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Sample records for iron diamine-alcian blue

  1. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus

  2. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud; Joseph Y. Farah; Taha E. Farrag

    2013-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liqui...

  3. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  4. Moessbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, Shizuko

    1990-01-01

    Moessbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Moessbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with 57 Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) labeled with 57 Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B 12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with 57 Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein. (orig.)

  5. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  6. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  7. Rapid photometric determination of phosphorus in iron ores and related materials as phosphomolybdenum-blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, O P; Gmitro, M

    1984-04-01

    A rapid, simple and accurate method for determining phosphorus photometrically in iron ores and related materials, obviating the use of perchloric acid, is described. The sample is fused with sodium peroxide in a zirconium crucible and the melt dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The molybdenum-blue complex is developed by the addition of ammonium molybdate and hydrazine sulphate and the absorbance is measured at 725 nm. The range of the method is from 0.005 to 1.0% P. A batch of 6 samples can be analysed in about 2 hr.

  8. Designing metallic iron based water filters: Light from methylene blue discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btatkeu-K, B D; Tchatchueng, J B; Noubactep, C; Caré, S

    2016-01-15

    Available water filtration systems containing metallic iron (Fe(0) filters) are pragmatically designed. There is a lack of sound design criteria to exploit the full potential of Fe(0) filters. A science-based design relies on valuable information on processes within a Fe(0) filter, including chemical reactions, hydrodynamics and their relation to the performance of the filter. The aim of this study was to establish a simple method to evaluate the initial performance of Fe(0) filters. The differential adsorptive affinity of methylene blue (MB) onto sand and iron oxide is exploited to characterize the evolution of a Fe(0)/sand system using the pure sand system as operational reference. Five systems were investigated for more than 70 days: pure sand, pure Fe(0), Fe(0)/sand, Fe(0)/pumice and Fe(0)/sand/pumice. Individual systems were characterized by the extent of changes in pH value, iron breakthrough, MB breakthrough and hydraulic conductivity. Results showed that for MB discoloration (i) pure sand was the most efficient system, (ii) hybrid systems were more sustainable than the pure Fe(0) system, and (iii) the pores of used pumice are poorly interconnected. Characterizing the initial reactivity of Fe(0) filters using MB discoloration has introduced a powerful tool for the exploration of various aspects of filter design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Reactive Blue 21 removal by Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron using response surface methodology

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    Mahmood Reza Sohrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 is one of the dye compounds which is harmful to human life, a simple and sensitive method to remove this pollutant from wastewater is using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI catalyst. In this paper, a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD was employed for response surface modeling to optimize experimental conditions of the RB21 removal from aqueous solution. The significance and adequacy of the model were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Four independent variables—including catalyst amount (0.1–0.9 g, pH (3.5–9.5, removal time (30–150 s and dye concentration (10–50 mg/L—were transformed to coded values and consequently second order quadratic model was built to predict the responses. The result showed that under optimized experimental conditions the removal of RB21 was over 95%.

  10. Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Zero Valent Iron Supported on Mesoporous Silica

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    Atyaf Khalid Hameed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zero valent iron supported on mesoporous silicanano particles (NZVI/MSNs was prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction methods. Prior to the reduction, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were prepared through the activation of fumed silica with concentrated HCl by refluxing at 90 °C. FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDX and BET were used to characterize theadsorbents prepared. BET surface areas of MSNs, NZVI, and NZVI/MSNs were 126, 41, and 72 m2/g for, respectively. The performance of NZVI/MSNs as adsorbent was examined by adsorption of methylene blue (MB, performed in series of batch experiments. In the kinetic studies, pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models were examined. The pseudo second order equation provided the best fit with the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic with ΔH° was 90.53 kJ/mol. Positive ΔS° (300 J/mol and negative ΔG° (-6.42 kJ/mol was recorded, indicating the spontaneous of the adsorption process and naturally favorable. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th March 2016; Revised: 18th March 2016; Accepted: 18th March 2016 How to Cite: Hameed, A.K., Dewayanto, N., Dongyun, D., Nordin, M.R., Mohd Hasbi Ab. Rahim, M.H.A. (2016. Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Zero Valent Iron Supported on Mesoporous Silica. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 250-261 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.443.250-261 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.443.250-261

  11. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, ΔS and ΔG and ΔH) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of selected

  12. Decomposition mechanism of methylene blue caused by metallic iron-maghemite mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Shibano, Koya; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Homonnay, Zoltan; Kuzmann, Erno [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Ristic, Mira [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Chemistry (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Kinki University, Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Decomposition mechanism of methylene blue (MB) caused by a mixture of metallic iron-maghemite (Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Ten day-leaching test of 10 {mu}mol L{sup - 1} MB aqueous solution and Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (mass ratio 3:7) showed a decrease in the concentration from 10.5 to 4.45 {mu}mol L{sup - 1} with first-order rate constant (k) of 1.57 x 10 - 1 day - 1. An ESI-MS study of Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (3:7) after the leaching test revealed new peaks at m/z of 100, 110 and 137 due to fragmentation of MB, in addition to those observed at m/z of 284, 270 and 256 which were ascribed to MB, Azure B and Azure A, respectively. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectra of Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture (3:7) resulted in a decrease in absorption area (A) for Fe{sup 0} ({delta} = 0.00{sub {+-}0.01} mm s{sup - 1}, H{sub int} = 33.0{sub {+-}0.1} T) from 37.5 to 21.3, 9.7, 7.9, 7.0 and 4.5{sub {+-}0.5} %, together with an increase in A from 0.0 to 5.0, 13.8, 17.2, 21.0 and 22.4{sub {+-}0.5} % for octahedral (O{sub h}) iron (Fe{sup II} + Fe{sup III}) of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. XRD study of these samples indicated that the peak intensity at 2{Theta} of 44.7 Degree-Sign being ascribed to Fe{sup 0} was decreased, while that of 35.6 Degree-Sign due to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was almost constant; relative peak ratio of Fe {sup 0}/Fe{sub 3} O{sub 4} was decreased from 26.3 to 2.76 after the leaching, indicating that Fe{sup 0} in the Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. These experimental results suggest that Fe{sup 0}-{gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture could be utilized for the cleaning or decomposition of toxic organic compounds like trichloroethylene.

  13. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

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    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  14. Nanoscale zero-valent iron incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite for catalytic degradation of methylene blue in heterogeneous Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yiming; Zhou, Ziqing; He, Haibo; Wang, Tianlin; Luo, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite (DE) composite material was prepared for catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in heterogeneous Fenton system. The material was constructed by two facile steps: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were supported on DE by chemical co-precipitation method, after which nZVI was incorporated into magnetic DE by liquid-phase chemical reduction strategy. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties measurement and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement. The novel nZVI@Fe3O4-diatomite nanocomposites showed a distinct catalytic activity and a desirable effect for degradation of MB. MB could be completely decolorized within 8 min and the removal efficiency of total organic carbon could reach to 90% after reaction for 1 h.

  15. Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Tosiaki

    2010-02-01

    Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1. Although transient expression of TgVit1 in the purple cells led to a color change to light blue, the coloration of the transformed cells did not coincide with the dark blue color of the cells of the perianth bottom. We thought that another factor is required for the blue coloration of the cells of perianth bottom. To examine the effect of ferritin (FER), an Fe storage protein, on blue color development, we cloned an FER gene (TgFER1) and performed expression analyses. TgFER1 transcripts were found in the cells located in the upper region of the petals along with purple color development by anthocyanin and were not found in the blue cells of the perianth bottom. This gene expression is in contrast to that of TgVit1, expressed only in the cells of the perianth bottom. Co-expression of TgVIT1 and TgFER-RNAi, constructed for suppressing endogenous TgFER1 by RNA interference (RNAi), changed the purple petal cells to a dark blue color similar to that of the natural perianth bottom. These results strongly suggest that TgVit1 expression and TgFER1 suppression are critical for the development of blue color in the perianth bottom.

  16. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  17. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S BET 50 m 2 /g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe 2 O 3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S BET 4 and 111 m 2 /g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA app ) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a magnetic adsorbent from negatively-valued iron mud for methylene blue adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiancong; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Fan, Wei; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Mingxin

    2018-01-01

    With increasing awareness of reduction of energy and CO2 footprint, more waste is considered recyclable for generating value-added products. Here we reported the negatively-valued iron mud, a waste from groundwater treatment plant, was successfully converted into magnetic adsorbent. Comparing with the conventional calcination method under the high temperature and pressure, the synthesis of the magnetic particles (MPs) by Fe2+/Fe3+ coprecipitation was conducted at environment-friendly condition using ascorbic acid (H2A) as reduction reagent and nitric acid (or acid wastewater) as leaching solution. The MPs with major component of Fe3O4 were synthesized at the molar ratio (called ratio subsequently) of H2A to Fe3+ of iron mud ≥ 0.1; while amorphous ferrihydrite phase was formed at the ratio ≤ 0.05, which were confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). With the ratio increased, the crystalline size and the crystallization degree of MPs increased, and thus the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) decreased. MPs-3 prepared with H2A to Fe3+ ratio of 0.1 demonstrated the highest methylene blue (MB) adsorption of 87.3 mg/g and good magnetic response. The adsorption of MB onto MPs agreed well with the non-linear Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order model. Pilot-scale experiment showed that 99% of MB was removed by adding 10 g/L of MPs-3. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, MPs-3 still showed 62% removal efficiency for MB adsorption. When nitric acid was replaced by acid wastewater from a propylene plant, the synthesized MPs-3w showed 3.7 emu/g of saturation magnetization (Ms) and 56.7 mg/g of MB adsorption capacity, 2.8 times of the widely used commercial adsorbent of granular active carbon (GAC). The major mechanism of MPs adsorption for MB was electrostatic attraction and cation exchange. This study synthesized a magnetic adsorbent from

  19. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  20. Frequency, types and complications of barrett's esophagus in patients with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.L.; Sadiq, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus in symptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux patients. Subjects: A total of 100 patients of gastro-esophageal reflux were studied to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopic biopsies were taken and examined with H and E and various special stains like PAS, Alcian blue/PAS, high iron diamine/ Alcian blue and Giemsa stains. Results: Of 100 cases studied, 32 were found to have Barrett's esophagus on microscopy. The remaining 68 cases showed low and high grade changes of gastro-esophageal reflux. Conclusion: In comparison with studies from western countries, Barrett's esophagus was found to be relatively more common in our population. However, the frequency of complications like ulcer, stricture, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was lesser. (author)

  1. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.

  2. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  3. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  4. Rate of Iron Transfer Through the Horse Spleen Ferritin Shell Determined by the Rate of Formation of Prussian Blue and Fe-desferrioxamine Within the Ferritin Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Watt, Richard K.; Galvez, Natividad; Dominquez-Vera, Jose M.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    Iron (2+ and 3+) is believed to transfer through the three-fold channels in the ferritin shell during iron deposition and release in animal ferritins. However, the rate of iron transit in and out through these channels has not been reported. The recent synthesis of [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-), Prussian Blue (PB) and desferrioxamine (DES) all trapped within the horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) interior makes these measurements feasible. We report the rate of Fe(2+) penetrating into the ferritin interior by adding external Fe(2+) to [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-) encapsulated in the HoSF interior and measuring the rate of formation of the resulting encapsulated PB. The rate at which Fe(2+) reacts with [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-) in the HoSF interior is much slower than the formation of free PB in solution and is proceeded by a lag period. We assume this lag period and the difference in rate represent the transfer of Fe(2+) through the HoSF protein shell. The calculated diffusion coefficient, D approx. 5.8 x 10(exp -20) square meters per second corresponds to the measured lag time of 10-20 s before PB forms within the HoSF interior. The activation energy for Fe(2+) transfer from the outside solution through the protein shell was determined to be 52.9 kJ/mol by conducting the reactions at 10 to approximately 40 C. The reaction of Fe(3+) with encapsulated [Fe(CN)6](4-) also readily forms PB in the HoSF interior, but the rate is faster than the corresponding Fe(2+) reaction. The rate for Fe(3+) transfer through the ferritin shell was confirmed by measuring the rate of the formation of Fe-DES inside HoSF and an activation energy of 58.4 kJ/mol was determined. An attempt was made to determine the rate of iron (2+ and 3+) transit out from the ferritin interior by adding excess bipyridine or DES to PB trapped within the HoSF interior. However, the reactions are slow and occur at almost identical rates for free and HoSF-encapsulated PB, indicating that the transfer of iron from the interior through the

  5. Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

  6. Voltammetric determination of total dissolved iron in coastal waters using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide, Methylene Blue and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Mingyue; Zhang, Haiyun; Han, Haitao; Pan, Dawei; Su, Zhencui

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite, prepared from reduced graphene oxide (rGO), Methylene Blue (MB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the determination of total dissolved iron by differential pulse voltammetry. The use of rGO warrants a larger electrode surface and the presence of more active sites, while electron transfer is accelerated by incorporating AuNPs. MB acts as an electron mediator, as an anchor for the AuNPs (which were grown in situ), and also prevents the aggregation of rGO. The modified electrode displayed a remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for Fe(III). The kinetics of the electrode reaction is adsorption-controlled, and the reversible process involves one proton and one electron. The response to Fe(III) is linear in the 0.3 to 100 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 15 nM. Possible interferences by other ions were studied. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of total dissolved iron in real coastal waters. (author)

  7. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  8. A simple and portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode and its application to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutada; Aruga, Terutomi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Miki; Kuwabara, Tetsuo; Kawakubo, Susumu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2004-06-01

    A portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode as a light source has been developed. An embedded controller sequentially turns emitters on and off, and acquires the signals detected by two photo diodes synchronized with their blinking. The controller calculates the absorbance and displays it on a liquid-crystal display. The whole system, including a 006P dry cell, is contained in a 100 x 70 x 50 mm aluminum case and its mass is 280 g. This colorimeter was successfully applied to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

  9. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-02

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  10. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A.; Colpini, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO 2 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 gave a result similar to that of TiO 2 . On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  11. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Colpini, L.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Palotina, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis

    2011-07-15

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gave a result similar to that of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  12. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhujian [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • G–Fe chelate molecules were well preserved into montmorillonite. • The product shows an excellent catalytic activity under sunlight at neutral pH value. • G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes. - Abstract: To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G–Fe–Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G–Fe–Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G–Fe–Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G–Fe–Mt under neutral pH. G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  13. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  14. Growth of Fe2O3/SnO2 nanobelt arrays on iron foil for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rui; Ni, Hongwei; Chen, Rongsheng; Zhang, Bowei; Zhan, Weiting; Li, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Tin(IV) oxide has been intensively employed in optoelectronic devices due to its excellent electrical and optical properties. But the high recombination rates of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs of SnO2 nanomaterials often results in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we proposed a facile route to prepare a novel Fe2O3/SnO2 heterojunction structure. The nanobelt arrays grown on iron foil naturally form a Schottky-type contact and provide a direct pathway for the photogenerated excitons. Hence, the Fe2O3/SnO2 nanobelt arrays exhibit much improved photocatalytic performance with the degradation rate constant on the Fe2O3/SnO2 film of approximately 12 times to that of α-Fe2O3 nanobelt arrays.

  15. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  16. Iron Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 Used to Synthesize Magnetic Sodium Alginate Hydrogel Beads for the Removal of Basic Blue 159 from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Ghajarieh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are a main source of pollutants in textile plant effluents. Due to their molecular structure, they are usually toxic, carcinogenous, and persistent in the environment. The aim of the present work was to explore the removal of basic blue159 (BB159 using magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. Magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads were initially synthesized  accoriodng to Rocher method using CaCl2 as a crosslink agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was then employed to examine the functional groups on the surface of the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. In a third stage, the magnetic properties of the beads were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and the magnetic parameters were calculated. Subsequently, the effects of such parameters as adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration of dye, and contact time were evaluated on the BB159 removal efficiency of the adsorbent used. Finally, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and B.E.T models were exploited to study the adsorption isotherm of BB159 onto the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. It was found that the magnetic sodium alginate beads possess both –COO and –OH groups that play important roles in the adsorption of the positively charged BB159 dye. A saturation magnetization equal to 21/8(emu/g was obtained for the sodium alginate beads/nano Fe3O4. Results also revealed that the highest dye removal from aqueous solutions was achieved at pH=11 in 120 minutes for 9 grams of the adsorbent. The study indicated that BB159 removal using the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads as the adsorbent obeys the Langmuir model. Moreover, it was shown that the efficiency of the process for BB159 removal from aqueous solutions was satisfactory (85%.

  17. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride; Remocion de colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas con una arcilla modificada con cloruro de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, {Delta}S and {Delta}G and {Delta}H) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of

  18. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  19. Tissue content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in the colonic mucosa, without fecal stream, undergoing daily intervention with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassa, Christiny Emmanuelle Gabriel; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael de; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Chaim, Felipe David Mendonça; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-05-01

    To measure the content of acidic mucin, sialomucin, and sulfomucins in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with sucralfate (SCF). Thirty-six rats were submitted to a right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, SCF at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis. Acid mucins were determined with the Alcian-Blue and sulfomucin and sialomucin by high iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB) techniques. The mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5% for both (p<0.05). SCF enemas decreased the inflammation score and was related to the concentration used and time of the intervention. SCF at both concentrations increased the content of acid mucin, which was related to the concentration used and to the improvement in the inflammatory score. There was an increase in the content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in SCF groups. SCF increased sulfomucins from 2 weeks of intervention, which was not related to the dose or time of application. The increase in sialomucin content was related to the time and dose used in the intervention. Sucralfate increased the content of acidic mucins, primarily at the expense of sialomucin, which was affected by the dose and time of intervention.

  20. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  1. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, M. Sánchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhée, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-08-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the "Maya blue" pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si8(Mg2Al2)O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O and an organic colourant (indigo: C16H10N2O2), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  2. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  3. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  4. A Rare Case of Multifocal Prostatic Blue Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias J. Farran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic blue nevus is a rare benign pathologic diagnosis most commonly diagnosed incidentally on many different types of prostate specimens. Blue nevus is the deposition of stromal melanin characterized by spindle cells within the fibromuscular stroma which stains positive for melanin-specific stains Fontana-Masson and S100 and stains negative for CD68, HMB45, and iron stains. We report the case of a multifocal and bilateral blue nevus in a 52-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an elevated prostate-specific antigen of 4.3 and mild obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, found by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. The biopsy also revealed benign prostatic tissue with postatrophic hyperplasia and chronic inflammation. This is the 35th reported case of prostatic blue nevus and the third to show multifocal blue nevus.

  5. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  6. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  7. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  8. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  9. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  10. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  11. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  12. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  13. New insights into the role of Mn and Fe in coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelains by XANES spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wugan; Ming, Chaofang; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Dongliang; Xu, Wei; Wang, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Blue and white porcelain is one of the most valuable ancient ceramics varieties in ancient China. It is well known for its beautiful blue decorations. However, the origin of its blue color has not been very clear till now. In this research, two blue and white porcelains from Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province were selected and Mn and Fe K-edge XANES spectra were recorded from blue decorations with or without transparent glaze. Results showed that Mn K-edge XANES features were almost identical between different samples while that of iron changed. The above findings indicated the positive role of iron in the variation of blue decorations. As for manganese, although more system researches were need, its negative role on the variations of the tone of blue decorations was obtained. On the other hand, the paper also revealed the XAFS results will be affect by the glaze layer above the pigment. These findings provided us more information to understand the coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelain by means of XANES spectroscopy.

  14. New insights into the role of Mn and Fe in coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelains by XANES spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wugan; Chen, Dongliang; Xu, Wei; Ming, Chaofang; Wang, Changsui; Wang, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    Blue and white porcelain is one of the most valuable ancient ceramics varieties in ancient China. It is well known for its beautiful blue decorations. However, the origin of its blue color has not been very clear till now. In this research, two blue and white porcelains from Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province were selected and Mn and Fe K-edge XANES spectra were recorded from blue decorations with or without transparent glaze. Results showed that Mn K-edge XANES features were almost identical between different samples while that of iron changed. The above findings indicated the positive role of iron in the variation of blue decorations. As for manganese, although more system researches were need, its negative role on the variations of the tone of blue decorations was obtained. On the other hand, the paper also revealed the XAFS results will be affect by the glaze layer above the pigment. These findings provided us more information to understand the coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelain by means of XANES spectroscopy.

  15. Anemia caused by low iron -- infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tongue Have headaches or dizziness With more severe anemia, your child may have: Blue-tinged or pale whites of ... and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010;126( ...

  16. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  17. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  18. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  19. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  1. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  2. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 Israeli Navy 'First Arm of the Sea: The Successful Interception of the Iron Dome Rocket .... sky to destroy them whilst in flight to minimise civilian casualties. ..... Including The Moon and Celestial Bodies.53 Demeyere further emphasises the.

  3. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tracing) X-ray to detect and track iron tablets through the stomach and intestines Treatment may include: ... BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  4. The Blue Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron- ... of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  8. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests are also done. Ferritin measure ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  16. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and severity. Treatments may include iron supplements, procedures, surgery, and dietary ... iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  19. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  20. Precipitation of iron in windopane oyster shells by marine shell-boring cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Rao, V.P.; Iyer, S.D.

    filaments encrusted with black precipitate. Microchemical test (Prussian blue reaction) and wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed this precipitate to be of iron. Mineralogical studies of this black precipitate, using x-ray diffraction and scanning...

  1. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Khushnooma; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  2. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushnooma Italia

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  4. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  5. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  7. Effects of iron stress on chromatic adaptation by natural phytoplankton communities in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, M.A.; Timmermans, K.R.; Witte, H.J.; Kraay, G.W.; Veldhuis, M.J.W.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of iron stress on chromatic adaptation were studied in natural phytoplankton communities collected in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean. Iron enrichment experiments (48 to 72 h) were performed, incubating plankton communities under white, green and blue light respectively, with and

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  11. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  12. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  13. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  14. Oxidation states of Fe and Ti in blue sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongrawang, P; Wongkokua, W; Monarumit, N; Thammajak, N; Wathanakul, P

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) can be used to study the oxidation state of a dilute system such as transition metal defects in solid-state samples. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are defects that cause the blue color. Inter-valence charge transfer (IVCT) between Fe 2+ and Ti 4+ has been proposed to describe the optical color’s origin. However, the existence of divalent iron cations has not been thoroughly investigated. Fluorescent XANES is therefore employed to study K-edge absorptions of Fe and Ti cations in various blue sapphire samples including natural, synthetic, diffused and heat-treated sapphires. All the samples showed an Fe absorption edge at 7124 eV, corresponding to the Fe 3+ state; and Ti at 4984 eV, corresponding to Ti 4+ . From these results, we propose Fe 3+ -Ti 4+ mixed acceptor states located at 1.75 eV and 2.14 eV above the valence band of corundum, that correspond to 710 nm and 580 nm bands of UV–vis absorption spectra, to describe the cause of the color of blue sapphire. (paper)

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... delivery or giving birth to a baby with low birth weight In people with chronic conditions, iron- ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  4. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amount of iron, and medical conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb iron from ... hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy ... sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  12. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  16. Iron impregnated carbon materials with improved physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Irfan; Adnan, Rohana; Wan Ngah, Wan Saime; Mohamed, Norita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology of raw AC was altered upon Fe impregnation and surface oxidation. • Surface modification had increased the pores diameter and surface functionalities. • Development of iron oxides have been expected on Fe impregnated carbon materials. • The M1, M2 and M3 have revealed magnetic susceptibility in applied magnetic field. • Dyes removal efficiency of M3 was notably higher (90–99%) than the raw AC (60–85%). - Abstract: This paper highlights the effect of iron impregnation and surface oxidation on the physicochemical characteristics of iron impregnated carbon materials. These materials were characterized by various techniques like surface area, pore size distribution, SEM/EDX, CHN, XRD, FTIR, TG/DT, VSM and XPS analyses. The increase in the surface functionalities and pores diameter (3.51–5.49 nm) of the iron-impregnated carbon materials was observed with the increase in iron contents and surface oxidation. The saturated magnetization values (0.029–0.034 emu/g) for the iron-impregnated carbon materials reflected the magnetic tendency due to the development of small size iron oxides on their surfaces. The XPS spectra revealed the existence of different oxidation states of the corresponding metals on the iron impregnated carbon materials. The percentage removal of model dyes (Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange) by iron-impregnated carbon materials was enhanced (>90%) with the increase in iron contents and pores diameters.

  17. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  20. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  1. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2010-01-01

    and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding...... the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron...... to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean...

  2. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  3. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost......We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...

  4. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  7. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  8. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ... iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  11. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  12. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  13. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access...... of the frame. Prussian blue is a hydrated iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) complex of variable composition depending on the manufacturing [1]. It has been reported that the method of preparation, as well as the use of white pigments or extenders to dilute the blue pigment, may be a factor contributing to its......, the current in situ campaign aimed at mapping and understanding the degradation of Prussian blue and lead white admixtures using non-invasive portable techniques. The presence of Prussian blue was detected, with the MOLAB analytical means, in all the exposed, faded areas, although the colour had turned pale...

  14. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  15. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  16. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...... graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing...

  17. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  18. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  19. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend changes to help you meet the recommended daily amount of iron. If you ... stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron levels, your doctor may ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. ... red blood cells on hand, their bodies can store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia if you have low iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. Certain ... domestic small businesses that have strong potential for technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as ... to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  5. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  13. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  14. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleeding or other abnormalities, such as growths or cancer of the lining of the colon. For this test, a ... that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  17. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  6. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency isn't corrected, it can lead to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood ... Parents Kids Teens Anemia Blood Test: Ferritin (Iron) Iron-Deficiency Anemia Vegetarianism Menstrual Problems Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  9. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  10. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  11. Markkinointisuunnitelma Case: Ringetteseura Blue Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on markkinointisuunnitelman laatiminen ringetteseura Blue Ringsin edustusjoukkueelle. Lähtökohtana on pidetty suunnitelman toteutuskelpoisuutta käytännössä sekä suunnitelman reaalisuutta. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu projektityönä, jossa on käytetty benchmarkkauksen lisäksi sekä kvalitatiivisia että empiirisiä tutkimusmenetelmiä. Opinnäytetyö koostuu kahdesta osiosta; teoreettinen viitekehys sekä empiirinen osio. Teoriana opinnäytetyössä on käytetty markkinoinn...

  12. Is iron a limiting factor of Nodularia spumigena blooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Paczuska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a deficiency of iron, a trace element essential to every living organism, limits the growth of algae and cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena Mertens is a blue-green algae species inhabiting the Baltic region that often forms toxic blooms.     The aim of the study was to assess the growth of the toxic cyanobacteria with respect to iron bioavailability. The measured growth parameters were the numbers of cells (optical density, chlorophyll a and pheopigment a concentrations. The iron concentrations used ranged from 10-7 to 10-4 mol dm-3. Under iron stress conditions (<5 × 10-7 mol dm-3, growth inhibition, gradual pigment decay and cell mortality were observed. However, enriching the medium with complexing factors like citric acid and EDTA significantly stimulated the growth rate and chlorophyll a production. The citric acid - EDTA - Fe (5 × 10-7 mol dm-3 complex was demonstrably effective in stimulating the rate of cell division. Starting with 10-6 mol dm-3, the higher the iron(III concentration used in the media, the more intensive the growth of the cyanobacteria populations. This was most rapid in the presence of high iron concentrations (10-4 mol dm-3, regardless of the presence of complexing agents.     It appears that the growth of toxic cyanobacteria N. spumigena, and thus also its ability to form blooms, may well depend on iron availability in the environment.

  13. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  14. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  15. Iron Deposition and Ferritin Heavy Chain (Fth Localization in Rodent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An iron rich layer on the labial surface is characteristic of the enamel of rodent incisors. In order to address a role for iron content in continuously growing incisors during odontogenesis, we studied iron deposition patterns in enamel and dentine using Perls’ blue staining and ferritin heavy chain (Fth immunolocalization. Fth expression is regulated by iron level; therefore its localization can be used as a sensitive indicator for iron deposition. Results Sagittal sections of 4-week old rat incisors showed a gradual increase in iron level in the enamel organ from secretory to maturation stages. In addition, iron was detected in ameloblasts of erupting third molars of 4-week old rats, suggesting iron plays a role in both incisor and molar development. In odontoblasts, the presence of iron was demonstrated, and this is consistent with iron’s role in collagen synthesis. Using postnatal 3-, 6-, 9-day old mice, the spatial and temporal expression of Fth in tooth development again indicated the presence of iron in mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Conclusions While these data do not explain what functional role iron has in tooth formation, it does highlight a significant molecular activity associated with the formation of the rodent dentition.

  16. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  17. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  18. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  19. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  20. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  1. Rachael Carson Lecture - Algal Toxins in the Deep Blue Sea: an Environmental Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M. W.; Bargu, S.

    2008-05-01

    Many land plants are known to possess toxins, presumably for grazer deterrence, whereas toxins in marine phytoplankton are a much rarer phenomenon, particularly in open ocean (blue water) environments. Several dozen phytoplankton species, frequently dinoflagellates but also some diatoms, form "harmful algal blooms" nearshore: here their toxins can contaminate filter-feeding shellfish resulting in poisoning "syndromes" when humans consume the tainted shellfish. The present rise in such coastal events is a likely consequence of human activities. In blue water, open ocean environments, the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (a blue green alga) is one of the few bloom-forming toxin producers and hosts a consortium of microorganisms that may be partially immune to its toxins. Pseudo-nitzschia, a ubiquitous genus of diatoms recently has been shown to include coastal species that produce domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin that passes through the food web, sometimes with resulting deaths of marine birds and mammals. Oceanic species of Pseudo-nitzschia also exist but are less well known, and DA has not yet been found in them. Here we review some general features of toxic marine phytoplankton, recent studies on DA in coastal ecosystems and describe some of our findings on blue water Pseudo-nitzschia. We will summarize laboratory experiments that show complex patterns of DA retention and release into the water when Fe is added to coastal Pseudo-nitzschia cultures. In oceanic species, equivalent experiments on cell physiology are limited and the natural species and abundance patterns poorly known. Here we present our recent discovery that DA occurs in oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia and review evidence from the literature that this genus may be preferentially enhanced when iron is added to HNLC (high nutrient, low chlorophyll) waters: areas where nitrogen and phosphorus are not yet depleted, but iron concentrations and phytoplankton biomass are low. The rapid growth of these DA

  2. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  3. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  5. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore ...... sure to sea water. Uranium in these samples varies ..... Ce oxidation and removal (Elderfield and Greaves. 1982; De Baar et ...

  7. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  8. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  9. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  10. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  11. Liver iron overloading in captive muriquis (Brachyteles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your ... very young red blood cells. Peripheral smear to see if your red blood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...

  3. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those ... environments Children who have lead in ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...

  12. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  18. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  3. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  4. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  5. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  6. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  7. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  9. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  10. Characterizing the discoloration of methylene blue in Fe0/H2O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubactep, C

    2009-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model molecule to characterize the aqueous reactivity of metallic iron in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems. Likely discoloration mechanisms under used experimental conditions are: (i) adsorption onto Fe(0) and Fe(0) corrosion products (CP), (ii) co-precipitation with in situ generated iron CP, (iii) reduction to colorless leukomethylene blue (LMB). MB mineralization (oxidation to CO(2)) is not expected. The kinetics of MB discoloration by Fe(0), Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), MnO(2), and granular activated carbon were investigated in assay tubes under mechanically non-disturbed conditions. The evolution of MB discoloration was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of availability of CP, Fe(0) source, shaking rate, initial pH value, and chemical properties of the solution were studied. The results present evidence supporting co-precipitation of MB with in situ generated iron CP as main discoloration mechanism. Under high shaking intensities (>150 min(-1)), increased CP generation yields a brownish solution which disturbed MB determination, showing that a too high shear stress induced the suspension of in situ generated corrosion products. The present study clearly demonstrates that comparing results from various sources is difficult even when the results are achieved under seemingly similar conditions. The appeal for an unified experimental procedure for the investigation of processes in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems is reiterated.

  11. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  12. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  13. High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkoç, H; Mohammad, S N

    1995-01-06

    Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AIGaN and InGaN, exhibits properties well suited for not only blue and blue-green emitters, but also for ultraviolet emitters and detectors. What thwarted engineers and scientists from fabricating useful devices from these materials in the past was the poor quality of material and lack of p-type doping. Both of these obstacles have recently been overcome to the point where highluminosity blue and blue-green light-emitting diodes are now available in the marketplace.

  14. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  15. BLUES function method in computational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Müller-Nedebock, Kristian K.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a computational method in physics that goes ‘beyond linear use of equation superposition’ (BLUES). A BLUES function is defined as a solution of a nonlinear differential equation (DE) with a delta source that is at the same time a Green’s function for a related linear DE. For an arbitrary source, the BLUES function can be used to construct an exact solution to the nonlinear DE with a different, but related source. Alternatively, the BLUES function can be used to construct an approximate piecewise analytical solution to the nonlinear DE with an arbitrary source. For this alternative use the related linear DE need not be known. The method is illustrated in a few examples using analytical calculations and numerical computations. Areas for further applications are suggested.

  16. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube

  17. Hibonite: Crystal Chemistry and Origin of Blue Coloration in Meteoritic Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Burns, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    The blue color and optical spectra of hibonite, a common constituent of refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, are discussed. Because they may be manifestations of exotic cation species stabilized in unusual coordination sites in the hibonite crystalstructure. Hibonite, ideally CaAl12O19, is conducive to atomic substitution of host Ca2+ and Al3+ ions by a variety of lanthanide and first series transition elements. The latter cations are responsible for the colors of many rock-forming minerals as a result of intraelectronic or intervalence transitions. The visible-region spectra of most oxide and silicate minerals are generally well understood. Assignments of absorption bands in meteoritic hibonite optical spectra due to uncertainties of cation valencies and complexities in the crystal structure are examined. The crystal chemistry of hibonite is reviewed, Mossbauer spectral measurements of iron-bearing hibonite and electronic transitions that may be responsible for the blue coloration of meteoritic hibonites are discussed.

  18. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for gastrointestinal bleeding To see if gastrointestinal bleeding is causing your iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order the following procedures to guide treatment . Fecal ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) ... Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... which causes bleeding in the bowels Frequent blood donation Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small ... the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be at ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... these usually go away within a day or two. Red blood cell transfusions. These may be used ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... detect signs of iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain ... your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health [NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact ... Email Alerts Receive automatic alerts about NHLBI related news and highlights from ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness ... If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Your ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. ... need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to ... to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... person’s body to make too much of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking ... is inflammation, your liver makes more of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ... from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues ... and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron- ... donate blood frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood donation Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or ... boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron supplements ... warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell your doctor if you have any new ...

  10. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing my iron-deficiency anemia? ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ...

  17. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to ... common symptom. This can make it hard to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... both full-term and preterm infants. Look for Diagnosis will explain tests and procedures that your doctor ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for ... Surgery, upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. ... in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a sign of more ... to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... technology commercialization through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron- ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... on your age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children ... 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, unhealthy environments, family ... 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... activity. Older adults, who are more likely to fall, should be especially cautious when resuming activities. Reminders ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding ... of iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic female carriers who have heavy menstrual periods, may be ... anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance athletes ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ... when resuming certain activities, such as physical activity. Older adults, who are more likely to fall, should be ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the ... Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron-deficiency anemia, in part by ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ... Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when breastfeeding you may be consuming less ... store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate current research into improved health for people with iron- ...

  20. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    including: acid -cleaned filters, filters rinsed with un-amended trace-metal clean seawater, and filters rinsed with the oxalate solution followed by...greatly influenced by the sources of iron to the marine environment, which include riverine input, hydrothermal upwelling, and atmospheric...deposition (Jickells et al, 2005). While the amount of iron introduced to the oceans from riverine and hydrothermal sources is high, precipitation occurs

  1. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  2. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  3. Moessbauer study of the firing process of the imitative ancient sky-blue Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Chen Xiande

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of the imitative ancient Jun porcelain indicate that the glaze and body materials contain Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and structural iron. It is clear that during the firing process, the glaze undergoes dehydration, dehydroxylation, vitrification and recrystallization. The Fe 2+ quadrupole splitting value of the paramagnetic peak of the body material is high even at low firing temperatures. For the body material, the distinction between dehydration and dehydroxylation is not clear. The changes of magnetism of the glaze and body materials in the firing process and the coloring mechanism of the sky-blue Jun porcelain are analyzed in the present paper. (orig.)

  4. Ultralight mesoporous magnetic frameworks by interfacial assembly of Prussian blue nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Wu, Zhangxiong; Wei, Jing; Wu, Hao; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-03-10

    A facile approach for the synthesis of ultralight iron oxide hierarchical structures with tailorable macro- and mesoporosity is reported. This method entails the growth of porous Prussian blue (PB) single crystals on the surface of a polyurethane sponge, followed by in situ thermal conversion of PB crystals into three-dimensional mesoporous iron oxide (3DMI) architectures. Compared to previously reported ultralight materials, the 3DMI architectures possess hierarchical macro- and mesoporous frameworks with multiple advantageous features, including high surface area (ca. 117 m(2) g(-1)) and ultralow density (6-11 mg cm(-3)). Furthermore, they can be synthesized on a kilogram scale. More importantly, these 3DMI structures exhibit superparamagnetism and tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, thus allowing for efficient multiphase interfacial adsorption and fast multiphase catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  6. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  7. The Structure of the Blue Whirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Sriram Bharath; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments have led to the discovery of the blue whirl, a small, stable regime of the fire whirl that burns typically sooty liquid hydrocarbons without producing soot. The physical structure consists of three regions - the blue cone, the vortex rim and the purple haze. The physical nature of the flame was further investigated through digital imaging techniques, which suggest that the transition (from the fire whirl to the blue whirl) and shape of the flame may be influenced by vortex breakdown. The flame was found to develop over a variety of surfaces, which indicates that the formation of the blue whirl is strongly influenced by the flow structure over the incoming boundary layer. The thermal structure was investigated using micro-thermocouples, thin-filament pyrometry and OH* spectroscopy. These revealed a peak temperature around 2000 K, and that most of the combustion occurs in the relatively small, visibly bright vortex rim. The results of these investigations provide a platform to develop a theory on the structure of the blue whirl, a deeper understanding of which may affirm potential for applications in the energy industry. This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  8. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of ethionamide in pharmaceuticals using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and iron(III-ferricyanide as chromogenic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib A.S. Qarah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ethionamide (ETM in pure drug and tablets. The first method is based on the reduction of Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C reagent by ETM in sodium carbonate medium to form a blue coloured complex, which was measured at 760 nm (Molybdenum–tungsten blue method. In the second method (Prussian blue method, iron(III was reduced to iron(II by ETM in HCl medium, in which iron(II was complexed with ferricyanide, and the resulting Prussian blue was also measured at 760 nm. The absorbance measured in each case was related to the ETM concentration. The experimental conditions were carefully studied and optimised. Beer's law was obeyed in concentration ranges of 1–40 μg/ml and 0.2–4.0 μg/ml with the Molybdenum-tungsten blue method and the Prussian blue method, respectively, with corresponding molar absorptivity values of 5.72 × 103 and 3.18 × 104 l/(mol·cm. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 0.09 and 0.27 μg/ml for the Molybdenum-tungsten blue method and 0.01 and 0.04 μg/ml for the Prussian blue method. Within-day and between-day relative standard deviations (%RSD at three different concentration levels were <3%, and the respective relative errors (%RE were ≤2%, implying good accuracy and precision of the methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of ETM in bulk powder and tablets, and the results demonstrated that the methods were as accurate and precise as the official method.

  10. Origin of colour stability in blue/orange/blue stacked phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2009-01-01

    The origin of colour stability in phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with a blue/orange/blue stacked emitting structure was studied by monitoring the change in a recombination zone. A balanced recombination zone shift between the blue and the orange light-emitting layers was found to be responsible for the colour stability in the blue/orange/blue stacked PHWOLEDs.

  11. A novel conversion of the groundwater treatment sludge to magnetic particles for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suiyi; Fang, Shuai; Huo, Mingxin; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yu; Yang, Xia; Geng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Hongliang

    2015-07-15

    Iron sludge, produced from filtration and backwash of groundwater treatment plant, has long been considered as a waste for landfill. In this study, iron sludge was reused to synthesize Fe3O4 magnetic particles (MPs) by using a novel solvothermal process. Iron sludge contained abundant amounts of silicon, iron, and aluminum and did not exhibit magnetic properties. After treatment for 4h, the amorphous Fe in iron sludge was transformed into magnetite Fe3O4, which could be easily separated from aqueous solution with a magnet. The prepared particles demonstrated the intrinsic properties of soft magnetic materials and could aggregate into a size of 1 μm. MPs treated for 10h exhibited excellent magnetic properties and a saturation magnetization value of 9 emu/g. The obtained particles presented the optimal adsorption of methylene blue under mild conditions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 99.4 mg/g, which was higher than that of granular active carbon. The simple solvothermal method can be used to prepare Fe3O4 MPs from iron sludge, and the products could be applied to treatment of dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  13. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to study striatal iron accumulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virel

    Full Text Available Abnormal accumulation of iron is observed in neurodegenerative disorders. In Parkinson's disease, an excess of iron has been demonstrated in different structures of the basal ganglia and is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease, the edematous effect of 6-OHDA and its relation with striatal iron accumulation was examined utilizing in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The results revealed that in comparison with control animals, injection of 6-OHDA into the rat striatum provoked an edematous process, visible in T2-weighted images that was accompanied by an accumulation of iron clearly detectable in T2*-weighted images. Furthermore, Prussian blue staining to detect iron in sectioned brains confirmed the existence of accumulated iron in the areas of T2* hypointensities. The presence of ED1-positive microglia in the lesioned striatum overlapped with this accumulation of iron, indicating areas of toxicity and loss of dopamine nerve fibers. Correlation analyses demonstrated a direct relation between the hyperintensities caused by the edema and the hypointensities caused by the accumulation of iron.

  16. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  17. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  18. Absorption of medicamental iron and iron from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Carlmark, B.; Ehn, L.; Forsberg, K.; Hoeglund, S.; Terpstra, T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the measurement of iron absorption. The chemical balance method has been almost entirely supplanted by radioisotope methods, which include notably whole-body counting and measurement of incorporation of radioiron into red cells. A survey is also given of the various conditions that influence iron absorption, including chemical form of iron, amount of iron, accompanying diet. Absorption tests must be conducted under relevant conditions. (author)

  19. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  20. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  1. Methodology description for detection of cellular uptake of PVA coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synovial cells of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, Bernhard; Neuberger, Tobias; Schulze, Katja; Petri, Alke; Chastellain, Matthieu; Hofmann, Margarete; Hofmann, Heinrich; Rechenberg, Brigitte von

    2005-01-01

    The detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synoviocytes is reported. Synoviocytes were incubated for 2, 12, 24 and 48 h with 1.5 mg/ml of PVA coated SPION under the influence of magnets (12 h). Particles were well tolerated by the synoviocytes, were easily detected using the Turnbulls and Prussian blue reactions between 12 and 24 h

  2. Methodology description for detection of cellular uptake of PVA coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synovial cells of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, Bernhard [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Neuberger, Tobias [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Schulze, Katja [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Petri, Alke [Powder Technology Laboratory, Institute of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, EPFL, MX-D Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chastellain, Matthieu [Powder Technology Laboratory, Institute of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, EPFL, MX-D Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hofmann, Margarete [MatSearch, Ch. Jean Pavillard 14, 1009 Pully (Switzerland); Hofmann, Heinrich [Powder Technology Laboratory, Institute of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, EPFL, MX-D Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rechenberg, Brigitte von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: bvonrechenberg@vetclinics.unizh.ch

    2005-05-15

    The detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synoviocytes is reported. Synoviocytes were incubated for 2, 12, 24 and 48 h with 1.5 mg/ml of PVA coated SPION under the influence of magnets (12 h). Particles were well tolerated by the synoviocytes, were easily detected using the Turnbulls and Prussian blue reactions between 12 and 24 h.

  3. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  4. The spectrum of dermatoscopic patterns in blue nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Antonella; Sera, Francesco; Gulia, Andrea; Coletti, Gino; Micantonio, Tamara; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2012-08-01

    Blue nevi are congenital or acquired, dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations that can simulate melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions including melanoma, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, Spitz/Reed nevi, and basal cell carcinoma. We sought to investigate global and local dermatoscopic patterns of blue nevi compared with melanomas and basal cell carcinomas. We retrospectively analyzed global and local features in 95 dermatoscopic images of blue nevi and in 190 melanomas and basal cell carcinomas that were selected as control lesions on the basis of similar pigmentation. Lesion pigmentation was classified as monochromatic, dichromatic, or multichromatic. A global pattern characterized by homogeneous pigmentation was observed in all of 95 (100%) blue nevi. Eighty of 95 (84.2%) blue nevi presented a homogeneous pattern consisting of one color (blue, black, or brown) or two colors (blue-brown, blue-gray, or blue-black). Fifteen of 95 (15.8%) blue nevi had a multichromatic (blue, gray, black, brown, and/or red) pigmentation. In all, 47 of 95 (49.5%) blue nevi were characterized by pigmentation in the absence of pigment network or any other local dermatoscopic features. And 48 of 95 (50.5%) blue nevi showed local dermatoscopic patterns including whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, vascular pattern, streaks, and networklike pattern. The study was retrospective and involved only Caucasian people of Italian origin. The characteristic feature of blue nevi is a homogeneous pigmentation that is blue, blue-gray, blue-brown, or blue-black. We showed that a wide spectrum of local dermatoscopic features (whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, peripheral streaks or vessels) may also be present. In such cases, clinical and dermatoscopic distinction from melanoma or nonmelanocytic lesions may be difficult or impossible, and surgical excision is necessary. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  6. Thallium Labeled Citrate-Coated Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Potential Imaging Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián Szigeti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticle-based image-contrast platform which is biocompatible, chemically stable, and accessible for radiolabeling with 201Tl. We explored whether this nanoparticle enhanced the T1 signal which might make it an MRI contrast agent as well. Methods. The physical properties of citrate-coated Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs (iron(II;iron(III;octadecacyanide doped with 201Tl isotope were characterized with atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurement. PBNP biodistribution was determined by using SPECT and MRI following intravenous administration into C57BL6 mice. Activity concentrations (MBq/cm3 were calculated from the SPECT scans for each dedicated volume of interest (VOI of liver, kidneys, salivary glands, heart, lungs, and brain. Results. PBNP accumulation peaked at 2 hours after injection predominantly in the kidneys and the liver followed by a gradual decrease in activity in later time points. Conclusion. We synthetized, characterized, and radiolabeled a Prussian blue-based nanoparticle platform for contrast material applications. Its in vivo radiochemical stability and biodistribution open up the way for further diagnostic applications.

  7. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  8. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  9. Iron dominated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided

  10. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ages 1 to 3. From ages 4 to 8, children ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ... We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  16. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5{sup '} and 3{sup '} untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or even heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, ... Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the ... blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ... especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying red blood cells, your heart has to work harder to move oxygen-rich blood through your ...

  3. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0. ... 14 to 18, boys need 11 mg, while girls need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, ... 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while breastfeeding ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... worse or harder to treat. Tell your doctor what medicines you take, even over-the-counter medicines or other supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stored in their body. This is the largest study to have looked at iron levels in blood donors. Results from the REDS program ... Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources ... Health Study Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program Blood Disorders ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  9. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... also take an iron supplement. Follow your doctor’s recommendations and treatments to control any conditions that lead ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0. ... 13, 8 mg. From ages 14 to 18, boys need 11 mg, while girls need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have ... our Pernicious Anemia Health Topic to learn more. Bone marrow tests help your doctor see whether your ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through ...

  15. Ironing out industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a hazardous waste treatment known as the catalytic extraction process, which also stabilizes and reduces low-level radioactive wastes to a fraction of their original volume, easing their disposal. It uses molten iron and other metals to convert hazardous wastes into useful materials

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  17. Iron monoxide photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestakov, D. A.; Parker, D. H.; Baklanov, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The photodissociation of Fe56O was studied by means of the velocity map imaging technique. A molecular beam of iron atoms and iron monoxide molecules was created using an electrical discharge with an iron electrode in a supersonic expansion of molecular oxygen. The ground state iron atom Fe(D45) and FeO concentrations in the molecular beam have been estimated. The dissociation energy of the FeO XΔ5 ground electronic state was found to be D00(FeO )=4.18±0.01eV. The effective absorption cross section of FeO at 252.39nm (vac), leading to the Fe(D45)+O(P3) dissociation channel, is ˜1.2×10-18cm2. A (1+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum of Fe56O in the region 39550-39580 cm-1 with rotational structure has been observed, but not assigned. Angular distributions of Fe(D45) and Fe(D35) products for the channel FeO →Fe(D4,35)+O(P3) have been measured at several points in the 210-260nm laser light wavelength region. The anisotropy parameter varies strongly with wavelength for both channels.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron ... anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body. When your heart has to work harder, this can lead to several conditions: irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias , a heart murmur , an ... chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result in treatments not working as well. Look for Diagnosis will discuss any ...

  20. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...

  1. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport

  2. Development of iron aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKamey, C.G.; Viswanathan, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating that improved engineering ductility (to 10-15% in Fe 3 Al) can be achieved in wrought Fe 3 Al-based iron aluminide alloys through control of composition and microstructure are discussed. Accompanying this improvement has been an increased understanding of the causes for ambient temperature embrittlement in this system. Because of these advances, iron aluminide alloys are being considered for many structural uses, especially for applications where their excellent corrosion resistance is needed. The understanding and control of cast structures are important steps in making iron-aluminide alloys viable engineering materials. This includes understanding the various components of cast structure, their evolution, their properties, their behavior during further processing, and, finally, their effect on mechanical properties. The first phase of the study of cast Fe 3 Al-based alloys characterized the various components of the cast structure in the FA-129 alloy, while the current phase of the research involves characterizing the as-cast mechanical properties of Fe 3 Al-based alloys. The investigation of the room temperature mechanical properties of as-cast Fe 3 Al, including tensile tests in air, oxygen, and water vapor environments is described. Studies have begun to refine the grain size of the cast structure. An investigation of the effect of environmental hydrogen embrittlement on the weldability of wrought alloys was also initiated during this period with the aim of understanding the role of environment in the cold-cracking of iron aluminides

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, men need 8 mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need ... 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  5. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  6. Spectra and ages of blue stragglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism similar to Wheeler's quasi-homogeneous evolution and Finzi and Wolf's proposal for blue stragglers is proposed as the origin of the blue stragglers in intermediate-age clusters. Blue stragglers are stars whose positions in color-magnitude diagrams of open and globular clusters are significantly above the turn-off points and in the region of the (former) main sequence; they seem to represent a conflict with the general conclusion that all stars in a cluster originated at about the same time. It is concluded that there are at least two kinds of blue stragglers: (1) those stars of types about B3-A2 are primarily Ap stars and slow rotators, occur in the intermediate age clusters and remain in the main sequence region probably through magnetic mixing; and (2) the stars of type O6-B2 frequently have emission lines, are rapid rotators, occur in the young cluster, and remain in the main sequence region probably by rotational mixing. 30 references

  7. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  8. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  9. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  10. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  11. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce

  12. Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel; Havlas, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2002), s. 325-334 ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bond * properties * nature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2002

  13. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  14. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  15. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  16. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  17. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  19. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  20. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Török, B; Thiele, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well

  1. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron aluminide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneibel, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Iron aluminides with the B2 structure are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant. They are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as TiC, WC, TiB 2 , and ZrB 2 . In addition, liquid iron aluminides wet these ceramics very well. Therefore, FeAl/ceramic composites may be produced by techniques such as liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures, or pressureless melt infiltration of ceramic powders with liquid FeAl. These techniques, the resulting microstructures, and their advantages as well as limitations are described. Iron aluminide composites can be very strong. Room temperature flexure strengths as high as 1.8 GPa have been observed for FeAl/WC. Substantial gains in strength of elevated temperatures (1,073 K) have also been demonstrated. Above 40 vol.% WC the room temperature flexure strength becomes flaw-limited. This is thought to be due to processing flaws and limited interfacial strength. The fracture toughness of FeAl/WC is unexpectedly high and follows a rule of mixtures. Interestingly, sufficiently thin (<1 microm) FeAl ligaments between adjacent WC particles fracture not by cleavage, but in a ductile manner. For these thin ligaments the dislocation pile-ups formed during deformation are not long enough to nucleate cleavage fracture, and their fracture mode is therefore ductile. For several reasons, this brittle-to-ductile size transition does not improve the fracture toughness of the composites significantly. However, since no cleavage cracks are nucleated in sufficiently thin FeAl ligaments, slow crack growth due to ambient water vapor does not occur. Therefore, as compared to monolithic iron aluminides, environmental embrittlement is dramatically reduced in iron aluminide composites

  3. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  4. The lithium abundance of M67 blue stragglers - A constraint on the blue straggler phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.J.; Glaspey, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Upper limits have been placed on the line strength of the 6707 A Li I resonance doublet in seven blue stragglers in M67. The corresponding upper limits on abundances range from log N(Li) less than about 1.3 to less than about 2.3. This result is significantly below the level of log N(Li) about 3.1 + or - 0.1 found in field main-sequence stars of comparable temperature. It is concluded that some form of mixing has affected the outer envelopes of blue stragglers. (Such mixing has been proposed as the mechanism needed to prolong the lifetimes of blue stragglers relative to normal main-sequence stars at the same luminosity). Virtually all mechanisms for the production of blue stragglers other than mixing, binary mass transfer, or binary coalescence appear to be ruled out by the present observations. 45 refs

  5. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  6. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  7. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina; Su, Xin; Qian, Hai; Aprahamian, Ivan; Credi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters

  8. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemistry and the iron - only hydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tard, C.; Razavet, M.; Liu, X.; Ibrahim, S.; Pickett, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Chemistry related to the hydrogenases is developing very rapidly and providing some informative insights into how the biological systems might function. Although still very much at a blue skies stage, there is some prospect for the design of artificial assemblies, materials and devices with technological application for hydrogen production/uptake provided robust system can be designed with low over potentials for hydrogen/proton interconversion (1). The iron-only hydrogenase possesses a peculiar di-iron unit coordinated by CO and CN, ligands which are normally associated with poisoning biological function. This sub-site unit is attached to a [4Fe4S] cubane center to form the catalytic site of the hydrogenase which is known as the 'H-cluster'. The synthesis of artificial sub-sites will first be described together with how their structures, spectroscopy and reactivity provides some key insights into the natural system viz. unprecedented bridging carbonyl and Fe(I) motifs in biology (2-4). How we have approached putting together the entire iron-sulfur framework of the H-cluster will then be described together with its electron-transfer and electrocatalytic properties (4). Finally, I will describe some early work on how we are beginning to incorporate structural motifs of the active-site into conducting polymer matrices, how they function as (albeit poor) electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution, and where we see the way ahead. (1)The Chemistry and the Hydrogenases. D.J. Evans and C.J. Pickett, Chem. Soc. Rev., 32, 268-275, 2003; (2)Electron-Transfer at a Di-thiolate-Bridged Di-Iron Assembly; Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution. S.J. Borg, T. Behrsing and S.P. Best, M. Ravazet, X. Liu and C.J. Pickett, J Amer. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 509-533; (3) Dissecting the intimate mechanism of cyanation of [Fe2S3] complexes related to the active site of all-iron hydrogenases by DFT analysis of energetics, transition states, intermediates and

  12. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  13. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  14. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus off Angola: recent sightings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further survey work is required to better clarify the status of blue whales in Angolan waters, particularly with regard to population structure and potential calving grounds. Keywords: Antarctic blue whale, calving, catch data, pygmy blue whale, South-East Atlantic, stomach contents. African Journal of Marine Science 2014, ...

  15. Blue light phototherapy for Psoriasis from a systems biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Félix Garza, Z.C.; Liebmann, J.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Riel, van N.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the effect of UV-free blue light (BL) irradiation of the skin using mathematical modelling. Prior research has shown that blue light reduces the proliferation of keratinocytes by inducing their differentiation, and causes apoptosis of lymphocytes. The effects of blue light on

  16. FIXED-BED COLUMN ADSORPTION OF METHYL BLUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Axle Wood Carbon (AWC) was used to study the removal of Methyl Blue (MB) from ... height, initial methyl blue (MB) concentration, .... colour from blue to dark purple- .... Environ. Earth Sci. 13; 1–13. Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., and Ang,.

  17. Poporodní blues – česká adaptace dotazníku „Maternity blues questionnaire“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takács, L.; Smolík, Filip; Mlíková Seidlerová, J.; Čepický, P.; Hoskovcová, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2016), s. 355-368 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : EPDS postpartum mood * Maternity Blues Questionnaire * postnatal depression * postpartum blues * postpartum depression Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. The Iron Age Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Mytum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to investment in walking the landscape, aerial photography, geophysical survey and excavation, there is a baseline of information on the distribution and types of enclosed settlement and examples of high-quality site-based data, often revealing complex site histories. These are our resources from which to extract meaning about the past — but what can actually be said about the Iron Age from all these data? What are the next stages in moving towards greater understanding? And what is the current management and presentation of the Iron Age to the public in Wales? This contribution reviews our current state of knowledge and its uses so that we can develop strategies to improve the data and communicate what it can tell us about the Welsh past.

  19. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  20. Quantitative assessment of iron load in myocardial overload rabbit model: preliminary study of MRI T2* map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lu; Han Rui; Li Zhiwei; Yuan Sishu; Xia Liming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily investigate the feasibility of MRI-T 2 * map in evaluating myocardial iron load of myocardial iron overload rabbit models. Methods: Eleven rabbits were included in this study and divided into two groups, myocardial iron overload group (n =10) and the control group (n = 1). Iron dextrin (dose of 50 mg/kg) was injected in muscles of thigh once a week, totally 12 weeks. Serum iron test and MRI examination were performed before iron injection,and 1 week to 12 weeks after iron injection. MRI scan protocol included short axial T 2 * map of the left ventricle and cross-section T 2 * map of the liver. T 2 * and R 2 * of the heart and the liver were measured. One rabbit was killed after MRI examination at pre-iron injection, 1 week to 8 weeks, 11 weeks and 12 weeks after iron injection,respectively. Heart and liver were avulsed to undergo in vitro MRI scan and then paraffin embedded for pathological slices. MRI scan protocol and measurements of the heart and the liver samples were the same to that of in vivo ones. Pearson correlation was used to calculate the relationships between the parameters. Results: Myocardial T 2 * [(32.5 ± 8.3 ms)] and R 2 * values [(38.4 ± 7.9) Hz] had significant correlation with injecting iron content (1033.2 ± 673.4 mg), the Pearson coefficients were -0.799 (P = 0.001) and 0.770 (P = 0.002), respectively. Myocardial T 2 * had no significant correlation with liver T 2 * values (r = 0.556, P = 0.070). T 2 * values of heart and liver in vivo [(32.5 ± 8.3) ms and (8.8 ± 5.4) ms], respectively had strong correlation with those in vitro [(19.4 ± 6.5) ms and (9.8 ± 5.0) ms], respectively (r = 0.757, P = 0.007 and r = 0.861, P = 0.001). T 2 * and R 2 * values of the heart and the liver in vivo and in vitro had no significant correlations with serum iron (P>0.05). On Prussian blue staining slices,blue particles of myocardium, sinus hepaticas and hepatocyte increased with injecting iron content. Conclusions: It is

  1. Iron Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: Review of Iron Preparations for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Marcin; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.

  2. The determination, by flow-injection analysis, of iron, sulphate, silver and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the spectrophotometric determination by flow-injection analysis including, where necessary, liquid-liquid extraction of iron with 1,10-phenanthroline; of sulphate by its catalytic effect on the methylthymol blue-zirconium reaction; of silver with bromopyrogallol red and 1,10-phenanthroline; and of cadmium with dithizone. Optimum conditions for each system are established, and sensitivities and ranges of determination are given

  3. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  4. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  5. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  6. A Mesoproterozoic iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Huajian; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Su, Jin; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Haxen, Emma R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a 1,400 million-year old (Ma) iron formation (IF) from the Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We estimate this IF to have contained at least 520 gigatons of authigenic Fe, comparable in size to many IFs of the Paleoproterozoic Era (2,500–1,600 Ma). Therefore, substantial IFs formed in the time window between 1,800 and 800 Ma, where they are generally believed to have been absent. The Xiamaling IF is of exceptionally low thermal maturity, allowing the preservation of organic biomarkers and an unprecedented view of iron-cycle dynamics during IF emplacement. We identify tetramethyl aryl isoprenoid (TMAI) biomarkers linked to anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and thus phototrophic Fe oxidation. Although we cannot rule out other pathways of Fe oxidation, iron and organic matter likely deposited to the sediment in a ratio similar to that expected for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Fe reduction was likely a dominant and efficient pathway of organic matter mineralization, as indicated by organic matter maturation by Rock Eval pyrolysis combined with carbon isotope analyses: Indeed, Fe reduction was seemingly as efficient as oxic respiration. Overall, this Mesoproterozoic-aged IF shows many similarities to Archean-aged (>2,500 Ma) banded IFs (BIFs), but with an exceptional state of preservation, allowing an unprecedented exploration of Fe-cycle dynamics in IF deposition.

  7. Measurement of iron absorption from meals contaminated with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described to measure in vitro the extent of isotopic exchange between the native nonheme food iron and added inorganic reduction to radioiron tracer. The food is digested with pepsin and trypsin in the presence of radioiron. The exchangeability of food iron is calculated from the specific activity in the food and in an extract of bathophenantroline in isoamyl alcohol obtained after digesting this food. The precision and accuracy of the method is illustrated by two kinds of studies, those in which different amounts of contamination iron are added to a meal and those evaluating contamination iron in natural meals. The present method will make it possible to measure validly iron absorption from meals contaminated with unknown amounts of iron of unknown exchangeability with the extrinsic radioiron tracer

  8. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  9. BD+43° 3654 - a blue straggler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-07-01

    The astrometric data on the runaway star BD+43° 3654 are consistent with the origin of this O4If star in the center of the Cyg OB2 association, while BD+43° 3654 is younger than the association. To reconcile this discrepancy, we suggest that BD+43° 3654 is a blue straggler formed via a close encounter between two tight massive binaries in the core of Cyg OB2. A possible implication of this suggestion is that the very massive (and therefore apparently very young) stars in Cyg OB2 could be blue stragglers as well. We also suggest that the binary-binary encounter producing BD+43° 3654 might be responsible for ejection of two high-velocity stars (the stripped helium cores of massive stars) - the progenitors of the pulsars B2020+28 and B2021+51.

  10. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image ( n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  11. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    .../B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site... & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly... Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint...

  12. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    OpenAIRE

    van Roij, René

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce several Legendre transformations and Maxwell relations. We argue that one should distinguish between the differential capacity at constant ion number and at constant ion chemical potential, and derive ...

  13. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  14. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  15. 'Blue Whale Challenge': A Game or Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhra, Richa; Baryah, Neha; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-11

    A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers. The Blue Whale Challenge is neither an application nor internet based game but the users get a link through social media chat groups to enter this "deadly" challenge game. This probably is the only game where the participant has to end his/her life to complete the game. The innocent teenagers are being targeted based on their depressed psychology and are coercively isolated from their social milieux on the pretext of keeping the challenges confidential. To add to the woes, no option is offered to quit the challenge even if the contender is unable to complete the challenge. Blue Whale Challenge in its sheer form could be seen as an illegal, unethical and inhumane endeavor in our present society. The present communication discusses the severe effects of the game on teenagers, the ethical concerns involved and the preventive measures necessary to curb it.

  16. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  17. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  18. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  19. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  20. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  1. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  2. The Effect Of Local Coal And Smelting Sponge Iron On Iron Content Of Pig Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oediyani, Soesaptri; Juwita Sari, Pramita; Hadi P, Djoko

    2018-03-01

    The new regulation on mineral resources was announced by Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (ESDM) of Indonesia at 2014 which it called Permen ESDM No 1/2014. Therefore, this research was conducted to add the value of local iron ores by using smelting technology. The objective of the research is to produce pig iron that meet the requirement of the new regulation of mineral resources such as 90% Fe. First, iron ores and coal mixed together with lime as a flux, then smelted in a Electric Arc Furnace at 1800°C. The process variables are (1; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2.0) and the composition of coal (0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%). The type of coal that used in this research was bituminous coal from Kalimantan and also the iron ores from Kalimantan. The products of the smelting technology are Pig iron and slag. Both pig iron and slag then analyzed by SEM-EDS to measure the iron content. The result shows that the maximum iron content on pig iron is about 95.04% meanwhile the minimum iron content on slag is about 3.66%. This result achieved at 1.6% coal and 2.0.

  3. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t 1/2 =86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t 1 /2 ≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t 1 /2 =86days) than Spirulina (t 1 /2 =70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t 1 /2 =15days) than Spirulina gels (t 1 /2 =4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  5. Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Lucia; Puerto Morales, Maria del; Jose Lazaro, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran

  6. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual-source dual-energy computed tomography based on material decomposition: an animal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. RESULTS: The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r = 0.729, p<0.001. Virtual non-iron contrast (VNC values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r = -0.642,p<0.0001. Different groups showed significantly different iron enhancement values and VNC values (F = 25.308,p<0.001; F = 10.911, p<0.001, respectively. Among the groups, significant differences in iron enhancement values were only observed between the iron-present and iron-absent groups, and differences in VNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. CONCLUSION: Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted.

  7. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yılmaz Keskin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demir, oksijenin taşınması, DNA sentezi ve hücre çoğalması gibi çeşitli biyolojik reaksiyonlar için vazgeçilmez olduğundan, yaşam için zorunludur. Demir metabolizması ve bu elementin düzenlenmesiyle ilgili bilgilerimiz, son yıllarda belirgin şekilde değişmiştir. Demir metabolizması ile ilgili yeni bozukluklar tanımlanmış ve demirin başka bozuklukların kofaktörü olduğu anlaşılmaya başlamıştır. Hemokromatozis ve demir tedavisine dirençli demir eksikliği anemisi (IRIDA; “iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia” gibi genetik durumlar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar, vücuttaki demir dengesini kontrol eden moleküler mekanizmalar ile ilgili önemli ipuçları sunmuştur. Bu ilerlemeler, gelecekte, hem genetik hem de kazanılmış demir bozukluklarının daha etkili şekilde tedavi edilmesi amacıyla kullanılabilir. IRIDA, demir eksikliği ile giden durumlarda, hepsidin üretimini baskılayan matriptaz-2’yi kodlayan TMPRSS6 genindeki mutasyonlardan kaynaklanmaktadır. Hastalığın tipik özellikleri, hipokrom, mikrositer anemi, çok düşük ortalama eritrosit hacmi, oral demir tedavisine yanıtsızlık (veya yetersiz yanıt ve parenteral demire kısmi yanıttır. Klasik demir eksikliği anemisinin aksine, serum ferritin değeri genellikle hafif düşük ya da normal aralıkta; serum ve idrar hepsidin değerleri ise, aneminin derecesi ile orantısız şekilde yüksek bulunur. Şimdiye kadar literatürde bildirilmiş olguların sayısı 100’ü geçmediği halde, IRIDA’nın, “atipik” mikrositik anemilerin en sık nedeni olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu derlemenin amacı, IRIDA hakkındaki güncel bilgileri araştırıcılar ile paylaşmak ve bu alandaki farkındalıklarını arttırmaktır.

  8. Iron-regulated proteins (IRPS of leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritharan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been shown to induce the expression of siderophores and their receptors, the iron-regulated membrane proteins in a number of bacterial systems. In this study, the response of Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I to conditions of iron deprivation was assessed and the expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two methods were used for establishing conditions of iron deprivation. One method consisted of addition of the iron chelators ethylenediamine-N, N′-diacetic acid (EDDA and ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHPA and the second method involved the addition of iron at 0.02 µg Fe/mL. Alternatively, iron sufficient conditions were achieved by omitting the chelators in the former method and adding 4 µg Fe/mL of the medium in the latter protocol. Triton X-114 extraction of the cells was done to isolate the proteins in the outer membrane (detergent phase, periplasmic space (aqueous phase and the protoplasmic cylinder (cell pellet. The proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis. RESULTS: In the presence of the iron-chelators, four iron-regulated proteins (IRPs of apparent molecular masses of 82, 64, 60 and 33 kDa were expressed. The 82-kDa protein was seen only in the aqueous phase, while the other three proteins were seen in both the aqueous and detergent fractions. These proteins were not identified in organisms grown in the absence of the iron chelators. The 64, 60 and the 33 kDa proteins were also demonstrated in organisms grown in media with 0.02 µg Fe/mL. In addition, a 24 kDa protein was found to be down-regulated at this concentration of iron as compared to the high level of expression in organisms grown with 4 µg Fe/mL. The blue CAS agar plates with top agar containing 0.02µg Fe/mL showed a colour change to orange-red. CONCLUSION: The expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins under conditions of iron deprivation

  9. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  10. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should be...

  11. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  12. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to a...

  13. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  14. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  15. Iron-based superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Peter D; Yin, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents an in-depth review of experimental and theoretical studies on the newly discovered Fe-based superconductors.  Following the Introduction, which places iron-based superconductors in the context of other unconventional superconductors, the book is divided into three sections covering sample growth, experimental characterization, and theoretical understanding.  To understand the complex structure-property relationships of these materials, results from a wide range of experimental techniques and theoretical approaches are described that probe the electronic and magnetic proper

  16. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent ......Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate...... precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria...... and in the extracellular precipitates reached complete oxidation within 6 days. While a progressive oxidation of Fe in the bacteria and in the medium could be observed, spatial redox (oxido-reduction state) heterogeneities were detected at the cell poles and in the extracellular precipitates after 1 day. All...

  17. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation and prevention of iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To demonstrate the effectiveness and social feasibility of weekly versus daily iron supplementation in preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia among anaemic mothers. Design: A longitudinal in nature. Setting: Seven urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot Wereda, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: ...

  18. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  19. Iron and iron-related proteins in asbestosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: We tested the postulate that iron homeostasis is altered among patients diagnosed to have asbestosis. Lung tissue from six individuals diagnosed to have had asbestosis at autopsy was stained for iron, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (FP...

  20. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour