were proposed.

  18. Lithium iron phosphate with high-rate capability synthesized through hydrothermal reaction in glucose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangchuan; Wang, Li; Ou, Xiuqin; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Shengzhao [Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Box 1055, Hebei University of Technology, 300130 Tianjin (China)

    2008-10-01

    Carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}/C) was hydrothermally synthesized from commercial LiOH, FeSO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as raw materials and glucose as carbon precursor in aqueous solution at 180 C for 6 h followed by being fired at 750 C for 6 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and constant current charge-discharge cycling test. The results show that the synthesized powders are in situ coated with carbon precursor produced from glucose. At ambient temperature (25{+-}2 C), the specific discharge capacities are 154 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.2C and 136 mAh g{sup -1} at 5 C rate, and the cycling capacity retention rate reaches 98% over 90 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be correlated with the in situ formation of carbon precursor/carbon, thus leading to the even distribution of carbon and the enhancement of conductibility of individual grains. (author)

  19. Measuring and assessing the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of lithium iron phosphate pouch cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinski, S.J.; Wang, X.; Sangeorzan, B.P.; Guessous, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally determine the effective in-plane thermal conductivity of a lithium iron phosphate pouch cell. An experimental setup is designed to treat the battery cell as a straight rectangular fin in natural convection. Thermography and heat sensors were used to collect data that yields the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate of the fin, respectively. One-dimensional fin equations were combined with the experimental data to yield the in-plane thermal conductivity through an iterative process that best-fits the data to the model. The experiment was first calibrated using reference plates of different metals. The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity value well with a correction factor of approximately 7%–9%. Using this experimental method, the in-plane thermal conductivity of the pouch cells is measured at different state of charge (SOC) levels. The in-plane thermal conductivity decreases approximately 0.13 Wm"−"1 °C"−"1 per 10% increase in SOC for the LFP cells. This translates to a 4.2% overall decrease in the thermal conductivity as the cell becomes fully charged. - Highlights: • A method is proposed to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of a pouch cell. • The thermal conductivity decreases slightly with increase in SOC for the LFP cells. • The fin model predicts the thermal conductivity well with a correction factor.

  20. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  1. Electro-thermal characterization of Lithium Iron Phosphate cell with equivalent circuit modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, L.H.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the electrical and thermal behavior of the Li-ion battery. • We validated the simulation results with experimental studies. • We studied the thermal response of the battery pack using UDDS and US06 test. • Active cooling system is needed to prolong life cycle of cell. - Abstract: Prediction of the battery performance is important in the development of the electric vehicles battery pack. A battery model that is capable to reproduce I–V characteristic, thermal response and predicting the state of charge of the battery will benefit the development of cell and reduce time to market for electric vehicles. In this work, an equivalent circuit model coupled with the thermal model is used to analyze the electrical and thermal behavior of Lithium Iron Phosphate pouch cell under various operating conditions. The battery model is comprised three RC blocks, one series resistor and one voltage source. The parameters of the battery model are extracted from pulse discharge curve under different temperatures. The simulations results of the battery model under constant current discharge and pulse charge and discharge show a good agreement with experimental data. The validated battery model is then extended to investigate the dynamic behavior of the electric vehicle battery pack using UDDS and US06 test cycle. The simulation results show that an active thermal management system is required to prolong the calendar life and ensure safety of the battery pack

  2. In vitro study on the degradation of lithium-doped hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaping; Yang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, The 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 610021 (China); Liu, Jingwang [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Li-doped hydroxyapatite (LiHA) which is prepared through introducing low dose of Li into hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasingly studied as a bone tissue-engineered scaffold. The degradation properties play a crucial role in the success of long-term implantation of a bone tissue-engineered construct. Herein, the in vitro degradation behaviors of LiHA scaffolds via two approaches were investigated in this study: solution-mediated degradation and osteoblast-mediated degradation. In solution-mediated degradation, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, some characteristics of these scaffolds (such as release of ionized lithium and phosphate, pH change, mechanical properties, cytocompatibility and SEM surface characterization) were systematically tested. A similar procedure was also employed to research the degradation behaviors of LiHA scaffolds in osteoblast-mediated degradation. The results suggested that the degradation in SBF and degradation in culture medium with cell existed distinguishing mechanisms. LiHA scaffolds were degraded via a hydrolytic mechanism when they were soaked in SBF. Upon degradation, an apatite precipitation (layer) was formed on the surfaces of scaffolds. While a biological mechanism was presented for the degradation of scaffolds in cell-mediated degradation. Compared with pure HA, LiHA scaffolds had a better effect on the growth of osteoblast cells, meanwhile, the release amount of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in a degradation medium indicated that osteoblasts could accelerate the degradation of LiHA due to the more physiological activities of osteoblast. According to the results from compressive strength test, doping Li into HA could enhance the strength of HA. Moreover, the results from MTT assay and SEM observation showed that the degradation products of LiHA scaffolds were beneficial to the proliferation of osteoblasts. The results of this research can provide the theoretical basis for the clinical application of Li

  3. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu{sup 2+} doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subramanian, P., E-mail: psubramaniangri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul-624302, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi-63006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    EPR study of Cu{sup 2+} doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4.}H{sub 2}O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu{sup 2+} ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu{sup 2+} in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu{sup 2+} ion in a lattice as d{sub x2-y2}.

  4. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  5. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped barium lithium fluoroborate glasses for near-infrared (NIR) emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Suresh, K.

    2018-04-01

    The neodymium doped barium lithium fluoroborate (Nd3+: BLFB) glasses with the chemical composition (70-x) H3BO3 - 10 Li2CO3 - 10 BaCO3- 5 CaF2-5 ZnO - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 in wt %) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and characterised through optical absorption, near infrared emission and decay-time measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The optical absorption spectra and emission spectra were recorded in the wavelength ranges of 190-1100 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined from the systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium ions in the prepared glasses. The emission spectra exhibited three prominent peaks at 874, 1057, 1331 nm corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 11/2, 13/2 transitions levels respectively in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition increases with the increase in neodymium concentration up to 0.5 wt% and the concentration quenching mechanism was observed for 1 wt% and 2 wt% concentrations. The lifetime of the 4F3/2 level was found to decrease with increasing Nd3+ ion concentration. The nature of energy transfer process was a single exponential curve which was studied for all the glasses and analysed.

  6. Determination of thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of thulium doped lithium calcium borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Anishia, S.R.; Annalakshmi, O.; Ramasamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time kinetic parameters of thulium doped Lithium calcium borate (LCB) Thermoluminescence (TL) material are reported here. Irradiated LCB:Tm 3+ powder has revealed two intense TL glow peaks one at 510 (peak 1) and the other at 660 K (peak 2). Activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) of these peaks were determined by various heating rate (VHR), initial rise (IR), and peak shape (PS) methods. The trap depth and frequency factor determined for peaks 1 and 2 of LCB:Tm phosphor using VHR and IR methods are in good agreement. The average activation energy of peaks 1 and 2 obtained by these methods is 1.62 and 1.91 eV respectively. The frequency factors of peaks 1 and 2 are in the range of 10 13-16 and 10 12-14 sec -1 respectively. The E and s values estimated using the glow peak shape dependent parameters are relatively less compared to the values obtained from other methods. The large difference in these values is due to the complex nature of the glow curves. The order of the kinetics process for complex glow curve peaks could not be assigned on the basis of shape parameters alone but T m response on absorbed dose is to be considered for final confirmation. Glow peaks 1 and 2 of LCB:Tm 3+ obey first and general order kinetics respectively. - Highlights: → Trap depth and frequency factor are determined for the peaks at 510 and 660 K of LCB:Tm. → Parameters obtained by various heating rate and initial rise methods are in good agreement. → Trap depth of peak 1 and peak 2 is 1.61 eV and 1.91 eV respectively. → T m response to absorbed dose is used to distinguish a first order or non-first order kinetics.

  7. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  8. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical composition were determined by TEM, XRD, XPS, and N2-adsorption measurements. The collected particulate material consists of micron-sized aggregates with nanosized primary particles. In both doped and undoped samples, tetragonal phase of zirconia was detected in room temperature while alumina was found to be noncrystalline. In the doped powder, Fe was oxidized to Fe2O3. The primary particle size of collected sample was approximately from 6 nm to 40 nm. Doping was observed to increase the specific surface area of the powder from 39 m2/g to 47 m2/g.

  9. Thermoluminescence study of Cu and Ag doped lithium tetraborate samples synthesized by water/solution assisted method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, S.; Kumar, S.; Vallejo, M.; Sosa, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Velusamy, J., E-mail: thiya93@gmail.com [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Apdo. Postal 1-948, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) was produced by water/solution assisted synthesis method. Transition metals, such as Cu and Ag were used to dope Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} in order to enhance its thermoluminescent properties. The heating temperature parameters for synthesis were 750 degrees Celsius for 2 hours and 150 degrees Celsius for another 2 hours. The samples produced by water assisted method were doped at different doping percentage (0.08, 0.12, 0.5, 0.1 and 1%) of Cu and Ag. Pellets of samples were prepared and there were irradiated with different doses (58, 100, 500 and 945 mGy) by using and X-ray source. The characteristics of undoped and doped Li{sub 2}B-4O{sub 7} were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), photoluminescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The chemical composition and their morphologies of the obtained Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu, Ag was confirmed by XRD and Sem results. The most intense peak of the XRD pattern of the lithium tetraborate sample was determined by comparing to the reference data and was found to have a tetragonal structure. The thermoluminescent glow curves of the pellets exposed to different doses exhibited a clear response to X-ray irradiation. Especially Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu presented a good glow curve in all kind of doses. The experimental results showed that this could have good potential applications in radiation dosimetry. The order of kinetics (b), frequency factor (s) and activation energy (E) or the trapping parameters were calculated using peak shape method. (Author)

  10. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Yeol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Yun [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Soo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Joon Kwon, S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanophotonics Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Hee [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Bong, Ki Wan [Korea University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgson@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young, E-mail: jinykim@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E{sub 1/2} of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm{sup −2} indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  11. Iron Oxide Doped Alumina-Zirconia Nanoparticle Synthesis by Liquid Flame Spray from Metal Organic Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Juha-Pekka Nikkanen; Helmi Keskinen; Mikko Aromaa; Mikael Järn; Tomi Kanerva; Erkki Levänen; Jyrki M. Mäkelä; Tapio Mäntylä

    2008-01-01

    The liquid flame spray (LFS) method was used to make iron oxide doped alumina-zirconia nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were generated using a turbulent, high-temperature (Tmax⁡∼3000 K) H2-O2 flame. The precursors were aluminium-isopropoxide, zirconium-n-propoxide, and ferrocene in xylene solution. The solution was atomized into micron-sized droplets by high velocity H2 flow and introduced into the flame where nanoparticles were formed. The particle morphology, size, phase, and chemical compositi...

  12. High-Level Heteroatom Doped Two-Dimensional Carbon Architectures for Highly Efficient Lithium-Ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, high-level heteroatom doped two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architectures (H-2D-HCA are developed for highly efficient Li-ion storage applications. The achieved H-2D-HCA possesses a hierarchical 2D morphology consisting of tiny carbon nanosheets vertically grown on carbon nanoplates and containing a hierarchical porosity with multiscale pore size. More importantly, the H-2D-HCA shows abundant heteroatom functionality, with sulfur (S doping of 0.9% and nitrogen (N doping of as high as 15.5%, in which the electrochemically active N accounts for 84% of total N heteroatoms. In addition, the H-2D-HCA also has an expanded interlayer distance of 0.368 nm. When used as lithium-ion battery anodes, it shows excellent Li-ion storage performance. Even at a high current density of 5 A g−1, it still delivers a high discharge capacity of 329 mA h g−1 after 1,000 cycles. First principle calculations verifies that such unique microstructure characteristics and high-level heteroatom doping nature can enhance Li adsorption stability, electronic conductivity and Li diffusion mobility of carbon nanomaterials. Therefore, the H-2D-HCA could be promising candidates for next-generation LIB anodes.

  13. Manganese doped-iron oxide nanoparticle clusters and their potential as agents for magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia

    KAUST Repository

    Casula, Maria F.

    2016-06-10

    A simple, one pot method to synthesize water-dispersible Mn doped iron oxide colloidal clusters constructed of nanoparticles arranged into secondary flower-like structures was developed. This method allows the successful incorporation and homogeneous distribution of Mn within the nanoparticle iron oxide clusters. The formed clusters retain the desired morphological and structural features observed for pure iron oxide clusters, but possess intrinsic magnetic properties that arise from Mn doping. They show distinct performance as imaging contrast agents and excellent characteristics as heating mediators in magnetic fluid hyperthermia. It is expected that the outcomes of this study will open up new avenues for the exploitation of doped magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in biomedicine. © the Owner Societies 2016.

  14. Manganese doped-iron oxide nanoparticle clusters and their potential as agents for magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia

    KAUST Repository

    Casula, Maria F.; Conca, Erika; Bakaimi, Ioanna; Sathya, Ayyappan; Materia, Maria Elena; Casu, Alberto; Falqui, Andrea; Sogne, Elisa; Pellegrino, Teresa; Kanaras, Antonios G.

    2016-01-01

    A simple, one pot method to synthesize water-dispersible Mn doped iron oxide colloidal clusters constructed of nanoparticles arranged into secondary flower-like structures was developed. This method allows the successful incorporation and homogeneous distribution of Mn within the nanoparticle iron oxide clusters. The formed clusters retain the desired morphological and structural features observed for pure iron oxide clusters, but possess intrinsic magnetic properties that arise from Mn doping. They show distinct performance as imaging contrast agents and excellent characteristics as heating mediators in magnetic fluid hyperthermia. It is expected that the outcomes of this study will open up new avenues for the exploitation of doped magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in biomedicine. © the Owner Societies 2016.

  15. Lithium, rubidium and cesium ion removal using potassium iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) supported on polymethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana Taj; Din Muhammad; Ashraf Chaudhry, M.; Muhammad Mazhar

    2011-01-01

    Potassium iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) supported on poly methyl methacrylate, has been developed and investigated for the removal of lithium, rubidium and cesium ions. The material is capable of sorbing maximum quantities of these ions from 5.0, 2.5 and 4.5 M HNO 3 solutions respectively. Sorption studies, conducted individually for each metal ion, under optimized conditions, demonstrated that it was predominantly physisorption in the case of lithium ion while shifting to chemisorption with increasing ionic size. Distribution coefficient (K d ) values followed the order Cs + > Rb + > Li + at low concentrations of metal ions. Following these findings Cs + can preferably be removed from 1.5 to 5 M HNO 3 nuclear waste solutions. (author)

  16. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of iron doped TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Rohini; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with synthesis of Fe (III) doped TiO 2 catalyst using the ultrasound assisted approach and conventional sol-gel approach with an objective of establishing the process intensification benefits. Effect of operating parameters such as Fe doping, type of solvent, solvent to precursor ratio and initial temperature has been investigated to get the best catalyst with minimum particle size. Comparison of the catalysts obtained using the conventional and ultrasound assisted approach under the optimized conditions has been performed using the characterization techniques like DLS, XRD, BET, SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis band gap analysis. It was established that catalyst synthesized by ultrasound assisted approach under optimized conditions of 0.4mol% doping, irradiation time of 60min, propan-2-ol as the solvent with the solvent to precursor ratio as 10 and initial temperature of 30°C was the best one with minimum particle size as 99nm and surface area as 49.41m 2 /g. SEM analysis, XRD analysis as well as the TEM analysis also confirmed the superiority of the catalyst obtained using ultrasound assisted approach as compared to the conventional approach. EDS analysis also confirmed the presence of 4.05mol% of Fe element in the sample of 0.4mol% iron doped TiO 2 . UV-Vis band gap results showed the reduction in band gap from 3.2eV to 2.9eV. Photocatalytic experiments performed to check the activity also confirmed that ultrasonically synthesized Fe doped TiO 2 catalyst resulted in a higher degradation of Acid Blue 80 as 38% while the conventionally synthesized catalyst resulted in a degradation of 31.1%. Overall, the work has clearly established importance of ultrasound in giving better catalyst characteristics as well as activity for degradation of the Acid Blue 80 dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical Performance of Iron Diphosphide/Carbon Tube Nanohybrids in Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Chunde; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kaibin; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • Dehydrogenated FeP 2 /C nanohybrids were fabricated via a facile annealing process. • The nanohybrids as anode in LIB show excellent cycling stability and rate capability. • C-hybrid promotes buffering volume change and increasing electroconductibility. • The process can be applied for the fabrication of many more TMPs and nanohybrids. -- Abstract: Phosphorous-rich phase iron diphosphide/carbon tube (FeP 2 /C) nanohybrids, which are synthesized via a pyrolysis process and composed of heterostructures of orthorhombic FeP 2 with conical carbon tubes, have been identified as a new anode in lithium-ion batteries. After an annealing treatment to eliminate the excessive hydrogen elements in the carbon tubes, the FeP 2 /C nanohybrids display good reversible capacity, long cycle life, and excellent rate capability. Specifically, the annealed hybrids exhibit a discharge capacity of 602 mA h g −1 on the second cycle and a discharge capacity of 435 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C (0.137 A g −1 ). Meanwhile, these annealed hybrids exhibit excellent rate capability, such as a reversible capability of 510 mA h g −1 , 440 mA h g −1 , 380 mA h g −1 , 330 mA h g −1 and 240 mA h g −1 at 0.25C, 0.5C, 1C, 2.5C and 5C, respectively

  18. Effects of iron deficiency on anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in Bi-doped LiZn ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-doped LiZn ferrites with different iron deficiencies were fabricated by a conventional ceramic method. Anisotropy constant (K1 was calculated and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR linewidth (ΔH was investigated. Crystalline anisotropy broadening linewidth (ΔHa and porosity broadening linewidth (ΔHp were derived by an approximate calculation based on dipolar narrowing theory, which play a significant role in contributions to FMR linewidth and occupy more than 90 % of ΔH. Physical and static magnetic properties of LiZn ferrite with iron deficiency are presented, which supports a decline in linewidths with increasing iron deficiency. Iron deficiency makes K1, ΔHa and ΔHp reduce. The results also show that ΔHp is the majority of contributions to ΔH in Bi-doped LiZn ferrite and densification is an effective method to decrease ΔH.

  19. Lithium iron phosphate based battery – Assessment of the aging parameters and development of cycle life model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Noshin; Monem, Mohamed Abdel; Firouz, Yousef; Salminen, Justin; Smekens, Jelle; Hegazy, Omar; Gaulous, Hamid; Mulder, Grietus; Van den Bossche, Peter; Coosemans, Thierry; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended life cycle tests. • Investigation of the battery life cycle at different working conditions. • Investigation of the impact fast charging on the battery performances. • Extraction all required relationship for development of a cycle life model. • Development of a new life cycle model. - Abstract: This paper represents the evaluation of ageing parameters in lithium iron phosphate based batteries, through investigating different current rates, working temperatures and depths of discharge. From these analyses, one can derive the impact of the working temperature on the battery performances over its lifetime. At elevated temperature (40 °C), the performances are less compared to at 25 °C. The obtained mathematical expression of the cycle life as function of the operating temperature reveals that the well-known Arrhenius law cannot be applied to derive the battery lifetime from one temperature to another. Moreover, a number of cycle life tests have been performed to illustrate the long-term capabilities of the proposed battery cells at different discharge constant current rates. The results reveal the harmful impact of high current rates on battery characteristics. On the other hand, the cycle life test at different depth of discharge levels indicates that the battery is able to perform 3221 cycles (till 80% DoD) compared to 34,957 shallow cycles (till 20% DoD). To investigate the cycle life capabilities of lithium iron phosphate based battery cells during fast charging, cycle life tests have been carried out at different constant charge current rates. The experimental analysis indicates that the cycle life of the battery degrades the more the charge current rate increases. From this analysis, one can conclude that the studied lithium iron based battery cells are not recommended to be charged at high current rates. This phenomenon affects the viability of ultra-fast charging systems. Finally, a cycle life model has been developed, which

  20. A density functional theory study of the carbon-coating effects on lithium iron borate battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftager, Simon; García-Lastra, Juan María; Vegge, Tejs

    2017-01-18

    Lithium iron borate (LiFeBO 3 ) is a promising cathode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity, inexpensive components and small volume change during operation. Yet, challenges related to severe air- and moisture-induced degradation have prompted the utilization of a protective coating on the electrode which also improves the electronic conductivity. However, not much is known about the preferential geometries of the coating as well as how these coating-electrode interfaces influence the lithium diffusion between the coating and the electrode. Here, we therefore present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the anchoring configurations of carbon coating on the LiFeBO 3 electrode and its implications on the interfacial lithium diffusion. Due to large barriers associated with Li-ion diffusion through a parallel-oriented pristine graphene coating on the FeBO 3 and LiFeBO 3 electrode surfaces, large structural defects in the graphene coating are required for fast Li-ion diffusion. However, such defects are expected to exist only in small concentrations due to their high formation energies. Alternative coating geometries were therefore investigated, and the configuration in which the coating layers were anchored normal to the electrode surface at B and O atoms was found to be most stable. Nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations of the lithium diffusion barriers across the interface between the optimally oriented coating layers and the electrode show no kinetic limitations for lithium extraction and insertion. Additionally, this graphite-coating configuration showed partial blocking of electrode-degrading species.

  1. Influence of pH on structural morphology and magnetic properties of ordered phase cobalt doped lithium ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Manish; Ojha, Animesh K.; Chaubey, S.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt doped lithium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized at different pH by sol-gel method. The effect of pH on the physical properties of cobalt doped lithium ferrite nanoparticles has been investigated. The nanoparticles synthesized at different pH were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns were analyzed to determine the crystal phase of cobalt doped lithium ferrites nanoparticles synthesized at different pH. The XRD results show the formation of impurity free cobalt doped lithium ferrites having ordered phase spinel structure. A similar kind of conclusion was also drawn through the analysis of Raman spectra of the nanoparticles synthesized at different pH. SEM micrographs show that the structural morphology of the nanoparticles is highly sensitive to the pH during the synthesis process. The magnetic properties such as; saturation magnetization (Ms), remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercivety (Hc) have been also investigated and found to be different for the nanoparticles synthesized at different pH, which may be attributed to the different size and surface morphology of the nanoparticles.

  2. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-08-01

    Cr-doped core-shell iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) containing 0, 2, 5, and 8 at.% of Cr dopant were synthesized via a nanocluster deposition system and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. We observed the formation of a σ-FeCr phase in 2 at.% of Cr doping in core-shell NPs. This is unique since it was reported in the past that the σ-phase forms above 20 at.% of Cr. The large coercive field and exchange bias are ascribed to the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 layer formed with the Fe-oxide shell, which also acts as a passivation layer to decrease the Fe-oxide shell thickness. The additional σ-phase in the core and/or Cr2O3 in the shell cause the hysteresis loop to appear tight waisted near the zero-field axis. The exchange interaction competes with the dipolar interaction with the increase of σ-FeCr grains in the Fe-core. The interaction reversal has been observed in 8 at.% of Cr. The observed reversal mechanism is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M value, and is supported by a theoretical watermelon model based on the core-shell nanostructure system.

  3. First principles study of P-doped borophene as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xian-Qiong; Ding, Yan-Huai; Yin, Jiu-Ren; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Ping; Jin, Haibao

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Li storage in P-doped borophene nanosheet was stimulated by Density Functional Theory (DFT). Without destroying the nanosheet structure, borophene doped with P atom possessed high binding energy of 3.42 eV. The electronic properties, binding energy, capacity and open-circuit voltage of P-doped borophene were calculated. These results demonstrated that P-doping has a positive effect on the Li storage of borophene nanosheet. Besides, the maximum adsorption number of Li atoms in P-doped borophene is 18, accompanied with an ultra-high theoretical capacity of 1732 mAh/g.

  4. Pd- and Ca-doped iron oxide for ethanol vapor sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, G.; Bonavita, A.; Ipsale, S.; Rizzo, G.; Baratto, C.; Faglia, G.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2007-01-01

    Iron oxide thin films doped with Ca and Pd, prepared by a liquid-phase deposition method (LPD) from aqueous solution, have been investigated as potential ethanol gas sensors. SEM and XRD analyses were used to characterize Fe 2 O 3 LPD films. Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), having an average crystallite size in the range between 20 and 30 nm, was the only crystalline phase detected on all undoped and doped films. The electrical response towards ethanol (100-500 ppm) has been studied in the temperature range of 300-500 deg. C. Both Ca and Pd promoters have shown a positive effect on the sensitivity of Fe 2 O 3 films at the lower temperature investigated, whereas at higher temperature the undoped Fe 2 O 3 film has shown better performances. The sensing properties of undoped and doped Fe 2 O 3 thin films towards different interfering gases like NO 2 , CO and NH 3 have been also investigated, showing that the selectivity to ethanol benefits of the Ca addition

  5. Experimental Investigation on the Internal Resistance of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cells during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly considered for a wide area of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparisons to other energy storage technologies. However, at present, Lithium-ion batteries are expensive storage devices and consequently their ageing behavior must...... be known in order to estimate their economic viability in different application. The ageing behavior of Lithium-ion batteries is described by the fade of their discharge capacity and by the decrease of their power capability. The capability of a Lithium-ion battery to deliver or to absorb a certain power...... is directly related to its internal resistance. This work aims to investigate the dependency of the internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries on the storage temperature and on the storage time. For this purpose, accelerated ageing calendar lifetime tests were carried out over a period of one year. Based...

  6. Facile crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of iron oxides for adsorbents and anode materials of lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Qiao, Wencan; Liu, Fan [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Zhang, Yashan [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Tan, Wenfeng [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Qiu, Guohong, E-mail: qiugh@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxides exhibit excellent physicochemical properties as functional materials because of the diversity of crystal structure. Nano-sized iron oxides, including akaganite (β-FeOOH), maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8}∙4H{sub 2}O) and hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), were prepared by a facile reflux treatment of iron powder in NaClO solution at 50 °C for 12 h. The crystal structures were controlled by adjusting the pH values of reaction systems. Akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite were formed when pHs were adjusted to 2–4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. They showed excellent adsorption performance for As(III), and the adsorption capacity was affected by crystal structure as well as specific surface area. The maximum adsorption capacity for akaganite, maghemite, ferrihydrite, and hematite reached 89.8, 79.1, 78.4, and 63.4 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Hematite showed lithium storage capacity of 2043 mAh g{sup −1} for the first cycle and then kept stable after twenty cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The discharge specific capacity stabilized at 639 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles. The as-prepared iron oxides might be applied as potential adsorbents and anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • Nano-sized ferric oxides were fabricated by refluxing iron powder in NaClO solutions. • Crystal structures were controlled by adjusting pHs from 2.0 to 10.0 in systems. • Akaganite exhibited the largest As(III) adsorption capacity of 89.8 mg g{sup −1}. • Hematite had lithium storage capacity of 639 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles.

  7. Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Battery Derived from Nori-Based Nitrogen and Oxygen Dual-Doped 3D Hierarchical Biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Fan, Lishuang; Wang, Maoxu; Cheng, Junhan; Wu, Hexian; Guan, Bin; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2017-06-07

    Due to restrictions on the low conductivity of sulfur and soluble polysulfides during discharge, lithium sulfur batteries are unsuitable for further large scale applications. The current carbon based cathodes suffer from poor cycle stability and high cost. Recently, heteroatom doped carbons have been considered as a settlement to enhance the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. With this strategy, we report the low cost activated nori based N,O-doped 3D hierarchical carbon material (ANC) as a sulfur host. The N,O dual-doped ANC reveals an elevated electrochemical performance, which exhibits not only a good rate performance over 5 C, but also a high sulfur content of 81.2%. Further importantly, the ANC represents an excellent cycling stability, the cathode reserves a capacity of 618 mAh/g at 2 C after 1000 cycles, which shows a 0.022% capacity decay per cycle.

  8. Honeycomb-like Nitrogen and Sulfur Dual-Doped Hierarchical Porous Biomass-Derived Carbon for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Manfang; Jiang, Shouxin; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Xianyou; Cai, Siyu; Xiang, Kaixiong; Zhang, Yapeng; Xue, Jiaxi

    2017-04-22

    Honeycomb-like nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon/sulfur composites (NSHPC/S) are successfully fabricated for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries. The effects of nitrogen, sulfur dual-doping on the structures and properties of the NSHPC/S composites are investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and charge/discharge tests. The results show that N, S dual-doping not only introduces strong chemical adsorption and provides more active sites but also significantly enhances the electronic conductivity and hydrophilic properties of hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon, thereby significantly enhancing the utilization of sulfur and immobilizing the notorious polysulfide shuttle effect. Especially, the as-synthesized NSHPC-7/S exhibits high initial discharge capacity of 1204 mA h g -1 at 1.0 C and large reversible capacity of 952 mA h g -1 after 300 cycles at 0.5 C with an ultralow capacity fading rate of 0.08 % per cycle even at high sulfur content (85 wt %) and high active material areal mass loading (2.8 mg cm -2 ) for the application of high energy density Li-S batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lithium hydride doped intermediate connector for high-efficiency and long-term stable tandem organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Tang, Xun; Xu, Mei-Feng; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-10-22

    Lithium hydride (LiH) is employed as a novel n-dopant in the intermediate connector for tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its easy coevaporation with other electron transporting materials. The tandem OLEDs with two and three electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a combination of LiH doped 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) and 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) demonstrate approximately 2-fold and 3-fold enhancement in current efficiency, respectively. In addition, no extra voltage drop across the intermediate connector is observed. Particularly, the lifetime (T75%) in the tandem OLED with two and three EL units is substantially improved by 3.8 times and 7.4 times, respectively. The doping effect of LiH into Alq3, the charge injection, and transport characteristics of LiH-doped Alq3 are further investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS).

  10. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  11. Radiation damage and annealing of lithium-doped silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has been presented that a lithium-diffused crucible-grown silicon solar cell can be made with better efficiency than the flight-quality n p 10 ohms-cm solar cell. When this lithium cell is exposed to a continuous radiation evironment at 60 C (electron spectrum from gamma rays) it has a higher power output than the N/P cell after a fluence equivalent to 1 MeV. A comparison of annealing of proton- and electron-damage in this lithium cell reveals a decidedly faster rate of recovery and higher level of recoverable power from the proton effects. Therefore, the lithium cell shows a good potential for many space missions where the proton flux is a significant fraction of the radiation field to be encountered.

  12. Na-doped LiMnPO4 as an electrode material for enhanced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and electrochemical performance. Lithium manganese ... bond enables good thermal and cycling stability [4,5]. The ... Moreover, the surface morphologies are an essential factor ... work, electrochemically inactive cations were replaced par-.

  13. Enhancing the water oxidation activity of Ni2P nanocatalysts by iron-doping and electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang; He, Dongying; Yao, Rui; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A sol-gel method for synthesis of Fe-doping Ni 2 P nanocatalysts was present. •Fe-doping Ni 2 P sample exhibited high OER activity after electrochemical activation. •In situ formed Fe-NiOOH layer on activated Fe-Ni 2 P provided more active OER sites. -- Abstract: In this work, we reported a facile and safe route for synthesis of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts by sol-gel method and demonstrated that the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can be dramatically enhanced by iron-doping and electrochemical activation. Compared with the fresh Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, a stable Fe-NiOOH layer was formed on the surface of Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanoparticles by electrochemical activation, thus promoting the charge transfer ability and surface electrochemically active sites generation for the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, ultimately accounting for the improvement of water oxidation activity, which was evidenced by cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements. For water oxidation reaction in 1 M KOH solution, the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can attain 10 mA/cm 2 at an overpotential of 292 mV with Tafel slope of 50 mV/dec, which was also much better than that of individual Ni 2 P, Fe 2 P nanocatalysts as well as commercial RuO 2 electrocatalyst. Moreover, long-term stability performance by chronoamperometric and chronopotentiometric tests for the activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts exhibited no obvious decline within 56 h. It was demonstrated that modulating the OER catalytic activity for metal phosphide by iron-doping and electrochemical activation may provide new opportunities and avenues to engineer high performance electrocatalysts for water splitting.

  14. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li 3 VO 4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li 3 VO 4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 532 W kg -1 , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hollow Amorphous MnSnO3 Nanohybrid with Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for High-Performance Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Hao, Qingli; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Xia, Hui; Chen, Ziyang; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hybrid of hollow amorphous MnSnO 3 nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide was fabricated. The unique structure and well-combination of both components account for the ultra long-term cyclic life with high reversible capacity of 610 mAh g −1 over 1000 cycles at 400 mA g −1 . - Highlights: • Novel hybrid of MnSnO 3 and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide was fabricated. • The MnSnO 3 nanoparticles possess amorphous and hollow structure in the composite. • The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from unique nanostructure. • The reversible capacity of as-prepared hybrid is 610 mAh g −1 after 1000 cycles. • A long-term life with 97.3% capacity retention over 1000 cycles was obtained. - Abstract: Tin-based metal oxides usually suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from aggregation and considerable volume variation during the charge/discharge process in lithium ion batteries. In this work, a novel nanocomposite (MTO/N-RGO) of hollow amorphous MnSnO 3 (MTO) nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) has been designed and synthesized by a two-step method. Firstly, the nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite (MTO/N-RGO-P) with MnSn(OH) 6 crystal nanoparticles was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. Subsequently, the MTO/N-RGO nanocomposite was obtained through the post heat treatment of MTO/N-RGO-P. The designed heterostructure and well-combination of the hollow amorphous MTO and N-RGO matrix can accelerate the ionic and electronic transport, and simultaneously accommodate the aggregation and volume variation of MTO nanoparticles during the lithiation–delithiation cycles. The as-prepared hybrid of MTO and N-RGO (MTO/N-RGO) exhibits a high reversible capacity of 707 mAh g −1 after 110 cycles at 200 mA g −1 , superior rate capability, and long-term cyclic life with high capacity of 610 mAh g −1 over 1000 cycles at 400 mA g −1 . Superior capacity retention of

  16. Radiation-damage recovery in undoped and oxidized Li doped Mg O crystals implanted with lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Silva, R.C. da; Pinto, J.V.; Monteiro, T.; Savoini, B.; Caceres, D.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y

    2003-05-01

    Undoped MgO and oxidized Li-doped MgO single crystals were implanted with 1 x 10{sup 17} Li{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 175 keV. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)/channeling data obtained after implantation shows that damage was produced throughout the entire range of the implanted ions. Optical absorption measurements indicate that after implantation the most intense band occurs at {approx}5.0 eV, which has been associated with anion vacancies. After annealing at 450 K the intensity of the oxygen-vacancy band decreases monotonically with temperature and completely disappears at 950 K. A broad extinction band centered at {approx}2.14 eV associated with lithium precipitates emerges gradually and anneals out at 1250 K. RBS/channeling shows that recovery of the implantation damage is completed after annealing the oxidized samples at 1250 K.

  17. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M.; Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C p , of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author)

  18. Effect of defects induced by doping and fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of lithium ammonium sulphate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S.H.; Ramadan, T.A.; Darwish, M.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Materials Science); Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-01

    Structural defects were introduced in lithium ammonium sulphate crystals (LAS) either in the process of crystal growth (in the form of foreign ions) or by neutron irradiation. The effect of such defects on the thermal properties of LAS crystals was studied in the temperature range 300-500 K. It was assumed that the doped LAS crystals are composed of a two-phase system having different thermal parameters in each phase. The specific heat at constant pressure, C[sub p], of irradiated samples was found to decrease with increasing irradiation doses. The thermal expansion of LAS crystals was found to be dependent on neutron irradiation, and was attributed to two processes: the release of new species and the trapping process. (author).

  19. Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

  20. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH - bands under H + ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A. K.; Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G. O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, A. K.; Raman, R.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 10 15, 10 16 and 10 17 protons/cm 2 is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 10 16 protons/cm 2. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti 3+/Ti 4+ and ligand oxygen for implantation with 10 15 protons/cm 2, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH - stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH - ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

  2. Soluble Supercapacitors: Large and Reversible Charge Storage in Colloidal Iron-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Carl K; Zhou, Dongming; Liu, Hongbin; Li, Xiaosong; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    Colloidal ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals have previously been shown to accumulate multiple delocalized conduction-band electrons under chemical, electrochemical, or photochemical reducing conditions, leading to emergent semimetallic characteristics such as quantum plasmon resonances and raising prospects for application in multielectron redox transformations. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the capacitance of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals through aliovalent Fe 3+ -doping. Very high areal and volumetric capacitances (33 μF cm -2 , 233 F cm -3 ) are achieved in Zn 0.99 Fe 0.01 O nanocrystals that rival those of the best supercapacitors used in commercial energy-storage devices. The redox properties of these nanocrystals are probed by potentiometric titration and optical spectroscopy. These data indicate an equilibrium between electron localization by Fe 3+ dopants and electron delocalization within the ZnO conduction band, allowing facile reversible charge storage and removal. As "soluble supercapacitors", colloidal iron-doped ZnO nanocrystals constitute a promising class of solution-processable electronic materials with large charge-storage capacity attractive for future energy-storage applications.

  3. Iron doped fibrous-structured silica nanospheres as efficient catalyst for catalytic ozonation of sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic environments due to their large production and extensive application. In this paper, the iron doped fibrous-structured silica (KCC-1) nanospheres (Fe-KCC-1) was prepared, characterized, and applied as a catalyst for catalytic ozonation of sulfamethazine (SMT). The effects of ozone dosage, catalyst dosage, and initial concentration of SMT were examined. The experimental results showed that Fe-KCC-1 had large surface area (464.56 m2 g -1 ) and iron particles were well dispersed on the catalyst. The catalyst had high catalytic performance especially for the mineralization of SMT, with mineralization ratio of about 40% in a wide pH range. With addition of Fe-KCC-1, the ozone utilization increased nearly two times than single ozonation. The enhancement of SMT degradation was mainly due to the surface reaction, and the increased mineralization of SMT was due to radical mechanism. Fe-KCC-1 was an efficient catalyst for SMT degradation in catalytic ozonation system.

  4. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  5. Facile synthesis of hydroxy-modified MOF-5 for improving the adsorption capacity of hydrogen by lithium doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaru; Hagi, Hayato; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2013-11-01

    A facile synthesis of partially hydroxy-modified MOF-5 and its improved H2-adsorption capacity by lithium doping are reported. The reaction of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with a mixture of terephthalic acid (H2BDC) and 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (H2BDC-OH) in DMF gave hydroxy-modified MOF-5 (MOF-5-OH-x), in which the molar fraction (x) of BDC-OH(2-) was up to 0.54 of the whole ligand. The MOF-5-OH-x frameworks had high BET surface areas (about 3300 m(2) g(-1)), which were comparable to that of MOF-5. We suggest that the MOF-5-OH-x frameworks are formed by the secondary growth of BDC(2-)-rich MOF-5 seed crystals, which are nucleated during the early stage of the reaction. Subsequent Li doping into MOF-5-OH-x results in increased H2 uptake at 77 K and 0.1 MPa from 1.23 to 1.39 wt.% and an increased isosteric heat of H2 adsorption from 5.1-4.2 kJ mol(-1) to 5.5-4.4 kJ mol(-1). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Noise Analysis of Second-Harmonic Generation in Undoped and MgO-Doped Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise characteristics of second-harmonic generation (SHG in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN using the quasiphase matching (QPM technique are analyzed experimentally. In the experiment, a0.78 μm second-harmonic (SH wave was generated when a 1.56 μm fundamental wave passed through a PPLN crystal (bulk or waveguide. The time-domain and frequency-domain noise characteristics of the fundamental and SH waves were analyzed. By using the pump-probe method, the noise characteristics of SHG were further analyzed when a visible light (532 nm and an infrared light (1090 nm copropagated with the fundamental light, respectively. The noise characterizations were also investigated at different temperatures. It is found that for the bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals, the SH wave has a higher relative noise level than the corresponding fundamental wave. For the same fundamental wave, the SH wave has lower noise in a bulk crystal than in a waveguide, and in MgO-doped PPLN than in undoped PPLN. The 532 nm irradiation can lead to higher noise in PPLN than the 1090 nm irradiation. In addition, increasing temperature of device can alleviate the problem of noise in conjunction with the photorefractive effect incurred by the irradiation light. This is more significant in undoped PPLN than in MgO-doped one.

  7. Temperature and composition dependence of birefringence of lithium-tantalate crystals determined by holographic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastwoeste, K.; Schwalenberg, S.; Baeumer, Ch.; Kraetzig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron-doped lithium-tantalate samples with different compositions ranging from the congruently melting to the stoichiometric one are analyzed by anisotropic holographic scattering. The temperature dependence of the birefringence yields information on the composition of the crystals. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Temperature and composition dependence of birefringence of lithium-tantalate crystals determined by holographic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastwoeste, K.; Schwalenberg, S.; Baeumer, Ch.; Kraetzig, E. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Iron-doped lithium-tantalate samples with different compositions ranging from the congruently melting to the stoichiometric one are analyzed by anisotropic holographic scattering. The temperature dependence of the birefringence yields information on the composition of the crystals. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Thermoluminescence properties of the Cu-doped lithium potassium borate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboud, Haydar; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ali, Hassan; Alajerami, Yasser; Saeed, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of lithium potassium borate glasses with various copper concentrations are reported. The glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method and irradiated with photons to doses in the 0.5–4.0 Gy range. Glowing curves, dose response curves, reproducibility of the response, dose threshold, thermal fading and optical bleaching were studied

  10. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  11. Erbium medium temperature localised doping into lithium niobate and sapphire: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav; Červená, Jarmila; Čapek, P.; Schrofel, J.; Špirková, J.; Oswald, Jiří

    90-91, - (2003), s. 559-564 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : lithium niobate * sapphire * erbium Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  12. Physical-chemical characterization and biological assessment of simple and lithium-doped biological-derived hydroxyapatite thin films for a new generation of metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A. C.; Florian, P. E.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Zgura, I.; Enculescu, M.; Oktar, F. N.; Trusca, R.; Sima, L. E.; Roseanu, A.; Duta, L.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the synthesis by PLD of simple and lithium-doped biological-origin hydroxyapatite (HA) films. The role of doping reagents (Li2CO3, Li3PO4) on the morphology, structure, chemical composition, bonding strength and cytocompatibility of the films was investigated. SEM investigations of the films evidenced a surface morphology consisting of particles with mean diameters of (5-7) μm. GIXRD analyses demonstrated that the synthesized structures consisted of HA phase only, with different degrees of crystallinity, mainly influenced by the doping reagent type. After only three days of immersion in simulated body fluid, FTIR spectra showed a remarkable growth of a biomimetic apatitic film, indicative of a high biomineralization capacity of the coatings. EDS analyses revealed a quasi-stoichiometric target-to-substrate transfer, the values inferred for the Ca/P ratio corresponding to a biological apatite. All synthesized structures displayed a hydrophilic behavior, suitable for attachment of osteoblast cells. In vitro cell viability tests showed that the presence of Li2CO3 and Li3PO4 as doping reagents promoted the hMSC growth on film surfaces. Taking into consideration these enhanced characteristics, corroborated with a low fabrication cost generated by sustainable resources, one should consider the lithium-doped biological-derived materials as promising prospective solutions for a next generation of coated implants with rapid osteointegration.

  13. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy 3+ doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy 3+ doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K gl ), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 11/2 transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy 2 O 3 with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  14. Aluminum and iron doped graphene for adsorption of methylated arsenic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortés-Arriagada, Diego, E-mail: dcarriagada@gmail.com; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Quantum chemistry calculations show the ability of aluminum and iron doped graphene for the removal of methylated arsenicals in their trivalent and pentavalent states, with adsorption energies on the range of 1.5–4.2 eV, and high stability in a water environment. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Al and Fe-doped graphene serve as superior materials for adsorption of methylated arsenicals, including thioarsenicals. • Pentavalent arsenicals are adsorbed with higher adsorption energies (up to 4.2 eV) than trivalent arsenicals (up to 1.7 eV). • The adsorption strength is determined by the weakening of the interacting σAs−O bond in the pollutant. • The adsorption stability was studied in a water environment and molecular dynamics calculations were performed at 300 K. • Trivalent and petavalent forms are mainly adsorbed at neutral pH in their neutral and anionic forms, respectively. - Abstract: The ability of Al and Fe-doped graphene for the adsorption of trivalent and pentavalent methylated arsenic compounds was studied by quantum chemistry computations. The adsorption of trivalent methylarsenicals is reached with adsorption energies of 1.5–1.7 eV at neutral conditions; while, adsorption of pentavalent methylarsenicals reaches adsorption energies of 3.3–4.2 eV and 1.2–2.4 eV from neutral to low pH conditions, respectively. Moreover, the weakening of the interacting σAs−O bond in the pollutant structure played an important role in the stability of the adsorbent–adsorbate systems, determining the adsorption strength. In addition, the pollutant adsorption appears to be efficient in aqueous environments, with even high stability at ambient temperature; in this regard, it was determined that the trivalent and petavalent forms are mainly adsorbed in their neutral and anionic forms at neutral pH, respectively. Therefore, Al and Fe-doped graphene are considered as potential future materials for the removal of methylated arsenic

  15. Transmission electron microscopy of carbon-coated and iron-doped titania nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-08-02

    We present a study on the properties of iron (Fe)-doped and carbon (C)-coated titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) which has been compiled by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These TiO2 NPs were prepared by using the flame synthesis method. This method allows the simultaneous C coating and Fe doping of TiO2 NPs. XRD investigations revealed that the phase of the prepared NPs was anatase TiO2. Conventional TEM analysis showed that the average size of the TiO2 NPs was about 65 nm and that the NPs were uniformly coated with the element C. Furthermore, from the x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analysis, it was found that about 8 at.% Fe was present in the synthesized samples. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) revealed the graphitized carbon structure of the layer surrounding the prepared TiO2 NPs. HRTEM analysis further revealed that the NPs possessed the crystalline structure of anatase titania. Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis showed the C coating and Fe doping of the NPs. The ratio of L3 and L2 peaks for the Ti-L23 and Fe-L23 edges present in the core loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed a +4 oxidation state for the Ti and a +3 oxidation state for the Fe. These EELS results were further confirmed with XPS analysis. The electronic properties of the samples were investigated by applying Kramers-Kronig analysis to the low-loss EELS spectra acquired from the prepared NPs. The presented results showed that the band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs decreased from an original value of 3.2 eV to about 2.2 eV, which is quite close to the ideal band gap energy of 1.65 eV for photocatalysis semiconductors. The observed decrease in band gap energy of the TiO2 NPs was attributed to the presence of Fe atoms at the lattice sites of the anatase TiO2 lattice. In short, C-coated and Fe-doped TiO2 NPs were synthesized with a rather cost-effective and comparatively easily scalable method. The

  16. Aluminum and iron doped graphene for adsorption of methylated arsenic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Quantum chemistry calculations show the ability of aluminum and iron doped graphene for the removal of methylated arsenicals in their trivalent and pentavalent states, with adsorption energies on the range of 1.5–4.2 eV, and high stability in a water environment. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Al and Fe-doped graphene serve as superior materials for adsorption of methylated arsenicals, including thioarsenicals. • Pentavalent arsenicals are adsorbed with higher adsorption energies (up to 4.2 eV) than trivalent arsenicals (up to 1.7 eV). • The adsorption strength is determined by the weakening of the interacting σAs−O bond in the pollutant. • The adsorption stability was studied in a water environment and molecular dynamics calculations were performed at 300 K. • Trivalent and petavalent forms are mainly adsorbed at neutral pH in their neutral and anionic forms, respectively. - Abstract: The ability of Al and Fe-doped graphene for the adsorption of trivalent and pentavalent methylated arsenic compounds was studied by quantum chemistry computations. The adsorption of trivalent methylarsenicals is reached with adsorption energies of 1.5–1.7 eV at neutral conditions; while, adsorption of pentavalent methylarsenicals reaches adsorption energies of 3.3–4.2 eV and 1.2–2.4 eV from neutral to low pH conditions, respectively. Moreover, the weakening of the interacting σAs−O bond in the pollutant structure played an important role in the stability of the adsorbent–adsorbate systems, determining the adsorption strength. In addition, the pollutant adsorption appears to be efficient in aqueous environments, with even high stability at ambient temperature; in this regard, it was determined that the trivalent and petavalent forms are mainly adsorbed in their neutral and anionic forms at neutral pH, respectively. Therefore, Al and Fe-doped graphene are considered as potential future materials for the removal of methylated arsenic

  17. Mesoporous TiO2 powders as host matrices for iron nanoparticles. Effect of the preparation procedure and doping with Hf

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrov, M.; Ivanova, R.; Velinov, N.; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Štengl, Václav; Tolasz, Jakub; Mitov, I.; Tsoncheva, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL (2016), s. 56-63 ISSN 2352-507X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Mesoporous titania * Hafnium doping * Iron modification * Ethyl acetate oxidation * Methanol decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Nanostructured Iron and Manganese Oxide Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries: Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties on Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jessica L.

    The widespread use of portable electronics and growing interest in electric and hybrid vehicles has generated a mass market for batteries with increased energy densities and enhanced electrochemical performance. In order to address a variety of applications, commercially fabricated secondary lithium-ion batteries employ transition metal oxide based electrodes, the most prominent of which include lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNixMn yCo1-x-yO2), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), and lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O4). Transition metal oxides are of particular interest as cathode materials due to their robust framework for lithium intercalation, potential for high energy density, and utilization of earth-abundant elements (i.e. iron and manganese) leading to decreased toxicity and cost-effective battery production on industrial scales. Specifically, this research focuses on MgFe2O4, AgxMn8O16, and AgFeO 2 transition metal oxides for use as electrode materials in lithium-based batteries. The electrode materials are prepared via co-precipitation, reflux, and hydrothermal methods and characterized by several techniques (XRD, SEM, BET, TGA, DSC, XPS, Raman, etc.). The low-temperature syntheses allowed for precise manipulation of structural, compositional, and/or functional properties of MgFe2O4, AgxMn8 O16, and AgFeO2 which have been shown to influence electrochemical behavior. In addition, advanced in situ and ex situ characterization techniques are employed to study the lithiation/de-lithiation process and establish valid redox mechanisms. With respect to both chemical and physical properties, the influence of MgFe2O4 particle size and morphology on electrochemical behavior was established using ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Based on composition, tunneled AgxMn8O16 nanorods, prepared with distinct Ag+ contents and crystallite sizes, display dramatic differences in ion-transport kinetics due to

  19. The solid-liquid extraction separation of lithium isotopes by porous composite materials doped with ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Ling Gu; Dan Qiu; Dong-Hong Ren; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2015-01-01

    A green and efficient solid-liquid extraction method of lithium isotopes separation by porous composite materials doped with imidazolium ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 has been reported in this paper. The composite materials of mesoporous silica and impregnated resin were synthesized by sol-gel and direct impregnation process, respectively. Various extraction parameters such as the concentration of lithium salt, anion of lithium salt, initial pH, time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor of 6 Li/ 7 Li was 1.048 ± 0.002, the maximum extraction efficiency was 15.86 %. The sorbents can be regenerated easily with HCl solution and reused repeatedly. (author)

  20. Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Activated Carbon Resulting in Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon; Lee, Won-June; Park, Young-Kwon; Ki, Seo Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2018-03-25

    Iron oxide nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped activated carbon powder were synthesized using an innovative plasma-in-liquid method, called the liquid phase plasma (LPP) method. Nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) was prepared by a primary LPP reaction using an ammonium chloride reactant solution, and an iron oxide/NC composite (IONCC) was prepared by a secondary LPP reaction using an iron chloride reactant solution. The nitrogen component at 3.77 at. % formed uniformly over the activated carbon (AC) surface after a 1 h LPP reaction. Iron oxide nanoparticles, 40~100 nm in size, were impregnated homogeneously over the NC surface after the LPP reaction, and were identified as Fe₃O₄ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. NC and IONCCs exhibited pseudo-capacitive characteristics, and their specific capacitance and cycling stability were superior to those of bare AC. The nitrogen content on the NC surface increased the compatibility and charge transfer rate, and the composites containing iron oxide exhibited a lower equivalent series resistance.

  1. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J

    2008-05-01

    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing.

  2. Modeling the Effects of the Cathode Composition of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery on the Discharge Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Cho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based on a finite element method is presented to calculate the cell voltage change of a LFP battery cell during galvanostatic discharge. To test the validity of the modeling approach, the modeling results for the variations of the cell voltage of the LFP battery as a function of time are compared with the experimental measurements during galvanostatic discharge at various discharge rates of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1.0C, and 2.0C for three different compositions of the LFP cathode. The discharge curves obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. On the basis of the validated modeling approach, the effects of the cathode composition on the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell are estimated. The modeling results exhibit highly nonlinear dependencies of the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell on the discharge C-rate and cathode composition.

  3. Decreased Dissolution of ZnO by Iron Doping Yields Nanoparticles with Reduced Toxicity in the Rodent Lung and Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Zhao, Yan; Sager, Tina; George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Li, Ning; Schoenfeld, David; Meng, Huan; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Mädler, Lutz; Castranova, Vincent; Lin, Shuo; Nel, Andre E.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn2+ shedding leads to a series of sub-lethal and lethal toxicological responses at cellular level that can be alleviated by iron-doping. Iron-doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser toxic effects in vivo, toxicity studies were performed in rodent and zebrafish models. First, we synthesized a fresh batch of ZnO nanoparticles doped with 1–10 wt % of Fe. These particles were extensively characterized to confirm their doping status, reduced rate of dissolution in an exposure medium and reduced toxicity in a cellular screen. Subsequent studies compared the effects of undoped to doped particles in the rat lung, mouse lung and the zebrafish embryo. The zebrafish studies looked at embryo hatching and mortality rates as well as the generation of morphological defects, while the endpoints in the rodent lung included an assessment of inflammatory cell infiltrates, LDH release and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Iron doping, similar to the effect of the metal chelator, DTPA, interfered in the inhibitory effects of Zn2+ on zebrafish hatching. In the oropharyngeal aspiration model in the mouse, iron doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts and IL-6 mRNA production. Doped particles also elicited decreased heme oxygenase 1 expression in the murine lung. In the intratracheal instillation studies in the rat, Fe-doping was associated with decreased polymorphonuclear cell counts, LDH and albumin levels. All considered, the above data show that Fe-doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment. PMID:21250651

  4. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; El Bali, B.; Faik, A.; Naji, M.; Benmokhtar, S.; Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z.; Kim, J.; Kang, K.; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 585, FEB (2014), s. 434-441 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * electrolyte * nasicon * oxyphosphate * lithium -ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  5. Preparation of N-Doped Composite Shell Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles and Their Magnetic, Adsorptive, and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijing Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-doped composite shell encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CSEINPs were prepared by DC arc discharge under nitrogen at 800°C, using the anode with high Fe content and good homogeneity. The morphology, microstructure, composition, and some properties of the N-doped CSEINPs were characterized by various characterization techniques. The results revealed that the shells of the N-doped CSEINPs were composed of homogeneously amorphous structure containing C, Fe, O, and N elements; the saturation magnetization (Ms and coercivity (Hc of them at room temperature were 130 emu/g and 194 Oe, respectively. Due to the surface structure and the electrostatic interaction, the N-doped CSEINPs are employed to remove methylene blue (MB from the waste solution, and they exhibited high adsorption properties and photocatalytic activity under irradiation of visible light (IVL. The kinetics of adsorption of MB on the N-doped CSEINPs was investigated and the recycling test was carried out. The formation mechanism of the N-doped CSEINPs is discussed briefly.

  6. Investigations on PVdF- HFP - PEMA polymer blend electrolytes doped with different lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojkumar Ubarhande, Radha; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Usha Rani, M.; Shanker Babu, Ravi; Krishnaveni, S.

    2017-11-01

    Plasticized polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by incorporating poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(PVdF-HFP) and poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) complexed with plasticizer (PC) and different lithium salts such as LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3 and LiN (CF3SO2)2) using solution-casting technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red techniques confirms the structural characters and complex formation of the polymer electrolytes respectively. AC impedance analysis was carried out for all the samples in the range303-373K. The results suggest that among the various lithium salts, LiN (CF3SO2)2) based electrolytes exhibited the highest ionic conductivity (3.17 × 10-3 Scm-1).

  7. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Dilute Ca²⁺ Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar Layek; Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Verma, H C

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and calcium substituted hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles are synthesized by surfactant-directed co-precipitation and post annealing method. The annealed nanoparticles were found to be in single phase in nature and crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with space group R3c as confirmed by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Average crystallite sizes are calculated to be 20 to 30 nm and 50 to 60 nm for the nanoparticles annealed at 400 and 600 °C respectively. Mössbauer spectra for all the nanoparticles could be fitted with a sextet corresponding to the single magnetic state of the iron atoms in its Fe³⁺ state in the hematite matrix. The FTIR and Raman spectra of all the samples correspond to specific modes of α-Fe₂O₃. UV-Vis spectra of annealed samples showed broad peaks in the range of 525-630 nm resulting from spin-forbidden ligand field transition together with the spin-flip transition among the 2t₂g states. The estimated band gap energies were in the range of 1.6 to 1.9 eV which are much lower than the reported values for nano hematite. From the room temperature magnetic hysteresis loop measurements, weak ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all undoped and Ca²⁺ doped hematite samples. Morin temperature (T(M)) is calculated to be 257 and 237 K for 1.45% doped samples with particle size 54 and 27 nm respectively. The sample with Ca content of 1.45 wt% when annealed at 400 °C showed that the particles were of different shapes which included both quasi spherical and rod shaped. On annealing the same sample at 600 °C, the nanorods collapsed to form bigger spherical and ellipsoidal particles.

  9. Electronic transport in tungsten and iron-doped tungsten below 1 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, C.; Khoshnevisan, M.; Pratt, W.P. Jr.; Bass, J.

    1979-01-01

    The electric resistivity rho and the thermoelectric ratio G have been measured for zone-refined single crystals of both tungsten and iron-doped tungsten from 5 K down to 40 mK. The samples had residual resistance ratios RRR ranging from 1750 to 90,000. The observed behavior is conveniently divided into two classes, ''normal'' and ''anomalous.'' Completely normal behavior was displayed by only three W samples with high RRRs. The Fe-doped W and the remaining W samples contained one or more anomalies. Normal behavior is that which would be expected for W containing impurities with no internal degrees of freedom. In normal behavior rho decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature and was consistent with the equation rho=rho 0 +AT 2 below about 1.5K. In normal behavior, G was positive and constant below about 0.5 K, increased in magnitude as T rose to 4 or 5 K, and then began to decrease, becoming negative above about 7 K. The anomalous class displayed at least one of three anomalies: (1) a minimum in the electrical resistivity, with an approximately logarithmic variation with T at temperatures below the minimum; (2) a positive contribution to G which increased in magnitude with decreasing temperature approximately at T/sup -1/2/ from about 4 K down to at least 0.5 K; and (3) a negative contribution to G which set in at about 0.5 K, varied approximately as log T, and dominated G at the lowest temperatures

  10. Effect of Metal (Mn, Ti) Doping on NCA Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Dao Yong; Fan, Zhi Yu; Dong, Yong Xiang; Baasanjav, Erdenebayar; Jun, Hang-Bae; Jin, Bo; Jin, En Mei; Jeong, Sang Mun

    2018-01-01

    NCA (LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05-x MxO2, M=Mn or Ti, x < 0.01) cathode materials are prepared by a hydrothermal reaction at 170°C and doped with Mn and Ti to improve their electrochemical properties. The crystalline phases and morphologies of various NCA cathode materials are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, and particle size distribution analysis. The CV, EIS, and galvanostatic charge/discharge test are employed to determine the electrochemical properties of the cathode materials. Mn and Ti doping res...

  11. Effect of iron content on permeability and power loss characteristics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The permeability of cadmium doped lithium ferrites exhibited higher values than zinc doped lithium ferrites. The power loss of cadmium doped lithium ferrites is lesser as compared to zinc doped lithium ferrites in the frequency range of 50–5000 kHz and at flux.

  12. Higher Fe{sup 2+}/total Fe ratio in iron doped phosphate glass melted by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Ashis K., E-mail: ashis@cgcri.res.in [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Sinha, Prasanta K. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Das, Dipankar [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata 700098 (India); Guha, Chandan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Sen, Ranjan [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Iron doped phosphate glasses prepared using microwave heating and conventional heating under air and reducing atmosphere. • Presence of iron predominantly in the ferrous oxidation state in all the glasses. • Significant concentrations of iron in the ferrous oxidation state on both octahedral and tetrahedral sites in all the glasses. • Ratio of Fe{sup 2+} with total iron is found higher in microwave prepared glasses in comparison to conventional prepared glasses. - Abstract: Iron doped phosphate glasses containing P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–MgO–ZnO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were melted using conventional resistance heating and microwave heating in air and under reducing atmosphere. All the glasses were characterised by UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and wet colorimetry analysis. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed presence of iron predominantly in the ferrous oxidation state on two different sites in all the glasses. The intensity of the ferrous absorption peaks in UV–Vis–NIR spectrum was found to be more in glasses prepared using microwave radiation compared to the glasses prepared in a resistance heating furnace. Thermogravimetric analysis showed increasing weight gain on heating under oxygen atmosphere for glass corroborating higher ratio of FeO/(FeO + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in glass melted by direct microwave heating. Wet chemical analysis also substantiated the finding of higher ratio Fe{sup +2}/ΣFe in microwave melted glasses. It was found that iron redox ratio was highest in the glasses prepared in a microwave furnace under reducing atmosphere.

  13. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of RE-doped Cu-Co ferrite fabricated from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Guoxi, E-mail: wlnfu107@126.com; Wang, Lu, E-mail: hnsdwl314@163.com; Zhao, Tingting

    2017-02-15

    Magnetostrictive Cu{sub 0.1}Co{sub 0.9}RE{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (RE=Ho, Gd or Sm) was fabricated by a sol-gel auto-combustion technique using spent lithium-ion batteries as raw materials. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the spinel structure of the RE-incorporated samples with limited RE solubility. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a layered structure composed of particles and the cation distribution. Magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetostriction strain curves showed that the saturation magnetization, magnetostriction coefficient and strain derivative were significantly modified due to the substitution of larger ionic radius RE{sup 3+} ions for Fe{sup 3+} ions, influencing the interaction between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. - Highlights: • Magnetostrictive Cu{sub 0.1}Co{sub 0.9}RE{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (RE=Ho, Gd or Sm, x=0.0–0.25) nanocomposites were fabricated via sol-gel auto-combustion route using spent lithium-ion batteries as raw materials. • The RE elements doping had limited solubility. • The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and maximum magnetostriction (λ{sub max}) were reduced and the lattice parameter (a) was increasing by increasing RE{sup 3+} substitution contents. • The relationship of maximum strain derivative (dλ/dH{sub max}) after the incorporation of RE was Ho>Gd>Sm.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A. [NRC ' Kurchatov Institute,' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskiy, V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, S. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Artemenko, A. [ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Curely, J.; Kliava, J. [LOMA, UMR 5798 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe 3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by “direct” techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by "direct" techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization studies.

  17. Iron oxide shell coating on nano silicon prepared from the sand for lithium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-05-01

    Elemental silicon, due to its high specific capacity (4200 mAh g-1) and non-toxicity is expected to be an attractive anode material for Li-ion battery. But its huge expansion volume (> 300 %) during charging of battery, leads to pulverization and cracking in the silicon particles and causes sudden failure of the Li-ion battery. In this work, we have designed yolk-shell type morphology of silicon, prepared from carbon coated silicon nanoparticles soaked in aqueous solution of ferric nitrate and potassium hydroxide. The soaked silicon particles were dried and finally calcined at 800 °C for 30 minutes. The product obtained is deprived of carbon and has a kind of yolk-shell morphology of nano silicon with iron oxide coating (Si@Iron oxide). This material has been tested for half-cell lithium-ion battery configuration. The discharge capacity is found to be ≈ 600 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1.0 A g-1 for 200 cycles. It has shown a stable performance as anode for Li-ion battery application.

  18. Doping of C-70 fullerene peapods with lithium vapor: Raman spectroscopic and Raman spectroelectrochemical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Valeš, Václav; Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 48 (2014), 485706 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/1677 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fullerene peapods * Raman spectroelectrochemistry * Li doping Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2014

  19. Dosimetric and kinetic parameters of lithium cadmium borate glasses doped with rare earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anjaiah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL characteristics of X-ray irradiated pure and doped with four different rare earth ions (viz., Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ Li2O–Cdo–B2O3 glasses have been studied in the temperature range 303–573 K; the pure glass has exhibited single TL peak at 466 K. When this glass is doped with different rare earth ions no additional peaks are observed but the glow peak temperature of the existing glow peak shifted gradually towards higher temperatures with gain in intensity of TL light output. The area under the glow curve is found to be maximum for Eu3+ doped glasses. The trap depth parameters associated with the observed TL peaks have been evaluated using Chen's formulae. The possible use of these glasses in radiation dosimetry has been described. The result clearly showed that europium doped cadmium borate glass has a potential to be considered as the thermoluminescence dosimeter.

  20. Infrared luminescence and thermoluminescence of lithium borate glasses doped with Sm3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaiah J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL characteristics of X-ray irradiated pure and doped with Sm3+ ions Li2O-MO-B2O3 (where MO=ZnO, CaO, CdO glasses have been studied in the temperature range of 303 to 573 K. All the pure glasses exhibited single TL peaks at 382 K, 424 K and 466 K. When these glasses were doped with Sm3+ ions no additional peaks have been observed but the glow peak temperature of the existing glow peak shifted gradually towards higher temperatures with gain in intensity of TL light output. The area under the glow curve was found to be maximum for Sm3+ doped glasses mixed with cadmium oxide as a modifier. The trap depth parameters associated with the observed TL peaks have been evaluated using Chen’s formulae. The possible use of these glasses in radiation dosimetry has been described. The results clearly showed that samarium doped cadmium borate glass has a potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimeter.

  1. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanghui, Wu; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H 2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m −1 , which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m −1 ). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains

  2. Ultrasmall Tin Nanodots Embedded in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Electrochemical Application as Highly Stable Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Ruoling; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sn-based metal-organic-framework (MOF) is prepared. • Ultrasmall tin nanodots (2–3 nm) are embedded in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. • The Sn/C composite anode shows high capacity and ultralong cycle life. - Abstract: This work reports a facile metal-organic-framework based approach to synthesize Sn/C composite, in which ultrasmall Sn nanodots with typical size of 2–3 nm are uniformly embedded in the nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (denoted as Sn@NPC). The effect of thermal treatment and nitrogen doping are also explored. Owing to the delicate size control and confined volume change within carbon matrix, the Sn@NPC composite can exhibit reversible capacities of 575 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1091 mAh g −1 ) after 500 cycles at 0.2 A g −1 and 507 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1077 mAh g −1 ) after 1500 cycles at 1 A g −1 . The excellent long-life electrochemical stability of the Sn@NPC anode has been mainly attributed to the uniform distribution of ultrasmall Sn nanodots and the highly-conductive and flexible N-doped carbon matrix, which can effectively facilitate lithium ion/electron diffusion, buffer the large volume change and improve the structure stability of the electrode during repetitive cycling with lithium ions.

  3. Laser induced Erasable Patterns in a N* Liquid Crystal on an Iron Doped Lithium Niobate (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-12

    4685; Clearance Date: 22 Sep 2017. This document contains color . Journal article published in Optics Express, Vol. 25, No. 21, 22 Sep 2017. © 2017...be applied selectively to erase these patterns. Thus, a promising method is reported to generate reconfigurable patterns, photonic motives , and...erase these patterns. Thus, a promising method is reported to generate reconfigurable patterns, photonic motives , and touch sensitive devices in a

  4. Characterization of lithium niobate monocrystals doped with iron (Li Nb O3:Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastelaro, V.R.; Terrile, N.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Nicolo, I.

    1988-01-01

    LiNbO 3 :Fe Crystals were analised using EPR Optical absorption spectroscopy and holographic techniques. The site occupied by Fe 3+ is discused and the effect of thermal treatments on Fe 2+ and OH - concentration is studied. The high diffraction efficiency, measure by holographic techniques shows that crystals are particularly good for holographic applications. (author) [pt

  5. Doping dependence of the anisotropic quasiparticle interference in NaFe(1-x)Co(x)As iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Ruan, Wei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Ye, Cun; Wang, Aifeng; Chen, Xianhui; Lee, Dung-Hai; Wang, Yayu

    2014-03-28

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the doping dependence of quasiparticle interference (QPI) in NaFe1-xCoxAs iron-based superconductors. The goal is to study the relation between nematic fluctuations and Cooper pairing. In the parent and underdoped compounds, where fourfold rotational symmetry is broken macroscopically, the QPI patterns reveal strong rotational anisotropy. At optimal doping, however, the QPI patterns are always fourfold symmetric. We argue this implies small nematic susceptibility and, hence, insignificant nematic fluctuation in optimally doped iron pnictides. Since TC is the highest this suggests nematic fluctuation is not a prerequistite for strong Cooper pairing.

  6. A green strategy for lithium isotopes separation by using mesoporous silica materials doped with ionic liquids and benzo-15-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhou; Xiao-Li Sun; Lin Gu; Fei-Fei Bao; Xin-Xin Xu; Chun-Yan Pang; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2014-01-01

    Three new mesoporous silica materials IL15SGs (HF15SG, TF15SG and DF15SG) doped with benzo-15-crown-5 and imidazolium based ionic liquids (C 8 mim + PF 6 - , C 8 mim + BF 4 - or C 8 mim + NTf 2 - ) have been prepared by a simple approach to separating lithium isotopes. The formed mesoporous structures of silica gels have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy image and N 2 gas adsorption-desorption isotherm. Imidazolium ionic liquids acted as templates to prepare mesoporous materials, additives to stabilize extractant within silica gel, and synergetic agents to separate the lithium isotopes. Factors such as lithium salt concentration, initial pH, counter anion of lithium salt, extraction time, and temperature on the lithium isotopes separation were examined. Under optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency of HF15SG, TF15SG and DF15SG were found to be 11.43, 10.59 and 13.07 %, respectively. The heavier isotope 7 Li was concentrated in the solution phase while the lighter isotope 6 Li was enriched in the gel phase. The solid-liquid extraction maximum single-stage isotopes separation factor of 6 Li- 7 Li in the solid-liquid extraction was up to 1.046 ± 0.002. X-ray crystal structure analysis indicated that the lithium salt was extracted into the solid phase with crown ether forming [(Li 0.5 ) 2 (B 15 ) 2 (H 2 O)] + complexes. IL15SGs were also easily regenerated by stripping with 20 mmol L -1 HCl and reused in the consecutive removal of lithium ion in five cycles. (author)

  7. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by iron-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakane, Shinji; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium is one of the most important steps in creating a liquid lithium blanket system. In this study, in order to verify the nitrogen gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy, the variation in the nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, into which Fe-10 at.% Ti or Fe-5 at.% Ti getter was immersed, was examined. The results confirmed a gettering performance of Fe-Ti alloy comparable to that of V-Ti alloy, although the effects were not durable in either the Fe-Ti or the V-Ti alloy. After the immersion test, the existing states of nitrogen absorbed in the gettering material were analyzed by means of XRD, XMA and XPS. TiN and some nitrogen dissolved in α-Fe without forming TiN were observed. It was indicated that nitrogen gettering is prevented not only by the surface nitrides, but also by the internal diffusion barriers originating from the absorbed nitrogen

  8. Modeling radiation damage near grain boundary in helium-doped α-iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C.P. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Liu, X.-Y. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Li, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Wang, Y.Q., E-mail: yqwang@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate how ∑3〈110〉(1 2 1) symmetric tilt grain boundary (GB) affects point defects and defect clusters in He-doped α-iron at 300 K in picosecond time scales. Molecular statics calculations are also performed and show that the formation energy is reduced in the GB, and the GB acts as a good sink for point defects, especially for interstitial He and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). It is observed that the average size of He{sub n}V{sub m} (m > n) clusters becomes smaller in the GB-containing Fe system, where m and n represent the number of vacancies and He atoms in the cluster, respectively. It is also found that the number of He{sub n}V (n = 2, 3) clusters in the GB region decreases, while the number of the HeV clusters increases. The GBs loaded with substitutional or interstitial helium atoms are found to facilitate the growth of helium clusters in the GB region.

  9. Multi-channel and porous SiO@N-doped C rods as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Li, Mingqi

    2018-05-01

    To improve the cycling stability and rate capability of SiO electrodes, multi-channel and porous SiO@N-doped C (mp-SiO@N-doped C) rods are fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and heat treatment with the assistance of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). During annealing, in-situ PMMA degradation and gasification lead to the formation of multi-channel structure and more pores. As anodes for lithium ion batteries, the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods exhibit excellent cycling stability. At a current density of 400 mA g-1, a discharge capacity of 806 mAh g-1 can be kept after 250 cycles, the retention of which is over than 100% versus the initial reversible capacity. Compared with the SiO@N-doped C rods synthesized without the help of PMMA, the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods exhibit more excellent rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the special structure of the mp-SiO@N-doped C rods. In addition to the conductivity improved by carbon fibers, the multi-channel and porous structures not only make ions/electrons transfer and electrolyte diffusion easier, but also contribute to the structural stability of the electrodes.

  10. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, A.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, R.V.; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved in the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3

  11. Self-doped carbon architectures with heteroatoms containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur as high-performance anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Mingjie; Yu, Wenhua; Shi, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Huanlei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Self-doped carbon architectures with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur are derived from Carrageen. •The obtained carbon materials exhibit excellent electrochemical property. •The strategy provides a one-step synthesis route to design advanced anodes for batteries. -- Abstract: Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur tridoped porous carbons have been successfully synthesized from natural biomass algae-Carrageen by using a simultaneous carbonization and activation procedure. The doped carbons with sponge-like interconnected architecture, partially ordered graphitic structure, and abundant heteroatom doping perform outstanding features for electrochemical energy storage. When tested as lithium-ion battery anodes, a high reversible capacity of 839 mAh g −1 can be obtained at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 228 mAh g −1 can be maintained at 10 A g −1 . Tested against sodium, a high specific capacity of 227 can be delivered at 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 109 mAh g −1 can be achieved at 10 A g −1 . These results turn out that the doped carbons would be potential anode materials for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, which can be achieved by a one-step and large-scale synthesis route. Our observation indicates that heteroatom doping (especially sulfur) can significantly promote ion storage and reduce irreversible ion trapping to some extent. This work gives a general route for designing carbon nanostructures with heteroatom doping for efficient energy storage.

  12. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng; Rao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars

  14. Fabrication of iron-doped cobalt oxide nanocomposite films by electrodeposition and application as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xuemei; Qin, Dongdong; Xue, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • We fabricated the Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms for the first time by potentiostatic electrodeposition method. • The Fe was doped homogeneously in the nanofilms by this method. • Among the different concentration ratios of Co{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 2+}, nanofilm with the ratio of 1:5 exhibits the optimal performance in electrochemical properties assessments. • The Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms in this work exhibit good electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalyst in alkaline fuel cells. - Abstract: In this work, Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms were fabricated by electrodeposition on FTO glass substrates for the first time. The structures of the as-prepared nanofilms were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization results demonstrate that Fe was doped homogeneously in the nanofilms. As the different concentration ratios of Fe{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} were explored, nanofilm with the ratio of 1:5 exhibits the optimal performance in electrochemical properties assessments. It is considered that the difference in the catalytic activities for the ORR of the samples may be due to the fact that the joining of iron changed the catalyst surface's electric state and enhanced the acidity of cobalt centers, on the other hand, the doping process probably modified the absorption property of the nanofilms. The experimental results suggest that the Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms in this work exhibit favorable electrocatalytic activity toward ORR and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

  15. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with 3 He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10 -3 , which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 μm could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  16. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  17. Lithium and sodium storage on tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and TCNE-(doped)-graphene complexes: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingqian; Manzhos, Sergei, E-mail: mpemanzh@nus.edu.sg

    2015-04-15

    Li and Na attachment to free tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) molecules and TCNE adsorbed on doped graphene is studied using density functional theory. While TCNE is adsorbed only weakly on ideal graphene, we identified a configuration in which TCNE is strongly chemisorbed on Al-doped graphene via molecule's C atom and a surface oxygen atom. Up to four (five) Li and Na atoms can be stored on both free (adsorbed) TCNE with binding energies stronger than cohesive energies of the Li and Na metals. When storing up to three atoms per molecule, it should be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes. TCNE immobilized on a conducting graphene-based substrate could therefore become an efficient anode material for organic Li and Na ion batteries. Importantly, there is no significant difference either in specific capacity (per unit mass of material excluding Li/Na) nor in voltage between Li and Na storage, which makes this kind of approach very promising for post-Li storage in general. - Highlights: • DFT study of Li, Na attachment to free TCNE and TCNE adsorbed on doped graphene. • Up to 5 Li, Na atoms bind to adsorbed TCNE stronger than Li, Na cohesive energies. • Similar specific capacity and voltage predicted for Li and Na storage. • It should be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes. • TCNE predicted to be efficient anode material for organic Li and Na ion batteries.

  18. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, J., E-mail: jose.montero@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Guillén, C.; Herrero, J. [Department of Energy, Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 40, Ed. 42, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  19. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd2O3 doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algradee, M. A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O. M.; Alwany, A. Elwhab B.

    2017-08-01

    The Nd3+-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd2O3 content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system.

  20. Freeze-drying for sustainable synthesis of nitrogen doped porous carbon cryogel with enhanced supercapacitor and lithium ion storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Zheng; Yu, Chang; Fan, Xiaoming; Liu, Shaohong; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Mengdi; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-01-01

    A chitosan (CS) based nitrogen doped carbon cryogel with a high specific surface area (SSA) has been directly synthesized via a combined process of freeze-drying and high-temperature carbonization without adding any activation agents. The as-made carbon cryogel demonstrates an SSA up to 1025 m 2 g −1 and a high nitrogen content of 5.98 wt%, while its counterpart derived from CS powder only shows an SSA of 26 m 2 g −1 . Freeze-drying is a determining factor for the formation of carbon cryogel with a high SSA, where the CS powder with a size of ca. 200 μm is transformed into the sheet-shaped cryogel with a thickness of 5–8 μm. The as-made carbon cryogel keeps the sheet-shaped structure and the abundant pores are formed in situ and decorated inside the sheets during carbonization. The carbon cryogel shows significantly enhanced performance as supercapacitor and lithium ion battery electrodes in terms of capacity and rate capability due to its quasi two-dimensional (2D) structure with reduced thickness. The proposed method may provide a simple approach to configure 2D biomass-derived advanced carbon materials for energy storage devices. (paper)

  1. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  2. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Okra-like SnO2 Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Chen, Sanmei; Yang, Juan; Bai, Tao; Ren, Yongpeng; Tian, Hangyu

    2017-04-26

    A facile process is developed to prepare SnO 2 -based composites through using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursors. The nitrogen-doped graphene wrapped okra-like SnO 2 composites (SnO 2 @N-RGO) are successfully synthesized for the first time by using Sn-based metal-organic frameworks (Sn-MOF) as precursors. When utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO 2 @N-RGO composites possess a remarkably superior reversible capacity of 1041 mA h g -1 at a constant current of 200 mA g -1 after 180 charge-discharge processes and excellent rate capability. The excellent performance can be primarily ascribed to the unique structure of 1D okra-like SnO 2 in SnO 2 @N-RGO which are actually composed of a great number of SnO 2 primary crystallites and numerous well-defined internal voids, can effectively alleviate the huge volume change of SnO 2 , and facilitate the transport and storage of lithium ions. Besides, the structural stability acquires further improvement when the okra-like SnO 2 are wrapped by N-doped graphene. Similarly, this synthetic strategy can be employed to synthesize other high-capacity metal-oxide-based composites starting from various metal-organic frameworks, exhibiting promising application in novel electrode material field of lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets with interconnected framework for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Chen, Yaxin; Shi, Liluo; Dong, Yue; Ma, Jing; Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and environmental friendly synthesis strategy is proposed to fabricate nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) with interconnected framework by using soybean milk as the carbon precursor and sodium chloride as the template. The interconnected porous nanosheet structure is beneficial for lithium ion transportation, and the defects introduced by pyridine nitrogen doping are favorable for lithium storage. When used as the anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the N-CNS electrode shows a high initial reversible specific capacity of 1334 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1, excellent rate performance (1212, 555 and 336 mAh g-1 at 0.05, 0.5 and 2 A g-1, respectively) and good cycling stability (355 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles). Furthermore, this study demonstrates the prospects of biomass and soybean milk, as the potential anode for the application of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  5. A theoretical study of lithium-doped gallium clusters by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuerk, Suekrue; Ekincioglu, Yavuz [Dumlupinar Univ., Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-05-15

    The geometrical structures, stabilities, and electronic properties of Ga{sub n}Li (n = 1-13) clusters were investigated within the density functional theory (DFT). The impurity lithium atom enhances the stability of Ga{sub n}Li (n = 1-13) clusters, especially Ga{sub n}Li (n = 9-13) compared to Ga{sub n} (n = 9-14), that is at either apex position or side position. The dissociation energy, second-order energy differences, and the energy gaps between highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) indicate that the Ga{sub 7}Li, Ga{sub 9}Li, and Ga{sub 11}Li clusters are more stable within the studied cluster range. Moreover, the variation of the average bond length of Ga - Li is due to the surface effect, and the binding strength increases resulting from the increase of charge amount. (orig.)

  6. Structural and photocatalytic properties of iron- and europium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamandescu, L.; Vasiliu, F.; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, D.; Feder, M.; Vlaicu, A.M.; Teodorescu, C.M.; Macovei, D.; Enculescu, I.; Parvulescu, V.; Vasile, E.

    2008-01-01

    Iron- and europium-doped (≤1 at.%) TiO 2 nanoparticles powders have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route at 200 deg. C, starting with TiCl 4 , FeCl 3 .6H 2 O and EuCl 3 .6H 2 O. The structure, morphology and optical peculiarities were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Moessbauer spectroscopy and UV-vis measurements. The photocatalytic performance was analysed in the photodegradation reaction of phenol. Rietveld refinements of XRD patterns reveal that the as-prepared samples consist in iron- and europium-doped TiO 2 in the tetragonal anatase structural shape, with particle size as low as 15 nm. By means of Moessbauer spectroscopy on both 57 Fe and 151 Eu isotopes as well as by EXAFS analyses, the presence of Fe 3+ and/or Eu 3+ ions in the nanosized powders has been evidenced. It was found that iron and europium ions can substitute for titanium in the anatase structure. From the UV-vis reflection spectra, by using the transformed Kubelka-Munk functions, the band gap energy (E g ) of the hydrothermal samples has been determined in comparison with that of Degussa P-25 photocatalyst. A decrease of E g from 2.9 eV found for Degussa photocatalyst to 2.8 eV for the titania doped with 1 at.% Fe has been evidenced, indicating a valuable absorption shift (∼20 nm) towards visible light region. However, the best photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation reaction of phenol was evidenced for the hydrothermal sample, TiO 2 : 1 at.% Fe, 0.5 at.% Eu, in both UV and visible light regions. The photocatalytic activities of iron-doped and iron-europium-codoped samples are high and practically the same only in visible light. The photocatalytic properties in correlation with the structural and optical peculiarities of the hydrothermal samples are discussed

  7. UV and electron radiation-induced luminescence of Cu- and Eu-doped lithium tetraborates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatovych, M.; Holovey, V.; Watterich, A.; Vidoczy, T.; Baranyai, P.; Kelemen, A.; Ogenko, V.; Chuiko, O

    2003-06-01

    Cu- and Eu-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} has been characterized using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, radioluminescence and optical absorption techniques. The effect of dopant content (7.0x10{sup -4}-5.0x10{sup -2} wt% for Cu and 1.6x10{sup -3}-8.0x10{sup -3} wt% for Eu) and of host modification (single crystal, polycrystalline and glassy) has been investigated.

  8. Fast neutron irradiation and thermal properties of doped nonstoichiometric lithium potassium sulphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Gomaa, N.G.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of point defects introduced by fast neutron irradiations with neutron fluences up to 1.08 x 10 10 n/cm 2 on the thermal properties of pure and doped Li 1.4 K 0.6 SO 4 single crystals are studied in the vicinity of high temperature phase transition at 705 K. The temperature dependence of specific heat is found to be shifted towards lower temperature with the increase of neutron fluence, and can be affected by the presence of Cu 2+ dopant. The change in the value of the specific heat can be attributed to the presence of internal strain generated inside the crystal. (author)

  9. A new insight to the physical interpretation of activated carbon and iron doped carbon material: sorption affinity towards organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Irfan; Adnan, Rohana; Ngah, Wan Saime Wan; Mohamed, Norita; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-05-01

    To enhance the potential of activated carbon (AC), iron incorporation into the AC surface was examined in the present investigations. Iron doped activated carbon (FeAC) material was synthesized and characterized by using surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The surface area of FeAC (543 m(2)/g) was found to be lower than AC (1043 m(2)/g) as a result of the pores widening due to diffusion of iron particles into the porous AC. Iron uploading on AC surface was confirmed through EDX analysis, showing up to 13.75 wt.% iron on FeAC surface. TPR and TPD profiles revealed the presence of more active sites on FeAC surface. FeAC have shown up to 98% methylene blue (MB) removal from the aqueous media. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anchoring ZnO Nanoparticles in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel binary nanocomposite, ZnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnO/NG, is synthesized via a facile solution method. In this prepared ZnO/NG composite, highly-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are anchored uniformly on the N-doped graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical properties of the ZnO/NG composite as anode materials are systematically investigated in lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the ZnO/NG composite can maintain the reversible specific discharge capacity at 870 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Besides the enhanced electronic conductivity provided by interlaced N-doped graphene nanosheets, the excellent lithium storage properties of the ZnO/NG composite can be due to nanosized structure of ZnO particles, shortening the Li+ diffusion distance, increasing reaction sites, and buffering the ZnO volume change during the charge/discharge process.

  11. Ultrathin Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer Uniformly Supported on Graphene Frameworks as Ultrahigh-Capacity Anode for Lithium-Ion Full Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Li, Ke; Yang, Guanhui; Aboud, Mohamed F Aly; Shakir, Imran; Xu, Yuxi

    2018-03-01

    The designable structure with 3D structure, ultrathin 2D nanosheets, and heteroatom doping are considered as highly promising routes to improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, it remains a significant challenge to efficiently integrate 3D interconnected porous frameworks with 2D tunable heteroatom-doped ultrathin carbon layers to further boost the performance. Herein, a novel nanostructure consisting of a uniform ultrathin N-doped carbon layer in situ coated on a 3D graphene framework (NC@GF) through solvothermal self-assembly/polymerization and pyrolysis is reported. The NC@GF with the nanosheets thickness of 4.0 nm and N content of 4.13 at% exhibits an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 2018 mA h g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and an ultrafast charge-discharge feature with a remarkable capacity of 340 mA h g -1 at an ultrahigh current density of 40 A g -1 and a superlong cycle life with a capacity retention of 93% after 10 000 cycles at 40 A g -1 . More importantly, when coupled with LiFePO 4 cathode, the fabricated lithium-ion full cells also exhibit high capacity and excellent rate and cycling performances, highlighting the practicability of this NC@GF. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis of Mg-doped Li2FeSiO4/C nanocomposite cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Jayakumar, O. D.; Naik, V. M.; Nazri, G. A.; Naik, R.

    Lithium transition metal orthosilicates, such as Li2FeSiO4 and Li2MnSiO4, as cathode material have attracted much attention lately due to their high theoretical capacity ( 330 mAh/g), low cost, and environmental friendliness. However, they suffer from poor electronic conductivity and slow lithium ion diffusion in the solid phase. Several cation-doped orthosilicates have been studied to improve their electrochemical performance. We have synthesized partially Mg-substituted Li2Mgx Fe1-x SiO4-C, (x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04) nano-composites by solvothermal method followed by annealing at 600oC in argon flow. The structure and morphology of the composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The surface area and pore size distribution were measured by using N2 adsorption/desorption curves. The electrochemical performance of the Li2MgxFe1-x SiO4-C composites was evaluated by Galvanostatic cycling against metallic lithium anode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Li2Mg0.01Fe0.99SiO4-C sample shows a capacity of 278 mAh/g (at C/30 rate in the 1.5-4.6 V voltage window) with an excellent rate capability and stability, compared to the other samples. We attribute this observation to its higher surface area, enhanced electronic conductivity and higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient.

  13. Highly-crystalline ultrathin gadolinium doped and carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. B.; Yang, L. W.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, J. W.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, P. K.

    2015-11-01

    Highly-crystalline gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets (denoted as LTO-Gd-C) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on large scale by controlling the amount of carbon precursor in the topotactic transformation of layered ultrathin Li1.81H0.19Ti2O5·xH2O (H-LTO) nanosheets at 700 °C. The characterizations of structure and morphology reveal that the gadolinium doped and carbon-coated ultrathin LTO nanosheets have high crystallinity with a thickness of about 10 nm. Gadolinium doping allows the spinel LTO products to be stabilized, thereby preserving the precursor's sheet morphology and single crystal structure. Carbon encapsulation serves dual functions by restraining crystal growth of the LTO primary nanoparticles in the LTO-Gd-C nanosheets and decreasing the external electron transport resistance. Owing to the synergistic effects rendered by ultrathin nanosheets with high crystallinity, gadolinium doping and carbon coating, the developed ultrathin LTO nanosheets possess excellent specific capacity, cycling performance, and rate capability compared with reference materials, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The simple and effective strategy encompassing nanoscale morphological engineering, surface modification, and doping improves the performance of LTO-based anode materials for high energy density and high power LIBs applied in large scale energy storage.

  14. In Situ Synthesis of Tungsten-Doped SnO2 and Graphene Nanocomposites for High-Performance Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Liyi; Chen, Guorong; Ba, Chaoqun; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-05-24

    The composite of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide was synthesized through a simple one-pot hydrothermal method. According to the structural characterization of the composite, tungsten ions were doped in the unit cells of tin dioxide rather than simply attaching to the surface. Tungsten-doped SnO 2 was in situ grown on the surface of graphene sheet to form a three-dimensional conductive network that enhanced the electron transportation and lithium-ion diffusion effectively. The issues of SnO 2 agglomeration and volume expansion could be also avoided because the tungsten-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on a graphene sheet. As a result, the nanocomposite electrodes of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide exhibited an excellent long-term cycling performance. The residual capacity was still as high as 1100 mA h g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 after 100 cycles. It still remained at 776 mA h g -1 after 2000 cycles at the current density of 1A g -1 .

  15. Physical and optical properties of lithium borosilicate glasses doped with Dy3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Gedam, R. S.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The borosilicate glasses with Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quench technique with varying concentration of Dy2O3. The glasses were characterized by the density calculation, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements. Density and molar volume of the glasses increases with increase in Dy3+ ions in the glass matrix. This behavior is correlated with the higher molecular weight and larger ionic radius of Dy3+ ion compared to the other constituents of glass matrix. Emission of Dy3+ doped glasses showed three bands at 482, 573 and at 665 nm which correspond to 6H15/2 (blue), 6H13/2 (yellow) and 6H11/2 (red) transitions. The emission spectra of glasses with different concentration of Dy3+ ions shows that, glasses with 0.5 mol% of Dy2O3 shows highest emission and decreases with further doping. CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showed that the emission of these glasses was in the white region. Photographs of these glasses under 349 nm Light emitting diode excitation also confirmed the white light emission from these glasses.

  16. Recombination luminescence of Cu and/or Ag doped lithium tetraborate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romet, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Aleksanyan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); A. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory, 2 Br. Alikhanyan Str., 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Brik, M.G. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 400065 Chongqing (China); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Corradi, G. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kotlov, A. [Photon Science at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Nagirnyi, V., E-mail: vitali.nagirnoi@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Polgár, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-09-15

    Complex investigations of thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) and radioluminescence properties of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (LTB), LTB:Cu, LTB:Ag and LTB:Cu, Ag crystals suitable for tissue equivalent dosimeters were carried out in the temperature range 4.2–700 K. TSL, cathodoluminescence and X-ray excited luminescence spectra are compared to those measured under photoexcitation. The emission band at 4.6 eV in LTB:Ag is reliably related to Ag{sup +} ions based on the comparison of the results of optical spectroscopy studies and first principle calculations. Energy transfer from the relaxed exited state of the Ag{sup +} ion to the Cu{sup +} ion in double-doped LTB:Cu, Ag crystals is demonstrated. Thermostimulated recombination of charge carriers in irradiated crystals is seen to take place mainly at oxygen sites at low temperatures and at impurity sites at high temperatures. For the first time, the appearance of the low-temperature TSL peak at 90 K is assigned to ionic processes in LTB crystals. The appearance of pyroelectric flashes due to the lattice relaxation in the temperature region 90–240 K is demonstrated and their surface-related nature clarified. In accordance with EPR studies the dosimetric TSL peaks in copper and silver doped LTB crystals are attributed to thermally released electrons recombining with Cu{sup 2+} and Ag{sup 2+} centres.

  17. Watermelon used as a novel carbon source to improve the rate performance of iron oxide electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Lin-Chao; Cheng, Jian-Xiu; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Watermelon is used to synthesize the carbon material via an environmentally friendly process. • The derived carbon materials exhibit high specific surface area and good rate performance. • Good rate performances of these FeO x /C composites in 3.0–0.01 V are achieved. -- Abstract: The pulp of a watermelon consists of watermelon juice and flesh wall. After a hydrothermal process at 160 °C, the pulp turns into a carbon-based composite powder composed of micrometer particles and nanosheets (CPs–CSs). Through a similar hydrothermal process with the mixture of watermelon pulp and an ethanolic solution of ferric nitrate as the precursors, a powder of iron oxide–CPs–CSs composite is also synthesized. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and BET surface area measurement are employed to study the compositions and structures of these composite powders. Their electrochemical properties as potential anode materials of lithium ion batteries are also investigated. It is found that after a heat treatment at 700 °C and 800 °C, the CPs–CSs composites are mesoporous carbon materials with a specific surface area of 898 m 2 g −1 and 452 m 2 g −1 , respectively. The iron oxide–CPs–CSs composites after a heat treatment at 700 °C and 800 °C are all Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs. When used as anode materials, both CPs–CSs and Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs show very good rate performance. Thanks to the higher surface area of the carbon component, the 700 °C-treated Fe 3 O 4 –CPs–CSs is superior to others in rate capability. It can deliver a discharge capacity of 350 mA h g −1 even at a high current density of 2500 mA g −1

  18. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of Faraday rotation on yttrium iron garnets doped with Sn, Zr, or Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Giammaria, F.; Lucari, F.

    1991-01-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements on three thin single crystalline samples of yttrium iron garnet doped with Sn, Zr, and Sb as a function of temperature in the near infrared region show a monotonic variation of the magneto-optical signal as the temperature is decreased from 300 to about 50 K. At this point the FR signal levels off. Moreover, the slope of the plot for the sample, doped with Sn, changes sign below this temperature, at particular wavelengths. An explanation of the observed phenomena is given in terms of the energy levels of the Fe 2+ ions in the different sites of the crystal and the temperature dependence of their populations caused by the relative orientation between the local symmetry axis of the specific site and the direction of the sample magnetization. Hysteresis loops of the Faraday rotation as a function of applied magnetic field have been also measured showing the presence of a remanence of the sample magnetization

  19. Dynamic Prediction of Power Storage and Delivery by Data-Based Fractional Differential Models of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fractional derivative system identification approach for modeling battery dynamics is presented in this paper, where fractional derivatives are applied to approximate non-linear dynamic behavior of a battery system. The least squares-based state-variable filter (LSSVF method commonly used in the identification of continuous-time models is extended to allow the estimation of fractional derivative coefficents and parameters of the battery models by monitoring a charge/discharge demand signal and a power storage/delivery signal. In particular, the model is combined by individual fractional differential models (FDMs, where the parameters can be estimated by a least-squares algorithm. Based on experimental data, it is illustrated how the fractional derivative model can be utilized to predict the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of a lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO 4 in real-time. The results indicate that a FDM can accurately capture the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of the battery over a large operating range of the battery. It is also shown that the fractional derivative model exhibits improvements on prediction performance compared to standard integer derivative model, which in beneficial for a battery management system.

  20. Optimization and experimental validation of a thermal cycle that maximizes entropy coefficient fisher identifiability for lithium iron phosphate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sergio; Rothenberger, Michael; Hake, Alison; Fathy, Hosam

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a framework for optimizing the thermal cycle to estimate a battery cell's entropy coefficient at 20% state of charge (SOC). Our goal is to maximize Fisher identifiability: a measure of the accuracy with which a parameter can be estimated. Existing protocols in the literature for estimating entropy coefficients demand excessive laboratory time. Identifiability optimization makes it possible to achieve comparable accuracy levels in a fraction of the time. This article demonstrates this result for a set of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells. We conduct a 24-h experiment to obtain benchmark measurements of their entropy coefficients. We optimize a thermal cycle to maximize parameter identifiability for these cells. This optimization proceeds with respect to the coefficients of a Fourier discretization of this thermal cycle. Finally, we compare the estimated parameters using (i) the benchmark test, (ii) the optimized protocol, and (iii) a 15-h test from the literature (by Forgez et al.). The results are encouraging for two reasons. First, they confirm the simulation-based prediction that the optimized experiment can produce accurate parameter estimates in 2 h, compared to 15-24. Second, the optimized experiment also estimates a thermal time constant representing the effects of thermal capacitance and convection heat transfer.

  1. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  2. Technical and Economic Assessment of a 450 W Autonomous Photovoltaic System with Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carriço

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about an autonomous photovoltaic system making use of the novel Lithium Iron Phosphate as a battery pack for isolated rural houses. More particularly, this paper examines the behavior and efficiency of a low-cost isolated photovoltaic system for typical rural houses near Luena in Angola. The proposed system (solar panel, batteries, controller, and inverter has been projected having in mind the required household daily load of 1,300 Wh and available solar irradiance. The initial batteries charging revealed to be essential to not only ensure a long battery life but using a balanced pack it was possible to achieve more stored energy. On-site, the polycrystalline solar panels used showed a daily average efficiency of 10.8%, with the total system having 75% efficiency. This result was adjusted to the average temperature in Angola. This way, it was made an extrapolation to the monthly irradiation values in Angola. The results achieved showed good energy production during almost all year except January and December, which revealed critical production values of 1,356 Wh and 1,311 Wh, respectively. These values are too close to the daily consumed energy and indicate the addition of a 2nd alternative source of energy (wind generator, diesel generator, etc. to be explored further.

  3. High-strength laser welding of aluminum-lithium scandium-doped alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of laser welding of an aluminum alloy (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by cold plastic deformation on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys. The strength of the plastically deformed welded joint, aluminum alloys of the Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li systems reached 0.95 and 0.6 of the base alloy strength, respectively.

  4. A computational study on the hydrogen adsorption capacity of various lithium-doped boron hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Giri, Santanab; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2012-02-05

    An aromatic boron hydride B(3)H(3)(2-) and its various Li/Li(+) doped isomers have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) and M06/6-311+G(d) levels of theory to assess their hydrogen storage potential. Different types of interaction energies, reaction enthalpies and reaction electrophilicities associated with the hydrogen adsorption process suggest that B(3)H(3)(2-) itself and some of its Li-decorated analogues may turn out to be effective hydrogen storage material. Nucleus independent chemical shift and conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors lend additional support. The temperature-pressure phase diagram identifies the temperature-pressure zone where the reaction Gibbs free energy for the hydrogen adsorption is negative making it a thermodynamically feasible process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Structural study and DC conductivity of vanadyl doped zinc lithium borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seema [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal-131039 (India); Physics Department, Baba Mast Nath University, Asthal Bohr, Rohtak-124001 (India); Khasa, S., E-mail: skhasa@rediff.com; Dahiya, M. S.; Yadav, Arti [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal-131039 (India); Agarwal, A. [Applied Physics Department, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar-125001 (India); Dahiya, S. [Physics Department, Baba Mast Nath University, Asthal Bohr, Rohtak-124001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Glasses with composition xZnO⋅(30 − x)⋅Li{sub 2}O⋅70B{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing 2 mol% of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (x = 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10) were prepared by standard melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the glass samples was confirmed by using x-ray diffraction. The structural changes in these glasses have been investigated by employing IR spectroscopy in the mid-IR range. The infrared spectroscopic analysis confirms the presence of both triangular and tetraheldral coordinated boron units and absence of boroxol ring. It also shows that metal-oxide vibrations are present which are due to the bonding of lithium and zinc ions with oxygen. The dc conductivity was measured in the temperature range 353-523 K. The dc conductivity results show that conductivity decreases and activation energy increases when Li{sub 2}O is replaced by ZnO, keeping the concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} constant. Decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy shows that addition of ZnO to the glass matrix shows a “blocking effect” on the overall mobility of alkali ions, but at higher concentration the hopping effect was also observed.

  6. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-06-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin film transistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectric transistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  7. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2012-06-22

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin filmtransistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectrictransistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  8. Defect structure in lithium-doped polymer-derived SiCN ceramics characterized by Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emre; Mass, Valentina; Gembus, Armin; Schulz, Armin; Liebau-Kunzmann, Verena; Fasel, Claudia; Riedel, Ralf; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2009-07-21

    Lithium-doped polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics (SiCN:Li) synthesized at various pyrolysis temperatures, have been investigated by means of multifrequency and multipulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine different defect states that may impact the materials electronic properties. In particular, carbon- and silicon-based 'dangling bonds' at elevated, as well as metallic networks containing Li0 in the order of 1 microm at low pyrolysis temperatures have been observed in concentrations ranging between 10(14) and 10(17) spins mg(-1).

  9. Nitrogen-Doped Holey Graphene as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Volumetric Energy Density and Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Lin, Yi; Connell, John W; Dai, Liming

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped holey graphene (N-hG) as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries has delivered a maximum volumetric capacity of 384 mAh cm(-3) with an excellent long-term cycling life up to 6000 cycles, and as an electrochemical capacitor has delivered a maximum volumetric energy density of 171.2 Wh L(-1) and a volumetric capacitance of 201.6 F cm(-3) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fluorinated Graphene Prepared by Direct Fluorination of N, O-Doped Graphene Aerogel at Different Temperatures for Lithium Primary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated graphene (FG has been a star material as a new derivative of graphene. In this paper, a series of fluorinated graphene materials are prepared by using N, O-doped graphene aerogel as precursor via a direct fluorination method, and the effect of fluorination temperature on the FG structure is investigated. The prepared FG samples are systematically characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the structure of FG, including features such as layer size, chemical composition, chemical bond state of the component elements, etc., is significantly related to the fluorination temperature. With the change of the fluorination temperature, fluorine atoms enter the graphene framework by a substitution process of the N, O-containing groups, including residual phenol, ether, carbonyl groups, or C–N groups, and the addition to CC bonds, subsequently forming a fluoride with different fluorine contents. The fluorine content increases as the fluorination temperature increases from 200 °C to 300 °C, but decreases at a fluorination temperature of 350 °C due to the decomposition of the fluorinated graphene. The prepared FG samples are used as cathode material for lithium primary batteries. The FG sample prepared at 300 °C gives a high specific capacity of 632 mAh g−1 and a discharge plateau of 2.35 V at a current density of 10 mA g−1, corresponding to a high energy density of 1485 Wh kg−1.

  11. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Vemasevana; Sailaja, S; Raju, C Nageswara; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2011-06-01

    This article reports on the development and spectral results of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions doped cadmium lithium alumino fluoro boro tellurite (CLiAFBT) glasses in the following composition. 40TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3 (Hostglass) (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xEu2O3 (40-x)TeO2-30B2O3-10CdO-10Li2O-10AlF3-xTb4O7 where x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mol%. Glass amorphous nature and thermal properties have been studied using the XRD and DSC profiles. From the emission spectra of Eu(3+):glasses, five emission transitions have been observed at 578 nm, 592 nm, 612 nm, 653 nm, 701 nm and are assigned to the transitions (5)D(0)→(7)F(0), (7)F(1,)(7)F(2), (7)F(3) and (7)F(4), respectively, with λ(exci)=392 nm ((7)F(0)→(5)L(6)). In case of Tb(3+):glasses, four emission transitions ((5)D(4)→(7)F(6,)(7)F(5), (7)F(4) and (7)F(3)) are observed at 488 nm, 543 nm, 584 nm and 614 nm, respectively, with λ(exci)=376 nm. Decay curves and energy level diagrams have been plotted to evaluate the life times and to analyze the emission mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  13. High ion conductive Sb2O5-doped β-Li3PS4 with excellent stability against Li for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Chen, Shaojie; Zhang, Zhihua; Ren, Jie; Yao, Lili; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-06-01

    The combination of high conductivity and good stability against Li is not easy to achieve for solid electrolytes, hindering the development of high energy solid-state batteries. In this study, doped electrolytes of Li3P1-xSbxS4-2.5xO2.5x are successfully prepared via the high energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. Plenty of techniques like XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS and TEM are utilized to characterize the crystal structures, particle sizes, and morphologies of the glass-ceramic electrolytes. Among them, the Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 (x = 0.02) exhibits the highest ionic conductivity (∼1.08 mS cm-1) at room temperature with an excellent stability against lithium. In addition, all-solid-state lithium batteries are assembled with LiCoO2 as cathode, Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 as the bi-layer electrolyte, and lithium as anode. The constructed solid-state batteries delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 133 mAh g-1 at 0.1C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature, and shows a capacity retention of 78.6% after 50 cycles. Most importantly, the all-solid-state lithium batteries with the Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 electrolyte can be workable even at -10 °C. This study provides a promising electrolyte with the improved conductivity and stability against Li for the application of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  14. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-21

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg(2+) doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg(2+) doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li(+) diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg(2+) doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of "cushion" as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.

  16. Iron-antimony-based hybrid oxides as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Kim, Doo Soo; Hur, Jaehyun; Park, Min Sang; Yoon, Sukeun; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-06-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize Fe-Sb-based hybrid oxides nanocomposites consisting of Sb, Sb2O3, and Fe3O4 for use as new anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The composites are synthesized via galvanic replacement between Fe3+ and Sb at high temperature in triethylene glycol medium. The phase, morphology, and composition changes of the composites involved in the various stages of the replacement reaction are characterized using X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as-prepared composites have different compositions with very small particle sizes (interfacial contact area between the nanocomposite and electrolyte, stable structure of the composites owing to a mixture of inactive phases generated by the conversion reaction between Li+ and oxide metal-whose structure serves as an electron conductor, inhibits agglomeration of Sb particles, and acts as an effective buffer against volume change of Sb during cycling-and high Li+ diffusion ability.

  17. Effect of substituting iron on structural, thermal and dielectric properties of lithium borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal, Seema [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal 131039 (India); Physics Department, Baba Mast Nath University, Asthal Bohr 124001 (India); Khasa, S., E-mail: skhasa@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal 131039 (India); Dahiya, M.S. [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal 131039 (India); Agarwal, A. [Applied Physics Department, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001 (India); Yadav, Arti [Physics Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Murthal 131039 (India); Seth, V.P. [Retd Professor, Physics Department, Maharshi Dayanand University Rohtak 124001 (India); Dahiya, S. [Physics Department, Baba Mast Nath University, Asthal Bohr 124001 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • There is increase in NBOs with iron content. • FTIR spectra supported the results predicted by density. • Glass stability has been examined. • Iron shows “blocking effect” on migration of mobile ions. • Internal Circuit varies with temperature and composition. - Abstract: Glasses with composition xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·(30 − x)Li{sub 2}O·70B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) were prepared via melt-quenching technique and their physical, thermal and dielectric properties are discussed. XRD was carried out to confirm the amorphous nature of prepared glasses. Density (ρ) and molar volume (V{sub m}) were found to increase with increase in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Infrared absorption spectra depicted that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is acting as a network modifier. DTA has been carried out to determine glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub x}). Electrical properties have been studied using impedance spectroscopy and dc conductivity. The dc conductivity decreases and activation energy increases on replacing Li{sup +} ions with Fe{sup 3+}. The impedance measurements reveal that the total conductivity obeys Jonscher’s power law. Study of the equivalent circuit analysis up to a temperature of 523 K shows a significant change in the equivalent circuitry with change in temperature and composition.

  18. High-performing mesoporous iron oxalate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei An; Gupta, Nutan; Prasanth, Raghavan; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2012-12-01

    Mesoporous iron oxalate (FeC(2)O(4)) with two distinct morphologies, i.e., cocoon and rod, has been synthesized via a simple, scalable chimie douce precipitation method. The solvent plays a key role in determining the morphology and microstructure of iron oxalate, which are studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic characterization of the materials has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and confirmed phase-pure FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O formation. The critical dehydration process of FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O resulted in anhydrous FeC(2)O(4), and its thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) in Li/FeC(2)O(4) cells are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The studies showed that the initial discharge capacities of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons and rods are 1288 and 1326 mA h g(-1), respectively, at 1C rate. Anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons exhibited stable capacity even at high C rates (11C). The electrochemical performance of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) is found to be greatly influenced by the number of accessible reaction sites, morphology, and size effects.

  19. Porous one-dimensional carbon/iron oxide composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high and stable capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yeqian; Jasper, Samuel; Leary, Jennifer D.; Li, Dawei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-01-01

    Hematite iron oxide (α-Fe_2O_3) is considered to be a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (1007 mAh g"−"1), nontoxicity, and low cost. However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume change during Li insertion/extraction of α-Fe_2O_3 hinder its use in practical batteries. In this study, carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers, prepared via an electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment process, are employed as the anode material for LIBs. The as-prepared porous nanofibers with a carbon content of 12.5 wt% show improved cycling performance and rate capability. They can still deliver a high and stable capacity of 715 mAh g"−"1 even at superior high current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles with a large Coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. Such improved electrochemical performance can be assigned to their unique porous fabric structure as well as the conductive carbon coating which shorten the distance for Li ion transport, enhancing Li ion reversibility and kinetic properties. It is, therefore, demonstrated that carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofiber prepared under optimized conditions is a promising anode material candidate for LIBs. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers are employed as anode material to achieve high and stable electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries, enhancing their commercial viability. - Highlights: • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers exhibit stable cyclability and good rate capability. • α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers maintain high capacity at 1000 mA g"−"1 for 200 cycles. • A capacity retention of 99.2% is achieved by α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers after 200 cycles.

  20. Optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in lead doped lithium fluoride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somma, F; Aloe, P; D' Acapito, F; Montereali, R M; Polosan, S; Secu, M; Vincenti, M A, E-mail: somma@fis.uniroma3.it

    2010-11-15

    LiF:Pb doped crystals were successfully grown by Kyropoulos method, starting with drying powders. The presence of Pb{sup 2+} ions in the LiF crystals were evidenced by the absorption band at 278 nm and by 375 nm photoluminescence. The presence of some other Pb structures with oxygen compounds in the as made samples was evidenced, decreasing after some annealing procedures. The local environment and valence state of Pb in LiF were studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} and L{sub I} edges. XANES data reveal that Pb is present as Pb{sup 2+} whereas EXAFS data show that it is incorporated in the crystal and not forming PbF{sub 2} precipitates. Identical spectra are obtained for samples as prepared and after thermal annealing up to 650 deg. C demonstrating the stability of the incorporation site. Also the concentration of Pb in the crystal has no effect on the location site of the metal as the same spectrum is obtained for specimens with different dopant concentrations.

  1. Biomass-Derived Oxygen and Nitrogen Co-Doped Porous Carbon with Hierarchical Architecture as Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a facile strategy to synthesize oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (ONPC is reported by one-step pyrolysis of waste coffee grounds. As-prepared ONPC possesses highly rich micro/mesopores as well as abundant oxygen and nitrogen co-doping, which is applied to sulfur hosts as lithium/sulfur batteries’ appropriate cathodes. In battery testing, the sulfur/oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (S/ONPC composite materials reveal a high initial capacity of 1150 mAh·g−1 as well as a reversible capacity of 613 mAh·g−1 after the 100th cycle at 0.2 C. Furthermore, when current density increases to 1 C, a discharge capacity of 331 mAh·g−1 is still attainable. Due to the hierarchical porous framework and oxygen/nitrogen co-doping, the S/ONPC composite exhibits a high utilization of sulfur and good electrochemical performance via the immobilization of the polysulfides through strong chemical binding.

  2. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Facile synthesis of the N-doped graphene/nickel oxide with enhanced electrochemical performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chuanning, E-mail: yangcn1988@outlook.com [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Qing, Yongquan; An, Kai [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Zhang, Zefei; Wang, Linshan [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: csliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials of Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids with a hierarchical structure have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal route assisted by microwave treatment. The as-obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO electrodes exhibit an enhanced electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity can reach 1737 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1}. Significantly, the nanocomposites anodes also display a relatively high reversible capacity of 1095 mAh g{sup -1} at the current density of 0.3 A g{sup -1} after 100 cycles. Herein, the nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO possesses electrodes enormous potential as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped graphene/NiO nanohybrids have been successfully synthesized. • Microwave treatment may enhance conductivity and capacity of electrodes. • The hierarchical structure will help to improve the stability of the electrodes. • The reversible capacity of electrodes can reach 1095 mAh g{sup -1} over 100 cycles.

  4. Polypyrrole–titanium(IV) doped iron(III) oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization with tunable electrical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arup Kumar; Gupta, Kaushik; De, Amitabha; Sen, Pintu; Duttachowdhury, Ankan; Ghosh, Uday Chand

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis and characterization of polymer nanocomposite based on titanium doped iron(III) oxide. ► Electrical conductivity increased 100 times in composite with respect to polymer. ► Electrochemical capacitance of polymer composites increased with nanooxide content. ► Thermal stability of the polymer enhanced with nano oxide content. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-doped synthetic nanostructured iron(III) oxide (NITO) and polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites was fabricated by in situ polymerization using FeCl 3 as initiator. The polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) and pure NITO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Föurier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, etc. Thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses showed the enhancement of thermal stability of PNCs than the pure polymer. Electrical conductivity of the PNCs had increased significantly from 0.793 × 10 −2 S/cm to 0.450 S/cm with respect to the PPy, and that had been explained by 3-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. In addition, the specific capacitance of PNCs had increased from 147 F/g to 176 F/g with increasing NITO content than that of pure NITO (26 F/g), presumably due to the growing of mesoporous structure with increasing NITO content in PNCs which reduced the charge transfer resistance significantly.

  5. APTES-Terminated ultrasmall and iron-doped silicon nanoparticles as X-Ray dose enhancer for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stefanie; Wegmann, Marc; Distel, Luitpold V R; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kryschi, Carola

    2018-04-15

    Silicon nanoparticles with sizes between were synthesized through wet-chemistry procedures using diverse phase transfer reagents. On the other hand, the preparation of iron-doped silicon nanoparticles was carried out using the precursor Na 4 Si 4 containing 5% Fe. Biocompatibility of all silicon nanoparticle samples was achieved by surface-stabilizing with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. These surface structures provided positive surface charges which facilitated electrostatic binding to the negatively charged biological membranes. The mode of interaction with membranes, being either incorporation or just attachment, was found to depend on the nanoparticle size. The smallest silicon nanoparticles (ca. 1.5 nm) were embedded in the mitochondrial membrane in MCF-7 cells. When interacting with X-rays these silicon nanoparticles were observed to enhance the superoxide formation upon depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane. X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells loaded with the larger silicon nanoparticles was shown to increase the intracellular singlet oxygen generation. The doping of the silicon nanoparticles with iron led to additional production of hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. First-principles study of antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1−x)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(Sb x As 1−x ) 2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework. (author)

  7. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  8. Ca-doped LTO using waste eggshells as Ca source to improve the discharge capacity of anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Subhan, A.; Saptari, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The necessity of high charge-discharge capacity lithium-ion battery becomes very urgent due to its applications demand. Several researches have been done to meet the demand including Ca doping on Li4Ti5O12 for anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Ca-doped Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) in the form of Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1) have been synthesized using simple solid state reaction. The materials preparation involved waste eggshells in the form of CaCO3 as Ca source. The structure and capacity of as-prepared samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer and Cyclic Voltametry. X-Ray Diffractometer characterization revealed that all amount of dopant had entered the lattice structure of LTO successfully. The crystalline sizes were obtained by using Scherrer equation. No significant differences are detected in lattice parameters (˜8.35 Å) and crystalline sizes (˜27 nm) between all samples. Cyclic Voltametry characterization shows that Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0.05) has highest charge-discharge capacity of 177.14 mAh/g and 181.92 mAh/g, respectively. Redox-potentials of samples show no significant differences with the average of 1.589 V.

  9. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Biomass-Derived Nanoporous Carbon/Sulfur Composites Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Nitrogen Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Wang, Dabin; Yi, Guanghai; Xu, Zhigang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    A two-step method with high-efficiency is developed to prepare nitrogen doped activated carbons (NACs) with high surface area and nitrogen content. Based on the method, series of NACs with similar surface area and pore texture but different nitrogen content and nitrogen group species are successfully prepared. The influence of nitrogen doping on electrochemical performance of carbon/sulfur composites cathode is studied deeply under the conditions of similar surface area and pore texture. It presents the directly experimental demonstration that both nitrogen content and nitrogen group species play crucial roles on electrochemical performance of carbon/sulfur composites cathode. NAC/sulfur composites show the much improved cycling performance, which is about 3.5 times as that of nitrogen free carbon. Improved electrochemical performance is due to synergistic effects between nitrogen content and effective nitrogen groups, which enables effective trapping of lithium polysulfides within carbon framework. Besides, it is found that oxygen groups exist in carbon materials obviously influence electrochemical performance of cathode, which could be ignored in most of studies. Based on above, it can be concluded that enhanced chemisorption to lithium polysulfides by functional groups modification is the effective route to improve the electrochemical performance of Li-S battery.

  10. Tungsten carbide encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon with iron/cobalt carbides electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinwei, E-mail: jwchen@scu.edu.cn; Jiang, Yiwu; Zhou, Feilong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin, E-mail: rl.wang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A hybrid catalyst was prepared via a quite green and simple method to achieve an one-pot synthesis of the N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides. It exhibited comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability and ability to methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C to ORR. - Highlights: • A novel type of hybrid Fe/Co/WC@NC catalysts have been successfully synthesized. • The hybrid catalyst also exhibited better durability and methanol tolerance. • Multiple effective active sites of Fe{sub 3}C, Co{sub 3}C, WC, and NC help to improve catalytic performance. - Abstract: This work presents a type of hybrid catalyst prepared through an environmental and simple method, combining a pyrolysis of transition metal precursors, a nitrogen-containing material, and a tungsten source to achieve a one-pot synthesis of N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides (Fe/Co/WC@NC). The obtained Fe/Co/WC@NC consists of uniform Fe{sub 3}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitized carbon with surface nitrogen doping, closely wrapped around a plate-like tungsten carbide (WC) that functions as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The introduction of WC is found to promote the ORR activity of Fe/Co-based carbide electrocatalysts, which is attributed to the synergistic catalysts of WC, Fe{sub 3}C, and Co{sub 3}C. Results suggest that the composite exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability, and ability for methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. These advantages make Fe/Co/WC@NC a promising ORR electrocatalyst and a cost-effective alternative to Pt/C for practical application as fuel cell.

  11. A Universal Strategy for Hollow Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated into B/N Co-Doped Graphitic Nanotubes as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Zou, Ruqiang; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Song; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Guo, Shaojun

    2018-02-01

    Yolk-shell nanostructures have received great attention for boosting the performance of lithium-ion batteries because of their obvious advantages in solving the problems associated with large volume change, low conductivity, and short diffusion path for Li + ion transport. A universal strategy for making hollow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into B, N co-doped graphitic nanotubes (TMO@BNG (TMO = CoO, Ni 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 ) through combining pyrolysis with an oxidation method is reported herein. The as-made TMO@BNG exhibits the TMO-dependent lithium-ion storage ability, in which CoO@BNG nanotubes exhibit highest lithium-ion storage capacity of 1554 mA h g -1 at the current density of 96 mA g -1 , good rate ability (410 mA h g -1 at 1.75 A g -1 ), and high stability (almost 96% storage capacity retention after 480 cycles). The present work highlights the importance of introducing hollow TMO NPs with thin wall into BNG with large surface area for boosting LIBs in the terms of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nitrogen doped graphene - Silver nanowire hybrids: An excellent anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Elizabeth, Indu; S, Gopukumar; Thomas, Sabu; M. S, Kala; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-01-01

    We present an in-situ polyol assisted synthesis approach for the preparation of silver nanowires (AgNW) over the nitrogen doped graphene (NG) sheets and has been tested as a viable LIBs anode material for the first time. The use of NG serves as nucleation sites, thereby facilitating the growth of AgNWs. The specific material design of the as-prepared NG-AgNW hybrids involves some advantages, including a continuous AgNW-graphene conducting network. Since AgNWs are electrically conductive, it provides an electrical contact with NG sheets which can effectively help the charge transport process and limit the variations in volume during the lithiation/de-lithiation processes. Apart from this, the insertion of metallic Ag nanowires into a percolated NG network increases the interlayer distance of NG sheets and prevent its restacking. Moreover, the more porous nature of the hybrid structure accommodating the large volume changes of AgNWs. As an anode material for LIBs, the NG-AgNW hybrid displays a remarkable initial discharge capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 and attains a stable capacity of 724 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The electrode exhibits a stable reversible capacity of 714, 634, 550 and 464 mA h g-1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Ag-1 respectively. The reversible capacity (710 mAh g-1) at 0.1 Ag-1 is recovered after the cycling at various current densities confirming outstanding rate performance of the material. In addition, the coulombic efficiency, the NG-AgNW anode retains nearly 99% after the second cycle, further indicating its excellent reversibility. The hybrid material exhibits better cycling stability, greater rate capability, capacity retention and superior reversible capacity than that of bare AgNW and NG sheets. Our smart design will pave way for the development of efficient electrode materials for high capacity and long cycle life LIBs.

  13. Transition from Sign-Reversed to Sign-Preserved Cooper-Pairing Symmetry in Sulfur-Doped Iron Selenide Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qisi; Park, J T; Feng, Yu; Shen, Yao; Hao, Yiqing; Pan, Bingying; Lynn, J W; Ivanov, A; Chi, Songxue; Matsuda, M; Cao, Huibo; Birgeneau, R J; Efremov, D V; Zhao, Jun

    2016-05-13

    An essential step toward elucidating the mechanism of superconductivity is to determine the sign or phase of the superconducting order parameter, as it is closely related to the pairing interaction. In conventional superconductors, the electron-phonon interaction induces attraction between electrons near the Fermi energy and results in a sign-preserved s-wave pairing. For high-temperature superconductors, including cuprates and iron-based superconductors, prevalent weak coupling theories suggest that the electron pairing is mediated by spin fluctuations which lead to repulsive interactions, and therefore that a sign-reversed pairing with an s_{±} or d-wave symmetry is favored. Here, by using magnetic neutron scattering, a phase sensitive probe of the superconducting gap, we report the observation of a transition from the sign-reversed to sign-preserved Cooper-pairing symmetry with insignificant changes in T_{c} in the S-doped iron selenide superconductors K_{x}Fe_{2-y}(Se_{1-z}S_{z})_{2}. We show that a rather sharp magnetic resonant mode well below the superconducting gap (2Δ) in the undoped sample (z=0) is replaced by a broad hump structure above 2Δ under 50% S doping. These results cannot be readily explained by simple spin fluctuation-exchange pairing theories and, therefore, multiple pairing channels are required to describe superconductivity in this system. Our findings may also yield a simple explanation for the sometimes contradictory data on the sign of the superconducting order parameter in iron-based materials.

  14. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  15. Synthesis of Iron Doped Zeolite Imidazolate Framework-8 and Its Remazol Deep Black RGB Dye Adsorption Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Thi Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8 and the iron doped ZIF-8 (Fe-ZIF-8 were synthesized by the hydrothermal process. The obtained materials were characteristic of X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The results showed that the obtained Fe-ZIF-8 possessed the ZIF-8 structure with a large specific area. ZIF-8 and Fe-ZIF-8 were used for the removal of Remazol Deep Black (RDB RGB dye from aqueous solutions. The various factors affecting adsorption such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the introduction of iron into ZIF-8 provided a much larger adsorption capacity and faster adsorption kinetics than ZIF-8 without iron. The electrostatic interaction and π-π interaction between the aromatic rings of the RDB dye and the aromatic imidazolate rings of the adsorbent were responsible for the RDB adsorption. Moreover, the coordination of the nitrogen atoms and oxygen in carboxyl group in RDB molecules with the Fe2+ ions in the ZIF-8 framework played a vital role for the effective removal of RDB from aqueous solution.

  16. Iron-Doped (La,Sr)MnO3 Manganites as Promising Mediators of Self-Controlled Magnetic Nanohyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapa, Yulia; Kulyk, Mykola; Kalita, Viktor; Polek, Taras; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Solopan, Sergii; Belous, Anatolii

    2016-12-01

    Fe-doped La0.77Sr0.23Mn1 - y Fe y O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method, and ceramic samples based on them were sintered at 1613 K. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of obtained nanoparticles and ceramic samples have been studied. It has been established that cell volume for nanoparticles increases with growing of iron content, while this dependence displays an opposite trend in the case of ceramic samples. Mössbauer investigations have shown that in all samples, the oxidation state of iron is +3. According to magnetic studies, at room temperature, both nanoparticles and ceramic samples with y ≤ 0.06 display superparamagnetic properties and samples with y ≥ 0.08 are paramagnetic. Magnetic fluids based on La0.77Sr0.23Mn1 - y Fe y O3 nanoparticles and aqua solution of agarose have been prepared. It has been established that heating efficiency of nanoparticles under an alternating magnetic field decreases with growing of iron content.

  17. Observation of a hidden hole-like band approaching the fermi level in K-doped iron selenide superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Masanori; Terashima, Kensei; Hamada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of the study of iron-based superconductors is to identify the common feature that produces the high critical temperature (T c ). In the early days, based on a weak-coupling viewpoint, the nesting between hole- and electron-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) leading to the so-called s± state was considered to be one such key feature. However, this theory has faced a serious challenge ever since the discovery of alkali-metal-doped FeSe (AFS) superconductors, in which only electron-like FSs with a nodeless superconducting gap are observed. Several theories have been proposed, but a consistent understanding is yet to be achieved. Here we show experimentally that a hole-like band exists in K x Fe 2-y Se 2 , which presumably forms a hole-like Fermi surface. The present study suggests that AFS can be categorized in the same group as iron arsenides with both hole- and electron-like FSs present. This result provides a foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. (author)

  18. In situ growth of SnO2 nanoparticles in heteroatoms doped cross-linked carbon frameworks for lithium ion batteries anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xi, Lihua; Chen, Feng; Bai, Tao; Wang, Biao; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile hydrothermal method is proposed to prepare cross-linked NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 . • The graphene/CNTs anchored with untrasmall SnO 2 nanoparticles can be obtained. • The N, S are successfully incorporated into the carbon matrix. • The NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 presents enhanced cycling stability and good high-rate capacity. - Abstract: SnO 2 -based nanostructures have attracted considerable interest as a promising high-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries. We present herein a facile one step hydrothermal approach for in situ growth of SnO 2 nanoparticles in heteroatoms doped cross-linked carbon framework (NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 ). Thiourea is employed as a single source of nitrogen and sulfur in the cross-linked carbon framework (NSG/CNTs). Characterization shows that the SnO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of 6–10 nm are uniformly anchored on NSG/CNTs matrix. When evaluated for the electrochemical properties in lithium ion batteries, the obtained NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 composite with ultrasmall SnO 2 particle size (6–10 nm) delivers a high reversible capacity of 999 mAh g −1 at 200 mA g −1 after 120 cycles and excellent rate performance. Such outstanding electrochemical performance of the peculiar cross-linked NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 composite can be primarily attributed to the synergistic effect of the ultrasmall anchored SnO 2 nanoparticles and the dual-doped NSG/CNTs matrix. The uniformly distributed SnO 2 nanoparticles can deliver large capacity and the robust dual-doped NSG/CNTs matrix can guarantee the good structural integrity and high electrical conductivity during cycling. Besides, the porous structure can provide free space for the volume expansion of SnO 2 and accommodate the strain formed during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes.

  19. Cr3+ and Nb5+ co-doped Ti2Nb10O29 materials for high-performance lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Yu, Shu; Ma, Yu; Lin, Chunfu; Xu, Zhihao; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Zheng, Peng; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Ti2Nb10O29 is an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its large specific capacity and high safety. However, its poor electronic/ionic conductivity significantly limits its rate capability. To tackle this issue, a Cr3+-Nb5+ co-doping is employed, and a series of CrxTi2-2xNb10+xO29 compounds are prepared. The co-doping does not change the Wadsley-Roth shear structure but increases the unit-cell volume and decreases the particle size. Due to the increased unit-cell volumes, the co-doped samples show increased Li+-ion diffusion coefficients. Experimental data and first-principle calculations reveal significantly increased electronic conductivities arising from the formation of impurity bands after the co-doping. The improvements of the electronic/ionic conductivities and the smaller particle sizes in the co-doped samples significantly contribute to improving their electrochemical properties. During the first cycle at 0.1 C, the optimized Cr0.6Ti0.8Nb10.6O29 sample delivers a large reversible capacity of 322 mAh g-1 with a large first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of 94.7%. At 10 C, it retains a large capacity of 206 mAh g-1, while that of Ti2Nb10O29 is only 80 mAh g-1. Furthermore, Cr0.6Ti0.8Nb10.6O29 shows high cyclic stability as demonstrated in over 500 cycles at 10 C with tiny capacity loss of only 0.01% per cycle.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin-doped MoS{sub 2} (Sn/MoS{sub 2}) composites for lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Min, Feixia; Luo, Zhaohui; Wang, Shiquan, E-mail: wsqhao@126.com [Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Teng, Fei [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (China); Li, Guohua [Zhejiang University of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Feng, Chuanqi [Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China)

    2016-12-15

    SnO{sub 2}-MoO{sub 3} composites were synthesized by using (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}·4H{sub 2}O and SnCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O as raw materials through a simple solvothermal method followed by pyrolysis. Tin-doped MoS{sub 2} (Sn/MoS{sub 2}) flowers have been synthesized by a solvothermal method followed with annealing in Ar(H{sub 2}) atmosphere, with SnO{sub 2}-MoO{sub 3}, thioacetamide (TAA), and urea as starting materials. The doping and the content of Sn-doping play crucial roles in the morphology and electrochemical performance of the MoS{sub 2}. As anode materials for lithium ion battery (LIB), all Sn/MoS{sub 2} composites exhibit both higher reversible capacity and better cycling performance at current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, compared with MoS{sub 2} without Sn doping. The achieved discharge capacity for Sn/MoS{sub 2} composites is above 1000 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. The doping of metal Sn in MoS{sub 2} can improve the conductivity of MoS{sub 2} and significantly enhance its electrochemical properties. The good electrochemical performance suggests that the Sn/MoS{sub 2} composite could be a promising candidate as a novel anode material for LIB application. Our present work provides a new approach to the fabrication of anode materials for LIB applications.

  1. Mesostructured niobium-doped titanium oxide-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composite as an anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Keebum; Sohn, Hiesang; Yoon, Songhun

    2018-02-01

    Mesostructured niobium (Nb)-doped TiO2-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composites are synthesized by a hydrothermal process for application as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The composites have a hierarchical porous structure with the Nb-TiO2 nanoparticles homogenously distributed throughout the porous carbon matrix. The Nb content is controlled (0-10 wt%) to investigate its effect on the physico-chemical properties and electrochemical performance of the composite. While the crystalline/surface structure varied with the addition of Nb (d-spacing of TiO2: 0.34-0.36 nm), the morphology of the composite remained unaffected. The electrochemical performance (cycle stability and rate capability) of the Nb-TiO2-C composite anode with 1 wt% Nb doping improved significantly. First, a full cut-off potential (0-2.5 V vs. Li/Li+) of Nb-doped composite anode (1 wt%) provides a higher energy utilization than that of the un-doped TiO2-C anode. Second, Nb-TiO2-C composite anode (1 wt%) exhibits an excellent long-term cycle stability (100% capacity retention, 297 mAh/g at 0.5 C after 100 cycles and 221 mAh/g at 2 C after 500 cycles) and improved rate-capability (192 mAh/g at 5 C), respectively (1 C: 150 mA/g). The superior electrochemical performance of Nb-TiO2-C (1 wt%) could be attributed to the synergistic effect of improved electronic conductivity induced by optimal Nb doping (1 wt%) and lithium-ion penetration (high diffusion kinetics) through unique pore structures.

  2. Iron-containing N-doped carbon electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daems, Nick; Sheng, Xia; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing N-doped carbon materials were investigated as electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell. This electrochemical route for the production of hydroxylamine is a greener alternative to the present industrial synthesis, because it

  3. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  4. One-pot synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Wu, Zhenjun; Ma, Zhaoling; Dou, Shuo; Wu, Jianghong; Tao, Li; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Canbing; Shen, Anli; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS 2 nanosheets were successfully prepared and used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. • The as-prepared anode materials show excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. • The materials show high reversible capacity for lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS 2 (MoS 2 /NS-G) nanosheets were prepared through a one-pot thermal annealing method. The as prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra and electrochemical techniques. The MoS 2 /NS-G shows high reversible capacity about 1200 mAh/g at current density of 150 mA/g and excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. It was demonstrated the co-doping of graphene by N and S could significantly enhance the durability of MoS 2 as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

  5. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-15

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  6. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  7. High-resolution structural characterization and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Vikram Singh, Amit; Rastogi, Ankur; Gazquez, Jaume; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mishra, Rohan; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of magnetic garnet materials, e.g. yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), are useful for a variety of applications including microwave integrated circuits and spintronics. Substitution of rare earth ions, such as cerium, is known to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) as compared to pure YIG. Thin films of Ce0.75Y2.25Fe5O12 (Ce:YIG) have been grown using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and their crystal structure examined using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous substitution of Ce in YIG, without oxidation to form a separate CeO2 phase, can be realized in a narrow process window with resulting enhancement of the MOKE signal. The thermally generated signal due to spin Seebeck effect for the optimally doped Ce:YIG films has also been investigated.

  8. A three-dimensional interlayer composed of graphene and porous carbon for Long-life, High capacity Lithium-Iron Fluoride Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Zhanglin; Sun, Hongxu; Zhou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    We design a macroscopic structure composing of porous carbon and graphene sheets, which are coated onto a cellulose paper as an interlayer inserted between electrode and separator. The interlayer mainly acts as a divertor to accommodate the discharge products breaking away from the electrode by mechanical degradation or cathode dissolution during cycling and keeps the close contact with current collector. Iron fluoride is a new-type lithium storage material developed in recent years, which can act as a cathode material candidate for the rechargeable lithium ion battery due to their large theoretical capacity and relatively high operating potential. Specifically, FeF 3 ·0.33H 2 O, which possesses unusual tunnel structure, is attracting more and more attentions. However, FeF 3 ·0.33H 2 O suffers from the poor electronic conductivity and volume effect during cycling, causing the large capacity fading. In this study, we design a macroscopic structure composing of porous carbon and graphene sheets, which are coated onto a cellulose paper as an interlayer inserted between electrode and separator. The interlayer can not only enhance the electronic conductivity, but also absorb the FeF 3 ·0.33H 2 O nanoparticles breaking away from the Al foil due to the volume effect upon cycling. When the interlayer is applied in battery, discharge capacities of 600 and 460 mAh g −1 can be achieved at the rates of 100 and 600 mA g −1 after 60 cycles, respectively. Furthermore, the capacity of 435 mAh g −1 can be still retained at a high rate of 1000 mA g −1 after 250 cycles. The results demonstrate a potential feasibility for the porous carbon/graphene sheets to be applied to obtain a high-performance lithium-iron fluoride battery.

  9. CRYSTALLIZATION AND THERMAL EXPANSION CHARACTERISTICS OF In2O3-CONTAINING LITHIUM IRON SILICATE-DIOPSIDE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. SALMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of glasses based on lithium iron silicate (LiFeSi2O6-diopside (CaMgSi2O6 composition with addition of Al2O3 at the expense of Fe2O3 were described. The effect of LiInSi2O6/CaMgSi2O6 replacements was also investigated. The thermal treatment, the crystal phases, and the micro-structural properties of (LiFeSi2O6–CaMgSi2O6 glasses, replacing partial Fe2O3 with Al2O3 and partial CaMgSi2O6 with LiInSi2O6, have been studied by a differential thermal analysis, an X-ray diffraction, and a scanning electron microscopy. The glasses show the intense uniform bulkcrystallization with the fine grained microstructure by increasing the replacement of Al2O3/Fe2O3 and LiInSi2O6/CaMgSi2O6. The crystallizing phases of Ca(Fe,Mg(SiO32, a-LiFe5O8, Li2SiO3, a-SiO2 and CaMgSi2O6 are mostly formed together, in most case, with Li0.6Al0.6Si2.4O6, β-eucryptite solid solution, LiInSi2O6, In2Si2O7, and LiFeSi2O6. The Al2O3 partial replacement increases the transformation temperature (Tg and softening one (Ts for the glasses and the glass-ceramics, and decreases the thermal expansion coefficient (a-value for the glasses. The LiInSi2O6 partial replacement decreases Tg and Ts and increases the a-value for the glasses, while the Al2O3 and LiInSi2O6 partial replacements decrease the a-value for the glassceramics. The crystallization characters of the glasses are correlated to the internal structure, as well as role played by the glass-forming cations. However, the one of the glass-ceramics are mainly attributed to the crystalline phases formed in the material.

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  11. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  12. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  13. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  14. Selective Oxidation Using Flame Aerosol Synthesized Iron and Vanadium-Doped Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Min Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective photocatalytic oxidation of 1-phenyl ethanol to acetophenone using titanium dioxide (TiO2 raw and doped with Fe or V, prepared by flame aerosol deposition method, was investigated. The effects of metal doping on crystal phase and morphology of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 were analyzed using XRD, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and BET nitrogen adsorbed surface area measurement. The increase in the concentration of V and Fe reduced the crystalline structure and the anatase-to-rutile ratios of the synthesized TiO2. Synthesized TiO2 became fine amorphous powder as the Fe and V concentrations were increased to 3 and 5%, respectively. Doping V and Fe to TiO2 synthesized by the flame aerosol increased photocatalytic activity by 6 folds and 2.5 folds, respectively, compared to that of pure TiO2. It was found that an optimal doping concentration for Fe and V were 0.5% and 3%, respectively. The type and concentration of the metal dopants and the method used to add the dopant to the TiO2 are critical parameters for enhancing the activity of the resulting photocatalyst. The effects of solvents on the photocatalytic reaction were also investigated by using both water and acetonitrile as the reaction medium.

  15. Thermopower, electrical and Hall conductivity of undoped and doped iron disilicide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, A; Behr, G; Griessmann, H; Teichert, S; Lange, H

    1997-07-01

    The electrical transport properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} single crystals have been investigated in dependence on the purity of the source material and on doping with 3d transition metals. The transport properties included are electrical conductivity, Hall conductivity and thermopower mainly in the temperature range from 4K to 300K. The single crystals have been prepared by chemical transport reaction in a closed system with iodine as transport agent. In undoped single crystals prepared with 5N Fe both electrical conductivity and thermopower depend on the composition within the homogeneity range of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} which is explained by different intrinsic defects at the Si-rich and Fe-rich phase boundaries. In both undoped and doped single crystals impurity band conduction is observed at low temperatures but above 100K extrinsic behavior determined by shallow impurity states. The thermopower shows between 100K and 200K a significant phonon drag contribution which depends on intrinsic defects and additional doping. The Hall resistivity is considered mainly with respect to an anomalous contribution found in p-type and n-type single crystals and thin films. In addition doped single crystals show at temperatures below about 130K an hysteresis of the Hall voltage. These results make former mobility data uncertain. Comparison will be made between the transport properties of single crystals and polycrystalline material.

  16. The Formation of Lithiated Ti-Doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} Nanocrystalline Particles by Mechanical Milling of Ti-Doped Lithium Spinel Ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widatallah, H. M., E-mail: hisham@ictp.trieste.it [Khartoum University, Department of Physics (Sudan); Gismelseed, A. M.; Bouziane, K. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman); Berry, F. J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Al Rawas, A. D.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Yousif, A. A.; Elzain, M. E. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2004-12-15

    The milling of spinel-related Ti-doped Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} for different times is studied with XRD, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Milling converts the material to Li-Ti-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystalline particles via an intermediate {gamma}-LiFeO{sub 2}-related phase. The role played by the dopant Ti-ion in the process is emphasized.

  17. The Formation of Lithiated Ti-Doped α-Fe2O3 Nanocrystalline Particles by Mechanical Milling of Ti-Doped Lithium Spinel Ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widatallah, H. M.; Gismelseed, A. M.; Bouziane, K.; Berry, F. J.; Al Rawas, A. D.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Yousif, A. A.; Elzain, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The milling of spinel-related Ti-doped Li 0.5 Fe 2.5 O 4 for different times is studied with XRD, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Milling converts the material to Li-Ti-doped α-Fe 2 O 3 nanocrystalline particles via an intermediate γ-LiFeO 2 -related phase. The role played by the dopant Ti-ion in the process is emphasized.

  18. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  19. Mapping Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in V- and Fe-Doped LiMnPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D; Loveridge, Melanie; Bhagat, Rohit; Darr, Jawwad A

    2016-11-14

    A series of LiMn 1-x-y Fe x V y PO 4 (LMFVP) nanomaterials have been synthesized using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (CHFS) and evaluated as high voltage cathodes in Li-ion batteries at a production rate of 0.25 kg h -1 . The rapid synthesis and screening approach has allowed the specific capacity of the high Mn content olivines to be optimized, particularly at high discharge rates. Consistent and gradual changes in the structure and performance are observed across the compositional region under investigation; the doping of Fe at 20 at% (with respect to Mn) into lithium manganese phosphate, rather than V or indeed codoping of Fe and V, gives the best balance of high capacity and high rate performance.

  20. S/N dual-doped carbon nanosheets decorated with Co x O y nanoparticles as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoFei; Zhu, Yong; Zhu, Sheng; Fan, JinChen; Xu, QunJie; Min, YuLin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized the S/N dual-doped carbon nanosheets which are strongly coupled with Co x O y nanoparticles (SNCC) by calcinating cobalt/dithizone complex precursor following KOH activation. The SNCC as anode shows the wonderful charge capacity of 1200 mAh g-1 after 400th cycles at 1000 mA g-1 for Li-ion storage. The superior electrochemical properties illustrate that the SNCC can be a candidate for high-performance anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the facile preparation method and excellent performance. Significantly, we also discuss the mechanism for the SNCC from the strong synergistic effect perspective.

  1. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cobalt Oxide/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Framework for Enhanced Anodic Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Xia; Liu, Ruili; Liu, Shaoqing; Xiao, Suo; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chi; Wu, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the composites of nitrogen-doped graphene framework and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with adjustable morphologies (NG/Co 3 O 4 ) were fabricated via a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route for first time. Three different surfactants including triblock copolymer F127, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate are involved in the hybrid-assembly of graphene oxide, o-phthalonitrile and cobalt acetate in water/ethanol. Among the obtained samples, the one using F127 (NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127) manifests the most homogeneous distribution of Co 3 O 4 NPs with the size of ∼ 15 nm in the macropore-walls formed by NG. As the anode material in lithium ion battery (LIB), NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, which is superior to the other composites and most of the previously reported Co 3 O 4 based anode materials in LIBs.

  2. Nitrogen-doped carbon decorated Cu2NiSnS4 microflowers as superior anode materials for long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pei; Chen, Lihui; Ding, Yu; Du, Jun; Feng, Chuanqi; Fu, Zhengbin; Qin, Caiqin; Wang, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) decorated Cu2NiSnS4 (CNTS) microflower composites (NC@CNTS) were fabricated through a facile solvothermal and pyrrole polymerization with further annealing treatment. The NC@CNTS composites possessed a three-dimension (3D) microflower-like hierarchical structure. The unique microflower structure of NC@CNTS composites exhibited remarkable electrochemical performance as electrode materials for long life lithium ion batteries. The as-prepared composites had a stable and reversible capacity that reached 943 mA h g-1 after 160 cycles at a current rate of 0.1 A g-1. It showed satisfactory cycle stability and rate capability even at 2 A g-1, and specific capacity stabilized at 288 mA g-1 after 1000 cycles. The present facile and cost-effective strategy can be applied for the synthesis of other transition metal sulfide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications.

  3. T1-T2 dual-modal MRI of brain gliomas using PEGylated Gd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ning; Gu, Wei; Wang, Hao; Deng, Yunlong; Shi, Xin; Ye, Ling

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the negative contrast limitations of iron oxide-based contrast agents and to improve the biocompatibility of Gd-chelate contrast agents, PEGylated Gd-doped iron oxide (PEG-GdIO) NPs as a T1-T2 dual-modal contrast agent were synthesized by the polyol method. The transverse relaxivity (r2) and longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of PEG-GdIO were determined to be 66.9 and 65.9 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The high r1 value and low r2/r1 ratio make PEG-GdIO NPs suitable as a T1-T2 dual-modal contrast agent. The in vivo MRI demonstrated a brighter contrast enhancement in T1-weighted image and a simultaneous darken effect in T2-weighted MR image compared to the pre-contrast image in the region of glioma. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of PEG-GdIO NPs was confirmed by the in vitro MTT cytotoxicity and in vivo histological analyses (H&E). Therefore, PEG-GdIO NPs hold great potential in T1-T2 dual-modal imaging for the diagnosis of brain glioma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 and Direct Violet-51 Dyes from Textile Wastewater by Using Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Baqar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of synthetic dyes in textile industry wastewater lead to deterioration of precious fresh water resources, making the need to remove dyes crucial for environmental protection. Recently, different techniques have been employed to remove these dyes from water resources. Among them, biosorption has gained tremendous popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and inexpensive method. In this study, the removal potential of two acid dyes, i.e. yellow-73 and direct violet-51, was assessed from textile effluent samples using iron modified corncob charcoal. The adsorption efficiency ranged between 93.93 ­ 97.96 % and 92.2 - 95.4 % for acid yellow-73 and direct violet-51, respectively. Furthermore, study highlights optimum parameters for successful adsorption of these dyes, such as stirring time (numbers, pH (numbers, temperature (numbers, and adsorbent dosage (numbers. Keeping in consideration these findings, we recommend the use of Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal (IDCC as a low-cost, efficient alternative for wastewater treatment, primarily minimizing the detrimental effects of hazardous dyes.

  5. Electronic properties and surface reactivity of SrO-terminated SrTiO3 and SrO-terminated iron-doped SrTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staykov, Aleksandar; Tellez, Helena; Druce, John; Wu, Ji; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John

    2018-01-01

    Surface reactivity and near-surface electronic properties of SrO-terminated SrTiO 3 and iron doped SrTiO 3 were studied with first principle methods. We have investigated the density of states (DOS) of bulk SrTiO 3 and compared it to DOS of iron-doped SrTiO 3 with different oxidation states of iron corresponding to varying oxygen vacancy content within the bulk material. The obtained bulk DOS was compared to near-surface DOS, i.e. surface states, for both SrO-terminated surface of SrTiO 3 and iron-doped SrTiO 3 . Electron density plots and electron density distribution through the entire slab models were investigated in order to understand the origin of surface electrons that can participate in oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, we have compared oxygen reduction reactions at elevated temperatures for SrO surfaces with and without oxygen vacancies. Our calculations demonstrate that the conduction band, which is formed mainly by the d-states of Ti, and Fe-induced states within the band gap of SrTiO 3 , are accessible only on TiO 2 terminated SrTiO 3 surface while the SrO-terminated surface introduces a tunneling barrier for the electrons populating the conductance band. First principle molecular dynamics demonstrated that at elevated temperatures the surface oxygen vacancies are essential for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  6. Electrical and magnetic behavior of iron doped nickel titanate (Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3}) magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenin, Nayagam; Karthik, Arumugam; Sridharpanday, Mathu; Selvam, Mohanraj; Srither, Saturappan Ravisekaran; Arunmetha, Sundarmoorthy; Paramasivam, Palanisamy; Rajendran, Venkatachalam, E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Iron doped nickel titanate (Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3}) ferromagnetic nanoparticles with different concentrations of Fe (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mol) were synthesized using precipitation route with precursor source such as nickel nitrate and iron nitrate solutions. The prepared magnetic nanopowders were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, vibrating sample magnetometer, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to explore the structural, ferromagnetic, and dielectric properties. The obtained XRD pattern shows formation of iron doped nickel titanate in orthorhombic structure. The crystallite size ranges from 57 to 21 nm and specific surface area ranges from 11 to 137 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The hysteresis loops of nanomagnetic materials show ferromagnetic behavior with higher magnitude of coercivity (H{sub c}) 867–462 Oe. The impedance analysis of ferromagnetic materials explores the ferro-dielectric behavior with enhanced properties of Fe{sup 3+}/NiTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles at higher Fe content. - Highlights: • Iron doped nickel titanate magnetic nanoparticles. • Ferromagnetic magnetism behavior with higher magnitude of coercivity. • Dielectric behavior of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with increase of Fe content.

  7. 3-dimensional interconnected framework of N-doped porous carbon based on sugarcane bagasse for application in supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yunhui; Peng, Yueying; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-06-01

    In this work, N-doped biomass derived porous carbon (NSBDC) has been prepared utilizing low-cost agricultural waste-sugarcane bagasse as the prototype, and needle-like PANI as the dopant. NSBDC possesses a special 3D interconnected framework structure, superior hierarchical pores and suitable heteroatom doping level, which benefits a large number of applications on ion storage and high-rate ion transfer. Typically, the NSBDC exhibits the high specific capacitance (298 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and rate capability (58.7% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1), as well as the high cycle stability (5.5% loss over 5000 cycles) in three-electrode systems. A two-electrode asymmetric system has been fabricated employing NSBDC and the precursor of NSBDC (sugarcane bagasse derived carbon/PANI composite) as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and an energy density as high as 49.4 Wh kg-1 is verified in this asymmetric system. A NSBDC-based whole symmetric supercapacitors has also been assembled, and it can easily light a 1.5 V bulb due to its high energy density (27.7 Wh kg-1). In addition, for expanding the application areas of NSBDC, it is also applied to lithium ion battery, and a high reversible capacity of 1148 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 is confirmed. Even at 5 A g-1, NSBDC can still deliver a high reversible capacity of 357 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, indicating its superior lithium storage capability.

  8. Development of surface functionalized ZnO-doped LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites as alternative cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroha, Rakesh [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Panwar, Amrish K., E-mail: amrish.phy@dce.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Sharma, Yogesh [Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Tyagi, Pawan K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Ghosh, Sudipto [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Pristine LFP and ZnO-doped LFP/C samples have been synthesized using sol-gel assisted ball milling route. • Electronic conductivity of pristine LFP increases to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} orders of magnitude for ZnO doped LFP/C samples. • AFM results indicate the presence of more volumetric charge density at the surface for ZnO-doped LFP/C sample. • LFPZ2.5 shows best cycling and rate performances among all the prepared samples. • Lithium ion diffusion coefficient increases significantly. - Abstract: Surface modified olivine-type LiFePO{sub 4}/C-ZnO doped samples were synthesized using sol-gel assisted ball-milling route. In this work, the influence of ZnO-doping on the physiochemical, electrochemical and surface properties such as charge separation at solid-liquid interphase, surface force gradient, surface/ionic conductivity of pristine LiFePO{sub 4}/C (LFP) has been investigated thoroughly. Synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. All the synthesized samples were indexed to the orthorhombic phase with Pnma space group. Pristine LiFePO{sub 4} retain its structure for higher ZnO concentrations (i.e. 2.5 and 5.0 wt.% of LFP). Surface topography and surface force gradient measurements by EFM revealed that the kinetics of charge carriers, e{sup −}/Li{sup +} is more in ZnO-doped LFP samples, which may be attributed to diffusion or conduction process of the charges present at the surface. Among all the synthesized samples LFP/C with 2.5 wt.% of ZnO (LFPZ2.5) displays the highest discharge capacity at all C-rates and exhibit excellent rate performance. LFPZ2.5 delivers a specific discharge capacity of 164 (±3) mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C rate. LFPZ2.5 shows best cycling performance as it provides a discharge capacity of 135 (±3) mAh g{sup −1} at 1C rate and shows almost 95% capacity retention after 50 charge/discharge cycles. Energy

  9. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  10. Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH{sup -} bands under H{sup +} ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Moorthy Babu, S., E-mail: smoorthybabu@yahoo.co [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A.K. [LMDD Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G.O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg 110067, New Delhi (India); Pandey, A.K.; Raman, R. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur 110 054, New Delhi (India)

    2010-01-15

    A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 10{sup 15}, 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} protons/cm{sup 2} is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} and ligand oxygen for implantation with 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH{sup -} stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH{sup -} ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

  11. Small-angle neutron scattering investigations of Co-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Dorina; Balasoiu, Maria; Soloviov, Dmitro; Balasoiu-Gaina, Alexandra-Maria; Puscasu, Emil; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stan, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary small-angle neutron scattering investigations on aqueous suspensions of several cobalt doped ferrites (CoxFe3-xO4, x=0; 0.5; 1) nanoparticles prepared by chemical co-precipitation method, are reported. The measurements were accomplished at the YuMO instrument in function at the IBR-2 reactor. Results of intermediary data treatment are presented and discussed.

  12. Doping dependence of spin fluctuations and electron correlations in iron pnictides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ikeda, H.; Arita, R.; Kuneš, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 024508/1-024508/6 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : iron pnicitdes * dynamic spin susceptibility * fluctuation-exchange approximation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v82/i2/e024508

  13. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  14. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  15. Azobenzene mesogens mediated preparation of SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon and their enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Zhou Yang; Chen Dongzhong; Duan Junfei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, azobenzene mesogen-containing tin thiolates have been synthesized, which possess ordered lamellar structures persistent to higher temperature and serve as liquid crystalline precursors. Based on the preorganized tin thiolate precursors, SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon layer have been achieved through a simple solventless pyrolysis process with the azobenzene mesogenic thiolate precursor served as Sn, S, N, and C sources simultaneously. Thus prepared nanocomposite materials as anode of lithium ion batteries present a large specific capacity of 604.6 mAh·g −1 at a current density of 100 mA·g −1 , keeping a high capacity retention up to 96% after 80 cycles, and display high rate capability due to the synergistic effect of well-dispersed SnS nanocrystals and N-doped carbon layer. Such encouraging results shed a light on the controlled preparation of advanced nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline metallomesogen precursors and may boost their novel intriguing applications. (special topic)

  16. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g−1 is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g−1 is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g−1 even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g−1. These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  17. MOF-Derived ZnO Nanoparticles Covered by N-Doped Carbon Layers and Hybridized on Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yunsong; Zhao, Wenqi; Zou, Mingchu; Chen, Yijun; Yang, Liusi; Xu, Lu; Wu, Huaisheng; Cao, Anyuan

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have many promising applications in energy and environmental areas such as gas separation, catalysis, supercapacitors, and batteries; the key toward those applications is controlled pyrolysis which can tailor the porous structure, improve electrical conductivity, and expose metal ions in MOFs. Here, we present a systematic study on the structural evolution of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks hybridized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the carbonization process. We show that a number of typical products can be obtained, depending on the annealing time, including (1) CNTs wrapped by relatively thick carbon layers, (2) CNTs grafted by ZnO nanoparticles which are covered by thin nitrogen-doped carbon layers, and (3) CNTs grafted by aggregated ZnO nanoparticles. We also investigated the electrochemical properties of those hybrid structures as freestanding membrane electrodes for lithium ion batteries, and the second one (CNT-supported ZnO covered by N-doped carbon) shows the best performance with a high specific capacity (850 mA h/g at a current density of 100 mA/g) and excellent cycling stability. Our results indicate that tailoring and optimizing the MOF-CNT hybrid structure is essential for developing high-performance energy storage systems.

  18. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES OF DOPING OF CAST IRON THROUGH THE SLAG PHASE WITH USING OF THE SPENT NICKEL- AND COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Provorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have defined the regularities of the doping of cast iron through the slag phase of nickel and copper due to the waste catalysts using a carbonaceous reducing agent. We have justified the need to use the cast iron chips as a seed in the composition of the slag mixture. We have defined the dependence of the degree of extraction of nickel or copper from spent catalyst on the amount of the catalyst, on the basicity of the slag mixture, on the temperature and time of melting.

  20. Construction of N-doped carbon@MoSe2 core/branch nanostructure via simultaneous formation of core and branch for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiayu; Peng, Changqing; Zhang, Lili; Fu, Yongsheng; Li, Hang; Zhao, Xianmin; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •N-doped carbon@MoSe 2 core/branch was prepared via a facile calcining method. •N-doped carbon core and MoSe 2 branch can be simultaneously constructed. •PANI played vital roles in the reduction of MoO 3 and elemental Se. •The core/branch structure remarkably improved the lithium storage performance. -- Abstract: Here, we report a one-step simultaneous-construction approach to synthesize N-doped carbon@MoSe 2 core/branch nanostructures by heating a mixture of MoO 3 /PANI hybrids and Se powders in argon atmosphere, without requiring a cumbersome multi-step process or highly toxic reducing agents. It is found that in the construction process, PANI played a crucial role in the reduction of MoO 3 and Se to form MoSe 2 nanosheet branches, while PANI itself was decomposed and carbonized into N-doped carbon nanorod cores. Interestingly, the coexistence of 1D and 2D nanostructures in the N-doped carbon@MoSe 2 core/branch system leads to excellent lithium storage performance, including a large discharging capacity of 1275 mA h g −1 , a high reversible lithium extraction capacity of 928 mA h g −1 and a coulombic efficiency of 72.8%. After 100 cycles, the NDC@MS electrode still delivers a reversible capacity of 906 mA h g −1 with a capacity retention ratio of 97.6%. The superior electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique core/branch nanostructure of NDC@MS and the synergistic effect between the N-doped carbon nanorod cores and MoSe 2 nanosheet branches.

  1. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  2. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    The three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  3. X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Huhman, Brett; Love, Corey T.; Zenyuk, Iryna V.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) across multiple length scales is utilized for the first time to investigate the physical abuse of high C-rate pulsed discharge on cells wired individually and in parallel.. Manufactured lithium iron phosphate cells boasting high rate capability were pulse power tested in both wiring conditions with high discharge currents of 10C for a high number of cycles (up to 1200) until end of life (health (SOH) monitoring methods, is diagnosed using CT by rendering the interior current collector without harm or alteration to the active materials. Correlation of CT observations to the electrochemical pulse data from the parallel-wired cells reveals the risk of parallel wiring during high C-rate pulse discharge.

  4. A Novel Grouping Method for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on a Fractional Joint Kalman Filter and a New Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel grouping method for lithium iron phosphate batteries. In this method, a simplified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS model is utilized to describe the battery characteristics. Dynamic stress test (DST and fractional joint Kalman filter (FJKF are used to extract battery model parameters. In order to realize equal-number grouping of batteries, a new modified K-means clustering algorithm is proposed. Two rules are designed to equalize the numbers of elements in each group and exchange samples among groups. In this paper, the principles of battery model selection, physical meaning and identification method of model parameters, data preprocessing and equal-number clustering method for battery grouping are comprehensively described. Additionally, experiments for battery grouping and method validation are designed. This method is meaningful to application involving the grouping of fresh batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and screening of aged batteries for recycling.

  5. Thin film deposition and characterization of pure and iron-doped electron-beam evaporated tungsten oxide for gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamichael, Tuquabo, E-mail: t.tesfamichael@qut.edu.a [Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Arita, Masashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-14, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan); Bostrom, Thor [Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Bell, John [Centre for Built Environment and Engineering Research, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2010-06-30

    Pure tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and iron-doped (10 at.%) tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}:Fe) nanostructured thin films were prepared using a dual crucible Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) technique. The films were deposited at room temperature under high vacuum onto glass as well as alumina substrates and post-heat treated at 300 {sup o}C for 1 h. Using Raman spectroscopy the as-deposited WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films were found to be amorphous, however their crystallinity increased after annealing. The estimated surface roughness of the films was similar (of the order of 3 nm) to that determined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). As observed by AFM, the WO{sub 3}:Fe film appeared to have a more compact surface as compared to the more porous WO{sub 3} film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the elemental stoichiometry of the tungsten oxide films was consistent with WO{sub 3}. A slight difference in optical band gap energies was found between the as-deposited WO{sub 3} (3.22 eV) and WO{sub 3}:Fe (3.12 eV) films. The differences in the band gap energies of the annealed films were significantly higher, having values of 3.12 eV and 2.61 eV for the WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films respectively. The heat treated films were investigated for gas sensing applications using noise spectroscopy. It was found that doping of Fe to WO{sub 3} produced gas selectivity but a reduced gas sensitivity as compared to the WO{sub 3} sensor.

  6. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I dil, Ilknur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bacaks Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Buruk, Celal Kurtulus [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Breen, Chris [Materials and Engineering Research Institution, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Soekmen, Muenevver, E-mail: msokmen@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained lower E{sub g} values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO{sub 2} thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO{sub 2} thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe{sup 3+} or Co{sup 2+} ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol-gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E{sub g} value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO{sub 2}, 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO{sub 2} thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  7. Effects of disorder on the intrinsically hole-doped iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 by cobalt substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of cobalt substitution on the transport and electronic properties of the recently discovered iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 , with Tc=33 K , are reported. This material is an unusual superconductor showing intrinsic hole conduction (0.25 holes /F e2 + ). Upon doping of Co, the Tc of KC a2(Fe1-xC ox) 4A s4F2 gradually decreased, and bulk superconductivity disappeared when x ≥0.25 . Conversion of the primary carrier from p type to n type upon Co-doping was clearly confirmed by Hall measurements, and our results are consistent with the change in the calculated Fermi surface. Nevertheless, neither spin density wave (SDW) nor an orthorhombic phase, which are commonly observed for nondoped iron-based superconductors, was observed in the nondoped or electron-doped samples. The electron count in the 3 d orbitals and structural parameters were compared with those of other iron-based superconductors to show that the physical properties can be primarily ascribed to the effects of disorder.

  8. Magnetic and structural properties of Zn-doped yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Garcia, R.; Delgado, A.; Guerra, Y.; Farias, B.V.M.; Martinez, D. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Skovroinski, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Galembeck, A. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Padron-Hernandez, E. [Pos Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Zn-doped YIG was prepared using the sol-gel method with TGA measurements showing the phase formation between 900 and 1000 C. XRD analysis showed close to 1100 C the formation of Franklinite phase, coexisting with the cubic YIG. Y{sub 3}(Fe{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 5}O{sub 12} samples with different Zn concentrations (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) were prepared and analyzed for a magnetic study. A decrease in magnetic moment of the samples was confirmed on increasing the concentration of Zn ions. This decrease is due to the substitution of Fe ions by Zn. This also confirmed the results of XRD showing the linear increase in the lattice parameter. Fittings by Bloch's law shows results compared with those already reported in the literature. The exponent and constant for the Bloch law presented similar values to those reported for YIG doped with other ions. We obtained the parameter α ∝10{sup -6} K{sup -n} with n close to 1.9 for all samples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Properties of iron-doped multicrystalline silicon grown by the float-zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T.F.; Wang, T.H.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Multicrystalline Fe-doped Si ingots were float-zoned from high-purity feed rods. Fe was introduced by pill-doping, which gives uniform impurity content for small segregation coefficients (k {approximately} 10{sup {minus}5} for Fe in Si). Fe concentrations were calculated from the initial weight of the Fe pill, the molten zone geomet and the growth parameters. Values in the range of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} were targeted. No additional electrically active dopants were introduced. Minority charge carrier lifetime (via YAG-laser-excited, 430-MHz ultra-high-frequency-coupled, photoconductive decay) was measured on the ingots, and wafers were cut to examine grain structure and electron-beam-induced current response of grain boundaries. Observed lifetimes decreased monotonically with increasing Fe content for similar grain sizes (from {approximately}10 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for < 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2} grains, from {approximately}30 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for {approximately}5 x 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2} grains, and from {approximately}300 {mu}s to 2 {mu}s for > 10{sup {minus}2} cm{sup 2} grains) as the Fe content increased to 1 {times} 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}.

  10. Uniqueness of Co3O4/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nano-spheres Derived from Metal-Organic Framework: Insight of Superior Lithium Storage Capabilities Beyond Theoretical and Electrochemical Features in High Voltage Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-05-24

    Developing versatile strategy to create new structured materials with hetero-atomic doping has become one of the fascinating research topics owing to their fantastic properties, while the popular metal-organic-framework opens a promising avenue to design diverse architectures. Herein, an intriguing kind of spherical N-doped porous carbon (i.e., N-C) particles containing numerous Co3O4 nanocrystals (i.e., Co3O4/N-C) is introduced, in which the Zn-Co based Prussian blue analogue act as a sacrificial template and carbon source while the volatilization of zinc and oxidation of Co can produce rich pores and form highly active Co3O4 nanocrystals. The resultant Co3O4/N-C particles has an extremely high lithium storage capacity of 1255 mA h g-1 and excellent rate capability even to the current of 2000 mA g-1. The long cycle life over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 with the high capacity of 798 mAh g-1 further demonstrates its prominent properties. Our kinetics analysis reveals that the high performances beyond theoretical mainly stem from the active Co3O4 nanocrystals, fast diffusion of lithium ions within the structure and pseudocapacitive behaviors; therefore it further demonstrates impressive stability and rate capabilities in lithium ion battery versus the cathode of lithium layered oxide even at high voltage conditions.

  11. Study of the potentiometric response of the doped spinel Li1.05Al0.02Mn1.98O4 for the optimization of a selective lithium ion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Bruno H.; Amaral, Fabio A.; Bocchi, Nerilso; Teixeira, Marcos F.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the development of a selective lithium ion sensor constituted of a carbon paste electrode modified (CPEM) with an aluminum-doped spinel-type manganese oxide (Li 1.05 Al 0.02 Mn 1.98 O 4 ) for investigating the influence of a doping ion in the sensor response. Experimental parameters, such as influence of the lithium concentration in the activation of the sensor by cyclic voltammetry, pH of the carrier solution and selectivity for Li + against other alkali and alkaline-earth ions were investigated. The sensor response to lithium ions was linear in the concentration range 5.62 x 10 -5 to 1.62 x 10 -3 mol L -1 with a slope 100.1 mV/decade over a wide pH 10 (Tris buffer) and detection limit of 2.75 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , without interference of other alkali and alkaline-earth metals, demonstrating that the Al 3+ doping increases the structure stability and improves the potentiometric response and sensitivity of the sensor. The super-Nernstian response of the sensor in pH 10 can be explained by mixed potential arising from two equilibria (redox and ion-exchange) in the spinel-type manganese oxide.

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE RESONANCE LOSSES IN SILICON-DOPED YTTRIUM-IRON GARNET (YIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, D. J.; Tocci, L.

    1967-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic resonance linewidth of silicon-doped YIG, measured as a function of temperature at 13.4 kMHz, is found to show a pronounced peak at 105°C. The anisotropic behavior of this peak is in good agreement with the four-level valence-exchange model proposed by Clogston. The model yields...... for the electron ordering energy a value 5 × 10-4 eV which agrees closely with the energy deduced from magnetic anneal studies. The activation energy for electron transfer (0.25 eV) is virtually identical with values reported in investigations of electrical conductivity and acoustic loss. ©1967 The American...

  13. Electronic and optical properties of antiferromagnetic iron doped NiO - A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John E.; Twagirayezu, Fidele; Scolfaro, Luisa M.; Borges, Pablo D.; Geerts, Wilhelmus J.

    2017-05-01

    Antiferromagnetic NiO is a candidate for next generation high-speed and scaled RRAM devices. Here, electronic and optical properties of antiferromagnetic NiO: Fe 25% in the rock salt structure are studied and compared to intrinsic NiO. From density of states and complex dielectric function analysis, the first optical transition is found to be at lower frequency than intrinsic NiO due to an Fe impurity level being the valence band maximum. The resulting effects on refractive index, reflectivity, absorption, optical conductivity and loss function for Fe-doped NiO are compared to those of intrinsic NiO, and notable differences are analyzed. The electronic component of the static dielectric constant of NiO: Fe 25% is calculated to be about 2% less than that of intrinsic NiO.

  14. Speciation-dependent studies on removal of arsenic by iron-doped calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the differential attitude of Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads towards As(III) and As(V) compounds so that speciation-dependent environmentally sustainable methodologies can be developed for removal of arsenic from contaminated water. Throughout the experiment, 76 As has been used as precursor of stable arsenic. The affinity of As(V) towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of As(III). Removal efficiency of Fe-CA beads for As(V) increases with increasing number of beads and longer shaking times. At pH 3, 30 Fe-CA beads remove As(V) completely from a solution containing 20 mg kg -1 As(V). The technique has been successfully applied to the ground water collected from an arsenic-contaminated area

  15. Effect of Sn doping on the room temperature magnetodielectric properties of yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhizhi; Chen, Fu; Li, Junnan; Feng, Zekun; Nie, Yan, E-mail: nieyan@hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-21

    The structures, magnetic properties, permittivity spectra, and magnetodielectric (MD) effects of polycrystalline Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5−x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 12} compounds prepared by solid state reactions were systematically investigated. The substitution of Sn{sup 4+} leads to lattice expansion and the donation of excess electrons in ceramics, which affects the concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, space charge, and electric dipole. As a result, as the amount of Sn dopant increases, so does saturation magnetization and permittivity in the low frequency band. The MD coefficient ([ε{sub r}(H) − ε{sub r}(0)]/ε{sub r}(0)) of lightly doped samples (x ≤ 0.05) is negative in the entire frequency band, reaching −2.3% at 350 MHz and 0.6 T for Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.95}Sn{sub 0.05}O{sub 12} ceramics. The MD coefficient of heavily doped samples (x > 0.05) is positive in the low frequency band, reaching 0.83% at 10 MHz and 0.6 T for Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.925}Sn{sub 0.075}O{sub 12} ceramics, and then decreasing with the increasing frequency, gradually becoming negative in the high frequency band. A detailed explanation is provided based on the origin of permittivity. This study provides a new methodology according to which the MD materials may be designed in order to satisfy the requirements of engineering applications.

  16. Origin of the non-monotonic variance of Tc in the 1111 iron based superconductors with isovalent doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental investigations of the isovalent doping iron-based superconductors LaFe(AsxP1-x)O1-yFy and NdFe(AsxP1-x)O1-yFy, we theoretically study the correlation between the local lattice structure, the Fermi surface, the spin fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, and the composition ratio. In the phosphides, the dXZ and dYZ orbitals barely hybridize around the Γ point to give rise to two intersecting ellipse shape Fermi surfaces. As the arsenic content increases and the Fe-As-Fe bond angle is reduced, the hybridization increases, so that the two bands are mixed to result in concentric inner and outer Fermi surfaces, and the orbital character gradually changes to dxz and dyz, where x–y axes are rotated by 45 degrees from X–Y. This makes the orbital matching between the electron and hole Fermi surfaces better and enhances the spin fluctuation within the dxz/yz orbitals. On the other hand, the hybridization splits the two bands, resulting in a more dispersive inner band. Hence, there is a trade-off between the density of states and the orbital matching, thereby locally maximizing the dxz/yz spin fluctuation and superconductivity in the intermediate regime of As/P ratio. The consistency with the experiment strongly indicate the importance of the spin fluctuation played in this series of superconductors. PMID:26073071

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaliyamoorthy Venkatesan,1 Dhanakotti Rajan Babu,1 Mane Prabhu Kavya Bai,2 Ravi Supriya,2 Radhakrishnan Vidya,2 Saminathan Madeswaran,1 Pandurangan Anandan,3 Mukannan Arivanandhan,3 Yasuhiro Hayakawa3 1School of Advanced Sciences, 2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan Abstract: Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311 of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. Keywords: cytotoxicity, HR-TEM, magnetic nanoparticles, VSM 

  18. Characterization and spectroscopic studies of multi-component calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Suneel; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Ram, G. Chinna; Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Tirupataiah, Ch.; Rao, D. Krishna

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics with the composition 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15-x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:x Fe2O3(0≤x≤2.5) were synthesized by melt-quenching technique and heat treatment. These glass ceramics were characterized by XRD and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR were also carried out on these glass ceramics. From the absorption spectra the observed bands around 438 and 660nm are the octahedral transitions of Fe3+ (d5) ions and another band at about 536 nm is the tetrahedral transition of Fe3+ (d5) ions. The absorption spectrum also consist of a band around 991 nm and is attributed to the octahedral transition of Fe2+ ions. The EPR spectra of the prepared glass ceramics have exhibited two resonance signals one at g1=4.32 and another signal at g2=2.008. The observed decrease in band gap energy up to 2 mol% Fe2O3 doped glass ceramics is an evidence for the change of environment around iron ions and ligands from more covalent to less covalent (ionic) and induces higher concentration of NBOs which causes the depolymerization of the glass ceramic network.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed.

  20. The improvement of boron-doped diamond anode system in electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol by zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiuping; Ni Jinren

    2011-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are promising anode materials in electrochemical treatment of wastewaters containing bio-refractory organic compounds due to their strong oxidation capability and remarkable corrosion stability. In order to further improve the performance of BDD anode system, electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol were initially investigated at the BDD anode in the presence of zero-valent iron (ZVI). The results showed that under acidic condition, the performance of BDD anode system containing zero-valent iron (BDD-ZVI system) could be improved with the joint actions of electrochemical oxidation at the BDD anode (39.1%), Fenton's reaction (28.5%), oxidation–reduction at zero-valent iron (17.8%) and coagulation of iron hydroxides (14.6%). Moreover, it was found that under alkaline condition the performance of BDD-ZVI system was significantly enhanced, mainly due to the accelerated release of Fe(II) ions from ZVI and the enhanced oxidation of Fe(II) ions. The dissolved oxygen concentration was significantly reduced by reduction at the cathode, and consequently zero-valent iron corroded to Fe(II) ions in anaerobic highly alkaline environments. Furthermore, the oxidation of released Fe(II) ions to Fe(III) ions and high-valent iron species (e.g., FeO 2+ , FeO 4 2− ) was enhanced by direct electrochemical oxidation at BDD anode.

  1. Optimization of multicomponent aqueous suspensions of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) nanoparticles and carbon black for lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Kiggans, Jim; Wood, David L

    2013-09-01

    Addition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) to aqueous LiFePO4 nanoparticle suspensions improves stability and reduces agglomerate size, which is beneficial to lithium-ion battery cathode manufacturing. This research examines the effect of both PEI concentration and molecular weight (MW) on dispersing LiFePO4 and Super P C45 in multicomponent aqueous suspensions. It is demonstrated that the optimal conditions for obtaining stable suspensions with minimal agglomerate size are 1.5 wt% PEI with MW=2000 g mol(-1) and 5.0 wt% PEI with MW=10,000 g mol(-1) for LiFePO4 and Super P C45, respectively. The mixing sequence also affects rheological properties of these suspensions. It is found that dispersing the LiFePO4 and Super P C45 separately yielded suspensions with superior properties (Newtonian rheological behavior, smaller agglomerate size, improved settling, etc.). In particular, dispersing the LiFePO4 prior to the Super P C45 when making the final multicomponent suspension is found to be beneficial, which was evidenced by higher half-cell discharge capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of carrier density and doping type on lithium insertion and extraction processes at silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, W.; Lotty, O.; Glynn, C.; Geaney, H.; Holmes, J.D.; O’Dwyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Li + insertion and extraction characteristics at n-type and p-type Si(100) electrodes with different carrier density and doping type are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and constant current measurements. The insertion and extraction potentials are demonstrated to vary with cycling and the occurrence of an activation effect is shown in n-type electrodes where the charge capacity and voltammetric currents are found to be much higher than p-type electrodes. A rate-dependent redox process influenced by the surface region electronic density, which influences the magnitude of cyclic voltammetry current is found at Si(100) surface regions during Li insertion and extraction. At p-type Si(100) surface regions, a thin, uniform film forms at lower currents, while also showing a consistently high (>70%) Coulombic efficiency for Li extraction. The p-type Si(100) surface region does not undergo crack formation after deintercalation and the amorphization was demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman scattering demonstrate that highly doped n-type Si(100) retains Li as a silicide and converts to an amorphous phase as a two-step phase conversion process. The findings show the succinct dependence of Li insertion and extraction processes for uniformly doped Si(100) single crystals and how the doping type and its effect on the semiconductor-solution interface dominate Li insertion and extraction, composition, crystallinity changes and charge capacity

  3. Iron and Nitrogen doped Titania an Overview of Function and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasap, M.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is an exceptional material, featuring high transparency in the visible-IR range, high photo activity and superhidrophilicity, physical and chemical stability, low cost, non-toxicity. It is mostly applied in selective oxidation and reduction of an organic and organic materials, photovoltaics, photocatalytic sterilization, and sensors. Upon illumination of the TiO 2 surface with UV photons having energies in excess of 3.0 - 3.2 eV, electron-hole pairs are generated by interband transitions. The charge carriers migrate to the surface and react with the adsorbed water and oxygen, the -OH radicals thus formed being responsible for the highly enhanced chemical reactions with other adsorbates. To extend the amount of usable solar energy involved in TiO 2 surface catalyse, shifting the absorption edge towards the blue range of the visible spectrum (λ≥390-450 nm), several means have been proposed (attaching various organic dyes to the surface, reduction by hydrogenation, doping with various anions/cations etc.), each means with specific advantages and drawbacks. The most important restriction in all cases is the need to keep the lower limit of the conduction band non altered by band gap narrowing. Adequate doping of the titania materials may result in high-efficiency stable photocatalytic materials, sensitive enough to be photo-activated by low-level indoor light sources. We report here some of our latest results in preparing and characterizing Fe:TiO 2 and N:TiO-2 thin films using the RF magnetron sputtering and distinct growth conditions (pellet and discharge gas mixing, respectively). The as-deposited Fe:TiO 2 films, 300 nm thick, had a Fe/Ti concentration ratio ranging between 0.0% and 0.9%. While the low Fe-content samples were amorphous, an anatase Fe-rich nanophase dispersed in the amorphous phase was present in the high-content Fe films. Crystalline anatase and rutile nanodomains have been found in the nitrogen-containing titania films, with the

  4. A highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction: phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon derived from an iron-functionalized polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengwei; Zhong, Hexiang; Li, Xianfeng; Yao, Lan; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have shown respectable activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. However, the performances of these materials are not satisfactory for energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a new type of phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon (PNHOPC) derived from an iron-functionalized mesoporous polymer through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process that simultaneously combines the carbonization and nitrogen doping processes. The soft template and the nitrogen doping process facilitate the formation of the hierarchically ordered structure for the PNHOPC. The catalyst possesses a large surface area (1118 cm2 g-1) and a pore volume of 1.14 cm3 g-1. Notably, it exhibits excellent ORR catalytic performance, superior stability and methanol tolerance in acidic electrolytes, thus making the catalyst promising for fuel cells. The correlations between the unique pore structure and the nitrogen and phosphorus configuration of the catalysts with high catalytic activity are thoroughly investigated.Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have shown respectable activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. However, the performances of these materials are not satisfactory for energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a new type of phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon (PNHOPC) derived from an iron-functionalized mesoporous polymer through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process that simultaneously combines the carbonization and nitrogen doping processes. The soft template and the nitrogen doping process facilitate the formation of the hierarchically ordered structure for the PNHOPC. The catalyst possesses a large surface area (1118 cm2 g-1) and a pore volume of 1.14 cm3 g-1. Notably, it exhibits excellent ORR catalytic performance, superior stability and methanol tolerance in acidic

  5. Nitrogen-doped porous “green carbon” derived from shrimp shell: Combined effects of pore sizes and nitrogen doping on the performance of lithium sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiangying, E-mail: qujy@lnnu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Carbon Research Laboratory, Center for Nano Materials and Science, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Lv, Siyuan; Peng, Xiyue; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Jia [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: fenggao2003@163.com [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Carbon Research Laboratory, Center for Nano Materials and Science, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. The strategy in this work is highlighted to selective removal of intrinsic CaCO{sub 3} in shrimp shell followed by KOH activation to tune the pore sizes of the obtained carbons. On the basis of the different porous structures, the discharge capacity of the obtained carbons as Li–S cathodes follows the order of micro-mesoporous carbon>mesoporous carbon>microporous carbon. The high capacity of the micro-mesoporous carbon is attributed to its positive characters such as the coexistence of micro-mesoporous structure, the large pore volume and the high specific surface area. Furthermore, well-dispersed nitrogen in the porous carbons is naturally doped and inherited from shrimp shell, and can help to enhance cycle stability when used as cathodes. As a result, all carbon cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability (>78%) due to their nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur on the surface areas of the porous carbons. Among them, mesoporous carbon cathode shows the best cycle stability with 90% retention within 100 cycles, which is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of its both large pore size (5.12 nm) and high nitrogen content (6.67 wt %). - Highlights: • Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. • Intrinsic CaCO{sub 3} in shrimp shell as the natural template plays an important role on tailoring of the pore sizes of the porous carbons. • Nitrogen containing polysaccharide in shrimp shell benefits to produce nitrogen-rich carbons. • The effects of pore sizes on the electrochemical performance are investigated in detail. • The carbon-sulfur cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability because of nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur.

  6. Nitrogen-doped porous “green carbon” derived from shrimp shell: Combined effects of pore sizes and nitrogen doping on the performance of lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiangying; Lv, Siyuan; Peng, Xiyue; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Jia; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. The strategy in this work is highlighted to selective removal of intrinsic CaCO_3 in shrimp shell followed by KOH activation to tune the pore sizes of the obtained carbons. On the basis of the different porous structures, the discharge capacity of the obtained carbons as Li–S cathodes follows the order of micro-mesoporous carbon>mesoporous carbon>microporous carbon. The high capacity of the micro-mesoporous carbon is attributed to its positive characters such as the coexistence of micro-mesoporous structure, the large pore volume and the high specific surface area. Furthermore, well-dispersed nitrogen in the porous carbons is naturally doped and inherited from shrimp shell, and can help to enhance cycle stability when used as cathodes. As a result, all carbon cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability (>78%) due to their nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur on the surface areas of the porous carbons. Among them, mesoporous carbon cathode shows the best cycle stability with 90% retention within 100 cycles, which is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of its both large pore size (5.12 nm) and high nitrogen content (6.67 wt %). - Highlights: • Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. • Intrinsic CaCO_3 in shrimp shell as the natural template plays an important role on tailoring of the pore sizes of the porous carbons. • Nitrogen containing polysaccharide in shrimp shell benefits to produce nitrogen-rich carbons. • The effects of pore sizes on the electrochemical performance are investigated in detail. • The carbon-sulfur cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability because of nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur.

  7. Study of the recrystallization mechanisms of ultra-high purity iron doped with carbon, manganese and phosphorus; Etude des mecanismes de recristallisation dans le fer de ultra-haute purete dope en carbone, manganese et phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesne, L.

    2000-07-04

    High purity steels have the potential to improve deep drawing properties for automotive applications. Understanding the influence of the chemical composition on the recrystallization mechanisms and on texture development should help to improve their properties. We have studied the influence of 10 ppm of carbon, 1000 ppm of manganese and 120 ppm of phosphorus on the recrystallization mechanisms of ultra-high purity iron (UHP iron > 99.997%). For this purpose we used 4 materials: one undoped (UHP), one doped with C, one doped with C, Mn and one doped With C, Mn, P. In order to restrict grain coarsening in the hot strips, hot rolling was performed in the ferritic region, in one pass of 80% thickness reduction. The hot bands were then fully recrystallized but exhibited non-isotropic textures, with in particular an intense Goss [110]<001> component for the doped materials. The hot-bands were subsequently cold rolled down to a thickness of 0.8 mm corresponding to a thickness reduction of 80%, and then continuously annealed at 10 deg. C/s. The recrystallization kinetics are delayed with the addition of doping elements. In particular, the incubation time for nucleation is shifted towards higher temperatures while the recrystallization velocity increases. The textures of the fully recrystallized materials exhibit a strong Goss component prejudicial for deep drawing properties. We have established that this component can only appear if coarse grains and carbon in solid solution were simultaneously present in the material before deformation. Characterisation of the cold deformed state enabled us to evaluate the energy stored during deformation as a function of the material composition and the grain orientation: - the overall stored energy increases with the doping elements content. - the stored energy in the {gamma} fibre grains is greater than in the {alpha} fibre grains: 30 J/mol for the {gamma} fibre instead of 5 J/mol for the {alpha} fibre, in the undoped UHP iron. In the

  8. Dielectric properties of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium iron niobate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoom, Kachaporn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Sri Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok, 10400 (Thailand); Pengpat, Kamonpan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Rujijanagul, Gobwute [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Sri Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok, 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Ga-doped BaFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}){sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) ceramics were fabricated and their properties were investigated. All ceramics showed perovskite structure with cubic symmetry and the solubility of Ga in BFN ceramics had a limit at x = 0.2. Examination of the dielectric spectra indicated that all ceramic samples presented high dielectric constants that were frequency dependent. The x = 0.2 ceramic showed a very high dielectric constant (ε{sub r} > 240 000 at 1 kHz) while the x = 0.4 sample exhibited high thermal stability of dielectric constant with low loss tangent from room temperature (RT) to 100 C with ε{sub r} > 28 000 (at 1 kHz) when compared to other samples. By using a complex impedance analysis technique, bulk grain, grain boundary, and electrode response were found to affect the dielectric behavior that could be related to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Dielectric properties of Ga2O3-doped barium iron niobate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjoom, Kachaporn; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Rujijanagul, Gobwute

    2014-01-01

    Ga-doped BaFe 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 (Ba(Fe 1-x Ga x ) 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 ) ceramics were fabricated and their properties were investigated. All ceramics showed perovskite structure with cubic symmetry and the solubility of Ga in BFN ceramics had a limit at x = 0.2. Examination of the dielectric spectra indicated that all ceramic samples presented high dielectric constants that were frequency dependent. The x = 0.2 ceramic showed a very high dielectric constant (ε r > 240 000 at 1 kHz) while the x = 0.4 sample exhibited high thermal stability of dielectric constant with low loss tangent from room temperature (RT) to 100 C with ε r > 28 000 (at 1 kHz) when compared to other samples. By using a complex impedance analysis technique, bulk grain, grain boundary, and electrode response were found to affect the dielectric behavior that could be related to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium; Sintesis y caracterizacion termoluminiscente de niobato de litio impurificado con erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Munoz, I. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: imunoz@polimeros.uson.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO{sub 4}). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  11. First principles study on Mn-doped LiFePO4 as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-wei; XUE; Wei-dong; WANG; Ming-xi; SU; Rong

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure and diffusion energy barriers of Li ions in pure and Mn-doped LiFePO4 have been studied using density functional theory (DFT). The results demonstrate clearly that Fe-O covalent bond is weaker than P-O covalent bond. Pure LiFePO4 has band gap of 0.56 eV and diffusion energy barrier of 2.57 eV for Li ions, while the dopant has small band gap of 0.25 eV and low diffusion energy barrier of 2.31 eV, which indicates that the electronic and ionic conductivity of LiFePO4 have been improved owing to doping.

  12. Iron-doped nickel oxide nanocrystals as highly efficient electrocatalysts for alkaline water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominykh, Ksenia; Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Sicklinger, Johannes; Stefanic, Goran; Döblinger, Markus; Müller, Alexander; Pokharel, Aneil; Böcklein, Sebastian; Scheu, Christina; Bein, Thomas; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina

    2015-05-26

    Efficient electrochemical water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is considered a promising technology to overcome our dependency on fossil fuels. Searching for novel catalytic materials for electrochemical oxygen generation is essential for improving the total efficiency of water splitting processes. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, and electrochemical performance in the oxygen evolution reaction of Fe-doped NiO nanocrystals. The facile solvothermal synthesis in tert-butanol leads to the formation of ultrasmall crystalline and highly dispersible FexNi1-xO nanoparticles with dopant concentrations of up to 20%. The increase in Fe content is accompanied by a decrease in particle size, resulting in nonagglomerated nanocrystals of 1.5-3.8 nm in size. The Fe content and composition of the nanoparticles are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, while Mössbauer and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses reveal a substitutional incorporation of Fe(III) into the NiO rock salt structure. The excellent dispersibility of the nanoparticles in ethanol allows for the preparation of homogeneous ca. 8 nm thin films with a smooth surface on various substrates. The turnover frequencies (TOF) of these films could be precisely calculated using a quartz crystal microbalance. Fe0.1Ni0.9O was found to have the highest electrocatalytic water oxidation activity in basic media with a TOF of 1.9 s(-1) at the overpotential of 300 mV. The current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is reached at an overpotential of 297 mV with a Tafel slope of 37 mV dec(-1). The extremely high catalytic activity, facile preparation, and low cost of the single crystalline FexNi1-xO nanoparticles make them very promising catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  13. Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Sm3+ doped iron lead bismuthate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, P.; Yadav, A.; Dahiya, M. S.; Vishal, Rohit, Agarwal, A.; Khasa, S.

    2018-05-01

    The results of the structural, physical, thermal and electrical properties of the glass compositions xFe2O3•(100-x)(3Bi2O3•PbO)• Sm2O3(1 mol%) where x=0, 1, 5, 10, 12, 15 mol% prepared via melt quench technique were studied. The synthesized compositions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The IR study reveals that present system is build up with lead in tetrahedral coordination and bismuth in trigonal as well as octahedral coordination. Density and molar volume have been calculated using Archimedes principle, and the variation in their values has been correlated with structural changes in the glass matrix based on the IR study. The variation in the characteristic temperatures (glass transition temperature Tg, crystallization temperature Tp and melting temperature Tm) with different heating rate and change in the composition of iron oxide were analyzed and reported in the present study.

  14. Bromate Removal from Water Using Doped Iron Nanoparticles on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (CNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasem Zeino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The raw carbon nanotubes (CNTs were prepared by the floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method. The raw carbon nanotubes were functionalized, impregnated with iron nanoparticles, and characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The three types of these multiwalled carbon nanotubes were applied as adsorbents for the removal of bromate from drinking water. The effects of the pH, the concentration of BrO3- anion, the adsorbent dose, the contact time, and the coanions on the adsorption process have been investigated. The results concluded that the highest adsorption capacities were 0.3460 and 0.3220 mg/g through using CNTs-Fe and raw CNTs, respectively, at the same conditions. The results showed that the CNTs-Fe gives higher adsorption capacity compared with the raw CNTs and the functionalized CNTs. The presence of nitrate (NO3- in the solution decreases the adsorption capacity of all CNTs compared with chloride (Cl- associated with pH adjustment caused by nitric acid or hydrochloric acid, respectively. However, the adsorption of all MWNCTs types increases as the pH of solution decreases.

  15. Encapsulated Vanadium-Based Hybrids in Amorphous N-Doped Carbon Matrix as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Lei; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Song, Shuqin; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized. The electrode material prepared at 700 °C, i.e., VM-700, exhibits excellent cyclic stability retaining 92% of its reversible capacity after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and attractive rate performance (220 mAh g -1 ) under the current density of up to 2 A g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effect from heterojunction form by the vanadium compound hybrids, the improved ability of the excellent conductive carbon for electron transfer, and restraining the expansion and aggregation of vanadium oxide-nitride in cycling. These interesting findings will provide a reference for the preparation of transition metal oxide and nitride composites as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electrospun N-doped Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanofiber with Improved Graphitization Degree for High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Shi, Ruiying; Han, Cuiping; Xu, Xiaofu; Qing, Xianying; Xu, Lei; Li, Hongfei; Li, Junqin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2018-05-14

    Lithium ion capacitor (LIC) has been regarded as a promising device to combine the merits of lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, which can meet the requirements for both high energy and power density. The development of advanced electrode is the key. Herein, we demonstrate the bottom-up synthesis of activated carbon nanofiber (a-PANF) with hierarchical porous structure and high graphitization degree. Electrospinning is employed to prepare interconnected fiber network with macropores and ferric acetylacetonate is introduced as both mesopore creating agent and graphitic catalyst to increase the graphitization degree. Furthermore, chemical activation enlarges the specific surface area by producing rich micropores. Half cell evaluation of the as-prepared a-PANF displays a discharge capacity of 80 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 within 2~4.5 V and no capacity fading after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1, which is significantly higher than conventional activated carbon. Furthermore, the as-assembled LIC with a-PANF cathode and Fe3O4 anode achieves a superior energy density of 124.6 Wh kg-1 at a specific power of 93.8 W kg-1, and remains 103.7 Wh kg-1 at 4687.5 W kg-1, demonstrating the promising application of a-PANF as potential electrode candidates for efficient energy storage systems. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Digital Game and Animation Design, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li{sub x}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}NbO{sub 3} (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 14.3 μC/cm{sup 2}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  18. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Tsai, Cheng-Che

    2015-01-01

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li x (Na 0.5 K 0.5 ) 1−x NbO 3 (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P r  = 14.3 μC/cm 2 ), piezoelectric coefficient (d 33  = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10 −5 A/cm 2 ) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields

  19. Electrochemical study of doped LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Chekannikov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available LiFe1-xVxPO4/C (x= 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 composites had been obtained by sol-gel method and characterized with the use of the XRD-analysis, SEM and charge/discharge tests. The doping was shown to result in decrease of electrode polarization, and correspondingly in capacity increase at high C-rates.

  20. Zr4+ doping in Li4Ti5O12 anode for lithium-ion batteries: open Li+ diffusion paths through structural imperfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Hwang, Soo Min; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Liao, Ting; Sun, Ziqi; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-05-01

    One-dimensional nanomaterials have short Li(+) diffusion paths and promising structural stability, which results in a long cycle life during Li(+) insertion and extraction processes in lithium rechargeable batteries. In this study, we fabricated one-dimensional spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanofibers using an electrospinning technique and studied the Zr(4+) doping effect on the lattice, electronic structure, and resultant electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Accommodating a small fraction of Zr(4+) ions in the Ti(4+) sites of the LTO structure gave rise to enhanced LIB performance, which was due to structural distortion through an increase in the average lattice constant and thereby enlarged Li(+) diffusion paths rather than changes to the electronic structure. Insulating ZrO2 nanoparticles present between the LTO grains due to the low Zr(4+) solubility had a negative effect on the Li(+) extraction capacity, however. These results could provide key design elements for LTO anodes based on atomic level insights that can pave the way to an optimal protocol to achieve particular functionalities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structure and crystallization of SiO2 and B2O3 doped lithium disilicate glasses from theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlebach, Andreas; Thieme, Katrin; Sierka, Marek; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-09-27

    Solid solutions of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 in Li 2 O·2SiO 2 are synthesized and characterized for the first time. Their structure and crystallization mechanisms are investigated employing a combination of simulations at the density functional theory level and experiments on the crystallization of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 doped lithium disilicate glasses. The remarkable agreement of calculated and experimentally determined cell parameters reveals the preferential, kinetically controlled incorporation of [SiO 4 ] and [BO 4 ] at the Li + lattice sites of the Li 2 O·2SiO 2 crystal structure. While the addition of SiO 2 increases the glass viscosity resulting in lower crystal growth velocities, glasses containing B 2 O 3 show a reduction of both viscosities and crystal growth velocities. These observations could be rationalized by a change of the chemical composition of the glass matrix surrounding the precipitated crystal phase during the course of crystallization, which leads to a deceleration of the attachment of building units required for further crystal growth at the liquid-crystal interface.

  2. Lithium doping and vacancy effects on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheet: A first-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartab, Dorsa S.; Kordbacheh, Amirhossein Ahmadkhan

    2018-06-01

    The first-principles calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory is carried out to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of a hexagonal boron nitride sheet (h-BNS) doped by one or two lithium atom(s). Moreover, a vacancy in the neighborhood of one Li-substituted atom is introduced into the system. All optimized structures indicate significant local deformations with Li atom(s) protruded to the exterior of the sheet. The defects considered at N site are energetically more favorable than their counterpart structures at B site. The spin-polarized impurity states appear within the bandgap region of the pristine h-BNS, which lead to a spontaneous magnetization with the largest magnetic moments of about 2 μB in where a single or two B atom(s) are replaced by Li atom(s). Furthermore, the Li substitution for a single B atom increases the density of holes compared to that of electrons forming a p-type semiconductor. More interestingly, the structure in which two Li are substituted two neighboring B atoms appears to show desired half-metallic behavior that may be applicable in spintronic. The results provide a way to enhance the conductivity and magnetism of the pristine h-BNS for potential applications in BN-based nanoscale devices.

  3. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter for Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algradee, M.A.; Sultan, M.; Samir, O.M.; Alwany, A.E.B. [Ibb University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ibb (Yemen)

    2017-08-15

    The Nd{sup 3+}-doped lithium-zinc-phosphate glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the glassy nature of the studied glasses. The physical parameters such as the density, molar volume, ion concentration, polaron radius, inter-ionic distance, field strength and oxygen packing density were calculated using different formulae. The transmittance and reflectance spectra of glasses were recorded in the wavelength range 190-1200 nm. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined based on Mott-Davis model. The refractive indices for the studied glasses were evaluated from optical band gap values using different methods. The average electronic polarizability of the oxide ions, optical basicity and an interaction parameter were investigated from the calculated values of the refractive index and the optical band gap for the studied glasses. The variations in the different physical and optical properties of glasses with Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content were discussed in terms of different parameters such as non-bridging oxygen and different concentrations of Nd cation in glass system. (orig.)

  4. Physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses for bright W-LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, P.P.; Munishwar, S.R.; Gautam, S.; Gedam, R.S., E-mail: rupesh_gedam@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Rare earth (RE) doped glasses have potential applications due to their emission efficiencies of 4f–4 f and 4f–5d electronic transitions. Among all the rare earths, Dy{sup 3+} doped glasses have drawn much interest among the researchers for their intense emission in the visible region from 470 to 500 nm and around 570 to 600 nm. The physical, thermal, structural and optical properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped lithium alumino-borate glasses (LABD glasses) have been studied for white LED (W-LED) application. The glasses were synthesized by conventional melt quench technique. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. An FTIR spectrum was carried out to study the glass structure and various functional groups present in the LABD glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded by UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Allowed direct and indirect band gaps were obtained by Tauc's plot. Thermal parameters like glass thermal stability (∆T), Hruby's parameter (K{sub gl}), etc. were calculated by DTA graph. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra's were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra shows two intense emission bands at around 482 nm (blue) and 574 nm (yellow) corresponds to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions respectively along with one feeble band at 662 nm (red) corresponds to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transition. The CIE chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated for all glass samples. CIE chromaticity diagram shows glass LABD-4 containing 0.5 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with colour co-ordinates X = 0.34 and Y = 0.38 have highest emission intensity. These glasses having emission in the white region and thus can be used for bright white LED.

  5. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke, E-mail: zhouyk888@hotmail.com; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO{sub 4} to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO 4 electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO 4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Direct observation of multivalent states and 4 f →3 d charge transfer in Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasili, H. B.; Casals, B.; Cichelero, R.; Macià, F.; Geshev, J.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Pellegrin, E.; Fontcuberta, J.; Herranz, G.

    2017-07-01

    Due to their large magneto-optic responses, rare-earth-doped yttrium iron garnets, Y3F e5O12 (YIG), are highly regarded for their potential in photonics and magnonics. Here, we consider the case of Ce-doped YIG (Ce-YIG) thin films, in which substitutional C e3 + ions are magnetic because of their 4 f1 ground state. In order to elucidate the impact of Ce substitution on the magnetization of YIG, we have carried out soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements on Ce-YIG films. In particular, we have used the element specificity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to extract the individual magnetization curves linked to Ce and Fe ions. Our results show that Ce doping triggers a selective charge transfer from Ce to the Fe tetrahedral sites in the YIG structure. This, in turn, causes a disruption of the electronic and magnetic properties of the parent compound, reducing the exchange coupling between the Ce and Fe magnetic moments and causing atypical magnetic behavior. Our work is relevant for understanding magnetism in rare-earth-doped YIG and, eventually, may enable a quantitative evaluation of the magneto-optical properties of rare-earth incorporation into YIG.

  8. Enhanced Cherenkov phase matching terahertz wave generation via a magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate ridged waveguide crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takeya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When combined with a nonlinear waveguide crystal, Cherenkov phase matching allows for highly effective generation of high power and broadband terahertz (THz waves. Using a ridged Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 waveguide coupled with a specially designed silicon lens, we successfully generated THz waves with intensity of approximately three orders of magnitude stronger than those from conventional photoconductive antenna. The broadband spectrum was from 0.1 THz to 7 THz with a maximum dynamic range of 80 dB. The temporal shape of time domain pulse is a regular single cycle which could be used for high depth resolution time of flight tomography. The generated THz wave can also be easily monitored by compact room-temperature THz camera, enabling us to determine the spatial characteristics of the THz propagation.

  9. Binding SnO2 nanocrystals in nitrogen-doped graphene sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2013-04-18

    Hybrid anode materials for Li-ion batteries are fabricated by binding SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) sheets by means of an in situ hydrazine monohydrate vapor reduction method. The SnO2NCs in the obtained SnO2NC@N-RGO hybrid material exhibit exceptionally high specific capacity and high rate capability. Bonds formed between graphene and SnO2 nanocrystals limit the aggregation of in situ formed Sn nanoparticles, leading to a stable hybrid anode material with long cycle life. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Boosting the power performance of multilayer graphene as lithium-ion battery anode via unconventional doping with in-situ formed Fe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kübel, Christian; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is extensively investigated and promoted as a viable replacement for graphite, the state-of-the-art material for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes, although no clear evidence is available about improvements in terms of cycling stability, delithiation voltage and volumetric capacity. Here we report the microwave-assisted synthesis of a novel graphene-based material in ionic liquid (i.e., carved multilayer graphene with nested Fe3O4 nanoparticles), together with its extensive characterization via several physical and chemical techniques. When such a composite material is used as LIB anode, the carved paths traced by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and the unconverted metallic iron formed in-situ upon the 1st lithiation, result in enhanced rate capability and, especially at high specific currents (i.e., 5 A g−1), remarkable cycling stability (99% of specific capacity retention after 180 cycles), low average delithiation voltage (0.244 V) and a substantially increased volumetric capacity with respect to commercial graphite (58.8 Ah L−1 vs. 9.6 Ah L−1). PMID:27026069

  11. Iron-Based Electrodes Meet Water-Based Preparation, Fluorine-Free Electrolyte and Binder: A Chance for More Sustainable Lithium-Ion Batteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvo, Mario; Liivat, Anti; Eriksson, Henrik; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Edström, Kristina

    2017-06-09

    Environmentally friendly and cost-effective Li-ion cells are fabricated with abundant, non-toxic LiFePO 4 cathodes and iron oxide anodes. A water-soluble alginate binder is used to coat both electrodes to reduce the environmental footprint. The critical reactivity of LiPF 6 -based electrolytes toward possible traces of H 2 O in water-processed electrodes is overcome by using a lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) salt. The absence of fluorine in the electrolyte and binder is a cornerstone for improved cell chemistry and results in stable battery operation. A dedicated approach to exploit conversion-type anodes more effectively is also disclosed. The issue of large voltage hysteresis upon conversion/de-conversion is circumvented by operating iron oxide in a deeply lithiated Fe/Li 2 O form. Li-ion cells with energy efficiencies of up to 92 % are demonstrated if LiFePO 4 is cycled versus such anodes prepared through a pre-lithiation procedure. These cells show an average energy efficiency of approximately 90.66 % and a mean Coulombic efficiency of approximately 99.65 % over 320 cycles at current densities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mA cm -2 . They retain nearly 100 % of their initial discharge capacity and provide an unmatched operation potential of approximately 2.85 V for this combination of active materials. No occurrence of Li plating was detected in three-electrode cells at charging rates of approximately 5C. Excellent rate capabilities of up to approximately 30C are achieved thanks to the exploitation of size effects from the small Fe nanoparticles and their reactive boundaries. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. One step aqueous solution preparation of nanosize iron-doped tin oxide from SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)]. E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2006-03-15

    Nanosized iron-doped tin oxide solid solution was prepared by mixing tin oxide gel SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The XRD data of the as-prepared and annealed sample at 773 K show that the patterns are indexed to the rutile phase without any trace of an extra phase. SEM and TEM results performed on different selected area of the samples reveal a homogeneous composition of 8 at.% of Fe content and a size of about 2 nm of the particles. The particles size was found to increase slightly with temperature; about 7 nm after 24 h at 773 K. Structural and magnetic results seem to indicate that Fe{sup 3+} substitute for Sn{sup 4+} on the as-prepared sample. The system presents some weak ferromagnetic character at room temperature.

  13. Preparation of V-Doped LiFePO4/C as the Optimized Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Zhang, Haiyang; Shen, Kai; Fan, Qi; Xu, Qingyu

    2015-04-01

    LiFe1-x,Vx,PO4/C composites were synthesized by solid state reaction. The effect of carbon coating and V doping on the performance of LiFePO4 has been systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement. The results show that carbon coating and proper amount of V incorporation do not significantly change the host crystal structure of LiFePO4, while the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 can be significantly improved. Particularly, the LiFe0.96V0.04PO4/C exhibits the best performance with a specific discharge capacity of 105.5 mA h/g at 5.0 C, 90.3 mA h/g at 10 C and 66.7 mA h/g at 30 C with stable cycle performance, which is significantly improved compared with the pure LiFePO4/C. The cyclic voltammograms result reveals that V doping could decrease the resistance of LiFePO4/C composite electrode drastically and improve its reversibility.

  14. Effect of particle size on dc conductivity, activation energy and diffusion coefficient of lithium iron phosphate in Li-ion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials in nano size improve the performance of batteries due to the increased reaction rate and short diffusion lengths. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. However, it has its own limitations such as low conductivity and low diffusion coefficient which lead to high impedance due to which its application is restricted in batteries. In the present work, increase of conductivity with decreasing particle size of LiFePO4/C is studied. Also, the dependence of conductivity and activation energy for hopping of small polaron in LiFePO4/C on variation of particle size is investigated. The micro sized cathode material is ball milled for different durations to reduce the particle size to nano level. The material is characterized for its structure and particle size. The resistivities/dc conductivities of the pellets are measured using four probe technique at different temperatures, up to 150 °C. The activation energies corresponding to different particle sizes are calculated using Arrhenius equation. CR2032 cells are fabricated and electrochemical characteristics, namely, ac impedance and diffusion coefficients, are studied.

  15. Holographic recording in a doubly doped lithium niobate crystal with two wavelengths: a blue laser diode and a green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2010-08-01

    A doubly-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystal has been well used as a nonvolatile two-wavelength recording material. By using two levels of the crystal, two-kind holograms can be recorded on one crystal; a hologram is recorded with a 405-nm blue laser diode (LD) for a deep Mn level, and another hologram is with a 532-nm green laser for a shallow Fe level. The recording capacity doubles. A 780-nm LD is non-volatile reconstructing source since the LD line is insensitive to both levels. Multiplexed reconstructed images are demonstrated by using a sharp angular selectivity of a volume LN crystal keeping Bragg condition with spherical reconstructions.

  16. The effect of addition of PTFE or urea on luminescence response of copper-doped lithium tetraborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Ferry; Fajri, Annisa; Nuraeni, Nunung; Stavila, Erythrina; Aimon, Akfiny H.; Nuryadin, Bebeh W.

    2018-04-01

    Lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) is a promising material for application in personal dosimetry due to its tissue equivalent properties. The addition of copper as a dopant in Li2B4O7 is known to increase the sensitivity for both photoluminescent (PL) and thermoluminescent (TL) emission. Therefore, in this paper, synthesis of Li2B4O7:Cu is reported. The optimum synthesis condition was achieved using the solution-assisted method, followed by calcination at 700 °C for 2 h. The addition of 0.1 wt% Cu resulted in the highest PL and TL emissions. Further investigation of the influence of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or urea addition on the luminescence response of Li2B4O7:Cu is described. All samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry, photoluminescence spectrofluorophotometer, thermoluminescence reader, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The addition of PTFE decreased the PL emission of the Li2B4O7:Cu but slightly increased its TL emission. Meanwhile, the addition of urea increased the luminescence emission for both PL and TL of the Li2B4O7:Cu.

  17. Effect of iron content on permeability and power loss characteristics of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic properties like saturation magnetization, coercivity, retentivity have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The permeability of cadmium doped lithium ferrites exhibited higher values than zinc doped lithium ferrites. The power loss of cadmium doped lithium ferrites is lesser as compared to zinc ...

  18. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  19. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO{sub 4} nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jinpeng, E-mail: goldminer@sina.com; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO{sub 4} has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO{sub 4}@C. • The LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO{sub 4}. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4} is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO{sub 4}@B{sub 0.4}-C can reach 164.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g{sup −1}). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g{sup −1} and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO{sub 4}@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Characteristics and optical properties of iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doped titanium oxide thin films prepared by a sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hjlin@nuu.edu.tw; Yang, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations have been prepared on a glass substrate by the sol-gel spin coating process. Characteristics and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films doping of various Fe content were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 25.0 wt%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} thin films shifted towards longer wavelengths (i.e. red shifted) from 355 to 415 nm when the Fe{sup 3+}-doped concentration increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. The values of the refractive index (n), and extinction coefficient (k), decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content. Moreover, the band-gap energy of TiO{sub 2} thin films also decreased from 3.29 to 2.83 eV with an increase in the Fe{sup 3+} content from 0 to 25.0 wt%.

  1. Physical, structural and luminescence investigation of Eu3+-doped lithium-gadolinium bismuth-borate glasses for LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, F.; Rooh, G.; Srisittipokakun, N.; Wongdeeying, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the current report is to fabricate Eu3+-doped glasses with the chemical composition of 50Li2O-15Gd2O3-5Bi2O3-(30-x)B2O3-xEu2O3 (where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%), with the help of conventional melt quenching technique. The fabricated glasses have been studied with help of physical, structural and luminescence properties for application of LEDs. The structural properties were investigated by XRD and FTIR spectra. Physical properties have been measured. Direct and indirect optical energy band gap (Eg) have been calculated and found to be increasing with Eu2O3 concentration. Luminescence spectra have been observed from photo and radioluminescence spectra and found in good agreement with each other, however the concentration quenching was not determined for the samples. The high-covalence and asymmetric nature was confirmed from Photoluminescence emission and RL emission transition as well as from the higher values of luminescence intensity ratio. The JO parameters have been found for the better performance of lasing materials. The lifetime's data have been found to be decreasing from 1.64 to 1.50 ms, which is the confirmation of energy transfer in Eu3+ ions through cross relaxations. From the calculated properties it has been suggested that the present glass samples might be good for red-light emitting devices.

  2. Hybrid of Co(3)Sn(2)@Co nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene as a lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Nasir; Zhang, Chenzhen; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Jinghan; Hou, Yanglong

    2013-11-26

    A facile strategy was designed for the fabrication of hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co nanoparticles (NPs) and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) sheets through a hydrothermal synthesis, followed by annealing process. Core-shell architecture of Co3Sn2@Co pin on NG is designed for the dual encapsulation of Co3Sn2 with adaptable ensembles of Co and NG to address the structural and interfacial stability concerns facing tin-based anodes. In the resulted unique architecture of Co3Sn2@Co-NG hybrid, the sealed cobalt cover prevents the direct exposer of Sn with electrolyte because of encapsulated structure and keeps the structural and interfacial integrity of Co3Sn2. However, the elastically strong, flexible and conductive NG overcoat accommodates the volume changes and therefore brings the structural and electrical stabilization of Co3Sn2@Co NPs. As a result, Co3Sn2@Co-NG hybrid exhibits extraordinary reversible capacity of 1615 mAh/g at 250 mA/g after 100 cycles with excellent capacity retention of 102%. The hybrid bears superior rate capability with reversible capacity of 793.9 mAh/g at 2500 mA/g and Coulombic efficiency nearly 100%.

  3. Disruptive chemical doping in a ferritin-based iron oxide nanoparticle to decrease r2 and enhance detection with T1-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Beeman, Scott C; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Bennett, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic doping was used to create flexible, paramagnetic nanoparticle contrast agents for in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with low transverse relaxivity (r2). Most nanoparticle contrast agents formed from superparamagnetic metal oxides are developed with high r2. While sensitive, they can have limited in vivo detection due to a number of constraints with T2 or T2*-weighted imaging. T1-weighted imaging is often preferred for molecular MRI, but most T1-shortening agents are small chelates with low metal payload or are nanoparticles that also shorten T2 and limit the range of concentrations detectable with T1-weighting. Here we used tungsten and iron deposition to form doped iron oxide crystals inside the apoferritin cavity to form a WFe nanoparticle with a disordered crystal and un-coupled atomic magnetic moments. The atomic magnetic moments were thus localized, resulting in a principally paramagnetic nanoparticle. The WFe nanoparticles had no coercivity or saturation magnetization at 5 K and sweeping up to ± 20,000 Oe, while native ferritin had a coercivity of 3000 Oe and saturation at ± 20,000 Oe. This tungsten-iron crystal paramagnetism resulted in an increased WFe particle longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4870 mm(-1) s(-1) and a reduced transverse relaxivity (r2) of 9076 mm(-1) s(-1) compared with native ferritin. The accumulation of the particles was detected with T1-weighted MRI in concentrations from 20 to 400 nm in vivo, both injected in the rat brain and targeted to the rat kidney glomerulus. The WFe apoferritin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic up to 700 nm particle concentrations, making them potentially important for targeted molecular MRI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fabrication of mesoporous iron (Fe) doped copper sulfide (CuS) nanocomposite in the presence of a cationic surfactant via mild hydrothermal method for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. William; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2018-02-01

    We report fabrication of mesoporous Fe doped CuS nanocomposites with uniform mesoporous spherical structures via a mild hydrothermal method employing copper nitrate trihydrate (Cu (NO3).3H2O), Thiourea (Tu,Sc(NH2)2 and Iron tri nitrate (Fe(No3)3) as initial materials with cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamoniame bromide (CTAB) as stabilizer/size controller and Ethylene glycol as solvent at 130 °C temperature. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, TEM, FTIR and UV analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the Fe doped CuS nanocomposites which are crystalline in nature. EDX and XRD pattern confirmed that the product is hexagonal CuS phase. Fe doped spherical structure of CuS with grain size of 21 nm was confirmed by XRD pattern. Fe doping was identified by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results revealed the occurrence of active functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. Studies showed that after a definite time relining on the chosen copper source, the obtained Fe-CuS nanocomposite shows a tendency towards self-assembly and creating mesoporous like nano and submicro structures by TEM/SAED. The achievable mechanism of producing this nanocomposite was primarily discussed. The electrochemical study confirms the pseudocapacitive nature of the CuS and Fe-CuS electrodes. The CuS and Fe-CuS electrode shows a specific capacitance of about 328.26 and 516.39 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs-1. As the electrode in a supercapacitor, the mesoporous nanostructured Fe-CuS shows excellent capacitance characteristics.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and performance in arsenic removal of iron-doped activated carbons prepared by impregnation with Fe(III) and Fe(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, G.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Furdin, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, G.; Ballinas, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic removal from natural well water from the state of Chihuahua (Mexico) is investigated by adsorption using a commercial activated carbon (AC). The latter is used as such, or after oxidation by several chemicals in aqueous solution: nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium persulphate. Raw and oxidised activated carbons are fully characterised (elementary analysis, surface chemistry, pore texture parameters, pH ZC , and TEM observation). Adsorption of As is measured in the aforementioned water, containing ca. 300 ppb of arsenic: removal of As is poor with the raw AC, and only the most oxidised carbons exhibit higher performances. By contrast, iron-doped ACs are much more efficient for that purpose, though their As uptake strongly depends on their preparation conditions: a number of samples were synthesised by impregnation of raw and oxidised ACs with HCl aqueous solutions of either FeCl 3 or FeCl 2 at various concentrations and various pH. It is shown that iron(II) chloride is better for obtaining high iron contents in the resultant ACs (up to 8.34 wt.%), leading to high As uptake, close to 0.036 mg As/g C. In these conditions, 100% of the As initially present in the natural well water is removed, as soon as the Fe content of the adsorbent is higher than 2 wt.%.

  6. A flexible 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam@CNTs hybrid hosting TiO2 nanoparticles as free-standing electrode for ultra-long cycling lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Wang, Boya; Wu, Hao; Xiang, Mingwu; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2018-03-01

    Free-standing electrodes have stood out from the electrode pack, owing to their advantage of abandoning the conventional polymeric binder and conductive agent, thus increasing the specific capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their practical application is hampered by inferior electrical conductivity and complex manufacturing process. To this end, we report here a facile approach to fabricate a flexible 3D N-doped carbon foam/carbon nanotubes (NCF@CNTs) hybrid to act as the current collector and host scaffold for TiO2 particles, which are integrated into a lightweight free-standing electrode (NCF@CNTs-TiO2). In the resulting architecture, ultra-fine TiO2 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored in situ into the N-doped NCF@CNTs framework with macro- and meso-porous structure, wrapped by a dense CNT layer, cooperatively enhances the electrode flexibility and forms an interconnected conductive network for electron/ion transport. As a result, the as-prepared NCF@CNTs-TiO2 electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with high specific capacity of 241 mAh g-1 at 1 C, superb rate capability of 145 mAh g-1 at 20 C, ultra-long cycling stability with an ultra-low capacity decay of 0.0037% per cycle over 2500 cycles, and excellent thermal stability with ∼94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 55 °C.

  7. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  8. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2−xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent

  9. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded

  10. Improving the electrochemical properties of nanosized LiFePO4-based electrode by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trócoli, Rafael; Franger, Sylvain; Cruz, Manuel; Morales, Julián; Santos-Peña, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal treatment of boron phosphate with LiFePO 4 provides electrode materials with high performance in lithium half-cells: 160 mAh·g -1 (90% of theoretical capacity) under C/5 rate • The products are composites containing boron-modified LiFePO 4 , FePO 4 and an amorphous phase with ionic diffusion properties • The boron treatment affects textural, conductive and lithium diffusivity of the electrode material leading to higher performance • A limited boron-doping of the phospholivine structure is observed - Abstract: Electrode materials with homogeneous distribution of boron were obtained by heating mixtures of nanosized carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate and BPO 4 in 3-9% weight at 700 °C. The materials can be described as nanocomposites containing i) LiFePO 4 , possibly doped with a low amount of boron, ii) FePO 4 and iii) an amorphous layer based on Li 4 P 2 O 7 -derived material that surrounds the phosphate particles. The thermal treatment with BPO 4 also triggered changes in the carbon coating graphitic order. Galvanostatic and voltammetric studies in lithium half-cells showed smaller polarisation, higher capacity and better cycle life for the boron-doped composites. For instance, one of the solids, called B 6 -LiFePO 4 , provided close to 150 and 140 mAhg -1 (87% and 81% of theoretical capacity, respectively) under C/2.5 and C regimes after several cycles. Improved specific surface area, carbon graphitization, conductivity and lithium ion diffusivity in the boron-doped phospholivine network account for this excellent rate performance. The properties of an amorphous layer surrounding the phosphate particles also account for such higher performance

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  12. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong; Nam, Gi-Eun; Quan, Bo; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Yoo, Jung Sun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core–shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals (∼11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core–shell nanoparticles (∼54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core–shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex ® with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  13. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Gi-Eun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Quan, Bo [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyuck Jae [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jung Sun [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Smart Humanity Convergence Center (Korea, Republic of); Piao, Yuanzhe, E-mail: parkat9@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core–shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals (∼11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core–shell nanoparticles (∼54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core–shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex{sup ®} with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  14. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  15. Influences of the iron ion (Fe3+)-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Naceur, J.; Mechiakh, R.; Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe 3+ ) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO 2 thin films comprised only the anatase TiO 2 , but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe 3+ content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe 3+ addition to 20%, the phase of TiO 2 thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E g ) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe 3+ content.

  16. Three-dimensional iron, nitrogen-doped carbon foams as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanjiao; Wang, Hui; Feng, Hanqing; Ji, Shan; Mao, Xuefeng; Wang, Rongfang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimentional Fe, N-doped carbon foams prepared by two steps exhibited comparable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction to commercial Pt/C due to the unique structure and the synergistic effect of Fe and N atoms. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Fe, N-doped carbon foam (3D-CF) were prepared. • 3D-CF exhibits comparable catalytic activity to Pt/C for oxygen reduction reaction. • The enhanced activity of 3D-CF results of its unique structure. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) Fe, N-doped carbon foams (3D-CF) as efficient cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution are reported. The 3D-CF exhibit interconnected hierarchical pore structure. In addition, Fe, N-doped carbon without porous strucuture (Fe-N-C) and 3D N-doped carbon without Fe (3D-CF’) are prepared to verify the electrocatalytic activity of 3D-CF. The electrocatalytic performance of as-prepared 3D-CF for ORR shows that the onset potential on 3D-CF electrode positively shifts about 41 mV than those of 3D-CF’ and Fe-N-C respectively. In addition, the onset potential on 3D-CF electrode for ORR is about 27 mV more negative than that on commercial Pt/C electrode. 3D-CF also show better methanol tolerance and durability than commercial Pt/C catalyst. These results show that to synthesize 3D hierarchical pores with high specific surface area is an efficient way to improve the ORR performance

  17. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol over Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Supported Iron Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Jun-Ling; Zhou, Hong-Jun; Fu, Yao

    2016-06-08

    Iron-based heterogeneous catalysts, which were generally prepared by pyrolysis of iron complexes on supports at elevated temperature, were found to be capable of catalyzing the transfer hydrogenation of furfural (FF) to furfuryl alcohol (FFA). The effects of metal precursor, nitrogen precursor, pyrolysis temperature, and support on catalytic performance were examined thoroughly, and a comprehensive study of the reaction parameters was also performed. The highest selectivity of FFA reached 83.0 % with a FF conversion of 91.6 % under the optimal reaction condition. Catalyst characterization suggested that iron cations coordinated by pyridinic nitrogen functionalities were responsible for the enhanced catalytic activity. The iron catalyst could be recycled without significant loss of catalytic activity for five runs, and the destruction of the nitrogen-iron species, the presence of crystallized Fe2 O3 phase, and the pore structure change were the main reasons for catalyst deactivation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Heterometallic molecular precursors for a lithium-iron oxide material: synthesis, solid state structure, solution and gas-phase behaviour, and thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haixiang; Wei, Zheng; Barry, Matthew C; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2017-05-02

    Three heterometallic single-source precursors with a Li : Fe = 1 : 1 ratio for a LiFeO 2 oxide material are reported. Heterometallic compounds LiFeL 3 (L = tbaoac (1), ptac (2), and acac(3)) have been obtained on a large scale, in nearly quantitative yields by one-step reactions that employ readily available reagents. The heterometallic precursor LiFe(acac) 3 (3) with small, symmetric substituents on the ligand (acac = pentane-2,4-dionate), maintains a 1D polymeric structure in the solid state that limits its volatility and prevents solubility in non-coordinating solvents. The application of the unsymmetrical ligands, tbaoac (tert-butyl acetoacetate) and ptac (1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedionate), that exhibit different bridging properties at the two ends of the ligand, allowed us to change the connectivity pattern within the heterometallic assembly. The latter was demonstrated by structural characterization of heterometallic complexes LiFe(tbaoac) 3 (1) and LiFe(ptac) 3 (2) that consist of discrete heterocyclic tetranuclear molecules Li 2 Fe 2 L 6 . The compounds are highly volatile and exhibit a congruent sublimation character. DART mass spectrometric investigation revealed the presence of heterometallic molecules in the gas phase. The positive mode spectra are dominated by the presence of [M - L] + peaks (M = Li 2 Fe 2 L 6 ). In accord with their discrete molecular structure, complexes 1 and 2 are highly soluble in nearly all common solvents. In order to test the retention of the heterometallic structure in solution, the diamagnetic analog of 1, LiMg(tbaoac) 3 (4), has been isolated. Its tetranuclear molecular structure was found to be isomorphous to that of the iron counterpart. 1 H and 7 Li NMR spectroscopy unambiguously confirmed the presence of heterometallic molecules in solutions of non-coordinating solvents. The heterometallic precursor 1 was shown to exhibit clean thermal decomposition in air that results in phase-pure

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Sn-doped Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode material for lithium ion battery by microwave solid-state technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haiping; Bi, Sifu; Wen, Guangwu; Teng, Xiangguo; Gao, Peng; Ni, Zujun; Zhu, Yongming; Zhang, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.10) cathode is first reported. ► Sn doping improves the initial discharge capacity and the cycle stability of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C. ► Sn doping improves the conductivity and reversibility of the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C. - Abstract: Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathode materials with uniform and fine particle sizes were successfully and fast synthesized by a microwave solid-state synthesis method. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that the appropriate addition of Sn did not destroy the lattice structure of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C, but decreased the unit cell volume. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the main chemical state of V in the Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite is +3 valence, while the chemical state of Sn in the Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is +4 valence. Scanning electron microscope analysis illustrated that the addition of Sn slightly affected the morphology of samples. As the cathode materials for Li-ion batteries, Li 3 V 2−x Sn x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (x ⩽ 0.10) exhibited higher discharge capacity and better cycle stability than the pure one. At a discharge rate of 0.5 C in the potential range of 2.5–4.5 V at room temperature, the initial discharge capacity of Li 3 V 1.95 Sn 0.05 (PO 4 ) 3 /C was 136 mA h/g. The low charge-transfer resistances and large lithium ion diffusion coefficients confirmed that Sn-doped Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C samples possessed better electronic conductivity and lithium ion mobility. These improved electrochemical performances can be attributed to the appropriate amount of Sn doping in Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C system by enhancing structural stability and electrical conductivity. The present study also demonstrates that the microwave processing is a fast, simple and useful method for the fabrication of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C crystals.

  20. Influence of different synthesis approach on doping behavior of silver nanoparticles onto the iron oxide-silica coreshell surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmed, N.; Jiang, H.; Heczko, Oleg; Söderberg, O.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2012), s. 1-15 ISSN 1388-0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : stroble method * silver nanoparticles * iron oxide * amourphous silica Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2012

  1. The effect of Ce doping on the structure, surface morphology and magnetic properties of Dy doped-yttrium iron garnet films prepared by a sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsad, A.Z.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my

    2016-07-15

    Cerium substitute Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35) films have been prepared on quartz substrates by a simple sol–gel method and followed by a spin-coating technique. The crystalline structures, surface and magnetic properties of the films has been investigated by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis revealed that the films have garnet structure. The lattice parameter increased as Ce content was increased up to 0.25 due to the Ce{sup 3+} ions completely substituted for Y{sup 3+} ions. For films x≥0.3, the lattice parameter decreased. The FESEM results showed that the average grains were small, ranging from 11 to 14 nm and the thickness of films increased with the increment of Ce contents. VSM results for both in and out-plane magnetic measurement showed the film with x=0 has the highest saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values. With the increment of Ce contents, the M{sub s} of films decreased due to the substitution of Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} ions in the c-site. For films x≥0.3 the reduction of M{sub s} values was due to the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the film. The films with x=0–0.25 exhibited increases in H{sub c} values. The improvement of coercivity value, small grain size and high crystalline structure of film with x=0.25 has a potential to be used in magneto optical (MO) memory storage applications. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • The solubility limit of Ce{sup 3+} ions in the film was x=0.25. • The average grain size ranging from 11 to 14 nm with the increment of Ce doping. • Increasing Ce contents degrades the saturation of magnetization of films. • Increasing Ce contents improve the coercivity of films.

  2. Synthesis of Spherical Al-Doping LiMn2O4 via a High-Pressure Spray-Drying Method as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Mingyu; Xu, Mingli; Li, Xue; Yu, Xiaohua; Dong, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Uniform and spherical LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 particles have been successfully synthesized by the high-pressure spray-drying method. The structures and electrochemical properties of the particles were characterized by various techniques. Benefiting from the sphere-like morphology and Al-doping, LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 delivers a capacity retention of 81.6% after 1000 cycles at 2°C, while LiMn2O4 exhibits a capacity retention of only 32.2%. The rate capability and reversible cycling performance are also improved. Furthermore, this work significantly alleviates the dissolution of Mn in LiMn2O4 materials, and effectively improves the transfer rate of lithium ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The spherical LiAl0.075Mn1.925O4 prepared by a facile method shows great potential for practical application in low-cost and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Effect of metallic iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 doped with a radioactive alpha emitter in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jegou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Jouan, Gauthier; Peuget, Sylvain; Martin, Christelle

    2017-12-01

    In the hypothesis of direct disposal of spent fuel in a geological nuclear waste repository, interactions between the fuel mainly composed of UO2 and its environment must be understood. The dissolution rate of the UO2 matrix, which depends on the redox conditions on the fuel surface, will have a major impact on the release of radionuclides into the environment. The reducing conditions expected for a geological disposal situation would appear to be favorable as regards the solubility and stability of the UO2 matrix, but may be disturbed on the surface of irradiated fuel. In particular, the local redox conditions will result from a competition between the radiolysis effects of water under alpha irradiation (simultaneously producing oxidizing species like H2O2, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing species like H2, hydrogen) and those of redox active species from the environment. In particular, Fe2+, a strongly reducing aqueous species coming from the corrosion of the iron canister or from the host rock, could influence the dissolution of the fuel matrix. The effect of iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 was thus investigated under the conditions of the French disposal site, a Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation chosen by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), here tested under alpha irradiation. For this study, UO2 fuel pellets doped with a radioactive alpha emitter (238/239Pu) were leached in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater (representative of the French waste disposal site groundwater) in the presence of a metallic iron foil to simulate the steel canister. The pellets had varying levels of alpha activity, in order to modulate the concentrations of species produced by water radiolysis on the surface and to simulate the activity of aged spent fuel after 50 and 10,000 years of alpha radioactivity decay. The experimental data showed that whatever the sample alpha radioactivity, the presence of iron inhibits the oxidizing dissolution of

  4. Properties of lithium aluminate for application as an OSL dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardak, A.; Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Gieszczyk, W.; Mrozik, A.; Sądel, M.; Wróbel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Several samples of undoped and carbon or copper doped lithium aluminate (LiAlO 2 ) were prepared in an attempt to achieve a material, which can be applicable in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. All investigated samples are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and show good reproducibility. The undoped and copper doped samples exhibit sensitivity several times higher than that of Al 2 O 3 :C, while sensitivity of the carbon doped samples is lower. The studied samples exhibit significant fading, but dynamics of signal loss is different for differently doped samples, what indicates a possibility of improving this characteristic by optimizing dopant composition. - Highlights: • OSL properties of lithium aluminate for personal dosimetry. • Doping influence on OSL fading of lithium aluminate. • Application of lithium aluminate in thermal neutron measurements

  5. Paramagnetic iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with improved metal sorption properties. A bioorganic substrates-mediated synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, D Fabio; Magnacca, Giuliana; Malandrino, Mery; Rubert, Aldo; Montoneri, Enzo; Celi, Luisella; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Gonzalez, Mónica C

    2014-03-26

    This paper describes the synthesis of paramegnetic iron-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their increased Cu(2+) sorbent capacity when using Ca(2+) complexes of soluble bioorganic substrates from urban wastes as synthesis precursors. A thorough characterization of the particles by TEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, specific surface area, TGA, XPS, and DLS indicates that loss of crystallinity, a higher specific area, an increased surface oxygen content, and formation of surface iron phases strongly enhance Cu(2+) adsorption capacity of hydroxyapatite-based materials. However, the major effect of the surface and morphologycal modifications is the size diminution of the aggregates formed in aqueous solutions leading to an increased effective surface available for Cu(2+) adsorption. Maximum sorption values of 550-850 mg Cu(2+) per gram of particles suspended in an aqueous solution at pH 7 were determined, almost 10 times the maximum values observed for hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspensions under the same conditions.

  6. Structure and thermal stability of nanostructured iron-doped zirconia prepared by high-energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    % alpha-Fe2O3. The unit-cell volume of the cubic ZrO2 phase decreases with increasing iron content. During heating hte cubic-to-tetragonal transition occurs at approximately 827 degrees C and the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition seems to be absent at temperatures below 950 degrees C. During cooling...... the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition occurs at 900-1100 degrees C....

  7. In Situ High-Level Nitrogen Doping into Carbon Nanospheres and Boosting of Capacitive Charge Storage in Both Anode and Cathode for a High-Energy 4.5 V Full-Carbon Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Lijie; Gao, Jihui; Li, Hexing; Lu, Yunfeng

    2018-05-02

    To circumvent the imbalances of electrochemical kinetics and capacity between Li + storage anodes and capacitive cathodes for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), we herein demonstrate an efficient solution by boosting the capacitive charge-storage contributions of carbon electrodes to construct a high-performance LIC. Such a strategy is achieved by the in situ and high-level doping of nitrogen atoms into carbon nanospheres (ANCS), which increases the carbon defects and active sites, inducing more rapidly capacitive charge-storage contributions for both Li + storage anodes and PF 6 - storage cathodes. High-level nitrogen-doping-induced capacitive enhancement is successfully evidenced by the construction of a symmetric supercapacitor using commercial organic electrolytes. Coupling a pre-lithiated ANCS anode with a fresh ANCS cathode enables a full-carbon LIC with a high operating voltage of 4.5 V and high energy and power densities thereof. The assembled LIC device delivers high energy densities of 206.7 and 115.4 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 0.225 and 22.5 kW kg -1 , respectively, as well as an unprecedented high-power cycling stability with only 0.0013% capacitance decay per cycle within 10 000 cycles at a high power output of 9 kW kg -1 .

  8. Effect of iron doping on the magnetic properties of TbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, T.-C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: taichun_han@yahoo.com.tw; Lin, Jauyn Grace [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and Center for Nanostorage Research, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jglin@ccms.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-03-15

    We synthesized a series of TbFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (0{<=}x{<=}0.2) samples and studied the effect of the Fe-doping on their magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate a pure orthorhombic structure with space group Pbam for all the samples. Based on the data of temperature- and field-dependent magnetization, M(T) and M(H) curves, it is found that the magnetic moment enhances with increase in the Fe-content in TbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. With increase in the Fe-content from 0 to 0.2, the magnetic moment increases progressively from 0.014 to 0.030 {mu} {sub Bohr} p.f.u. at room temperature (RT). Particularly for the TbFe{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 1.8}O{sub 5} sample, a current-voltage curve displays a nonlinear behavior at RT. If a strong coupling between magnetic moment and electric polarization exists, the Fe-doped sample may have a higher polarization/ferroelectric effect, which should be a great advantage for the future application of the spintronics devices.

  9. Generation of ionizing radiation from lithium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work done experimentally explores generation of electron and x-ray radiation in the process of heating and cooling monolithic and iron-doped crystals of lithium niobate. Iron doping to the concentrations in the range of 1023 m3 was carried out by adding ferric oxide into the melt during the process of crystal growth. The research into radiation generation was performed at 1-10 Pa. The speed of heating from -10 to 1070 C was 10-20 degrees a minute. Current pulses appeared at 17, 38, 56, 94, 98, 100, 105, 106, 1070 C with the interval of 1-3 minutes. The obtained electron current increased in direct proportion to the crystal surface area. The maximum current was 3mA at the design voltage 11 kV on the crystal with 14,5x10,5x10 mm3 surface area. The article describes the possibility to control the start of generation by introducing priming pulse. The results achieved are explained by the domain repolarization while heating the crystal and the appearance of electric field local strength. Bias and overcharge currents contribute to the appearance of electric strength, which stimulates breakdown and plasma formation. X-ray radiation appears both at the stage of discharge formation and during electron deceleration on gas and target material.

  10. Iron insertion and hematite segregation on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained from sol-gel and hydrothermal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Reginaldo da S; Faria, Guilherme A; Giles, Carlos; Leite, Carlos A P; Barbosa, Herbert de S; Arruda, Marco A Z; Longo, Claudia

    2012-10-24

    Iron-doped TiO(2) (Fe:TiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method (with Fe/Ti molar ratio corresponding to 1, 3, and 5%), followed by hydrothermal treatment, drying, and annealing. A similar methodology was used to synthesize TiO(2) and α-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. For comparison, a mixture hematite/titania, with Fe/Ti = 4% was also investigated. Characterization of the samples using Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed that TiO(2) consisted of 82% anatase and 18% brookite; for Fe:TiO(2), brookite increased to 30% and hematite was also identified (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2 wt % for samples prepared with 1, 3, and 5% of Fe/Ti). For hematite/titania mixture, Fe/Ti was estimated as 4.4%, indicating the Rietveld method reliability for estimation of phase composition. Because the band gap energy, estimated as 3.2 eV for TiO(2), gradually ranged from 3.0 to 2.7 eV with increasing Fe content at Fe:TiO(2), it can be assumed that a Fe fraction was also inserted as dopant in the TiO(2) lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra obtained for the Ti K-edge and Fe K-edge indicated that absorbing Fe occupied a Ti site in the TiO(2) lattice, but hematite features were not observed. Hematite particles also could not be identified in the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy, in spite of iron identification by elemental mapping, suggesting that hematite can be segregated at the grain boundaries of Fe:TiO(2).

  11. Investigation on polyethylene-supported and nano-SiO2 doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) based gel polymer electrolyte for high voltage lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huili; Liao, Youhao; Sun, Ping; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based GPE was developed for high voltage lithium ion battery. • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE has uniform and interconnected pore structure. • The GPE exhibits improved ionic conductivity and compatibility with electrodes. • 5 V battery using the GPE presents excellent cyclic stability. - Abstract: Nano-SiO 2 as dopant was used for preparing polyethylene-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-co-BA)/PE) based membrane and corresponding gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is applied to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium ion battery. P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based membranes and corresponding GPEs were characterized with scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical test, thermogravimetric analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the GPE with 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 shows the best performance. Compared to the undoped membrane, the 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 doped membrane has a better pore structure and higher electrolyte uptake, leading to the enhancement in ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE from 1.23 × 10 −3 to 2.26 × 10 −3 S.cm −1 at room temperature. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the doped membrane is increased from 300 to 320 °C while its decomposition potential of GPE is from 5.0 to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li + ). The cyclic stability of Li/GPE/Li(Li 0.13 Ni 0.30 Mn 0.57 )O 2 cell at the high voltage range of 3.5 V ∼ 5.0 V is consequently improved, the capacity retention of the cell using the doped membrane is 92.8% after 50 cycles while only 88.9% for the cell using undoped membrane and 66.9% for the cell using liquid electrolyte

  12. Effect of Nb and F Co-doping on Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 Cathode Material for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ming

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Li1.2Mn0.54−xNbxCo0.13Ni0.13O2−6xF6x (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 is prepared by traditional solid-phase method, and the Nb and F ions are successfully doped into Mn and O sites of layered materials Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2, respectively. The incorporating Nb ion in Mn site can effectively restrain the migration of transition metal ions during long-term cycling, and keep the stability of the crystal structure. The Li1.2Mn0.54−xNbxCo0.13Ni0.13O2−6xF6x shows suppressed voltage fade and higher capacity retention of 98.1% after 200 cycles at rate of 1 C. The replacement of O2− by the strongly electronegative F− is beneficial for suppressed the structure change of Li2MnO3 from the eliminating of oxygen in initial charge process. Therefore, the initial coulombic efficiency of doped Li1.2Mn0.54−xNbxCo0.13Ni0.13O2−6xF6x gets improved, which is higher than that of pure Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2. In addition, the Nb and F co-doping can effectively enhance the transfer of lithium-ion and electrons, and thus improving rate performance.

  13. Three-dimensional nitrogen and sulfur co-doped holey-reduced graphene oxide frameworks anchored with MoO2 nanodots for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jie; Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Huaixin; Cao, Xueqin; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2018-07-01

    In this manuscript, we synthesize a porous three-dimensional anode material consisting of molybdenum dioxide nanodots anchored on nitrogen (N)/sulfur (S) co-doped reduced graphene oxide (GO) (3D MoO2/NP-NSG) through hydrothermal, lyophilization and thermal treatment. First, the NP-NSG is formed via hydrothermal treatment using graphene oxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiourea as the co-dopant for N and S, followed by calcination of the N/S co-doped GO in the presence of ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate to obtain the 3D MoO2/NP-NSG product. This novel material exhibits a series of out-bound electrochemical performances, such as superior conductivity, high specific capacity, and excellent stability. As an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the MoO2/NP-NSG electrode has a high initial specific capacity (1376 mAh g‑1), good cycling performance (1250 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g‑1), and outstanding Coulombic efficiency (99% after 450 cycles at a current density of 1 A g‑1). Remarkably, the MoO2/NP-NSG battery exhibits exceedingly good rate capacities of 1021, 965, 891, 760, 649, 500 and 425 mAh g‑1 at different current densities of 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mA g‑1, respectively. The superb electrochemical performance is owed to the high porosity of the 3D architecture, the synergistic effect contribution from N and S co-doped in the reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and the uniform distribution of MoO2 nanodots on the rGO surface.

  14. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized lithium manganate and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Zahoor, Sabia

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn 2O 4 and its derivatives are prepared by the sol-gel method. The lattice constant of the pure material is calculated as 8.23 Å. Different transition metal cations of chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc (0.05 and 0.15 M) are doped in place of manganese in the LiMn 2O 4. X-ray powder diffraction data show that the spinel framework preserved its integrity upon doping. Formation of a single phase and the purity of the samples are confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The crystallite size of the samples is calculated by use of the Scherrer formula and is found to be within a range of 43-66 nm. The electrical conductivity of the samples is determined over a temperature range of 200-300 K by means of four-point probe method. An increasing trend of conductivity with increase in temperature is noted for all the samples. The parent compound LiMn 2O 4 has a conductivity value of 3.47 × 10 -4 ohm -1 cm -1 at room temperature. This value increases on doping with the above-mentioned transition metal cations.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized lithium manganate and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Zahoor, Sabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2007-02-25

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and its derivatives are prepared by the sol-gel method. The lattice constant of the pure material is calculated as 8.23 Aa. Different transition metal cations of chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc (0.05 and 0.15 M) are doped in place of manganese in the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. X-ray powder diffraction data show that the spinel framework preserved its integrity upon doping. Formation of a single phase and the purity of the samples are confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The crystallite size of the samples is calculated by use of the Scherrer formula and is found to be within a range of 43-66 nm. The electrical conductivity of the samples is determined over a temperature range of 200-300 K by means of four-point probe method. An increasing trend of conductivity with increase in temperature is noted for all the samples. The parent compound LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has a conductivity value of 3.47 x 10{sup -4} ohm{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at room temperature. This value increases on doping with the above-mentioned transition metal cations. (author)

  17. Comparison of iron and copper doped manganese cobalt spinel oxides as protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Belma; Molin, Sebastian; Wiik, Kjell; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Lein, Hilde Lea

    2017-12-01

    MnCo2O4, MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 are investigated as coatings for corrosion protection of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Electrophoretic deposition is used to deposit the coatings on Crofer 22 APU alloy. All three coating materials reduce the parabolic oxidation rate in air at 900 °C and 800 °C. At 700 °C there is no significant difference in oxidation rate between coated samples and uncoated pre-oxidized Crofer 22 APU. The cross-scale area specific resistance (ASR) is measured in air at 800 °C using La0.85Sr0.1Mn1.1O3 (LSM) contact plates to simulate the interaction with the cathode in a SOFC stack. All coated samples have three times lower ASR than uncoated Crofer 22 APU after 4370 h aging. The ASR increase with time is lowest with the MnCo2O4 coating, followed by the MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 coatings. LSM plates contacted to uncoated Crofer 22 APU contain significant amounts of Cr after aging, while all three coatings effectively prevent Cr diffusion into the LSM. A complex Cr-rich reaction layer develops at the coating-alloy interface during oxidation. Cu and Fe doping reduce the extent of this reaction layer at 900 °C, while at 800 °C the effect of doping is insignificant.

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism of iron-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods synthesized by a low temperature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)], E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2008-04-03

    Nanorods of Fe-TiO{sub 2} were synthesized at 100 deg. C and room pressure by mixing titanium oxide wet gel TiO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The results of EDAX, performed on different selected area of the sample, revealed a homogeneous composition of about 3 at% Fe. Electron diffraction and XRD measurements show that the as-prepared Fe-TiO{sub 2} and annealed one at 550 deg. C have both a single rutile structure with no indication about the presence of a secondary phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs show that both as-prepared Fe-TiO{sub 2} and annealed one at 550 deg. C have nanorod-shape with dimensions length by diameter of about 60 x 5 nm and 52 x 12 nm, respectively. Magnetization measurements show that both samples present a nonzero remanence and a coercivity of 108 and 120 Oe, respectively. At higher temperature, 850 deg. C, Fe-TiO{sub 2} decomposes to rutile TiO{sub 2} and new iron-titanate phase.

  19. Low-field microwave absorption and magnetoresistance in iron nanostructures grown by electrodeposition on n-type lightly doped silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J.F. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Mendes, J.B.S. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Morais, P.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Automation, 430074 Wuhan (China); Araujo, C.I.L. de., E-mail: dearaujo@ufv.br [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigate magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystal structure in iron nanoclusters electrodeposited on lightly doped (100) n-type silicon substrates. Our goal is to investigate the spin injection and detection in the Fe/Si lateral structures. The samples obtained under electric percolation were characterized by magnetoresistive and magnetic resonance measurements with cycling the sweeping applied field in order to understand the spin dynamics in the as-produced samples. The observed hysteresis in the magnetic resonance spectra, plus the presence of a broad peak in the non-saturated regime confirming the low field microwave absorption (LFMA), were correlated to the peaks and slopes found in the magnetoresistance curves. The results suggest long range spin injection and detection in low resistive silicon and the magnetic resonance technique is herein introduced as a promising tool for analysis of electric contactless magnetoresistive samples. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of Fe nanostructures on high resistive silicon substrates. • Spin polarized current among clusters through Si suggested by isotropic magnetoresistance. • Low field microwave absorption arising from the sample shape anisotropy. • Contactless magnetoresistive device characterization by resonance measurements.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and enhanced photocatalytic activity of iron oxide/carbon nanotube/Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Neto, José O.; Bellato, Carlos R.; Souza, Carlos H.F. de; Silva, Renê C. da; Rocha, Pablo A., E-mail: bellato@ufv.br [Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable catalyst (Fe/MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-Ag) was prepared in this study by a process that involves few steps. Titanium dioxide doped with silver and iron oxide was deposited on support of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The synthesized catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). Phenol in aqueous solution (50 mg L{sup -1}) was used as a model compound for evaluation of UV-Vis (filter cut off for λ > 300 nm) photocatalytic activity. The composite catalyst has a high photocatalytic activity, destroying ca. 100% of phenol and removing 85% of total organic carbon in an aqueous solution after 180 min. The Fe/MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-Ag catalyst remained stable, presenting an 8% decrease in phenol degradation efficiency after ten consecutive photocatalytic cycles. (author)

  1. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  2. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed. (topical review)

  3. Facile synthesis of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures and their application in lithium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Tiekun, E-mail: tiekunjia@126.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Chen, Jian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Deng, Zhao [State Key Lab of Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Fang; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Xiaofeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Long, Fei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Novel Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal approach without surfactant. • The Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were assembled by pronounced needle-like nanorod truncks with highly ordered needle-like nanorod branches. • The as-obtained Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} sample exhibited good electrochemical property. - Abstract: Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach without the use of any surfactants or templates. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The observation of FESEM and HRTEM showed that Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} hierarchical cube-like architectures were composed of numerous oriented dendrites. Each dendrite is assembled by a pronounced trunk with highly ordered branches distributing on the both sides. The as-prepared Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were used as anode materials for Li-ion battery, and a stable capacity of 488.3 mA h g{sup −1} was achieved after 50 cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicated that the as-prepared Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures have potential application in Li-ion battery.

  4. Synthesis and application of iron and zinc doped biochar for removal of p-nitrophenol in wastewater and assessment of the influence of co-existed Pb(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Tang, Lin; Wei, Xue; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jingjing; Xie, Zhihong; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Iron and zinc doped biochar was developed with larger specific surface area, new generated hydroxyl groups, and beneficial magnetism compared with pristine biochar. • Fe/Zn-biochar presented good performance both for PNP and Pb(II) adsorption as well as their simultaneous removal. • Mechanism of the enhanced adsorption for low concentrations of co-existing PNP and Pb(II) was proposed. - Abstract: The modification of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent is essential to improve its surface properties and shows great potential in water decontamination. The iron and zinc doped sawdust biochar (Fe/Zn-biochar) with large apparent surface area (518.54 m 2 /g) proposed in this work showed good performance for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal compared with the pristine biochar (P-biochar), iron doped biochar (Fe-biochar) and zinc doped biochar (Zn-biochar) respectively. The batch experiments turned out that Fe/Zn-biochar exhibited larger PNP adsorption capacity under acidic pH solution, and the ionic strength had slightly negative impact on PNP adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed, and the experimental data fitted well the Pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the PNP adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the simultaneous removal for PNP and Pb(II) by Fe/Zn-biochar was investigated. It implied that the adsorption of PNP and Pb(II) at their low concentration might be enhanced by the complexing-bridging mechanism of PNP and Pb(II) ascribing to the affinity between PNP and hydrophobic sites, in addition to the affinity between Pb(II) and oxygen-containing hydrophilic sites on Fe/Zn-biochar surface. However, the predominated competition between PNP and Pb(II) at their high concentrations with Fe/Zn-biochar suppressed their adsorption.

  5. Synthesis and application of iron and zinc doped biochar for removal of p-nitrophenol in wastewater and assessment of the influence of co-existed Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Tang, Lin, E-mail: tanglin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Wei, Xue [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Zhou, Yaoyu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jingjing; Xie, Zhihong; Fang, Wei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Iron and zinc doped biochar was developed with larger specific surface area, new generated hydroxyl groups, and beneficial magnetism compared with pristine biochar. • Fe/Zn-biochar presented good performance both for PNP and Pb(II) adsorption as well as their simultaneous removal. • Mechanism of the enhanced adsorption for low concentrations of co-existing PNP and Pb(II) was proposed. - Abstract: The modification of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent is essential to improve its surface properties and shows great potential in water decontamination. The iron and zinc doped sawdust biochar (Fe/Zn-biochar) with large apparent surface area (518.54 m{sup 2}/g) proposed in this work showed good performance for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal compared with the pristine biochar (P-biochar), iron doped biochar (Fe-biochar) and zinc doped biochar (Zn-biochar) respectively. The batch experiments turned out that Fe/Zn-biochar exhibited larger PNP adsorption capacity under acidic pH solution, and the ionic strength had slightly negative impact on PNP adsorption. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were discussed, and the experimental data fitted well the Pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the PNP adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the simultaneous removal for PNP and Pb(II) by Fe/Zn-biochar was investigated. It implied that the adsorption of PNP and Pb(II) at their low concentration might be enhanced by the complexing-bridging mechanism of PNP and Pb(II) ascribing to the affinity between PNP and hydrophobic sites, in addition to the affinity between Pb(II) and oxygen-containing hydrophilic sites on Fe/Zn-biochar surface. However, the predominated competition between PNP and Pb(II) at their high concentrations with Fe/Zn-biochar suppressed their adsorption.

  6. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.

  7. Comparison of iron and copper doped manganese cobalt spinel oxides as protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talic, Belma; Molin, Sebastian; Wiik, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    MnCo2O4, MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 are investigated as coatings for corrosion protection of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Electrophoretic deposition is used to deposit the coatings on Crofer 22 APU alloy. All three coating materials reduce the parabolic oxidation...... rate in air at 900 °C and 800 °C. At 700 °C there is no significant difference in oxidation rate between coated samples and uncoated pre-oxidized Crofer 22 APU. The cross-scale area specific resistance (ASR) is measured in air at 800 °C using La0.85Sr0.1Mn1.1O3 (LSM) contact plates to simulate...... contain significant amounts of Cr after aging, while all three coatings effectively prevent Cr diffusion into the LSM. A complex Cr-rich reaction layer develops at the coating-alloy interface during oxidation. Cu and Fe doping reduce the extent of this reaction layer at 900 °C, while at 800 °C the effect...

  8. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  9. Co9S8 nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon networks with improved lithium storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    We report the designed synthesis of unique Co9S8 nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon networks (Co9S8@NMCN nanocomposites). Uniform zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 was first synthesized and then transformed into Co9S8@NMCN nanocomposites by thermal annealing with sulfu...

  10. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Safia; Tufail, Rabia; Rashid, Khalid; Zia, Rehana; Riaz, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability of Co x Fe (2-x) O 3 nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co 2+ ions in magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co x Fe 3-x O 4 where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co 2+ doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm −1 , which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co 2+ content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co 2+ concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co 2+ content in B-site of Fe 3 O 4 structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  11. Studies performed on neutron-irradiated copper-doped iron specimens by means of neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of neutron small-angle scattering precipitation arising from heat-treatment and reactor irradiation in copper-alloyed iron specimens were studied. Copper content varried between 0 and 1.5%, irradiation temperature between 310 and 563K. The specimens had been cooled from the melt partly fast, partly slowely. By taking account of magnetic scattering and by investigating the azimuthal dependence of the total scattering it became possible to distinguish between copper precipitations and vacancy agglomerates. The most obvious effect in the slowly cooled specimens after irradiation with 2-10 19 fast neutrons per cm 2 at a temperature of 563 K is the existence of copper agglomerates with diameters of the order of magnitude of 5nm. Precipitation already occurs to a much lesser extent by the influence of temperature alone. Fast cooling from the melt or low irradiation temperature reduce precipitation during reactor irradiation. Moreover, there are indications on the formation of vacancy accumulations and dislocation rings, the latter especially in the fast cooled specimens. (orig.) [de

  12. Effects of Yttrium and Iron co-doping on the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, NingYu, E-mail: niwu@dtu.dk; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • The Fe and Fe/Y doping at the Co- and Ca-sites of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ} were investigated. • The rising ρ by Y doping can be mitigated by the coupled Fe doping. • The increased Seebeck coefficient by Y doping can be maintained in co-doped system. • The co-doped system leads to an improvement of the thermoelectric performance. • The co-doped system may preserve the merits from each component doping. - Abstract: A series of Y and Fe co-doped Ca{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 4−y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 9+δ} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3, 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion reaction and followed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing with the effects of Fe and Y doping on the high temperature (RT to 800 °C) thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. For the Fe-doped system (x = 0, y ⩽ 0.1), the electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased over the whole measured temperature range, while the Seebeck coefficient (S) remained almost the same. For the co-doped system, at any fixed Fe doping content, both ρ and S tended to increase with increasing Y dopants, however, the effect is more substantial on ρ than on S, particularly in the low temperature regime. In contrast to ρ and S, the in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) is only slightly influenced by Y and Fe substitutions. Among all the investigated samples, the co-doped sample with x = 0.1 and y = 0.03 showed a decrease of ρ, enhanced power factor over the measured temperature range, and improved ZT at 800 °C as compared to un-doped Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ}.

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co-doped Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Quan; Zhao Yanming; An Xiaoning; Liu Jianmin; Dong Youzhong; Chen Ling

    2010-01-01

    Co-doped Li 3 V 2-x Co x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.13 or 0.15) compounds were prepared via a solid-state reaction. The Rietveld refinement results indicated that single-phase Li 3 V 2-x Co x (PO 4 ) 3 /C (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) with a monoclinic structure was obtained. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the cobalt is present in the +2 oxidation state in Li 3 V 2-x Co x (PO 4 ) 3 . XPS studies also revealed that V 4+ and V 3+ ions were present in the Co 2+ -doped system. The initial specific capacity decreased as the Co-doping content increased, increasing monotonically with Co content for x > 0.10. Differential capacity curves of Li 3 V 2-x Co x (PO 4 ) 3 /C compounds showed that the voltage peaks associated with the extraction of three Li + ions shifted to higher voltages with an increase in Co content, and when the Co 2+ -doping content reached 0.15, the peak positions returned to those of the unsubstituted Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 phase. For the Li 3 V 1.85 Co 0.15 (PO 4 ) 3 /C compound, the initial capacity was 163.3 mAh/g (109.4% of the initial capacity of the undoped Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ) and 73.4% capacity retention was