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Sample records for iron dependent regulator

  1. Siderophore-mediated iron trafficking in humans is regulated by iron

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    Liu, Zhuoming; Lanford, Robert; Mueller, Sebastian; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Luscieti, Sara; Sanchez, Mayka; Devireddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Siderophores are best known as small iron binding molecules that facilitate microbial iron transport. In our previous study we identified a siderophore-like molecule in mammalian cells and found that its biogenesis is evolutionarily conserved. A member of the short chain dehydrogenase family of reductases, 3-OH butyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of the mammalian siderophore. We have shown that depletion of the mammalian siderophore by inhibiting expression of bdh2 results in abnormal accumulation of cellular iron and mitochondrial iron deficiency. These observations suggest that the mammalian siderophore is a critical regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and facilitates mitochondrial iron import. By utilizing bioinformatics, we identified an iron-responsive element (IRE; a stem-loop structure that regulates genes expression post-transcriptionally upon binding to iron regulatory proteins or IRPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the human BDH2 (hBDH2) gene. In cultured cells as well as in patient samples we now demonstrate that the IRE confers iron-dependent regulation on hBDH2 and binds IRPs in RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, we show that the hBDH2 IRE associates with IRPs in cells and that abrogation of IRPs by RNAi eliminates the iron-dependent regulation of hBDH2 mRNA. The key physiologic implication is that iron-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of hBDH2 controls mitochondrial iron homeostasis in human cells. These observations provide a new and an unanticipated mechanism by which iron regulates its intracellular trafficking. PMID:22527885

  2. Ironing Out the Unconventional Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition and Gene Regulation in Chlamydia

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    Nick D. Pokorzynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, along with its close species relatives, is known to be strictly dependent upon the availability of iron. Deprivation of iron in vitro induces an aberrant morphological phenotype termed “persistence.” This persistent phenotype develops in response to various immunological and nutritional insults and may contribute to the development of sub-acute Chlamydia-associated chronic diseases in susceptible populations. Given the importance of iron to Chlamydia, relatively little is understood about its acquisition and its role in gene regulation in comparison to other iron-dependent bacteria. Analysis of the genome sequences of a variety of chlamydial species hinted at the involvement of unconventional mechanisms, being that Chlamydia lack many conventional systems of iron homeostasis that are highly conserved in other bacteria. Herein we detail past and current research regarding chlamydial iron biology in an attempt to provide context to the rapid progress of the field in recent years. We aim to highlight recent discoveries and innovations that illuminate the strategies involved in chlamydial iron homeostasis, including the vesicular mode of acquiring iron from the intracellular environment, and the identification of a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator that is synthesized as a fusion with a ABC-type transporter subunit. These recent findings, along with the noted absence of iron-related homologs, indicate that Chlamydia have evolved atypical approaches to the problem of iron homeostasis, reinvigorating research into the iron biology of this pathogen.

  3. Iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana: transcriptomic analyses reveal novel FIT-regulated genes, iron deficiency marker genes and functional gene networks.

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    Mai, Hans-Jörg; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Bauer, Petra

    2016-10-03

    FIT (FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR) is the central regulator of iron uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. We performed transcriptome analyses of six day-old seedlings and roots of six week-old plants using wild type, a fit knock-out mutant and a FIT over-expression line grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. We compared genes regulated in a FIT-dependent manner depending on the developmental stage of the plants. We assembled a high likelihood dataset which we used to perform co-expression and functional analysis of the most stably iron deficiency-induced genes. 448 genes were found FIT-regulated. Out of these, 34 genes were robustly FIT-regulated in root and seedling samples and included 13 novel FIT-dependent genes. Three hundred thirty-one genes showed differential regulation in response to the presence and absence of FIT only in the root samples, while this was the case for 83 genes in the seedling samples. We assembled a virtual dataset of iron-regulated genes based on a total of 14 transcriptomic analyses of iron-deficient and iron-sufficient wild-type plants to pinpoint the best marker genes for iron deficiency and analyzed this dataset in depth. Co-expression analysis of this dataset revealed 13 distinct regulons part of which predominantly contained functionally related genes. We could enlarge the list of FIT-dependent genes and discriminate between genes that are robustly FIT-regulated in roots and seedlings or only in one of those. FIT-regulated genes were mostly induced, few of them were repressed by FIT. With the analysis of a virtual dataset we could filter out and pinpoint new candidates among the most reliable marker genes for iron deficiency. Moreover, co-expression and functional analysis of this virtual dataset revealed iron deficiency-induced and functionally distinct regulons.

  4. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

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    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  5. Iron-dependent regulation of hepcidin in Hjv-/- mice: evidence that hemojuvelin is dispensable for sensing body iron levels.

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    Konstantinos Gkouvatsos

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP co-receptor involved in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. Functional inactivation of Hjv leads to severe iron overload in humans and mice due to marked suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To investigate the role of Hjv in body iron sensing, Hjv-/- mice and isogenic wild type controls were placed on a moderately low, a standard or a high iron diet for four weeks. Hjv-/- mice developed systemic iron overload under all regimens. Transferrin (Tf was highly saturated regardless of the dietary iron content, while liver iron deposition was proportional to it. Hepcidin mRNA expression responded to fluctuations in dietary iron intake, despite the absence of Hjv. Nevertheless, iron-dependent upregulation of hepcidin was more than an order of magnitude lower compared to that seen in wild type controls. Likewise, iron signaling via the BMP/Smad pathway was preserved but substantially attenuated. These findings suggest that Hjv is not required for sensing of body iron levels and merely functions as an enhancer for iron signaling to hepcidin.

  6. Modelling Systemic Iron Regulation during Dietary Iron Overload and Acute Inflammation: Role of Hepcidin-Independent Mechanisms.

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    Enculescu, Mihaela; Metzendorf, Christoph; Sparla, Richard; Hahnel, Maximilian; Bode, Johannes; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Legewie, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic iron levels must be maintained in physiological concentrations to prevent diseases associated with iron deficiency or iron overload. A key role in this process plays ferroportin, the only known mammalian transmembrane iron exporter, which releases iron from duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, or iron-recycling macrophages into the blood stream. Ferroportin expression is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to hypoxia, iron deficiency, heme iron and inflammatory cues by cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. At the systemic level, the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is released from the liver in response to these cues, binds to ferroportin and triggers its degradation. The relative importance of individual ferroportin control mechanisms and their interplay at the systemic level is incompletely understood. Here, we built a mathematical model of systemic iron regulation. It incorporates the dynamics of organ iron pools as well as regulation by the hepcidin/ferroportin system. We calibrated and validated the model with time-resolved measurements of iron responses in mice challenged with dietary iron overload and/or inflammation. The model demonstrates that inflammation mainly reduces the amount of iron in the blood stream by reducing intracellular ferroportin transcription, and not by hepcidin-dependent ferroportin protein destabilization. In contrast, ferroportin regulation by hepcidin is the predominant mechanism of iron homeostasis in response to changing iron diets for a big range of dietary iron contents. The model further reveals that additional homeostasis mechanisms must be taken into account at very high dietary iron levels, including the saturation of intestinal uptake of nutritional iron and the uptake of circulating, non-transferrin-bound iron, into liver. Taken together, our model quantitatively describes systemic iron metabolism and generated experimentally testable predictions for additional

  7. SirR, a Novel Iron-Dependent Repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Hill, Philip J.; Cockayne, Alan; Landers, Patrick; Morrissey, Julie A.; Sims, Catriona M.; Williams, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, a number of cell wall- and cytoplasmic membrane-associated lipoproteins are induced in response to iron starvation. To gain insights into the molecular basis of iron-dependent gene regulation in the staphylococci, we sequenced the DNA upstream of the 3-kb S. epidermidis sitABC operon, which Northern blot analysis indicates is transcriptionally regulated by the growth medium iron content. We identified two DNA sequences which are homologous to elements of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon, which controls, in response to iron stress, for example, production of diphtheria toxin, siderophore, and a heme oxygenase. Upstream of the sitABC operon and divergently transcribed lies a 645-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa with homology to the DtxR family of metal-dependent repressor proteins. This ORF has been designated SirR (staphylococcal iron regulator repressor). Within the sitABC promoter/operator region, we also located a region of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional start of sitABC which shows high homology to the DtxR operator consensus sequence, suggesting that this region, termed the Sir box, is the SirR-binding site. The SirR protein was overexpressed, purified, and used in DNA mobility shift assays; SirR retarded the migration of a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the Sir box in a metal (Fe2+ or Mn2+)-dependent manner, providing confirmatory evidence that this motif is the SirR-binding site. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis of staphylococcal chromosomal DNA with the synthetic Sir box as a probe confirmed that there are at least five Sir boxes in the S. epidermidis genome and at least three in the genome of S. aureus, suggesting that SirR controls the expression of multiple target genes. Using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against SirR to probe Western blots of whole-cell lysates of S. aureus, S. carnosus, S. epidermidis

  8. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

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    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  9. Iron-binding haemerythrin RING ubiquitin ligases regulate plant iron responses and accumulation

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    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nagasaka, Seiji; Senoura, Takeshi; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms. Plants transcriptionally induce genes involved in iron acquisition under conditions of low iron availability, but the nature of the deficiency signal and its sensors are unknown. Here we report the identification of new iron regulators in rice, designated Oryza sativa Haemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene (RING)- and Zinc-finger protein 1 (OsHRZ1) and OsHRZ2. OsHRZ1, OsHRZ2 and their Arabidopsis homologue BRUTUS bind iron and zinc, and possess ubiquitination activity. OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are susceptible to degradation in roots irrespective of iron conditions. OsHRZ-knockdown plants exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency, and accumulate more iron in their shoots and grains irrespective of soil iron conditions. The expression of iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron utilization is enhanced in OsHRZ-knockdown plants, mostly under iron-sufficient conditions. These results suggest that OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are iron-binding sensors that negatively regulate iron acquisition under conditions of iron sufficiency. PMID:24253678

  10. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

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    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Rethinking Iron Regulation and Assessment in Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Chronic Disease, and Obesity: Introducing Hepcidin

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    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Pustacioglu, Cenk; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Braunschweig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed. PMID:22717199

  12. The Porphyromonas gingivalis ferric uptake regulator orthologue does not regulate iron homeostasis

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    Catherine Butler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that has an absolute requirement for iron which it transports from the host as heme and/or Fe2+. Iron transport must be regulated to prevent toxic effects from excess metal in the cell. P. gingivalis has one ferric uptake regulator (Fur orthologue encoded in its genome called Har, which would be expected to regulate the transport and usage of iron within this bacterium. As a gene regulator, inactivation of Har should result in changes in gene expression of several genes compared to the wild-type. This dataset (GEO accession number GSE37099 provides information on expression levels of genes in P. gingivalis in the absence of Har. Surprisingly, these genes do not relate to iron homeostasis.

  13. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN).

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    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN.

  14. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

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    Sheo Shankar Pandey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in

  15. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

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    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  16. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

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    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  17. Hepcidin: A Critical Regulator of Iron Metabolism during Hypoxia

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    Korry J. Hintze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron status affects cognitive and physical performance in humans. Recent evidence indicates that iron balance is a tightly regulated process affected by a series of factors other than diet, to include hypoxia. Hypoxia has profound effects on iron absorption and results in increased iron acquisition and erythropoiesis when humans move from sea level to altitude. The effects of hypoxia on iron balance have been attributed to hepcidin, a central regulator of iron homeostasis. This paper will focus on the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia affects hepcidin expression, to include a review of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF/hypoxia response element (HRE system, as well as recent evidence indicating that localized adipose hypoxia due to obesity may affect hepcidin signaling and organismal iron metabolism.

  18. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

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    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  19. Treating iron overload in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia

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    Taher, Ali T; Viprakasit, Vip; Musallam, Khaled M; Cappellini, M Domenica

    2013-01-01

    Despite receiving no or only occasional blood transfusions, patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) have increased intestinal iron absorption and can accumulate iron to levels comparable with transfusion-dependent patients. This iron accumulation occurs more slowly in NTDT patients compared to transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, and complications do not arise until later in life. It remains crucial for these patients' health to monitor and appropriately treat their iron burden. Based on recent data, including a randomized clinical trial on iron chelation in NTDT, a simple iron chelation treatment algorithm is presented to assist physicians with monitoring iron burden and initiating chelation therapy in this group of patients. Am. J. Hematol. 88:409–415, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475638

  20. Function and Regulation of Yeast Ribonucleotide Reductase: Cell Cycle, Genotoxic Stress, and Iron Bioavailability

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    Nerea Sanvisens

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs are essential enzymes that catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to desoxyribonucleotides, thereby providing the building blocks required for de novo DNA biosynthesis. The RNR function is tightly regulated because an unbalanced or excessive supply of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs dramatically increases the mutation rates during DNA replication and repair that can lead to cell death or genetic anomalies. In this review, we focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae class Ia RNR as a model to understand the different mechanisms controlling RNR function and regulation in eukaryotes. Many studies have contributed to our current understanding of RNR allosteric regulation and, more recently, to its link to RNR oligomerization. Cells have developed additional mechanisms that restrict RNR activity to particular periods when dNTPs are necessary, such as the S phase or upon genotoxic stress. These regulatory strategies include the transcriptional control of the RNR gene expression, inhibition of RNR catalytic activity, and the subcellular redistribution of RNR subunits. Despite class Ia RNRs requiring iron as an essential cofactor for catalysis, little is known about RNR function regulation depending on iron bioavailability. Recent studies into yeast have deciphered novel strategies for the delivery of iron to RNR and for its regulation in response to iron deficiency. Taken together, these studies open up new possibilities to explore in order to limit uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation via RNR.

  1. Mechanisms of iron sensing and regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa; Perea-García, Ana; Puig, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    Iron is a redox active element that functions as an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways, including respiration, DNA synthesis and translation. While indispensable for eukaryotic life, excess iron can lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Therefore, living organisms have developed sophisticated strategies to optimally regulate iron acquisition, storage and utilization in response to fluctuations in environmental iron bioavailability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription factors Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 regulate iron metabolism in response to low and high iron levels, respectively. In addition to producing and assembling iron cofactors, mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster biogenesis has emerged as a central player in iron sensing. A mitochondrial signal derived from Fe/S synthesis is exported and converted into an Fe/S cluster that interacts directly with Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 proteins to regulate their transcriptional function. Various conserved proteins, such as ABC mitochondrial transporter Atm1 and, for Aft1/Aft2, monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 are implicated in this iron-signaling pathway. The analysis of a wide range of S. cerevisiae strains of different geographical origins and sources has shown that yeast strains adapted to high iron display growth defects under iron-deficient conditions, and highlighted connections that exist in the response to both opposite conditions. Changes in iron accumulation and gene expression profiles suggest differences in the regulation of iron homeostasis genes.

  2. Iron-dependent gene expression in Actinomyces oris

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    Matthew P. Mulé

    2015-12-01

    Results: When A. oris was grown under iron-limiting conditions, the genes encoding iron/siderophore transporters fetA and sidD showed increased expression. One of these genes (sidD was mutated, and the sidD::Km strain exhibited a 50% reduction in growth in late log and stationary phase cells in media that contained iron. This growth defect was restored when the sidD gene was provided in a complemented strain. We were able to isolate the AmdR-encoding gene in seven clinical isolates of Actinomyces. When these protein sequences were aligned to the laboratory strain, there was a high degree of sequence similarity. Conclusions: The growth of the sidD::Km mutant in iron-replete medium mirrored the growth of the wild-type strain grown in iron-limiting medium, suggesting that the sidD::Km mutant was compromised in iron uptake. The known iron regulator AmdR is well conserved in clinical isolates of A. oris. This work provides additional insight into iron metabolism in this important oral microbe.

  3. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

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    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  4. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

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    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to <20 nM coincident with a maximum in particulate iron concentration. Within the iron gradient, we found an increased expression of the key functional marker gene for nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  5. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  6. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

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    Darius J. R. Lane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB; may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism.

  7. DMPD: Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11841920 Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. Tsukamoto H. Fr...ee Radic Biol Med. 2002 Feb 15;32(4):309-13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage... TNFalpha expression. PubmedID 11841920 Title Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expres

  8. Regulation of transepithelial transport of iron by hepcidin

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    NATALIA P MENA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin (Hepc is a 25 amino acid cationic peptide with broad antibacterial and antifungal actions. A likely role for Hepc in iron metabolism was suggested by the observation that mice having disruption of the gene encoding the transcription factor USF2 failed to produce Hepc mRNA and developed spontaneous visceral iron overload. Lately, Hepc has been considered the "stores regulator," a putative factor that signals the iron content of the body to intestinal cells. In this work, we characterized the effect of Hepc produced by hepatoma cells on iron absorption by intestinal cells. To that end, human Hepc cDNA was cloned and overexpressed in HepG2 cells and conditioned media from Hepc-overexpressing cells was used to study the effects of Hepc on intestinal Caco-2 cells grown in bicameral inserts. The results indicate that Hepc released by HepG2 inhibited apical iron uptake by Caco-2 cells, probably by inhibiting the expression of the apical transporter DMT1. These results support a model in which Hepc released by the liver negatively regulates the expression of transporter DMT1 in the enterocyte

  9. Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Non-Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Fakhredin, Rayan; Bazarbachi, Abdul-Hamid; Chaya, Bachar; Sleiman, Joseph; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Taher, Ali T

    2017-12-20

    Iron overload (IOL) due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin leads to an increase in iron absorption and subsequent release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, leading to depletion of macrophage iron, relatively low levels of serum ferritin, and liver iron loading. The consequences of IOL in patients with NTDT are multiple and multifactorial. Accurate and reliable methods of diagnosis and monitoring of body iron levels are essential, and the method of choice for measuring iron accumulation will depend on the patient's needs and on the available facilities. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) remains the backbone of NTDT management and is one of the most effective and practical ways of decreasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of IOL in NTDT, and the clinical complications that can develop as a result, in addition to the current and future therapeutic options available for the management of IOL in NTDT.

  10. Iron Overload and Chelation Therapy in Non-Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia

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    Rayan Bou-Fakhredin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload (IOL due to increased intestinal iron absorption constitutes a major clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT, which is a cumulative process with advancing age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with NTDT suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin leads to an increase in iron absorption and subsequent release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, leading to depletion of macrophage iron, relatively low levels of serum ferritin, and liver iron loading. The consequences of IOL in patients with NTDT are multiple and multifactorial. Accurate and reliable methods of diagnosis and monitoring of body iron levels are essential, and the method of choice for measuring iron accumulation will depend on the patient’s needs and on the available facilities. Iron chelation therapy (ICT remains the backbone of NTDT management and is one of the most effective and practical ways of decreasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of IOL in NTDT, and the clinical complications that can develop as a result, in addition to the current and future therapeutic options available for the management of IOL in NTDT.

  11. PfsR is a key regulator of iron homeostasis in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

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    Dan Cheng

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in numerous cellular processes. The iron deficiency in the oceans affects the primary productivity of phytoplankton including cyanobacteria. In this study, we examined the function of PfsR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, in iron homeostasis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Compared with the wild type, the pfsR deletion mutant displayed stronger tolerance to iron limitation and accumulated significantly more chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycocyanin under iron-limiting conditions. The mutant also maintained more photosystem I and photosystem II complexes than the wild type after iron deprivation. In addition, the activities of photosystem I and photosystem II were much higher in pfsR deletion mutant than in wild-type cells under iron-limiting conditions. The transcripts of pfsR were enhanced by iron limitation and inactivation of the gene affected pronouncedly expression of fut genes (encoding a ferric iron transporter, feoB (encoding a ferrous iron transporter, bfr genes (encoding bacterioferritins, ho genes (encoding heme oxygenases, isiA (encoding a chlorophyll-binding protein, and furA (encoding a ferric uptake regulator. The iron quota in pfsR deletion mutant cells was higher than in wild-type cells both before and after exposure to iron limitation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PfsR bound to its own promoter and thereby auto-regulated its own expression. These data suggest that PfsR is a critical regulator of iron homeostasis.

  12. Iron-regulated proteins (IRPS of leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I

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    Sritharan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been shown to induce the expression of siderophores and their receptors, the iron-regulated membrane proteins in a number of bacterial systems. In this study, the response of Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc I to conditions of iron deprivation was assessed and the expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two methods were used for establishing conditions of iron deprivation. One method consisted of addition of the iron chelators ethylenediamine-N, N′-diacetic acid (EDDA and ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHPA and the second method involved the addition of iron at 0.02 µg Fe/mL. Alternatively, iron sufficient conditions were achieved by omitting the chelators in the former method and adding 4 µg Fe/mL of the medium in the latter protocol. Triton X-114 extraction of the cells was done to isolate the proteins in the outer membrane (detergent phase, periplasmic space (aqueous phase and the protoplasmic cylinder (cell pellet. The proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis. RESULTS: In the presence of the iron-chelators, four iron-regulated proteins (IRPs of apparent molecular masses of 82, 64, 60 and 33 kDa were expressed. The 82-kDa protein was seen only in the aqueous phase, while the other three proteins were seen in both the aqueous and detergent fractions. These proteins were not identified in organisms grown in the absence of the iron chelators. The 64, 60 and the 33 kDa proteins were also demonstrated in organisms grown in media with 0.02 µg Fe/mL. In addition, a 24 kDa protein was found to be down-regulated at this concentration of iron as compared to the high level of expression in organisms grown with 4 µg Fe/mL. The blue CAS agar plates with top agar containing 0.02µg Fe/mL showed a colour change to orange-red. CONCLUSION: The expression of siderophores and iron-regulated proteins under conditions of iron deprivation

  13. Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans.

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    Saif Hameed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that iron deprivation enhances drug susceptibility of Candida albicans by increasing membrane fluidity which correlated with the lower expression of ERG11 transcript and ergosterol levels. The iron restriction dependent membrane perturbations led to an increase in passive diffusion and drug susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis and multidrug resistance (MDR, however, are not yet resolved. To evaluate the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS based lipidome analyses of iron deprived Candida cells to examine the new cellular circuitry of the MDR of this pathogen. Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis. Among the several categories of iron deprivation responsive genes, the down regulation of calcineurin signaling genes including HSP90, CMP1 and CRZ1 was noteworthy. Interestingly, iron deprived Candida cells as well as iron acquisition defective mutants phenocopied molecular chaperone HSP90 and calcineurin mutants and thus were sensitive to alkaline pH, salinity and membrane perturbations. In contrast, sensitivity to above stresses did not change in iron deprived DSY2146 strain with a hyperactive allele of calcineurin. Although, iron deprivation phenocopied compromised HSP90 and calcineurin, it was independent of protein kinase C signaling cascade. Notably, the phenotypes associated with iron deprivation in genetically impaired calcineurin and HSP90 could be reversed with iron supplementation. The observed down regulation of ergosterol (ERG1, ERG2, ERG11 and ERG25 and sphingolipid biosynthesis (AUR1 and SCS7 genes followed by lipidome analysis confirmed that iron deprivation not only disrupted ergosterol biosynthesis, but it also affected sphingolipid homeostasis in Candida cells. These lipid compositional changes suggested extensive remodeling of the membranes in iron

  14. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  15. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  16. Role of the Irr protein in the regulation of iron metabolism in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

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    Verena Peuser

    Full Text Available In Rhizobia the Irr protein is an important regulator for iron-dependent gene expression. We studied the role of the Irr homolog RSP_3179 in the photosynthetic alpha-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. While Irr had little effect on growth under iron-limiting or non-limiting conditions its deletion resulted in increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen. This correlates with an elevated expression of katE for catalase in the Irr mutant compared to the wild type under non-stress conditions. Transcriptome studies revealed that Irr affects the expression of genes for iron metabolism, but also has some influence on genes involved in stress response, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, transport, and photosynthesis. Most genes showed higher expression levels in the wild type than in the mutant under normal growth conditions indicating an activator function of Irr. Irr was however not required to activate genes of the iron metabolism in response to iron limitation, which showed even stronger induction in the absence of Irr. This was also true for genes mbfA and ccpA, which were verified as direct targets for Irr. Our results suggest that in R. sphaeroides Irr diminishes the strong induction of genes for iron metabolism under iron starvation.

  17. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Multi-domain CGFS-type glutaredoxin Grx4 regulates iron homeostasis via direct interaction with a repressor Fep1 in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Chang [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Roe, Jung-Hye, E-mail: jhroe@snu.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 allows Fep1-mediated de-repression of iron uptake genes at low iron. {yields} Grx4 directly interacts with Fep1 in vivo and in vitro. {yields} The Cys172 in the CGFS motif of Grx4 is necessary for cell proliferation and iron regulation. {yields} The Cys172 of Grx4 is required for normal interaction with Fep1. -- Abstract: The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains two CGFS-type monothiol glutaredoxins, Grx4 and Grx5, which are localized primarily in the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. We observed involvement of Grx4 in regulating iron-responsive gene expression, which is modulated by a repressor Fep1. Lack of Grx4 caused defects not only in growth but also in the expression of both iron-uptake and iron-utilizing genes regardless of iron availability. In order to unravel how Grx4 is involved in Fep1-mediated regulation, interaction between them was investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) revealed that Grx4 physically interacts with Fep1 in vivo. BiFC revealed localized nuclear dots produced by interaction of Grx4 with Fep1. Mutation of cysteine-172 in the CGFS motif to serine (C172S) produced effects similarly observed under Grx4 depletion, such as the loss of iron-dependent gene regulation and the absence of nuclear dots in BiFC analysis. These results suggest that the ability of Grx4 to bind iron, most likely Fe-S cofactor, could be critical in interacting with and modulating the activity of Fep1.

  19. Expression and characterization of an iron-regulated hemin-binding protein, HbpA, from Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Velineni, Sridhar; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Sritharan, Manjula

    2007-09-01

    In an earlier study, based on the ferric enterobactin receptor FepA of Escherichia coli, we identified and modeled a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor protein (LB191) from the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai. Based on in silico analysis, we hypothesized that this protein was an iron-dependent hemin-binding protein. In this study, we provide experimental evidence to prove that this protein, termed HbpA (hemin-binding protein A), is indeed an iron-regulated hemin-binding protein. We cloned and expressed the full-length 81-kDa recombinant rHbpA protein and a truncated 55-kDa protein from L. interrogans serovar Lai, both of which bind hemin-agarose. Assay of hemin-associated peroxidase activity and spectrofluorimetric analysis provided confirmatory evidence of hemin binding by HbpA. Immunofluorescence studies by confocal microscopy and the microscopic agglutination test demonstrated the surface localization and the iron-regulated expression of HbpA in L. interrogans. Southern blot analysis confirmed our earlier observation that the hbpA gene was present only in some of the pathogenic serovars and was absent in Leptospira biflexa. Hemin-agarose affinity studies showed another hemin-binding protein with a molecular mass of approximately 44 kDa, whose expression was independent of iron levels. This protein was seen in several serovars, including nonpathogenic L. biflexa. Sequence analysis and immunoreactivity with specific antibodies showed this protein to be LipL41.

  20. Ferritin gene transcription is regulated by iron in soybean cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, A M; Proudhon, D; Pesey, H; Ragland, M; Theil, E C; Briat, J F

    1991-09-15

    Iron-regulated ferritin synthesis in animals is dominated by translational control of stored mRNA; iron-induced transcription of ferritin genes, when it occurs, changes the subunit composition of ferritin mRNA and protein and is coupled to translational control. Ferritins in plants and animals have evolved from a common progenitor, based on the similarity of protein sequence; however, sequence divergence occurs in the C termini; structure prediction suggests that plant ferritin has the E-helix, which, in horse ferritin, forms a large channel at the tetrameric interface. In contemporary plants, a transit peptide is encoded by ferritin mRNA to target the protein to plastids. Iron-regulated synthesis of ferritin in plants and animals appears to be very different since the 50- to 60-fold increases of ferritin protein, previously observed to be induced by iron in cultured soybean cells, is accompanied by an equivalent accumulation of hybridizable ferritin mRNA and by increased transcription of ferritin genes. Ferritin mRNA from iron-induced cells and the constitutive ferritin mRNA from soybean hypocotyls are identical. The iron-induced protein is translocated normally to plastids. Differences in animal ferritin structure coincide with the various iron storage functions (reserve for iron proteins and detoxification). In contrast, the constancy of structure of soybean ferritin, iron-induced and constitutive, coupled with the potential for vacuolar storage of excess iron in plants suggest that rapid synthesis of ferritin from a stored ferritin mRNA may not be needed in plants for detoxification of iron.

  1. Performance of Iron Plaque of Wetland Plants for Regulating Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Water

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    Xueying Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P removal and nutrient absorption by the utilization of the iron plaque on the root surface of Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt. Rosh. The experiment was comprised of two main factors with three regimes: Fe2+ (0, 1, 20, 100, 500 mg·L−1 and P (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg·L−1. The deposition and structure of iron plaque was examined through a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. Iron could, however, also impose toxic effects on the biota. We therefore provide the scanning electron microscopy (SEM on iron plaques, showing the essential elements were iron (Fe, oxygen (O, aluminum (Al, manganese (Mn, P, and sulphur (S. Results showed that (1 Iron plaque increased with increasing Fe2+ supply, and P-deficiency promoted its formation; (2 Depending on the amount of iron plaque on roots, nutrient uptake was enhanced at low levels, but at higher levels, it inhibited element accumulation and translocation; (3 The absorption of manganese was particularly affected by iron plague, which also enhanced phosphorus uptake until the external iron concentration exceeded 100 mg·L−1. Therefore, the presence of iron plaque on the root surface would increase the uptake of P, which depends on the concentration of iron-rich groundwater.

  2. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2014-08-07

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from β-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Magnetic field strength dependence of the magnetostriction of rare-earth iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvezdin, A.K.; Levitin, R.Z.; Popov, A.I.; Silant'ev, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetostriction of holmium-yttrium iron garnets Hosub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (x=3 or 1.05) is measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 200 kOe at 78 K. It is shown that the magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 of these ferrimagnets depends on the magnetic field strength. The magnetostriction constant of the iron garnet Ho 3 Fe 5 O 12 increases and of the iron garnet Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) decreases with increase of the field strength. The field dependences of the anisotropic magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 for Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) are fundamentally different. Thus lambda 111 depends quadratically on the total effective field Hsub(eff) whereas lambda 100 depends almost linearly on Hsub(eff). A theoretical analysis of the magneto-elastic interaction in rare-earth iron garnets is carried out [ru

  5. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glial cell ceruloplasmin and hepcidin differentially regulate iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a cell-derived barrier. We found that iron efflux from hBMVEC through the ferrous iron permease ferroportin (Fpn) was stimulated by secretion of the soluble form of the multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (sCp) from the co-cultured C6 cells. Reciprocally, expression of sCp mRNA in the C6 cells was increased by neighboring hBMVEC. In addition, data indicate that C6 cell-secreted hepcidin stimulates internalization of hBMVEC Fpn but only when the end-feet projections characteristic of this glia-derived cell line are proximal to the endothelial cells. This hepcidin-dependent loss of Fpn correlated with knock-down of iron efflux from the hBMVEC; this result was consistent with the mechanism by which hepcidin regulates iron efflux in mammalian cells. In summary, the data support a model of iron trafficking across the BBB in which the capillary endothelium induce the underlying astrocytes to produce the ferroxidase activity needed to support Fpn-mediated iron efflux. Reciprocally, astrocyte proximity modulates the effective concentration of hepcidin at the endothelial cell membrane and thus the surface expression of hBMVEC Fpn. These results are independent of the source of hBMVEC iron (transferrin or non-transferrin bound) indicating that the model developed here is broadly applicable to brain iron homeostasis.

  7. Central roles of iron in the regulation of oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Ryo; Mizobuchi, Shogo; Nakashima, Maya; Miki, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Dai; Fujii, Michihiko

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen is essential for aerobic organisms but causes cytotoxicity probably through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we screened for the genes that regulate oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and found that expression of CTH2/TIS11 caused an increased resistance to ROS. CTH2 is up-regulated upon iron starvation and functions to remodel metabolism to adapt to iron starvation. We showed here that increased resistance to ROS by CTH2 would likely be caused by the decreased ROS production due to the decreased activity of mitochondrial respiration, which observation is consistent with the fact that CTH2 down-regulates the mitochondrial respiratory proteins. We also found that expression of CTH1, a paralog of CTH2, also caused an increased resistance to ROS. This finding supported the above view, because mitochondrial respiratory proteins are the common targets of CTH1 and CTH2. We further showed that supplementation of iron in medium augmented the growth of S. cerevisiae under oxidative stress, and expression of CTH2 and supplementation of iron collectively enhanced its growth under oxidative stress. Since CTH2 is regulated by iron, these findings suggested that iron played crucial roles in the regulation of oxidative stress in S. cerevisiae.

  8. Nitric oxide–mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2−/− macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2−/− macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-γ) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2−/− macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages PMID:23630227

  9. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  10. Central role for ferritin in the day/night regulation of iron homeostasis in marine phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botebol, Hugo; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Šuták, Robert; Six, Christophe; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Schatt, Philippe; Vergé, Valérie; Kirilovsky, Amos; Morrissey, Joe; Léger, Thibaut; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Gueneugues, Audrey; Bowler, Chris; Blain, Stéphane; Bouget, François-Yves

    2015-01-01

    In large regions of the open ocean, iron is a limiting resource for phytoplankton. The reduction of iron quota and the recycling of internal iron pools are among the diverse strategies that phytoplankton have evolved to allow them to grow under chronically low ambient iron levels. Phytoplankton species also have evolved strategies to cope with sporadic iron supply such as long-term storage of iron in ferritin. In the picophytoplanktonic species Ostreococcus we report evidence from observations both in the field and in laboratory cultures that ferritin and the main iron-binding proteins involved in photosynthesis and nitrate assimilation pathways show opposite diurnal expression patterns, with ferritin being maximally expressed during the night. Biochemical and physiological experiments using a ferritin knock-out line subsequently revealed that this protein plays a central role in the diel regulation of iron uptake and recycling and that this regulation of iron homeostasis is essential for cell survival under iron limitation. PMID:26553998

  11. Iron Loading Selectively Increases Hippocampal Levels of Ubiquitinated Proteins and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Dargél, Vinícius Ayub; Köbe, Luiza Machado; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Schröder, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.

  12. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  13. Iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and glutathione depletion after accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by oligodendroglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are currently used for various neurobiological applications. To investigate the consequences of a treatment of brain cells with such particles, we have applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONP that had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 60 nm to oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells. After exposure to 4 mM iron applied as DMSA–IONP, these cells increased their total specific iron content within 8 h 600-fold from 7 to 4,200 nmol/mg cellular protein. The strong iron accumulation was accompanied by a change in cell morphology, although the cell viability was not compromized. DMSA–IONP treatment caused a concentration-dependent increase in the iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the specific content of the cellular antioxidative tripeptide glutathione. During a 16 h recovery phase in IONP-free culture medium following exposure to DMSA–IONP, OLN-93 cells maintained their high iron content and replenished their cellular glutathione content. These data demonstrate that viable OLN-93 cells have a remarkable potential to deal successfully with the consequences of an accumulation of large amounts of iron after exposure to DMSA–IONP.

  14. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  15. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  16. Complex regulation of AprA metalloprotease in Pseudomonas fluorescens M114: evidence for the involvement of iron, the ECF sigma factor, PbrA and pseudobactin M114 siderophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunsell, Bláithín; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2006-01-01

    In the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens M114, extracellular proteolytic activity and fluorescent siderophore (pseudobactin M114) production were previously shown to be co-ordinately negatively regulated in response to environmental iron levels. An iron-starvation extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, PbrA, required for the transcription of siderophore biosynthetic genes, was also implicated in M114 protease regulation. The current study centred on the characterization and genetic regulation of the gene(s) responsible for protease production in M114. A serralysin-type metalloprotease gene, aprA, was identified and found to encode the major, if not only, extracellular protease produced by this strain. The expression of aprA and its protein product were found to be subject to complex regulation. Transcription analysis confirmed that PbrA was required for full aprA transcription under low iron conditions, while the ferric uptake regulator, Fur, was implicated in aprA repression under high iron conditions. Interestingly, the iron regulation of AprA was dependent on culture conditions, with PbrA-independent AprA-mediated proteolytic activity observed on skim milk agar supplemented with yeast extract, when supplied with iron or purified pseudobactin M114. These effects were not observed on skim milk agar without yeast extract. PbrA-independent aprA expression was also observed from a truncated transcriptional fusion when grown in sucrose asparagine tryptone broth supplied with iron or purified pseudobactin M114. Thus, experimental evidence suggested that iron mediated its effects via transcriptional activation by PbrA under low iron conditions, while an as-yet-unidentified sigma factor(s) may be required for the PbrA-independent aprA expression and AprA proteolytic activity induced by siderophore and iron.

  17. SUPEROXIDE-DEPENDENT IRON UPTAKE: A NEW ROLE FOR ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cells import iron across the plasma membrane as ferrous (Fe2+) ion by incompletely understood mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells import non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) using superoxide-dependent ferri-reductase activity involvi...

  18. Change in iron metabolism in rats after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1 and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI. From 1 to 24 h after renal reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were found to be time-dependently increased with different degrees of kidney injury. Regular variations in iron metabolism indexes in the blood and kidneys were observed in renal IRI. Renal iron content, serum iron and serum ferritin increased early after reperfusion and then declined. Hepcidin expression in the liver significantly increased early after reperfusion, and its serum concentration increased beginning at 8 h after reperfusion. The splenic iron content decreased significantly in the early stage after reperfusion and then increased time-dependently with increasing reperfusion time, and the hepatic iron content showed a decrease in the early stage after reperfusion. The early decrease of the splenic iron content and hepatic iron content might indicate their contribution to the increase in serum iron in renal IRI. In addition, the duodenal iron content showed time-dependently decreased since 12 h after reperfusion in the IRI groups compared to the control group. Along with the spleen, the duodenum might contribute to the decrease in serum iron in the later stage after reperfusion. The changes in iron metabolism indexes observed in our study demonstrate an iron metabolism disorder in renal IRI, and hepcidin might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in renal IRI. These

  19. Safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roger, Simon D; Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H

    2017-01-01

    -label, multicenter, prospective study of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, anemia and iron deficiency randomized (1:1:2) to IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin, or oral iron. A post hoc analysis of adverse event rates per 100 patient......: These results further support the conclusion that correction of iron deficiency anemia with IV FCM is safe in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD.......Background: The evidence base regarding the safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete and largely based on small studies of relatively short duration. Methods: FIND-CKD (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00994318) was a 1-year, open...

  20. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed' with an excitation cloud resulting in quasiparticles. Such a quasiparticle will carry the same spin and charge as the original particle, but will have a renormalized mass and a finite lifetime. The properties of many-body interactions are described with a complex function called self energy which is directly accessible to modern high-resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Ferromagnetic metals like nickel or iron offers the exciting possibility to study the spin dependence of quasiparticle coupling to bosonic modes. Utilizing the exchange split band structure as an intrinsic 'spin detector' it is possible to distinguish between electron-phonon and electron-magnon coupling phenomena. In this contribution we will report a systematic investigation of the k- and temperature dependence of the electron-boson coupling in nickel and iron metals as well as discuss origin of earlier observed anomalous lifetime broadening of majority spin states of nickel at Fermi level.

  1. The Effects of Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharide on Tumor Growth and Iron Metabolism by Regulating Hepcidin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Iron plays a fundamental role in cell biology and its concentration must be precisely regulated. It is well documented that excess iron burden contributes to the occurrence and progression of cancer. Hepcidin secreted by liver plays an essential role in orchestrating iron metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the ability of angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP to decrease iron burden in tumor-bearing mice and the mechanism of ASP regulation hepcidin expression. Methods: Western blot, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used to detect the regulation of hepcidin and related cytokines by ASP. The role of ASP in tumor proliferation was investigated using in vivo assays. Iron depositions and iron concentrations in organs were determined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: We found that ASP could inhibit tumor growth in mice xenografted with 4T1 and H22 cancer cells. In vivo experiments also showed that ASP could potently regulate hepcidin expression in liver and serum and decrease iron burden in liver, spleen and grafted tumors in mouse model. Treatment with ASP in hepatic cell lines reproduced comparable results in decreasing hepcidin as in mouse liver. Furthermore, we found that ASP markedly suppressed the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6, JAK2, p-STAT3, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in liver, suggesting that JAK/STAT and BMP-SMAD pathways were involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression by ASP. We also found down-regulation of iron-related cytokines in ASP treated mice. Conclusion: The present study provides new evidence that ASP decreases hepcidin expression, which can reduce iron burden and inhibit tumor proliferation. These findings might aid ASP developed as a potential candidate for cancer treatment in patients with iron overload.

  2. Prion Protein Regulates Iron Transport by Functioning as a Ferrireductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Haldar, Swati; Horback, Katharine; Tom, Cynthia; Zhou, Lan; Meyerson, Howard; Singh, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Prion protein (PrPC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of prion disorders, but its normal function is unclear. We demonstrate that PrPC is a ferrireductase (FR), and its absence causes systemic iron deficiency in PrP knock-out mice (PrP−/−). When exposed to non-transferrin-bound (NTB) radioactive-iron (59FeCl3) by gastric-gavage, PrP−/− mice absorb significantly more 59Fe from the intestinal lumen relative to controls, indicating appropriate systemic response to the iron deficiency. Chronic exposure to excess dietary iron corrects this deficiency, but unlike wild-type (PrP+/+) controls that remain iron over-loaded, PrP−/− mice revert back to the iron deficient phenotype after 5 months of chase on normal diet. Bone marrow (BM) preparations of PrP−/− mice on normal diet show relatively less stainable iron, and this phenotype is only partially corrected by intraperitoneal administration of excess iron-dextran. Cultured PrP−/− BM-macrophages incorporate significantly less NTB-59Fe in the absence or presence of excess extracellular iron, indicating reduced uptake and/or storage of available iron in the absence of PrPC. When expressed in neuroblastoma cells, PrPC exhibits NAD(P)H-dependent cell-surface and intracellular FR activity that requires the copper-binding octa-peptide-repeat region and linkage to the plasma membrane for optimal function. Incorporation of NTB-59Fe by neuroblastoma cells correlates with FR activity of PrPC, implicating PrPC in cellular iron uptake and metabolism. These observations explain the correlation between PrPC expression and cellular iron levels, and the cause of iron imbalance in sporadic-Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease brains where PrPC accumulates as insoluble aggregates. PMID:23478311

  3. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Department of Pathology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Research on Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhao, Xin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei (China); Chang, Yanzhong [Laboratory of Molecular Iron Metabolism, College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Xi [Department of Pharmacy, The Forth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, Hebei (China); Zhang, Xuan [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Wang, Na [Department of Physiology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Gao, Yonggang [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: zhangjianping14@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Chu, Li, E-mail: chuli0614@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Liver-Kidney Patterns, Shijiazhuang 050200, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n = 8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. - Highlights: • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) reduced hepatic iron content. • CCBs decreased hepatic fibrotic areas and collagen expression levels. • CCBs resolve fibrosis by regulating iron transport and

  4. Contribution of Hfe expression in macrophages to the regulation of hepatic hepcidin levels and iron loading

    OpenAIRE

    Makui, Hortence; Soares, Ricardo J.; Jiang, Wenlei; Constante, Marco; Santos, Manuela M.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), an iron overload disease associated with mutations in the HFE gene, is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and consequent deposition of excess iron, primarily in the liver. Patients with HH and Hfe-deficient (Hfe−/−) mice manifest inappropriate expression of the iron absorption regulator hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver in response to iron loading. In this study, we investigated the contribution of Hfe expression in macrophag...

  5. PCBP1 and NCOA4 regulate erythroid iron storage and heme biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Zhang, Deliang; Protchenko, Olga; Shakoury-Elizeh, Minoo; Philpott, Caroline C

    2017-05-01

    Developing erythrocytes take up exceptionally large amounts of iron, which must be transferred to mitochondria for incorporation into heme. This massive iron flux must be precisely controlled to permit the coordinated synthesis of heme and hemoglobin while avoiding the toxic effects of chemically reactive iron. In cultured animal cells, iron chaperones poly rC-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) and PCBP2 deliver iron to ferritin, the sole cytosolic iron storage protein, and nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) mediates the autophagic turnover of ferritin. The roles of PCBP, ferritin, and NCOA4 in erythroid development remain unclear. Here, we show that PCBP1, NCOA4, and ferritin are critical for murine red cell development. Using a cultured cell model of erythroid differentiation, depletion of PCBP1 or NCOA4 impaired iron trafficking through ferritin, which resulted in reduced heme synthesis, reduced hemoglobin formation, and perturbation of erythroid regulatory systems. Mice lacking Pcbp1 exhibited microcytic anemia and activation of compensatory erythropoiesis via the regulators erythropoietin and erythroferrone. Ex vivo differentiation of erythroid precursors from Pcbp1-deficient mice confirmed defects in ferritin iron flux and heme synthesis. These studies demonstrate the importance of ferritin for the vectorial transfer of imported iron to mitochondria in developing red cells and of PCBP1 and NCOA4 in mediating iron flux through ferritin.

  6. The pH dependence of silicon-iron interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Emerick, R J; Kayongo-Male, H

    1997-01-01

    A 2 x 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted to study the pH dependence of a silicon-iron interaction in vivo. The dietary treatments used in the factorial design were the following (mg/kg of diet): silicon, 0 and 500; iron, 35 and 187; acid-base, ammonium chloride as 0.5% of total diet (acidic), sodium bicarbonate as 1.0% of total diet (basic), or no supplementation of acid or base (control). The supplementation of 500 mg silicon/kg of diet increased plasma-iron concentration in rats fed the acidic or control diets, but not in rats fed the basic diet. A high dietary-iron level suppressed copper absorption and utilization and subsequently imposed a negative effect on its own utilization. An increase in the plasma total-cholesterol concentration caused by high dietary-iron level was likely a consequence of the antagonistic effect of iron on copper absorption and utilization. The use of cupric sulfate pentahydrate as the dietary-copper source in this study resulted in plasma copper concentrations that were approximately twice those obtained in a related study using cupric carbonate. Also, a 42% coefficient of variation (C.V.) for plasma-copper concentrations of rats fed cupric sulfate in this study was greatly reduced from the C.V. = 108% previously associated with the dietary cupric carbonate.

  7. Placental iron uptake and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bierings (Marc)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIron transport in pregnancy is an active one-way process, from mother to fetus. Early in gestation fetal iron needs are low, and so is trans-placental transport, but as erythropoiesis develops, rising fetal iron needs are met by trans-placental iron transport. Apparently, the fetus

  8. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  9. The expression of the soluble HFE corresponding transcript is up-regulated by intracellular iron and inhibits iron absorption in a duodenal cell model

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bruno; Ferreira, Joana; Santos, Vera; Baldaia, Cilénia; Serejo, Fátima; Faustino, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Dietary iron absorption regulation is a key-step for the maintenance of body iron homeostasis. Besides the HFE full-length protein, the HFE gene codes for alternative splicing variants responsible for the synthesis of a soluble form of HFE protein (sHFE). Here we aimed to determine whether sHFE transcript levels respond to different iron conditions in duodenal, macrophage and hepatic cell models, as well, in vivo, in the liver. Furthermore, we determined the functional ef...

  10. Oxygen in the Martian atmosphere: Regulation of PO2 by the deposition of iron formations on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    During Earth's early history, and prior to the evolution of its present day oxygenated atmosphere, extensive iron rich siliceous sedimentary rocks were deposited, consisting of alternating layers of silica (chert) and iron oxide minerals (hematite and magnetite). The banding in iron formations recorded changes of atmosphere-hydrosphere interactions near sea level in the ancient ocean, which induced the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, precipitation of insoluble ferric oxides and silica, and regulation of oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere. Similarities between the Archean Earth and the composition of the present day atmosphere on Mars, together with the pervasive presence of ferric oxides in the Martian regolith suggest that iron formation might also have been deposited on Mars and influenced the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere. Such a possibility is discussed here with a view to assessing whether the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere has been regulated by the chemical precipitation of iron formations on Mars.

  11. Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation: A Potential Mars Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alex; Pearson, Victoria K.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Miot, Jennyfer; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This work considers the hypothetical viability of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation (NDFO) for supporting simple life in the context of the early Mars environment. This draws on knowledge built up over several decades of remote and in situ observation, as well as recent discoveries that have shaped current understanding of early Mars. Our current understanding is that certain early martian environments fulfill several of the key requirements for microbes with NDFO metabolism. First, abundant Fe2+ has been identified on Mars and provides evidence of an accessible electron donor; evidence of anoxia suggests that abiotic Fe2+ oxidation by molecular oxygen would not have interfered and competed with microbial iron metabolism in these environments. Second, nitrate, which can be used by some iron oxidizing microorganisms as an electron acceptor, has also been confirmed in modern aeolian and ancient sediment deposits on Mars. In addition to redox substrates, reservoirs of both organic and inorganic carbon are available for biosynthesis, and geochemical evidence suggests that lacustrine systems during the hydrologically active Noachian period (4.1–3.7 Ga) match the circumneutral pH requirements of nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms. As well as potentially acting as a primary producer in early martian lakes and fluvial systems, the light-independent nature of NDFO suggests that such microbes could have persisted in sub-surface aquifers long after the desiccation of the surface, provided that adequate carbon and nitrates sources were prevalent. Traces of NDFO microorganisms may be preserved in the rock record by biomineralization and cellular encrustation in zones of high Fe2+ concentrations. These processes could produce morphological biosignatures, preserve distinctive Fe-isotope variation patterns, and enhance preservation of biological organic compounds. Such biosignatures could be detectable by future missions to Mars with appropriate

  12. Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation: A Potential Mars Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Price

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the hypothetical viability of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation (NDFO for supporting simple life in the context of the early Mars environment. This draws on knowledge built up over several decades of remote and in situ observation, as well as recent discoveries that have shaped current understanding of early Mars. Our current understanding is that certain early martian environments fulfill several of the key requirements for microbes with NDFO metabolism. First, abundant Fe2+ has been identified on Mars and provides evidence of an accessible electron donor; evidence of anoxia suggests that abiotic Fe2+ oxidation by molecular oxygen would not have interfered and competed with microbial iron metabolism in these environments. Second, nitrate, which can be used by some iron oxidizing microorganisms as an electron acceptor, has also been confirmed in modern aeolian and ancient sediment deposits on Mars. In addition to redox substrates, reservoirs of both organic and inorganic carbon are available for biosynthesis, and geochemical evidence suggests that lacustrine systems during the hydrologically active Noachian period (4.1–3.7 Ga match the circumneutral pH requirements of nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms. As well as potentially acting as a primary producer in early martian lakes and fluvial systems, the light-independent nature of NDFO suggests that such microbes could have persisted in sub-surface aquifers long after the desiccation of the surface, provided that adequate carbon and nitrates sources were prevalent. Traces of NDFO microorganisms may be preserved in the rock record by biomineralization and cellular encrustation in zones of high Fe2+ concentrations. These processes could produce morphological biosignatures, preserve distinctive Fe-isotope variation patterns, and enhance preservation of biological organic compounds. Such biosignatures could be detectable by future missions to Mars with

  13. Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation: A Potential Mars Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alex; Pearson, Victoria K; Schwenzer, Susanne P; Miot, Jennyfer; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This work considers the hypothetical viability of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe 2+ oxidation (NDFO) for supporting simple life in the context of the early Mars environment. This draws on knowledge built up over several decades of remote and in situ observation, as well as recent discoveries that have shaped current understanding of early Mars. Our current understanding is that certain early martian environments fulfill several of the key requirements for microbes with NDFO metabolism. First, abundant Fe 2+ has been identified on Mars and provides evidence of an accessible electron donor; evidence of anoxia suggests that abiotic Fe 2+ oxidation by molecular oxygen would not have interfered and competed with microbial iron metabolism in these environments. Second, nitrate, which can be used by some iron oxidizing microorganisms as an electron acceptor, has also been confirmed in modern aeolian and ancient sediment deposits on Mars. In addition to redox substrates, reservoirs of both organic and inorganic carbon are available for biosynthesis, and geochemical evidence suggests that lacustrine systems during the hydrologically active Noachian period (4.1-3.7 Ga) match the circumneutral pH requirements of nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms. As well as potentially acting as a primary producer in early martian lakes and fluvial systems, the light-independent nature of NDFO suggests that such microbes could have persisted in sub-surface aquifers long after the desiccation of the surface, provided that adequate carbon and nitrates sources were prevalent. Traces of NDFO microorganisms may be preserved in the rock record by biomineralization and cellular encrustation in zones of high Fe 2+ concentrations. These processes could produce morphological biosignatures, preserve distinctive Fe-isotope variation patterns, and enhance preservation of biological organic compounds. Such biosignatures could be detectable by future missions to Mars with appropriate

  14. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin; Fiskal, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface...

  15. Microbial Community Composition Impacts Pathogen Iron Availability during Polymicrobial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollo Stacy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial pathogenesis, but in the host, iron is tightly sequestered, limiting its availability for bacterial growth. Although this is an important arm of host immunity, most studies examine how bacteria respond to iron restriction in laboratory rather than host settings, where the microbiome can potentially alter pathogen strategies for acquiring iron. One of the most important transcriptional regulators controlling bacterial iron homeostasis is Fur. Here we used a combination of RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq to characterize the iron-restricted and Fur regulons of the biofilm-forming opportunistic pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We discovered that iron restriction and Fur regulate 4% and 3.5% of the genome, respectively. While most genes in these regulons were related to iron uptake and metabolism, we found that Fur also directly regulates the biofilm-dispersing enzyme Dispersin B, allowing A. actinomycetemcomitans to escape from iron-scarce environments. We then leveraged these datasets to assess the availability of iron to A. actinomycetemcomitans in its primary infection sites, abscesses and the oral cavity. We found that A. actinomycetemcomitans is not restricted for iron in a murine abscess mono-infection, but becomes restricted for iron upon co-infection with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Furthermore, in the transition from health to disease in human gum infection, A. actinomycetemcomitans also becomes restricted for iron. These results suggest that host iron availability is heterogeneous and dependent on the infecting bacterial community.

  16. Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is known to exacerbate many infectious diseases, and conversely, iron withholding is an important defense strategy for mammalian hosts. Iron is a critical cue for Cryptococcus neoformans because the fungus senses iron to regulate elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule that is the major virulence factor during infection. Excess iron exacerbates experimental cryptococcosis and the prevalence of this disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with nutritional and genetic aspects of iron loading in the background of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We demonstrate that the iron-responsive transcription factor Cir1 in Cr. neoformans controls the regulon of genes for iron acquisition such that cir1 mutants are "blind" to changes in external iron levels. Cir1 also controls the known major virulence factors of the pathogen including the capsule, the formation of the anti-oxidant melanin in the cell wall, and the ability to grow at host body temperature. Thus, the fungus is remarkably tuned to perceive iron as part of the disease process, as confirmed by the avirulence of the cir1 mutant; this characteristic of the pathogen may provide opportunities for antifungal treatment.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  18. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ß cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß induces...... knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, ß cells...

  19. Ebselen inhibits iron-induced tau phosphorylation by attenuating DMT1 up-regulation and cellular iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Xin, Na; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Zhan-You

    2012-08-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis is involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently reported that divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is upregulated in an AD transgenic mouse brain, and that silencing of DMT1, which reduces cellular iron influx, results in inhibition of amyloidogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential target of DMT1 for AD therapy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of DMT1 with ebselen, a DMT1 transport inhibitor, could affect tau phosphorylation. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with ebselen and then treated with ferrous sulfate (dissolved in ascorbic acid), and the effects of ebselen on tau phosphorylation and the relative signaling pathways were examined. Our results showed that ebselen decreased iron influx, reduced iron-induced ROS production, inhibited the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and ultimately attenuated the levels of tau phosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Ser396 and Thr231. The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on AD is not only related to its antioxidant activity as reported previously, but is also associated with a reduction in tau phosphorylation by inhibition of DMT1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of the Fur regulon in iron transport in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, Juliane; Song, Kyung-Bok; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D

    2006-05-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein mediates the iron-dependent repression of at least 20 operons encoding approximately 40 genes. We investigated the physiological roles of Fur-regulated genes by the construction of null mutations in 14 transcription units known or predicted to function in siderophore biosynthesis or iron uptake. We demonstrate that ywbLMN, encoding an elemental iron uptake system orthologous to the copper oxidase-dependent Fe(III) uptake system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for growth in low iron minimal medium lacking citric acid. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoyl-glycine (Itoic acid), the siderophore precursor produced by laboratory strains of B. subtilis, is of secondary importance. In the presence of citrate, the YfmCDEF ABC transporter is required for optimal growth. B. subtilis is unable to grow in minimal medium containing the iron chelator EDDHA unless the ability to synthesize the intact bacillibactin siderophore is restored (by the introduction of a functional sfp gene) or exogenous siderophores are provided. Utilization of the catecholate siderophores bacillibactin and enterobactin requires the FeuABC importer and the YusV ATPase. Utilization of hydroxamate siderophores requires the FhuBGC ABC transporter together with the FhuD (ferrichrome) or YxeB (ferrioxamine) substrate-binding proteins. Growth with schizokinen or arthrobactin is at least partially dependent on the YfhA YfiYZ importer and the YusV ATPase. We have also investigated the effects of a fur mutation on the proteome and documented the derepression of 11 Fur-regulated proteins, including a newly identified thioredoxin reductase homolog, YcgT.

  1. Two-Component Signaling System VgrRS Directly Senses Extracytoplasmic and Intracellular Iron to Control Bacterial Adaptation under Iron Depleted Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both iron starvation and excess are detrimental to cellular life, especially for animal and plant pathogens since they always live in iron-limited environments produced by host immune responses. However, how organisms sense and respond to iron is incompletely understood. Herein, we reveal that in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, VgrS (also named ColS is a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase that senses extracytoplasmic iron limitation in the periplasm, while its cognate response regulator, VgrR (ColR, detects intracellular iron excess. Under iron-depleted conditions, dissociation of Fe3+ from the periplasmic sensor region of VgrS activates the VgrS autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to VgrR, an OmpR-family transcription factor that regulates bacterial responses to take up iron. VgrR-VgrS regulon and the consensus DNA binding motif of the transcription factor VgrR were dissected by comparative proteomic and ChIP-seq analyses, which revealed that in reacting to iron-depleted environments, VgrR directly or indirectly controls the expressions of hundreds of genes that are involved in various physiological cascades, especially those associated with iron-uptake. Among them, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated VgrR tightly represses the transcription of a special TonB-dependent receptor gene, tdvA. This regulation is a critical prerequisite for efficient iron uptake and bacterial virulence since activation of tdvA transcription is detrimental to these processes. When the intracellular iron accumulates, the VgrR-Fe2+ interaction dissociates not only the binding between VgrR and the tdvA promoter, but also the interaction between VgrR and VgrS. This relieves the repression in tdvA transcription to impede continuous iron uptake and avoids possible toxic effects of excessive iron accumulation. Our results revealed a signaling system that directly senses both extracytoplasmic and intracellular

  2. Ferrokinetic Parameters and Regulation of Iron Metabolism in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Boiko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article presents parameters of iron metabolism and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (CIBD. The material for the study was the blood of 69 patients with CIBD and anemia and 26 — without anemia. We have studied the features of main ferrokinetic parameters — iron, total iron-binding capacity of serum, transferrin saturation, ferritin, transferrin receptor, erythropoietin, hepcidin depending on hemoglobin level and the type of anemia. The relationship of iron metabolism disorders with the level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α is shown.

  3. The iron-regulated transcriptome and proteome of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basler, Marek; Linhartová, Irena; Halada, Petr; Novotná, Jana; Bezoušková, Silvia; Osička, Radim; Weiser, Jaroslav; Vohradský, Jiří; Šebo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 23 (2006), s. 6194-6206 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0804; GA MZe 1G46068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : iron regulation * Neisseria meningitidis * proteome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.735, year: 2006

  4. Iron deficiency regulated OsOPT7 is essential for iron homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Michiko; An, Gynheung; Oikawa, Takaya; Ueda, Minoru; Sato, Aiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake and transport in plants are well-characterized; however, many components of Fe homeostasis remain unclear. We cloned iron-deficiency-regulated oligopeptide transporter 7 (OsOPT7) from rice. OsOPT7 localized to the plasma membrane and did not transport Fe(III)-DMA or Fe(II)-NA and GSH in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore OsOPT7 did not complement the growth of yeast fet3fet4 mutant. OsOPT7 was specifically upregulated in response to Fe-deficiency. Promoter GUS analysis revealed that OsOPT7 expresses in root tips, root vascular tissue and shoots as well as during seed development. Microarray analysis of OsOPT7 knockout 1 (opt7-1) revealed the upregulation of Fe-deficiency-responsive genes in plants grown under Fe-sufficient conditions, despite the high Fe and ferritin concentrations in shoot tissue indicating that Fe may not be available for physiological functions. Plants overexpressing OsOPT7 do not exhibit any phenotype and do not accumulate more Fe compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that OsOPT7 may be involved in Fe transport in rice.

  5. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of the iron regulatory protein from Eisenia andrei earthworms in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Procházková

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions (UTR of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP. The earthworm IRE site in 5'-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant.

  7. Involvement of the Iron Regulatory Protein from Eisenia andrei Earthworms in the Regulation of Cellular Iron Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházková, Petra; Škanta, František; Roubalová, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) of the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP). The earthworm IRE site in 5′-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant. PMID:25279857

  8. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  9. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  10. Iron overload triggers mitochondrial fragmentation via calcineurin-sensitive signals in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Dong Gil; Kim, Bokyung; Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Jung-Hak; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FAC-induced iron overload promotes neuronal apoptosis. • Iron overload causes mitochondrial fragmentation in a Drp1-dependent manner. • Iron-induced Drp1 activation depends on dephosphorylation of Drp1(Ser637). • Calcineurin is a key regulator of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission by iron. - Abstract: The accumulation of iron in neurons has been proposed to contribute to the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. However, insufficient research has been conducted on the precise mechanism underlying iron toxicity in neurons. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial dynamics in hippocampal HT-22 neurons exposed to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) as a model of iron overload and neurodegeneration. Incubation with 150 μM FAC for 48 h resulted in decreased cell viability and apoptotic death in HT-22 cells. The FAC-induced iron overload triggered mitochondrial fragmentation, which was accompanied by Drp1(Ser637) dephosphorylation. Iron chelation with deferoxamine prevented the FAC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptotic cell death by inhibiting Drp1(Ser637) dephosphorylation. In addition, a S637D mutation of Drp1, which resulted in a phosphorylation-mimetic form of Drp1 at Ser637, protected against the FAC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal apoptosis. FK506 and cyclosporine A, inhibitors of calcineurin activation, determined that calcineurin was associated with the iron-induced changes in mitochondrial morphology and the phosphorylation levels of Drp1. These results indicate that the FAC-induced dephosphorylation of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation was rescued by the inhibition of calcineurin activation. Therefore, these findings suggest that calcineurin-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1(Ser637) acts as a key regulator of neuronal cell loss by modulating mitochondrial dynamics in iron-induced toxicity. These results may contribute to the

  11. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins Involved in a Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S.; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  12. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  13. A comparative study of self-regulation in substance dependent and non-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hosseinbor, Mohsen

    2013-08-05

    Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare 'self-regulation' in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation.

  14. Hepcidin Response to Iron Therapy in Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent CKD: An Analysis of the FIND-CKD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B; Bansal, Sukhvinder S; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Roger, Simon D; Macdougall, Iain C

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis but data are limited regarding its temporal response to iron therapy, and response to intravenous versus oral iron. In the 56-week, open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized FIND-CKD study, 626 anemic patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) and iron deficiency not receiving an erythropoiesis stimulating agent were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600μg/L) or lower (100-200μg/L) ferritin, or to oral iron. Serum hepcidin levels were measured centrally in a subset of 61 patients. Mean (SD) baseline hepcidin level was 4.0(3.5), 7.3(6.4) and 6.5(5.6) ng/mL in the high ferritin FCM (n = 17), low ferritin FCM (n = 16) and oral iron group (n = 28). The mean (SD) endpoint value (i.e. the last post-baseline value) was 26.0(9.1),15.7(7.7) and 16.3(11.0) ng/mL, respectively. The increase in hepcidin from baseline was significantly smaller with low ferritin FCM or oral iron vs high ferritin FCM at all time points up to week 52. Significant correlations were found between absolute hepcidin and ferritin values (r = 0.65, p<0.001) and between final post-baseline increases in both parameters (r = 0.70, p<0.001). The increase in hepcidin levels over the 12-month study generally mirrored the cumulative iron dose in each group. Hepcidin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) absolute values showed no correlation, although there was an association between final post-baseline increases (r = 0.42, p<0.001). Absolute values (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and final post-baseline increases of hepcidin and hemoglobin (p = 0.30, p = 0.030) correlated weakly. Baseline hepcidin levels were not predictive of a hematopoietic response to iron therapy. In conclusion, hepcidin levels rose in response to either intravenous or oral iron therapy, but the speed and extent of the rise was greatest with intravenous iron targeting a higher ferritin level. However neither the

  15. Ferric reductase genes involved in high-affinity iron uptake are differentially regulated in yeast and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Rose E; Mason, Robert P; Woodacre, Alexandra; Cashmore, Annette M

    2011-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans possesses a reductive iron uptake system which is active in iron-restricted conditions. The sequestration of iron by this mechanism initially requires the reduction of free iron to the soluble ferrous form, which is catalysed by ferric reductase proteins. Reduced iron is then taken up into the cell by a complex of a multicopper oxidase protein and an iron transport protein. Multicopper oxidase proteins require copper to function and so reductive iron and copper uptake are inextricably linked. It has previously been established that Fre10 is the major cell surface ferric reductase in C. albicans and that transcription of FRE10 is regulated in response to iron levels. We demonstrate here that Fre10 is also a cupric reductase and that Fre7 also makes a significant contribution to cell surface ferric and cupric reductase activity. It is also shown, for the first time, that transcription of FRE10 and FRE7 is lower in hyphae compared to yeast and that this leads to a corresponding decrease in cell surface ferric, but not cupric, reductase activity. This demonstrates that the regulation of two virulence determinants, the reductive iron uptake system and the morphological form of C. albicans, are linked. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  17. MR marrow signs of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Sheth, S.S.; Hurlet, A.; Comerci, S.C.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Piomelli, S.; Berdon, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) marrow signal in the axial and appendicular skeleton of 13 transfusion-dependent and chelated pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia (SSD) was compared with marrow signal in six non-transfusion-dependent patients with SSD. Hepatic, pancreatic, and renal MR signal were also evaluated. Indication for hypertransfusion therapy was primarily prior history of stroke. Transfusion-dependent patients had evidence of iron deposition throughout the imaged marrow and the liver, despite deferoxamine chelation therapy. Non-transfusion-dependent patients did not demonstrate grossly apparent signs of iron overload. Red marrow restoration was present in the spine, pelvis, and long bones and, in some patients, within the epiphyses. Marrow edema secondary to vaso-occlusive crises was evident in the metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones in areas of both red and fatty marrow and was best seen using fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging techniques. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Azevedo Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population.

  19. Effects of quercetin on hemoglobin-dependent redox reactions: relationship to iron-overload rat liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nai-Hao; Chen, Chao; He, Ying-Jie; Tian, Rong; Xiao, Qiang; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids have been widely reported to protect liver injury in iron-overload diseases, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action is dependent on their antioxidant effects, including free radical scavenging and metal-chelating. In this study, in contrast to the significant decrease in iron content, quercetin (Qu) from lower diet (0.3%, w/w) showed pro-oxidant ability on protein carbonyl formation and exhibited unobvious effect on iron-overload rat liver injury. Furthermore, the anti- and pro-oxidant activities of Qu on hemoglobin (Hb)-dependent redox reactions (i.e. the oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate, Hb-induced protein oxidation) were investigated to illustrate the elevated protein oxidation in lower Qu-treated iron-overload rat. It was found that superoxide (O₂·⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were generated during the reaction between Qu and Hb. Qu, however, effectively reduced ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb in a biphasic kinetic reaction. Moreover, Qu could significantly aggravate Hb-H₂O₂-induced protein oxidation at low concentrations and exhibit protective effects at high concentrations. Different from the classic antioxidant mechanisms of Qu, the dual effects on Hb redox reactions in vitro, therefore, may provide new insights into the physiological and pharmacological implications of Qu with iron-overload disease.

  20. The Effect Of Local Coal And Smelting Sponge Iron On Iron Content Of Pig Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oediyani, Soesaptri; Juwita Sari, Pramita; Hadi P, Djoko

    2018-03-01

    The new regulation on mineral resources was announced by Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (ESDM) of Indonesia at 2014 which it called Permen ESDM No 1/2014. Therefore, this research was conducted to add the value of local iron ores by using smelting technology. The objective of the research is to produce pig iron that meet the requirement of the new regulation of mineral resources such as 90% Fe. First, iron ores and coal mixed together with lime as a flux, then smelted in a Electric Arc Furnace at 1800°C. The process variables are (1; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2.0) and the composition of coal (0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%). The type of coal that used in this research was bituminous coal from Kalimantan and also the iron ores from Kalimantan. The products of the smelting technology are Pig iron and slag. Both pig iron and slag then analyzed by SEM-EDS to measure the iron content. The result shows that the maximum iron content on pig iron is about 95.04% meanwhile the minimum iron content on slag is about 3.66%. This result achieved at 1.6% coal and 2.0.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  2. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  3. Comparative proteomics of a tor inducible Aspergillus fumigatus mutant reveals involvement of the Tor kinase in iron regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, Clara; Valiante, Vito; Krüger, Thomas; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-07-01

    The Tor (target of rapamycin) kinase is one of the major regulatory nodes in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the Tor kinase in Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the most important airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Because deletion of the single tor gene was apparently lethal, we generated a conditional lethal tor mutant by replacing the endogenous tor gene by the inducible xylp-tor gene cassette. By both 2DE and gel-free LC-MS/MS, we found that Tor controls a variety of proteins involved in nutrient sensing, stress response, cell cycle progression, protein biosynthesis and degradation, but also processes in mitochondria, such as respiration and ornithine metabolism, which is required for siderophore formation. qRT-PCR analyses indicated that mRNA levels of ornithine biosynthesis genes were increased under iron limitation. When tor was repressed, iron regulation was lost. In a deletion mutant of the iron regulator HapX also carrying the xylp-tor cassette, the regulation upon iron deprivation was similar to that of the single tor inducible mutant strain. In line, hapX expression was significantly reduced when tor was repressed. Thus, Tor acts either upstream of HapX or independently of HapX as a repressor of the ornithine biosynthesis genes and thereby regulates the production of siderophores. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  5. Dependence regulation in newlywed couples: A prospective examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Homish, Gregory G

    2012-12-01

    According to the Risk Regulation Model (Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Collins, N. L. (2006). Optimizing assurance: The risk regulation system in relationships. Psychological Bulletin, 132 , 641-666), people need to trust in their partner's regard before they risk interdependence. The current study prospectively examines the association between perceived regard and levels of dependence in newlywed couples over nine years of marriage. Analyses demonstrate that changes in perceived regard predict levels of dependence, changes in dependence do not predict perceived regard, and alternative explanations cannot account for these effects. Further, changes in perceived regard prospectively predict divorce, and levels of dependence mediate this association. Results are discussed in terms of the dependence regulation component of the Risk Regulation Model.

  6. The Global Redox Responding RegB/RegA Signal Transduction System Regulates the Genes Involved in Ferrous Iron and Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Moinier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs. In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present. Since the redox potential increases during iron oxidation but remains stable during sulfur oxidation, we have put forward the hypothesis that the global redox responding two components system RegB/RegA is involved in this regulation. To understand the mechanism of this system and its role in the regulation of the aerobic respiratory pathways in At. ferrooxidans, the binding of different forms of RegA (DNA binding domain, wild-type, unphosphorylated and phosphorylated-like forms of RegA on the regulatory region of different genes/operons involved in ferrous iron and ISC oxidation has been analyzed. We have shown that the four RegA forms are able to bind specifically the upstream region of these genes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of RegA did not change its affinity for its cognate DNA. The transcriptional start site of these genes/operons has been determined. In most cases, the RegA binding site(s was (were located upstream from the −35 (or −24 box suggesting that RegA does not interfere with the RNA polymerase binding. Based on the results presented in this report, the role of the RegB/RegA system in the regulation of the ferrous iron and ISC oxidation pathways in At. ferrooxidans is discussed.

  7. The Global Redox Responding RegB/RegA Signal Transduction System Regulates the Genes Involved in Ferrous Iron and Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinier, Danielle; Byrne, Deborah; Amouric, Agnès; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs). In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present. Since the redox potential increases during iron oxidation but remains stable during sulfur oxidation, we have put forward the hypothesis that the global redox responding two components system RegB/RegA is involved in this regulation. To understand the mechanism of this system and its role in the regulation of the aerobic respiratory pathways in At. ferrooxidans, the binding of different forms of RegA (DNA binding domain, wild-type, unphosphorylated and phosphorylated-like forms of RegA) on the regulatory region of different genes/operons involved in ferrous iron and ISC oxidation has been analyzed. We have shown that the four RegA forms are able to bind specifically the upstream region of these genes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of RegA did not change its affinity for its cognate DNA. The transcriptional start site of these genes/operons has been determined. In most cases, the RegA binding site(s) was (were) located upstream from the −35 (or −24) box suggesting that RegA does not interfere with the RNA polymerase binding. Based on the results presented in this report, the role of the RegB/RegA system in the regulation of the ferrous iron and ISC oxidation pathways in At. ferrooxidans is discussed. PMID:28747899

  8. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  9. Positive muon diffusion in iron and nickel pressure dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, T; Dufresne, J F; Hartmann, O; Karlsson, E; Lindgren, B; Longobardi, R; Norlin, L O; Pezzetti, J P; Yaouanc, A

    1980-01-01

    The hyperfine field B/sub hf/ at positive muon ( mu /sup +/) in iron and nickel was previously found. Exhibits marked deviations from the bulk magnetization as a function of temperature. For substitutional impurities in Fe and Ni matrices the volume dependence of B/sub hf/ has been considered as a possible reason for such deviations. Therefore the authors have measured at CERN the local magnetic field at mu /sup +/, B/sub mu /, in high purity polycrystalline Fe and Ni samples at room temperature and at pressures up to 7 kbar by the positive muon spin rotation ( mu /sup +/ SR) technique. To their knowledge, this is the first mu /sup +/SR experiment performed under hydrostatic pressure. The authors observe a linear pressure dependence for both samples but slopes are of opposite signs. (12 refs).

  10. Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation

  11. The iron-regulated transporter 1 plays an essential role in uptake, translocation and grain-loading of manganese, but not iron, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi; Persson, Daniel Olaf; Duan, Fengying

    2018-01-01

    Transporters involved in manganese (Mn) uptake and intracellular Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis and rice are well characterized, while much less is known for barley, which is particularly prone to Mn deficiency. In this study we have investigated the role of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1...

  12. Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerek, Branislav; Moll, Isabella; Bläsi, Udo

    2007-02-21

    The Fe2+-dependent Fur protein serves as a negative regulator of iron uptake in bacteria. As only metallo-Fur acts as an autogeneous repressor, Fe2+scarcity would direct fur expression when continued supply is not obviously required. We show that in Escherichia coli post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms ensure that Fur synthesis remains steady in iron limitation. Our studies revealed that fur translation is coupled to that of an upstream open reading frame (uof), translation of which is downregulated by the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) RyhB. As RyhB transcription is negatively controlled by metallo-Fur, iron depletion creates a negative feedback loop. RyhB-mediated regulation of uof-fur provides the first example for indirect translational regulation by a trans-encoded ncRNA. In addition, we present evidence for an iron-responsive decoding mechanism of the uof-fur entity. It could serve as a backup mechanism of the RyhB circuitry, and represents the first link between iron availability and synthesis of an iron-containing protein.

  13. Aspergillus niger Secretes Citrate to Increase Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560

  14. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against the iron regulated outer membrane Proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii are bactericidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Vikas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important nutrient required by all forms of life.In the case of human hosts,the free iron availability is 10-18M,which is far less than what is needed for the survival of the invading bacterial pathogen.To survive in such conditions, bacteria express new proteins in their outer membrane and also secrete iron chelators called siderophores. Results/ Discussion Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, a nosocomial pathogen which grows under iron restricted conditions, expresses four new outer membrane proteins,with molecular weight ranging from 77 kDa to 88 kDa, that are called Iron Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs. We studied the functional and immunological properties of IROMPs expressed by A.baumanii ATCC 19606.The bands corresponding to IROMPs were eluted from SDS-PAGE and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas secreting specific antibodies against these IROMPs were selected after screening by ELISA and their reactivity was confirmed by Western Blot. The antibodies then generated belonged to IgM isotype and showed bactericidical and opsonising activities against A.baumanii in vitro.These antibodies also blocked siderophore mediated iron uptake via IROMPs in bacteria. Conclusion This proves that iron uptake via IROMPs,which is mediated through siderophores,may have an important role in the survival of A.baumanii inside the host,and helps establishing the infection.

  16. Iron Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mechanistic Insights into Siderophore-Mediated Iron Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires iron for normal growth but faces a limitation of the metal ion due to its low solubility at biological pH and the withholding of iron by the mammalian host. The pathogen expresses the Fe3+-specific siderophores mycobactin and carboxymycobactin to chelate the metal ion from insoluble iron and the host proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin. Siderophore-mediated iron uptake is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis, as knockout mutants, which were defective in siderophore synthesis or uptake, failed to survive in low-iron medium and inside macrophages. But as excess iron is toxic due to its catalytic role in the generation of free radicals, regulation of iron uptake is necessary to maintain optimal levels of intracellular iron. The focus of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of iron homeostasis in M. tuberculosis that is discussed in the context of mycobactin biosynthesis, transport of iron across the mycobacterial cell envelope, and storage of excess iron. The clinical significance of the serum iron status and the expression of the iron-regulated protein HupB in tuberculosis (TB) patients is presented here, highlighting the potential of HupB as a marker, notably in extrapulmonary TB cases. PMID:27402628

  17. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  18. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be connected...

  19. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  20. Diurnal variations in iron concentrations and expression of genes involved in iron absorption and metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Long, Ciming; Wu, Xin; Li, Lan; He, Liuqin; Huang, Pan; Chen, Shuai; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-02

    Diurnal variations in serum iron levels have been well documented in clinical studies, and serum iron is an important diagnostic index for iron-deficiency anemia. However, the underlying mechanism of dynamic iron regulation in response to the circadian rhythm is still unclear. In this study, we investigated daily variations in iron status in the plasma and liver of pigs. The transcripts encoding key factors involved in iron uptake and homeostasis were evaluated. The results showed that iron levels in the plasma and liver exhibited diurnal rhythms. Diurnal variations were also observed in transcript levels of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), membrane-associated ferric reductase 1 (DCYTB), and transferrin receptor (TfR) in the duodenum and jejunum, as well as hepcidin (HAMP) and TfR in the liver. Moreover, the results showed a network in which diurnal variations in systemic iron levels were tightly regulated by hepcidin and Tf/TfR via DCYTB and DMT1. These findings provide new insights into circadian iron homeostasis regulation. The diurnal variations in serum iron levels may also have pathophysiological implications for clinical diagnostics related to iron deficiency anemia in pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron overload across the spectrum of non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemias: role of erythropoiesis, splenectomy and transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Kattamis, Antonis; Viprakasit, Vip; Musallam, Khaled M; Zhu, Zewen; Taher, Ali T

    2017-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemias (NTDT) encompass a spectrum of anaemias rarely requiring blood transfusions. Increased iron absorption, driven by hepcidin suppression secondary to erythron expansion, initially causes intrahepatic iron overload. We examined iron metabolism biomarkers in 166 NTDT patients with β thalassaemia intermedia (n = 95), haemoglobin (Hb) E/β thalassaemia (n = 49) and Hb H syndromes (n = 22). Liver iron concentration (LIC), serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TfSat) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) were elevated and correlated across diagnostic subgroups. NTBI correlated with soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), labile plasma iron (LPI) and nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs), with elevations generally confined to previously transfused patients. Splenectomised patients had higher NTBI, TfSat, NRBCs and SF relative to LIC, than non-splenectomised patients. LPI elevations were confined to patients with saturated transferrin. Erythron expansion biomarkers (sTfR, growth differentiation factor-15, NRBCs) correlated with each other and with iron overload biomarkers, particularly in Hb H patients. Plasma hepcidin was similar across subgroups, increased with >20 prior transfusions, and correlated inversely with TfSat, NTBI, LPI and NRBCs. Hepcidin/SF ratios were low, consistent with hepcidin suppression relative to iron overload. Increased NTBI and, by implication, risk of extra-hepatic iron distribution are more likely in previously transfused, splenectomised and iron-overloaded NTDT patients with TfSat >70%. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Overexpression of Drosophila frataxin triggers cell death in an iron-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharter, Oliver; Clement, Janik; Schneuwly, Stephan; Navarro, Juan A

    2017-12-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most important autosomal recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. FRDA patients display severe neurological and cardiac symptoms that reflect a strong cellular and axonal degeneration. FRDA is caused by a loss of function of the mitochondrial protein frataxin which impairs the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and in turn the catalytic activity of several enzymes in the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain leading to a diminished energy production. Although FRDA is due to frataxin depletion, overexpression might also be very helpful to better understand cellular functions of frataxin. In this work, we have increased frataxin expression in neurons to elucidate specific roles that frataxin might play in these tissues. Using molecular, biochemical, histological and behavioral methods, we report that frataxin overexpression is sufficient to increase oxidative phosphorylation, modify mitochondrial morphology, alter iron homeostasis and trigger oxidative stress-dependent cell death. Interestingly, genetic manipulation of mitochondrial iron metabolism by silencing mitoferrin successfully improves cell survival under oxidative-attack conditions, although enhancing antioxidant defenses or mitochondrial fusion failed to ameliorate frataxin overexpression phenotypes. This result suggests that cell degeneration is directly related to enhanced incorporation of iron into the mitochondria. Drosophila frataxin overexpression might also provide an alternative approach to identify processes that are important in FRDA such as changes in mitochondrial morphology and oxidative stress induced cell death.

  3. Expression, immunogenicity and variation of iron-regulated surface protein A from bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neha; Wines, Tyler F.; Knopp, Colton L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Tinker, Juliette K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface protein A (IsdA) is a fibrinogen and fibronectin adhesin that also contributes to iron sequestration and resistance to innate immunity. IsdA is conserved in human isolates and has been investigated as a human vaccine candidate. Here we report the expression of isdA, the efficacy of anti-IsdA responses and the existence of IsdA sequence variants from bovine Staphylococcus. Clinical staphylococci were obtained from US dairy farms and assayed by PCR for the presence and expression of isdA. isdA-positive species from bovines included S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. chromogenes. Immunoassays on bovine milk and serum confirmed the induction and opsonophagocytic activity of anti-IsdA humoral responses. The variable region of isdA was sequenced and protein alignments predicted the presence of two main variants consistent with those from human S. aureus. Mouse antibodies against one IsdA variant reduced staphylococcal binding to fibronectin in vitro in an isotype-dependent manner. Purified IsdA variants bound distinctly to fibronectin and fibrinogen. Our findings demonstrate that variability within the C-terminus of this adhesin affects immune reactivity and binding specificity, but are consistent with the significance of IsdA in bovine disease and relevant for vaccine development. PMID:28430959

  4. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  5. Iron regulation of hepcidin despite attenuated Smad1,5,8 signaling in mice without transferrin receptor 2 or Hfe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena; Rozier, Molly; Meynard, Delphine; Odhiambo, Adam; Lin, Herbert Y.; Feng, Qi; Migas, Mary C.; Britton, Robert S.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Fleming, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) are each necessary for the normal relationship between body iron status and liver hepcidin expression. In murine Hfe and Tfr2 knockout models of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), signal transduction to hepcidin via the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6)/Smad1,5,8 pathway is attenuated. We examined the effect of dietary iron on regulation of hepcidin expression via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway using mice with targeted disruption of Tfr2, Hfe, or both genes. Methods Hepatic iron concentrations and mRNA expression of Bmp6 and hepcidin were compared with wild-type mice in each of the HH models on standard or iron-loading diets. Liver phospho-Smad (P-Smad)1,5,8 and Id1 mRNA levels were measured as markers of Bmp/Smad signaling. Results While Bmp6 expression was increased, liver hepcidin and Id1 expression were decreased in each of the HH models compared with wild-type mice. Each of the HH models also demonstrated attenuated P-Smad1,5,8 levels relative to liver iron status. Mice with combined Hfe/Tfr2 disruption were most affected. Dietary iron loading increased hepcidin and Id1 expression in each of the HH models. Compared with wild-type mice, HH mice demonstrated attenuated (Hfe knockout) or no increases in P-Smad1,5,8 levels in response to dietary iron loading. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that Tfr2 and Hfe are each required for normal signaling of iron status to hepcidin via Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway. Mice with combined loss of Hfe and Tfr2 up-regulate hepcidin in response to dietary iron loading without increases in liver BMP6 mRNA or steady-state P-Smad1,5,8 levels. PMID:21745449

  6. MapA, an iron-regulated, cytoplasmic membrane protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R; Troyan, T; Sherman, D; Sherman, L A

    1994-08-01

    Growth of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 in iron-deficient media leads to the accumulation of an approximately 34-kDa protein. The gene encoding this protein, mapA (membrane-associated protein A), has been cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession number, L01621). The mapA transcript is not detectable in normally grown cultures but is stably accumulated by cells grown in iron-deficient media. However, the promoter sequence for this gene does not resemble other bacterial iron-regulated promoters described to date. The carboxyl-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence of MapA resembles bacterial proteins involved in iron acquisition, whereas the amino-terminal end of MapA has a high degree of amino acid identity with the abundant, chloroplast envelope protein E37. An approach employing improved cellular fractionation techniques as well as electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry was essential in localizing MapA protein to the cytoplasmic membrane of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. When these cells were grown under iron-deficient conditions, a significant fraction of MapA could also be localized to the thylakoid membranes.

  7. Towards a Mechanistic Understanding of Anaerobic Nitrate Dependent Iron Oxidation: Balancing Electron Uptake and Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Karl Carlson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic oxidation of Fe(II by subsurface microorganisms is an important part of biogeochemical cycling in the environment, but the biochemical mechanisms used to couple iron oxidation to nitrate respiration are not well understood. Based on our own work and the evidence available in the literature, we propose a mechanistic model for anaerobic nitrate dependent iron oxidation. We suggest that anaerobic iron oxidizing microorganisms likely exist along a continuum including: 1 bacteria that inadvertently oxidize Fe(II by abiotic or biotic reactions with enzymes or chemical intermediates in their metabolic pathways (e.g. denitrification and suffer from toxicity or energetic penalty, 2 Fe(II tolerant bacteria that gain little or no growth benefit from iron oxidation but can manage the toxic reactions, and 3 bacteria that efficiently accept electrons from Fe(II to gain a growth advantage while preventing or mitigating the toxic reactions. Predictions of the proposed model are highlighted and experimental approaches are discussed.

  8. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  9. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  10. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Yukako

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit. Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas. The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98 ; L: 98–100%. The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed.

  11. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis.

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    Amber J Marty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0-48 hours, gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C and during the phase transition to mold (22°C. This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition.

  12. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Sixto M; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S; Di Pietro, Antonio; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections.

  14. Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto M Leal

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections.

  15. Iron overload promotes erythroid apoptosis through regulating HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-Qing; Zhao, You-Shan; Guo, Juan; Zhao, Si-da; Song, Lu-Xi; Fei, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Erythroid apoptosis increases significantly in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with iron overload, but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of HIF-1a/ROS on erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. We found that iron overload injured cellular functions through up-regulating ROS levels in MDS/AML cells, including inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Interestingly, overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), which was under-expressed in iron overload models, reduced ROS levels and attenuated cell damage caused by iron overload in MDS/AML cells. And gene knockdown of HIF-1a got the similar results as iron overload in MDS/AML cells. Furthermore, iron overload caused high erythroid apoptosis was closely related with ROS in MDS patients. Importantly, the HIF-1a protein levels of erythrocytes elevated obviously after incubation with desferrioxamine (DFO) from MDS patients with iron overload, accompanied by ROS levels inhibited and erythroid apoptosis reduced. Taken together, our findings determine that the HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway plays a key role in promoting erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptional response of Leptospira interrogans to iron limitation and characterization of a PerR homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Miranda; Murray, Gerald L; Khoo, Chen Ai; Haake, David A; Zuerner, Richard L; Adler, Ben

    2010-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally significant zoonosis caused by Leptospira spp. Iron is essential for growth of most bacterial species. Since iron availability is low in the host, pathogens have evolved complex iron acquisition mechanisms to survive and establish infection. In many bacteria, expression of iron uptake and storage proteins is regulated by Fur. L. interrogans encodes four predicted Fur homologs; we have constructed a mutation in one of these, la1857. We conducted microarray analysis to identify iron-responsive genes and to study the effects of la1857 mutation on gene expression. Under iron-limiting conditions, 43 genes were upregulated and 49 genes were downregulated in the wild type. Genes encoding proteins with predicted involvement in inorganic ion transport and metabolism (including TonB-dependent proteins and outer membrane transport proteins) were overrepresented in the upregulated list, while 54% of differentially expressed genes had no known function. There were 16 upregulated genes of unknown function which are absent from the saprophyte L. biflexa and which therefore may encode virulence-associated factors. Expression of iron-responsive genes was not significantly affected by mutagenesis of la1857, indicating that LA1857 is not a global regulator of iron homeostasis. Upregulation of heme biosynthetic genes and a putative catalase in the mutant suggested that LA1857 is more similar to PerR, a regulator of the oxidative stress response. Indeed, the la1857 mutant was more resistant to peroxide stress than the wild type. Our results provide insights into the role of iron in leptospiral metabolism and regulation of the oxidative stress response, including genes likely to be important for virulence.

  17. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-09-01

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Iron mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent stimulation of calcium-induced pathways and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2011-04-15

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP.

  20. Expression, immunogenicity and variation of iron-regulated surface protein A from bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neha; Wines, Tyler F; Knopp, Colton L; McGuire, Mark A; Tinker, Juliette K

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface protein A (IsdA) is a fibrinogen and fibronectin adhesin that also contributes to iron sequestration and resistance to innate immunity. IsdA is conserved in human isolates and has been investigated as a human vaccine candidate. Here we report the expression of isdA, the efficacy of anti-IsdA responses and the existence of IsdA sequence variants from bovine Staphylococcus. Clinical staphylococci were obtained from US dairy farms and assayed by PCR for the presence and expression of isdA. isdA-positive species from bovines included S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. chromogenes. Immunoassays on bovine milk and serum confirmed the induction and opsonophagocytic activity of anti-IsdA humoral responses. The variable region of isdA was sequenced and protein alignments predicted the presence of two main variants consistent with those from human S. aureus. Mouse antibodies against one IsdA variant reduced staphylococcal binding to fibronectin in vitro in an isotype-dependent manner. Purified IsdA variants bound distinctly to fibronectin and fibrinogen. Our findings demonstrate that variability within the C-terminus of this adhesin affects immune reactivity and binding specificity, but are consistent with the significance of IsdA in bovine disease and relevant for vaccine development. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Iron-Induced Damage in Cardiomyopathy: Oxidative-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gammella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cardiomyopathy in patients with hemosiderosis, particularly in transfusional iron overload, strongly indicates that iron accumulation in the heart plays a major role in the process leading to heart failure. In this context, iron-mediated generation of noxious reactive oxygen species is believed to be the most important pathogenetic mechanism determining cardiomyocyte damage, the initiating event of a pathologic progression involving apoptosis, fibrosis, and ultimately cardiac dysfunction. However, recent findings suggest that additional mechanisms involving subcellular organelles and inflammatory mediators are important factors in the development of this disease. Moreover, excess iron can amplify the cardiotoxic effect of other agents or events. Finally, subcellular misdistribution of iron within cardiomyocytes may represent an additional pathway leading to cardiac injury. Recent advances in imaging techniques and chelators development remarkably improved cardiac iron overload detection and treatment, respectively. However, increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of iron overload cardiomyopathy is needed to pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

  2. MyD88 Adaptor Protein Is Required for Appropriate Hepcidin Induction in Response to Dietary Iron Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Layoun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated to provide virtually all cells in the body, particularly red blood cells, with this essential element while defending against its toxicity. The peptide hormone hepcidin is central to the control of the amount of iron absorbed from the diet and iron recycling from macrophages. Previously, we have shown that hepcidin induction in macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR stimulation depends on the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of iron metabolism in MyD88−/− mice to further investigate MyD88 involvement in iron sensing and hepcidin induction. We show that mice lacking MyD88 accumulate significantly more iron in their livers than wild-type counterparts in response to dietary iron loading as they are unable to appropriately control hepcidin levels. The defect was associated with inappropriately low levels of Smad4 protein and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in liver samples found in the MyD88−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a previously unknown link between MyD88 and iron homeostasis, and provide new insights into the regulation of hepcidin through the iron-sensing pathway.

  3. Production, regulation and transportation of bacillibactin in bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, W.; Hussain, Q.; Shen, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis produces a catecholate type siderophore 'Bacillibactin'. This review focuses on the non-ribosomal synthesis, transport and regulation of bacillibactin. Bacillibactin biosynthetic operon contains five genes (dhbACEBF). The uptake of bacillibactin requires the FeuABC transporter, inner-membrane permease, FepDG and YusV ATPase and an esterase encoding gene, besA and while export required YmfE major facilitator super-family (MFS)-type transporter. Fur is the major iron-controlled transcriptional regulator in B. subtilis, which acts as an iron-dependent repressor of the dhb operon in vivo while an iron-independent repressor in vitro. Knowledge of the Fur regulon will be useful in interpreting other global analysis of transcriptional responses. (author)

  4. Genetic/metabolic effect of iron metabolism and rare anemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Camaschella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in iron metabolism have allowed a novel classification of iron disorders and to identify previously unknown diseases. These disorders include genetic iron overload (hemochromatosis and inherited iron-related anemias, in some cases accompanied by iron overload. Rare inherited anemias may affect the hepcidin pathway, iron absorption, transport, utilization and recycling. Among the genetic iron-related anemias the most common form is likely the iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia (IRIDA, due to mutations of the hepcidin inhibitor TMPRSS6 encoding the serine protease matriptase-2. IRIDA is characterized by hepcidin up-regulation, decrease iron absorption and macrophage recycling and by microcytic- hypochromic anemia, unresponsive to oral iron. High serum hepcidin levels may suggest the diagnosis, which requires demonstrating the causal TMPRSS6 mutations by gene sequencing. Other rare microcytic hypochromic anemias associated with defects of iron transport-uptake are the rare hypotransferrinemia, and DMT1 and STEAP3 mutations. The degree of anemia is variable and accompanied by secondary iron overload even in the absence of blood transfusions. This is due to the iron-deficient or expanded erythropoiesis that inhibits hepcidin transcription, increases iron absorption, through the erythroid regulator, as in untransfused beta-thalassemia. Sideroblastic anemias are due to decreased mitochondrial iron utilization for heme or sulfur cluster synthesis. Their diagnosis requires demonstrating ringed sideroblasts by Perl’s staining of the bone marrow smears. The commonest X-linked form is due to deltaamino- levulinic-synthase-2-acid (ALAS2 mutations. The recessive, more severe form, affects SLC25A38, which encodes a potential mitochondrial importer of glycine, an amino acid essential for ALA synthesis and thus results in heme deficiency. Two disorders affect iron/sulfur cluster biogenesis: deficiency of the ATP-binding cassette B7 (ABCB7 causes X

  5. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  6. HJV and HFE Play Distinct Roles in Regulating Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Tao, Yunlong; Deng, Jiali; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Caiyong; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi

    2015-05-20

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an iron overload disease that is caused by mutations in HFE, HJV, and several other genes. However, whether HFE-HH and HJV-HH share a common pathway via hepcidin regulation is currently unclear. Recently, some HH patients have been reported to carry concurrent mutations in both the HFE and HJV genes. To dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of HFE and/or HJV in the pathogenesis of HH, we studied Hfe(-/-), Hjv(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mouse models. Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice developed iron overload in multiple organs at levels comparable to Hjv(-/-) mice. After an acute delivery of iron, the expression of hepcidin (i.e., Hamp1 mRNA) was increased in the livers of wild-type and Hfe(-/-) mice, but not in either Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. Furthermore, iron-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was not detected in the livers of Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. We generated and phenotypically characterized Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mice. In addition, because they faithfully phenocopy clinical HH patients, these mouse models are an invaluable tool for mechanistically dissecting how HFE and HJV regulate hepcidin expression. Based on our results, we conclude that HFE may depend on HJV for transferrin-dependent hepcidin regulation. The presence of residual hepcidin in the absence of HFE suggests either the presence of an unknown regulator (e.g., TFR2) that is synergistic with HJV or that HJV is sufficient to maintain basal levels of hepcidin.

  7. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  8. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD, respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation.

  9. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status.

  10. Microbial iron management mechanisms in extremely acidic environments: comparative genomics evidence for diversity and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Pamela A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an essential nutrient but can be toxic at high intracellular concentrations and organisms have evolved tightly regulated mechanisms for iron uptake and homeostasis. Information on iron management mechanisms is available for organisms living at circumneutral pH. However, very little is known about how acidophilic bacteria, especially those used for industrial copper bioleaching, cope with environmental iron loads that can be 1018 times the concentration found in pH neutral environments. This study was motivated by the need to fill this lacuna in knowledge. An understanding of how microorganisms thrive in acidic ecosystems with high iron loads requires a comprehensive investigation of the strategies to acquire iron and to coordinate this acquisition with utilization, storage and oxidation of iron through metal responsive regulation. In silico prediction of iron management genes and Fur regulation was carried out for three Acidithiobacilli: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (iron and sulfur oxidizer A. thiooxidans and A. caldus (sulfur oxidizers that can live between pH 1 and pH 5 and for three strict iron oxidizers of the Leptospirillum genus that live at pH 1 or below. Results Acidithiobacilli have predicted FeoB-like Fe(II and Nramp-like Fe(II-Mn(II transporters. They also have 14 different TonB dependent ferri-siderophore transporters of diverse siderophore affinity, although they do not produce classical siderophores. Instead they have predicted novel mechanisms for dicitrate synthesis and possibly also for phosphate-chelation mediated iron uptake. It is hypothesized that the unexpectedly large number and diversity of Fe(III-uptake systems confers versatility to this group of acidophiles, especially in higher pH environments (pH 4–5 where soluble iron may not be abundant. In contrast, Leptospirilla have only a FtrI-Fet3P-like permease and three TonB dependent ferri-dicitrate siderophore systems. This paucity of iron

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the iron-regulated outer membrane lipoprotein FrpD from Neisseria meningitidis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sviridova, E.; Bumba, Ladislav; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Procházková, Kateřina; Kavan, Daniel; Bezouška, Karel; Kutý, Michal; Šebo, Peter; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2010), s. 1119-1123 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA ČR GP310/06/P150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Fe-regulated protein D * iron-regulated proteins * outer membrane lipoproteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2010

  12. Potential dependence of surface crystal structure of iron passive films in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Santosa, Arifin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Kurata, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The effect of passivation potential on surface crystal structure, apparent thickness and passivity of oxide films formed on pure iron prepared by plasma sputter deposition was investigated. The crystallinity was improved with passivation potential and the width of atomically flat terraces was expanded to 6 nm when passivating at 750 mV for 15 min, as observed by ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) after aging in air (<30% RH). Apparent thickness and passivity are linearly dependent on passivation potential. The former weakly depends on passivation duration, the latter strongly depends on passivation duration. This is well explained by the correlation between crystal structure and passivity

  13. Ironing Out the Wrinkles in Host Defense: Interactions between Iron Homeostasis and Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian; Cherayil, Bobby J.

    2009-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for both microbial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. Changes in iron availability and distribution have significant effects on pathogen virulence and on the immune response to infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of iron metabolism have shed new light on how alterations in iron homeostasis both contribute to and influence innate immunity. In this article, we review what is currently known about the role of iron in the response to infection. PMID:20375603

  14. Modulation of intestinal sulfur assimilation metabolism regulates iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Benjamin H.; Hale, Andrew T.; Irving, Ryan P.; Li, Shenglan; York, John D.

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur assimilation is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in cellular and metabolic processes, including sulfation, amino acid biosynthesis, and organismal development. We report that loss of a key enzymatic component of the pathway, bisphosphate 3′-nucleotidase (Bpnt1), in mice, both whole animal and intestine-specific, leads to iron-deficiency anemia. Analysis of mutant enterocytes demonstrates that modulation of their substrate 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) influences levels of key iron homeostasis factors involved in dietary iron reduction, import and transport, that in part mimic those reported for the loss of hypoxic-induced transcription factor, HIF-2α. Our studies define a genetic basis for iron-deficiency anemia, a molecular approach for rescuing loss of nucleotidase function, and an unanticipated link between nucleotide hydrolysis in the sulfur assimilation pathway and iron homeostasis. PMID:29507250

  15. The role of mitochondria in cellular iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Roland; Hoffmann, Bastian; Molik, Sabine; Pierik, Antonio J; Rietzschel, Nicole; Stehling, Oliver; Uzarska, Marta A; Webert, Holger; Wilbrecht, Claudia; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in iron metabolism in that they synthesize heme, assemble iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins, and participate in cellular iron regulation. Here, we review the latter two topics and their intimate connection. The mitochondrial Fe/S cluster (ISC) assembly machinery consists of 17 proteins that operate in three major steps of the maturation process. First, the cysteine desulfurase complex Nfs1-Isd11 as the sulfur donor cooperates with ferredoxin-ferredoxin reductase acting as an electron transfer chain, and frataxin to synthesize an [2Fe-2S] cluster on the scaffold protein Isu1. Second, the cluster is released from Isu1 and transferred toward apoproteins with the help of a dedicated Hsp70 chaperone system and the glutaredoxin Grx5. Finally, various specialized ISC components assist in the generation of [4Fe-4S] clusters and cluster insertion into specific target apoproteins. Functional defects of the core ISC assembly machinery are signaled to cytosolic or nuclear iron regulatory systems resulting in increased cellular iron acquisition and mitochondrial iron accumulation. In fungi, regulation is achieved by iron-responsive transcription factors controlling the expression of genes involved in iron uptake and intracellular distribution. They are assisted by cytosolic multidomain glutaredoxins which use a bound Fe/S cluster as iron sensor and additionally perform an essential role in intracellular iron delivery to target metalloproteins. In mammalian cells, the iron regulatory proteins IRP1, an Fe/S protein, and IRP2 act in a post-transcriptional fashion to adjust the cellular needs for iron. Thus, Fe/S protein biogenesis and cellular iron metabolism are tightly linked to coordinate iron supply and utilization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  17. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Regulation of iron metabolism during Neisseria meningitidis infection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of vertebrates triggers a marked reduction in the levels of iron associated with the plasma transferrin (Tf) pool. This hypoferremic response has been regarded as a host attempt to withhold essential iron from the invading pathogen. The exact nature of the mechanisms involved remains obscure. The kinetics of iron processing by the RE system were studied by labeling the RE compartments with /sup 59/Fe-labeled denatured red blood cells. Uptake and redistribution of the label indicated the RE-processed iron was not returned to the plasma Tf pool during the hypoferremia. Fractionation of hepatic cellular compartments showed that this impaired release of iron resulted from a preferential incorporation of home-derived iron into the intracellular ferritin pool and this produces the hypoferremia. The role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase I,EC.1.16.3.1) (Cp) in iron metabolism during meningococcal infection was investigated. Plasma Cp ferroxidase activity was found to increase greatly in mice during the convalescence phase.

  19. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  20. MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur cluster protein ISCU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Favaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in cancers results in the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and a microRNA, hsa-miR-210 (miR-210 which is associated with a poor prognosis.In human cancer cell lines and tumours, we found that miR-210 targets the mitochondrial iron sulfur scaffold protein ISCU, required for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, cofactors for key enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and iron metabolism. Down regulation of ISCU was the major cause of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in hypoxia. ISCU suppression reduced mitochondrial complex 1 activity and aconitase activity, caused a shift to glycolysis in normoxia and enhanced cell survival. Cancers with low ISCU had a worse prognosis.Induction of these major hallmarks of cancer show that a single microRNA, miR-210, mediates a new mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia, by regulating mitochondrial function via iron-sulfur cluster metabolism and free radical generation.

  1. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent ......Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate...... precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria...... and in the extracellular precipitates reached complete oxidation within 6 days. While a progressive oxidation of Fe in the bacteria and in the medium could be observed, spatial redox (oxido-reduction state) heterogeneities were detected at the cell poles and in the extracellular precipitates after 1 day. All...

  2. Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases catalyse diverse reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher; de Los Santos, Emmanuel L C; Alkhalaf, Lona M; Challis, Gregory L

    2018-04-13

    Covering: up to the end of 2017The roles played by Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases in natural product biosynthesis are reviewed, with particular focus on experimentally characterised examples. Enzymes belonging to this class are known to catalyse a range of transformations, including oxidative carbocyclisation, N-oxygenation, C-hydroxylation and C-C desaturation. Examples of such enzymes that have yet to be experimentally investigated are also briefly described and their likely functions are discussed.

  3. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin

  4. Enterobactin-mediated iron transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, K; Young, L; Neshat, S

    1990-01-01

    A pyoverdine-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to grow in an iron-deficient minimal medium in the presence of the nonmetabolizable iron chelator ethylene diamine-di(omega-hydroxyphenol acetic acid) (EDDHA), although addition of enterobactin to EDDHA-containing minimal media did restore growth of the pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the apparent ability of enterobactin to provide iron to P. aeruginosa, enterobactin-dependent 55Fe3+ uptake was observed in cells of P. aeruginosa previously grown in an iron-deficient medium containing enterobactin (or enterobactin-containing Escherichia coli culture supernatant). This uptake was energy dependent, was observable at low concentrations (60 nM) of FeCl3, and was absent in cells cultured without enterobactin. A novel protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 was identified in the outer membranes of cells grown in iron-deficient minimal medium containing enterobactin, concomitant with the induction of enterobactin-dependent iron uptake. A Tn501 insertion mutant lacking this protein was isolated and shown to be deficient in enterobactin-mediated iron transport at 60 nM FeCl3, although it still exhibited enterobactin-dependent growth in iron-deficient medium containing EDDHA. It was subsequently observed that the mutant was, however, capable of enterobactin-mediated iron transport at much higher concentrations (600 nM) of FeCl3. Indeed, enterobactin-dependent iron uptake at this concentration of iron was observed in both the mutant and parent strains irrespective of whether they had been cultured in the presence of enterobactin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2174865

  5. Erythropoietic response to oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in the FIND-CKD trial
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Wyck, David Van; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Perrin, Amandine; Roger, Simon D

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate erythropoietic response rates to oral iron over time in iron-deficient anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 1-year, randomized, multicenter trial of iron therapy in patients with ND-CKD, anemia, and iron deficiency, without erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. Patients with active infection or C-reactive protein > 20 mg/L were excluded. In this post-hoc analysis, response was defined as ≥ 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline, before initiation of alternative anemia therapy (i.e., ESA, transfusion, or intravenous iron). 308 patients received oral iron (200 mg elemental iron/day). Mean (SD) Hb at baseline was 10.4 (0.7) g/dL. At week 4, Hb data were available from 292 patients without alternative anemia therapy: 63/292 (21.6%) showed a response. Among the 229 nonresponders at week 4, 48.8% showed a cumulative response on ≥ 1 occasion by week 52 (11.1%, 19.9%, 25.9%, and 28.7% had a response at weeks 8, 12, 24, and 52, respectively), and 27.9% had received alternative iron therapy by week 52. Baseline levels of Hb, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were lower in responders than in nonresponders. Neither concomitant medication nor adherence (as assessed by medication count) was substantially different between early responders and nonresponders. Four weeks after starting oral iron therapy, only 21.6% of anemic patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency showed an Hb increase of at least 1 g/dL. Among early nonresponders, < 30% responded at any subsequent time point. Earlier consideration of alternative therapy could improve anemia management in this population.
.

  6. The Molecular Bases of the Dual Regulation of Bacterial Iron Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis by CyaY and IscX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Adinolfi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IscX (or YfhJ is a protein of unknown function which takes part in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, a highly specialized and essential metabolic pathway. IscX binds to iron with low affinity and interacts with IscS, the desulfurase central to cluster assembly. Previous studies have suggested a competition between IscX and CyaY, the bacterial ortholog of frataxin, for the same binding surface of IscS. This competition could suggest a link between the two proteins with a functional significance. Using a hybrid approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance, small angle scattering and biochemical methods, we show here that IscX is a modulator of the inhibitory properties of CyaY: by competing for the same site on IscS, the presence of IscX rescues the rates of enzymatic cluster formation which are inhibited by CyaY. The effect is stronger at low iron concentrations, whereas it becomes negligible at high iron concentrations. These results strongly suggest the mechanism of the dual regulation of iron sulfur cluster assembly under the control of iron as the effector.

  7. Change of iron species and iron solubility in Asian dust during the long-range transport from western China to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takahashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the North Pacific, transport and deposition of mineral dust from Asia appear to be one of major sources of iron which can regulate growth of phytoplankton in the ocean. In this process, it is essential to identify chemical species of iron contained in Asian dust, because bioavailability of iron in the ocean is strongly influenced by the solubility of iron, which in turn is dependent on iron species in the dust. Here, we report that clay minerals (illite and chlorite in the dusts near the source collected at Aksu (western China can be transformed into ferrihydrite by atmospheric chemical processes during their long-range transport to eastern China (Qingdao and Japan (Tsukuba based on the speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS and other methods such as X-ray diffraction and chemical extraction. As a result, Fe molar ratio in Aksu (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 70 : 25 : 5 was changed to that in Tsukuba (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 65 : 10 : 25. Moreover, leaching experiments were conducted to study the change of iron solubility. It was found that the iron solubility for the dust in Tsukuba (soluble iron fraction: 11.8 % and 1.10 % for synthetic rain water and seawater, respectively was larger than that in Aksu (4.1 % and 0.28 %, respectively, showing that iron in the dust after the transport becomes more soluble possibly due to the formation of ferrihydrite in the atmosphere. Our findings suggested that secondary formation of ferrihydrite during the transport should be considered as one of important processes in evaluating the supply of soluble iron to seawater.

  8. Iron and ferritin dependent ROS distribution impact Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Franois

    2014-11-09

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) whose distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin and RSA is in part mediated by the H 2 O 2 /O 2 .- balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Further, meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  9. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  10. The mutual co-regulation of extracellular polymeric substances and iron ions in biocorrosion of cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Juntao; Guan, Yuntao

    2014-10-01

    New insights into the biocorrosion process may be gained through understanding of the interaction between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and iron. Herein, the effect of iron ions on the formation of biofilms and production of EPS was investigated. Additionally, the impact of EPS on the corrosion of cast iron coupons was explored. The results showed that a moderate concentration of iron ions (0.06 mg/L) promoted both biofilm formation and EPS production. The presence of EPS accelerated corrosion during the initial stage, while inhibited corrosion at the later stage. The functional groups of EPS acted as electron shuttles to enable the binding of iron ions. Binding of iron ions with EPS led to anodic dissolution and promoted corrosion, while corrosion was later inhibited through oxygen reduction and availability of phosphorus from EPS. The presence of EPS also led to changes in crystalline phases of corrosion products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron is a signal for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adrian Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. In many bacteria iron availability regulates, trough the Fur system, not only iron homeostasis but also virulence. The aim of this work was to assess the role of iron on S. maltophilia biofilm formation, EPS production, oxidative stress response, OMPs regulation, quorum sensing (QS, and virulence. Studies were done on K279 and its isogenic fur mutant F60 cultured in the presence or absence of dipyridyl. This is the first report of spontaneous fur mutants obtained in S. maltophilia. F60 produced higher amounts of biofilms than K279a and CLSM analysis demonstrated improved adherence and biofilm organization. Under iron restricted conditions, K279a produced biofilms with more biomass and enhanced thickness. In addition, F60 produced higher amounts of EPS than K279a but with a similar composition, as revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. With respect to the oxidative stress response, MnSOD was the only SOD isoenzyme detected in K279a. F60 presented higher SOD activity than the wt strain in planktonic and biofilm cultures, and iron deprivation increased K279a SOD activity. Under iron starvation, SDS-PAGE profile from K279a presented two iron-repressed proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed homology with FepA and another putative TonB-dependent siderophore receptor of K279a. In silico analysis allowed the detection of potential Fur boxes in the respective coding genes. K279a encodes the QS diffusible signal factor (DSF. Under iron restriction K279a produced higher amounts of DSF than under iron rich condition. Finally, F60 was more virulent than K279a in the Galleria mellonella killing assay. These results put in evidence that iron levels regulate, likely through the Fur system, S. maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression, DSF production and virulence.

  12. Ab initio study of spin-dependent transport in carbon nanotubes with iron and vanadium adatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    (majority or minority) being scattered depends on the adsorbate and is explained in terms of d-state filling. We contrast the single-walled carbon nanotube results to the simpler case of the adsorbate on a flat graphene sheet with periodic boundary conditions and corresponding width in the zigzag direction......We present an ab initio study of spin-dependent transport in armchair carbon nanotubes with transition metal adsorbates: iron or vanadium. The method based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions is used to compute the electronic structure and zero-bias conductance...

  13. 38 CFR 3.270 - Applicability of various dependency, income and estate regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dependency, income and estate regulations. 3.270 Section 3.270 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.270 Applicability of various dependency, income and estate regulations. (a...

  14. Iron Sulfur and Molybdenum Cofactor Enzymes Regulate the Drosophila Life Cycle by Controlling Cell Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Leimkühler, Silke; Missirlis, Fanis

    2018-01-01

    Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism. Here, Fe-S cluster and Moco biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster is reviewed and the multiple biochemical and physiological functions of known Fe-S and Moco enzymes are described. We show that RNA interference of Mocs3 disrupts Moco biosynthesis and the circadian clock. Fe-S-dependent mitochondrial respiration is discussed in the context of germ line and somatic development, stem cell differentiation and aging. The subcellular compartmentalization of the Fe-S and Moco assembly machinery components and their connections to iron sensing mechanisms and intermediary metabolism are emphasized. A biochemically active Fe-S core complex of heterologously expressed fly Nfs1, Isd11, IscU, and human frataxin is presented. Based on the recent demonstration that copper displaces the Fe-S cluster of yeast and human ferredoxin, an explanation for why high dietary copper leads to cytoplasmic iron deficiency in flies is proposed. Another proposal that exosomes contribute to the transport of xanthine dehydrogenase from peripheral tissues to the eye pigment cells is put forward, where the Vps16a subunit of the HOPS complex may have a specialized role in concentrating this enzyme within pigment granules. Finally, we formulate a hypothesis that (i) mitochondrial superoxide mobilizes iron from the Fe-S clusters in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase; (ii) increased iron transiently displaces manganese on superoxide dismutase, which

  15. Iron Sulfur and Molybdenum Cofactor Enzymes Regulate the Drosophila Life Cycle by Controlling Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Marelja

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron sulfur (Fe-S clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism. Here, Fe-S cluster and Moco biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster is reviewed and the multiple biochemical and physiological functions of known Fe-S and Moco enzymes are described. We show that RNA interference of Mocs3 disrupts Moco biosynthesis and the circadian clock. Fe-S-dependent mitochondrial respiration is discussed in the context of germ line and somatic development, stem cell differentiation and aging. The subcellular compartmentalization of the Fe-S and Moco assembly machinery components and their connections to iron sensing mechanisms and intermediary metabolism are emphasized. A biochemically active Fe-S core complex of heterologously expressed fly Nfs1, Isd11, IscU, and human frataxin is presented. Based on the recent demonstration that copper displaces the Fe-S cluster of yeast and human ferredoxin, an explanation for why high dietary copper leads to cytoplasmic iron deficiency in flies is proposed. Another proposal that exosomes contribute to the transport of xanthine dehydrogenase from peripheral tissues to the eye pigment cells is put forward, where the Vps16a subunit of the HOPS complex may have a specialized role in concentrating this enzyme within pigment granules. Finally, we formulate a hypothesis that (i mitochondrial superoxide mobilizes iron from the Fe-S clusters in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase; (ii increased iron transiently displaces manganese on superoxide

  16. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  17. A pharmaco-economic evaluation of deferasirox for treating patients with iron overload caused by transfusion-dependent thalassemia in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Ho

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Compared with infusional deferoxamine, oral deferasirox improved clinical outcomes and quality of life in terms of iron chelation in transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia at a reasonable cost from a healthcare perspective.

  18. Iron-regulated transcription of the pvdA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effect of Fur and PvdS on promoter activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, L; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N; Visca, P

    1996-01-01

    The pvdA gene, encoding the enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase, catalyzes a key step of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Expression studies with a promoter probe vector made it possible to identify three tightly iron-regulated promoter regions in the 5.9-kb DNA fragment upstream of pvdA. The promoter governing pvdA expression was located within the 154-bp sequence upstream of the pvdA translation start site. RNA analysis showed that expression of PvdA is iron regulat...

  19. [Psychological aspects of emotional regulation in smoking dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, S

    2001-04-01

    We reviewed the literature on the relationships between smoking and affect regulation. There is strong evidence that vulnerability to smoking dependence is a function of a high initial sensitivity to nicotine, which produces reinforcing consequences that lead to chronic use. These strong reinforcers of tobacco dependence include regulation of mood and modulation of arousal. We focused on studies concerned with the subjective component of arousal and emotional experience. We discuss first the models and classifications used to differentiate types of smoking as related to the management of emotions and studies evaluating the stimulant and subjective effects of smoking behavior, questioning the paradoxical tranquilizing and anxiety-reducing effects of nicotine. We also looked into the mood regulation effects that may explain the strong relationships observed between depression and smoking and finally focus on some of the personality risk factors that may make individuals more susceptible to these rewarding properties of smoking.

  20. Doping dependence of the anisotropic quasiparticle interference in NaFe(1-x)Co(x)As iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Ruan, Wei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Ye, Cun; Wang, Aifeng; Chen, Xianhui; Lee, Dung-Hai; Wang, Yayu

    2014-03-28

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the doping dependence of quasiparticle interference (QPI) in NaFe1-xCoxAs iron-based superconductors. The goal is to study the relation between nematic fluctuations and Cooper pairing. In the parent and underdoped compounds, where fourfold rotational symmetry is broken macroscopically, the QPI patterns reveal strong rotational anisotropy. At optimal doping, however, the QPI patterns are always fourfold symmetric. We argue this implies small nematic susceptibility and, hence, insignificant nematic fluctuation in optimally doped iron pnictides. Since TC is the highest this suggests nematic fluctuation is not a prerequistite for strong Cooper pairing.

  1. Iron economy in Naegleria gruberi reflects its metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Jan; Bíla, Jarmila; Ženíšková, Kateřina; Arbon, Dominik; Malych, Ronald; Glavanakovová, Marie; Nývltová, Eva; Sutak, Robert

    2018-05-05

    Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Iron metabolism is among the most conserved pathways found in all eukaryotes. It includes the delivery, storage and utilisation of iron in many cell processes. Nevertheless, most of the iron metabolism pathways of N. gruberi are still not characterised, even though iron balance within the cell is crucial. We found a single homolog of ferritin in the N. gruberi genome and showed its localisation in the mitochondrion. Using comparative mass spectrometry, we identified 229 upregulated and 184 down-regulated proteins under iron-limited conditions. The most down-regulated protein under iron-limited conditions was hemerythrin, and a similar effect on the expression of hemerythrin was found in N. fowleri. Among the other down-regulated proteins were [FeFe]-hydrogenase and its maturase HydG and several heme-containing proteins. The activities of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase, were also decreased by iron deficiency. Our results indicate that N. gruberi is able to rearrange its metabolism according to iron availability, prioritising mitochondrial pathways. We hypothesise that the mitochondrion is the center for iron homeostasis in N. gruberi, with mitochondrially localised ferritin as a potential key component of this process. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A role for sex and a common HFE gene variant in brain iron uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Kari A; Neely, Elizabeth B; Simpson, Ian A; Connor, James R

    2018-03-01

    HFE (high iron) is an essential protein for regulating iron transport into cells. Mutations of the HFE gene result in loss of this regulation causing accumulation of iron within the cell. The mutated protein has been found increasingly in numerous neurodegenerative disorders in which increased levels of iron in the brain are reported. Additionally, evidence that these mutations are associated with elevated brain iron challenges the paradigm that the brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier. While much has been studied regarding the role of HFE in cellular iron uptake, it has remained unclear what role the protein plays in the transport of iron into the brain. We investigated regulation of iron transport into the brain using a mouse model with a mutation in the HFE gene. We demonstrated that the rate of radiolabeled iron ( 59 Fe) uptake was similar between the two genotypes despite higher brain iron concentrations in the mutant. However, there were significant differences in iron uptake between males and females regardless of genotype. These data indicate that brain iron status is consistently maintained and tightly regulated at the level of the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy of iron (II) fluorosilicate-hexahydrate (temperature and pressure dependence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, U.

    1979-01-01

    A pronounced temperature dependent asymmetry of the Moessbauer spectral lines with quadrupolar splitting is observed in the case of iron-fluoro-silicate-hexahydrate. For the increase in linewidth-difference at 225 K a thermal hysteresis is observed with a width of ΔT approx.= 2.5 K. As confirmed by X-ray analysis, at this temperature the crystal phase transition occurs simultaneously with the strong increase in linewidth, asymmetry. In slow electronic relaxation, which in the literature is porposed to be responsible for the different line-broadening characteristics, can be excluded on an experimental basis. Simple models are presented for an explanation of the findings, however, a physical interpretation of these models seems to be rather complicated. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Milk iron content in breast-feeding mothers after administration of intravenous iron sucrose complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian; von Seefried, Bettina; Stahel, Michele; Geisser, Peter; Canclini, Camillo

    2007-01-01

    To study the transfer of parenteral iron sucrose into maternal milk in the postpartum period. Ten healthy lactating mothers with functional iron deficiency 2-3 days after delivery received 100 mg intravenous iron sucrose and were observed together with a control group (n=5) without iron treatment during four days. Milk samples were taken before the treatment and every day afterwards. Mean milk iron levels at baseline were 0.43 and 0.46 mg/kg in the treatment and control group and decreased until the end of observation in both groups by 0.11 mg/kg. No significant difference between the groups was found on any study day as well as in the mean change from baseline over all four days. We could not show transfer of iron-sucrose into maternal milk for the given dosage. Since parenteral iron sucrose is widely used in obstetrics, the results provide information about safety of parenteral iron sucrose in the lactation period. The findings are also in agreement with other reports on active biological mammary gland regulation of milk iron concentration.

  5. Regulatory mechanisms for iron transport across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Kari A; Simpson, Ian A; Connor, James R

    2017-12-09

    Many critical metabolic functions in the brain require adequate and timely delivery of iron. However, most studies when considering brain iron uptake have ignored the iron requirements of the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, current models of BBB iron transport do not address regional regulation of brain iron uptake or how neurons, when adapting to metabolic demands, can acquire more iron. In this study, we demonstrate that both iron-poor transferrin (apo-Tf) and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, stimulate release of iron from iron-loaded endothelial cells in an in vitro BBB model. The role of the endosomal divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in BBB iron acquisition and transport has been questioned. Here, we show that inhibition of DMT1 alters the transport of iron and Tf across the endothelial cells. These data support an endosome-mediated model of Tf-bound iron uptake into the brain and identifies mechanisms for local regional regulation of brain iron uptake. Moreover, our data provide an explanation for the disparity in the ratio of Tf to iron transport into the brain that has confounded the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Rasigraf, Olivia; Sapart, Célia J; Jilbert, Tom; Jetten, Mike S M; Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Bândă, Narcisa; Kartal, Boran; Ettwig, Katharina F; Slomp, Caroline P

    2015-01-06

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its biological conversion in marine sediments, largely controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the role of iron oxides as an oxidant for AOM. Here we provide the first field evidence for iron-dependent AOM in brackish coastal surface sediments and show that methane produced in Bothnian Sea sediments is oxidized in distinct zones of iron- and sulfate-dependent AOM. At our study site, anthropogenic eutrophication over recent decades has led to an upward migration of the sulfate/methane transition zone in the sediment. Abundant iron oxides and high dissolved ferrous iron indicate iron reduction in the methanogenic sediments below the newly established sulfate/methane transition. Laboratory incubation studies of these sediments strongly suggest that the in situ microbial community is capable of linking methane oxidation to iron oxide reduction. Eutrophication of coastal environments may therefore create geochemical conditions favorable for iron-mediated AOM and thus increase the relevance of iron-dependent methane oxidation in the future. Besides its role in mitigating methane emissions, iron-dependent AOM strongly impacts sedimentary iron cycling and related biogeochemical processes through the reduction of large quantities of iron oxides.

  7. Identification of Differentially Abundant Proteins of Edwardsiella ictaluri during Iron Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Dumpala

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe intracellular bacterium that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish. Iron is an essential inorganic nutrient of bacteria and is crucial for bacterial invasion. Reduced availability of iron by the host may cause significant stress for bacterial pathogens and is considered a signal that leads to significant alteration in virulence gene expression. However, the precise effect of iron-restriction on E. ictaluri protein abundance is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially abundant proteins of E. ictaluri during in vitro iron-restricted conditions. We applied two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE for determining differentially abundant proteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS for protein identification. Gene ontology and pathway-based functional modeling of differentially abundant proteins was also conducted. A total of 50 unique differentially abundant proteins at a minimum of 2-fold (p ≤ 0.05 difference in abundance due to iron-restriction were detected. The numbers of up- and down-regulated proteins were 37 and 13, respectively. We noted several proteins, including EsrB, LamB, MalM, MalE, FdaA, and TonB-dependent heme/hemoglobin receptor family proteins responded to iron restriction in E. ictaluri.

  8. Transgenic HFE-dependent induction of hepcidin in mice does not require transferrin receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary hemochomatosis (HH) is caused by mutations in several genes, including HFE and transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2). Loss of either protein decreases expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by the liver, leading to inappropriately high iron uptake from the diet, and resulting in systemic iron overload. In tissue culture, overexpressed HFE and TFR2 physically interact. Hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in vivo increases hepcidin expression, despite an associated decrease in Tfr2. On this basis, we hypothesized that Tfr2 would not be required for Hfe-dependent up-regulation of hepcidin. We show that hepatocellular overexpression of Hfe in Tfr2(Y245X/Y245X) mice leads to hepcidin induction eventuating in iron deficiency and a hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies using liver lysates did not provide evidence for physical interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Tfr2 is not essential for Hfe-mediated induction of hepcidin expression, supporting the possibility that TFR2 may regulate iron metabolism in an HFE-independent manner. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Temperature dependence of coercivity behavior in iron films on silicone oil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaojun; Ye Quanlin; Ye Gaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its microstructure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. It is found that the temperature dependence of the coercive field H c (T) of the films exhibits a peak around a critical temperature T crit =10-15 K: for the temperature T crit ,H c (T) increases with the temperature; if T>T crit , however, it decreases rapidly and then approaches a steady value as T further increases. Our study shows that, for T>T crit , the observed coercivity behavior is mainly dominated by the effect of the non-uniform single-domain particle size distribution, and for T crit , the anomalous coercivity behavior may be resulted from the surface anisotropy, the surface effect and the characteristic internal stress distribution in the films. The influence of the shape and size of the particles on the thermal dependence of the magnetization is also investigated

  10. Metabolic-flux dependent regulation of microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Athanasios; Ortega, Álvaro D; Wit, Ernst C; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    According to the most prevalent notion, changes in cellular physiology primarily occur in response to altered environmental conditions. Yet, recent studies have shown that changes in metabolic fluxes can also trigger phenotypic changes even when environmental conditions are unchanged. This suggests that cells have mechanisms in place to assess the magnitude of metabolic fluxes, that is, the rate of metabolic reactions, and use this information to regulate their physiology. In this review, we describe recent evidence for metabolic flux-sensing and flux-dependent regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how such sensing and regulation can be mechanistically achieved and present a set of new candidates for flux-signaling metabolites. Similar to metabolic-flux sensing, we argue that cells can also sense protein translation flux. Finally, we elaborate on the advantages that flux-based regulation can confer to cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injumpa, Wishulada; Ritprajak, Patcharee; Insin, Numpon

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxides nanoparticles have been utilized in biological systems and biomedical applications for many years because they are relatively safe and stable comparing to other magnetic nanomaterials. In some applications, iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with silica in order to be more stable in biological systems and able to be functionalized with various functional groups. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was one on the most used polymer to graft onto the nanoparticles in order to increase their biocompatibility, dispersibility and stability in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the nanocomposites comprising iron oxide nanoparticles, silica, and PEG could become multifunctional carriers combining superparamagnetic character, multi-functionality and high stability in biological environments. Herein, we reported the preparation of the nanocomposites and effects of their sizes on cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses. The PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposites were prepared by coating of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) on magnetic nanoparticle-silica nanocomposites via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. The silica shells were then coated on iron oxides nanoparticles using reverse microemulsion and sol-gel methods. The size series of the nanocomposites with the diameter of 24.86±4.38, 45.24±5.00, 98.10±8.88 and 202.22±6.70 nm as measured using TEM were obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used for the determination of % weight of PPEGMA on the nanocomposites showing the weight loss of ranging from 65% for smallest particles to 30% for largest particles. The various sizes (20, 40, 100, 200 nm) and concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) of the nanocomposites were tested for their cytotoxicity in fibroblast and macrophage cell lines using MTT assay. The different sizes did not affect cell viability of fibroblast, albeit

  12. Iron-related gene variants and brain iron in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS, yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC and MS patients. Four hundred (400 patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination. Three (3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with iron regulation were genotyped: two SNPs in the human hereditary hemochromatosis protein gene HFE: rs1800562 (C282Y mutation and rs1799945 (H63D mutation, as well as the rs1049296 SNP in the transferrin gene (C2 mutation. The effects of disease and genetic status were studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM voxel-based analysis (VBA and region-of-interest (ROI analysis of the deep GM. The general linear model framework was used to compare groups. Analyses were corrected for age and sex, and adjusted for false discovery rate. We found moderate increases in susceptibility in the right putamen of participants with the C282Y (+6.1 ppb and H63D (+6.9 ppb gene variants vs. non-carriers, as well as a decrease in thalamic susceptibility of progressive MS patients with the C282Y mutation (left: −5.3 ppb, right: −6.7 ppb, p < 0.05. Female MS patients had lower susceptibility in the caudate (−6.0 ppb and putamen (left: −3.9 ppb, right: −4.6 ppb than men, but only when they had a wild-type allele (p < 0.05. Iron-gene linked increases in putamen susceptibility (in HC and relapsing remitting MS and decreases in thalamus susceptibility (in progressive MS, coupled with apparent sex interactions, indicate that brain iron in healthy and disease states may be influenced by genetic factors.

  13. Characterization and structural properties of iron in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanamuni, Udya; Dehipawala, Sunil; Gafney, Harry

    Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the soil and occurs in a wide range of chemical forms. Humans receive iron through either meat products or plants. Non meat eaters depend on plant product for their daily iron requirement. The iron absorption by plants depends on other minerals present in the soil and soil pH value. The amount of iron present in plants grown with different soil compositions were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Based on the X-ray absorption data, the amount of iron in plants vary significantly with soil pH value. The Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals that iron present in the samples has the form Fe3+ or electron density at the site of the iron nucleus similar to that of Fe3+. CUNY Research Scholar Program, MSEIP.

  14. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS study of adsorption of long-chain surfactants on mechanically milled iron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syugaev, A.V., E-mail: syual@mail.ru; Maratkanova, A.N.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Plate-like particles modified with surfactant molecules were obtained under high-energy ball milling. • Adsorption layers were studied with polarization-dependent NEXAFS spectroscopy. • For the first time, arrangement of surfactants molecules on the powdered metal surface has been determined. • Tails of surfactant molecules (C-F/C-H) are shown to be oriented perpendicular to the particle surface. • Arrangement of carboxylate groups on the particle surfaces is discussed. - Abstract: In this work we have demonstrated the possibility of using the polarization-dependent NEXAFS spectra to study the structure of organic layers at the surface of powdered materials with plate-like shaped particles. The polarization dependence of the NEXAFS spectra may be easily obtained by just changing the angle between the X-ray beam direction and the substrate onto which the powder particles are set. For the first time, we have carried out a detailed study of the surfactant layers (n-perfluorononanoic and stearic acid), which are formed at the surface of iron plate-like particles under mechanical milling of iron powder with an addition of corresponding surfactants. The surfactant molecules are predominantly oriented perpendicular to the surface of the mechanically milled particles. Such orientation is similar to the arrangement of the molecules in the layers formed under equilibrium conditions, e.g. deposition from solutions. The changes in the chemical environment occurring in the molecule tails (defluorination or dehydrogenation) under mechanochemical treatment, do not result in a significant change in the molecular orientation and disordering of the adsorbed layer.

  15. Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and HIF-regulated genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chen Haobin; Huang Xi; Costa, Max

    2006-01-01

    Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1α-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1α protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1α responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1α protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1α protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1α-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1α protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1α after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1α protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the significant stabilization and elevation of HIF-1

  16. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  17. Reducing the iron burden and improving survival in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanzay K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Karim Bayanzay, Lama Alzoebie Department of Hematology, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates Abstract: Hypertransfusion regimens for thalassemic patients revolutionized the management of severe thalassemia; transforming a disease which previously led to early infant death into a chronic condition. The devastating effect of the accrued iron from chronic blood transfusions necessitates a more finely tuned approach to limit the complications of the disease, as well as its treatment. A comprehensive approach including carefully tailored transfusion protocol, continuous monitoring and assessment of total body iron levels, and iron chelation are currently the mainstay in treating iron overload. There are also indications for ancillary treatments, such as splenectomy and fetal hemoglobin induction. The main cause of death in iron overload continues to be related to cardiac complications. However, since the widespread use of iron chelation started in the 1970s, there has been a general improvement in survival in these patients. Keywords: hematology, chelators, deferoxamine, deferiserox, deferiprone, liver iron concentration, iron overload, serum ferritin concentration, hepatic iron storage, iron chelation therapy

  18. Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria: Ecophysiology and Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Lindsey, J.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Although the iron-dependent physiology of marine and freshwater cyanobacterial strains has been the focus of extensive study, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs have been conducted. One of the few studies that have been conducted [B. Pierson, 1999] found that cyanobacterial members of iron depositing bacterial mat communities might increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ and that ferrous iron concentrations up to 1 mM significantly stimulated light dependent consumption of bicarbonate, suggesting a specific role for elevated iron in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs. Our recent studies pertaining to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria populating iron-depositing hot springs in Great Yellowstone area (Western USA) indicated a number of different isolates exhibiting elevated tolerance to Fe(3+) (up to 1 mM). Moreover, stimulation of growth was observed with increased Fe(3+) (0.02-0.4 mM). Molecular fingerprinting of unialgal isolates revealed a new cyanobacterial genus and species Chroogloeocystis siderophila, an unicellular cyanobacterium with significant EPS sheath harboring colloidal Fe(3+) from iron enriched media. Our preliminary data suggest that some filamentous species of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria are capable of exocytosis of iron precipitated in cytoplasm. Prior to 2.4 Ga global oceans were likely significantly enriched in soluble iron [Lindsay et al, 2003], conditions which are not conducive to growth of most contemporary oxygenic cyanobacteria. Thus, iron-tolerant CB may have played important physiological and evolutionary roles in Earths history.

  19. Moessbauer study on the distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Kenzo; Sato, Masaki; Shinohara, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of iron vacancies in iron sulfide Fe sub(1-x)S with the controlled compositions was investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. Moessbauer spectrum was composed of several component spectra. These component spectra were assigned to the iron atoms with different configurations of neighboring iron vacancies. Judging from the composition dependence of intensity of each component, iron vacancies are considered to lie in every second iron layer for specimens with x between 0.125 and 0.10. For specimens with x between 0.10 and 0.09, this arrangement is nearly kept in the sample quenched from a higher temperature than 473 K, but after annealing at a lower temperature than 473 K iron vacancies are considered to lie not only in every second iron layer but also in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers. The iron vacancy arrangement lying in every third iron layer or in adjacent iron layers tends to dominate for specimens with x below 0.09. (author)

  20. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Injumpa, Wishulada [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ritprajak, Patcharee [Department of Microbiology, and RU in Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    incubation with the highest concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Although 1000 μg/mL of all sizes of the nanocomposites decreased macrophage viability, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposites was notably less than silica. The inflammatory response of macrophage was also observed by ELISA, and we found that the size of 20 and 40 nm, but not 100 and 200 nm, obviously stimulated IL-6 production. From this study, the preparations of multifunctional superparamagnetic nanocomposites of different sizes along with the size-dependent effects on cellular toxicity and inflammatory response were demonstrated and could be applied for designing of new drug carriers. - Highlights: • Magnetic iron oxide-silica nanocomposites (MNCs) size series were synthesized. • PPEGMA-MNCs exhibited low cytotoxicity against fibroblast and macrophage lines. • The effects on the sizes of PPEGMA-coated MNCs on immune responses were observed.

  1. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen.

  3. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  4. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Iron- and ferritin-dependent reactive oxygen species distribution: impact on Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe, which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe-mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin, and root system architecture (RSA) is in part mediated by the H2O2/O2·- balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with cardiac iron and function in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkhamron, Prapai; Wejaphikul, Karn; Mahatumarat, Tuanjit; Silvilairat, Suchaya; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Saekho, Suwit; Unachak, Kevalee

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with thalassemia. Vitamin D deficiency could be related to cardiac dysfunction. Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) is also known to be associated with heart failure. To determine the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and to explore the impact of Vitamin D deficiency on cardiac iron and function in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. A cross-sectional study in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia was conducted. Patients with liver disease, renal disease, type 1 diabetes, malabsorption, hypercortisolism, malignancy, and contraindication for MRI were excluded. Calcium, phosphate, PTH, vitamin D-25OH were measured. CardiacT2 * and liver iron concentration (LIC) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined. Results Sixty-one (33M/28F) patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia were enrolled. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency was 50.8%. Patients with cardiac siderosis had tendency for lower D-25OH than those without siderosis (15.9 (11.7-20.0) vs. 20.2 (15.85-22.3) ng/mL); p = 0.06). Serum calcium, phosphate, PTH, LIC, cardiac T2 * , and LVEF were not different between the groups with or without Vitamin D deficiency. Patients with Vitamin D deficiency had significantly lower hemoglobin levels compared to those without Vitamin D deficiency (7.5 (6.93-8.33) vs. 8.1 (7.30-8.50) g/dL; p = 0.04). The median hemoglobin in the last 12 months was significantly correlated with D-25OH. Cardiac T2 * had significant correlation with PTH. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Vitamin D level is correlated with hemoglobin level. Vitamin D status should be routinely assessed in these patients. Low PTH is correlated with increased cardiac iron. This study did not demonstrate an association between Vitamin D deficiency and cardiac iron or function in patients with Transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

  7. Characterisation of citrate and iron citrate uptake by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.M.; Morgan, E.H.; Baker, E.

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aims: the endogenous low molecular weight iron chelator, citrate, is considered to be an important contributor to iron transport and the liver the main site of uptake of iron citrate in subjects suffering from diseases of iron overload. Moreover, the citrate-metabolising enzyme, aconitase, is implicated in the regulation of cellular iron metabolism. This study was undertaken to determine the role of citrate and ferric citrate in the uptake of iron by rat hepatocytes. Methods: Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated (37 deg. C, 15 min) with 100 μM [ 14 C]-citrate in the presence or absence of 1.0 μM 55 Fe. Membrane-bound and intracellular radiolabel were separated by incubation with the general protease, Pronase. Results: Our results suggest that ferric citrate uptake is mediated by a specific citrate binding site which exhibits a higher affinity for citrate in the presence of iron than in its absence. Citrate was internalised by hepatocytes, with at least 70% being oxidised to CO 2 within 15 min. Citrate uptake was pH-dependent, did not require the presence of sodium and increased with increasing iron concentration. Metabolic energy, anion channels, the Na + , K + -ATPase and vesicle acidification do not appear to play a role in uptake of ferric citrate, but functional sulphydryl groups may be involved. Conclusions: The data suggest either that ferric citrate complexes with higher molar ratios of iron to citrate relative to the incubation medium are bound preferentially to the membrane, or that once citrate has delivered its iron to the membrane, the complex dissociates and the components are internalised separately. (au)

  8. Iron addiction: a novel therapeutic target in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal malignancy that has not seen a major therapeutic advance in over 30 years. We demonstrate that ovarian cancer exhibits a targetable alteration in iron metabolism. Ferroportin (FPN), the iron efflux pump, is decreased, and transferrin receptor (TFR1), the iron importer, is increased in tumor tissue from patients with high grade but not low grade serous ovarian cancer. A similar profile of decreased FPN and increased TFR1 is observed in a genetic model of ovarian cancer tumor-initiating cells (TICs). The net result of these changes is an accumulation of excess intracellular iron and an augmented dependence on iron for proliferation. A forced reduction in intracellular iron reduces the proliferation of ovarian cancer TICs in vitro, and inhibits both tumor growth and intraperitoneal dissemination of tumor cells in vivo. Some mechanistic studies demonstrate that iron increases metastatic spread by facilitating invasion through expression of matrix metalloproteases and synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Here, we show that the iron dependence of ovarian cancer TICs renders them exquisitely sensitive in vivo to agents that induce iron-dependent cell death (ferroptosis) as well as iron chelators, and thus creates a metabolic vulnerability that can be exploited therapeutically.

  9. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up 59 Fe from [ 59 Fe]SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of [ 59 Fe]transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates [2- 14 C]glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate 59 Fe incorporation into heme from either [ 59 Fe]transferrin or [ 59 Fe]SIH but does reverse the inhibition of 59 Fe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes

  10. Temperature dependence of enthalpies and entropies of formation and migration of mono-vacancy in BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haohua; Woo, C.H., E-mail: chungho@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-12-15

    Entropies and enthalpies of vacancy formation and diffusion in BCC iron are calculated for each temperature directly from free-energies using phase-space trajectories obtained from spin–lattice dynamics simulations. Magnon contributions are found to be particularly substantial in the temperature regime near the α−β (ferro/para-magnetic) transition. Strong temperature dependence and singular behavior can be seen in this temperature regime, reflecting magnon softening effects. Temperature dependence of the lattice component in this regime is also much more significant compared to previous estimations based on Arrhenius-type fitting. Similar effects on activation processes involving other irradiation-produced defects in magnetic materials are expected.

  11. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Iron chelators ICL670 and 311 inhibit HIV-1 transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debebe, Zufan; Ammosova, Tatyana; Jerebtsova, Marina; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Niu, Xiaomei; Charles, Sharroya; Richardson, Des R.; Ray, Patricio E.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Nekhai, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 replication is induced by an excess of iron and iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) inhibits viral replication by reducing proliferation of infected cells. Treatment of cells with DFO and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) inhibit expression of proteins that regulate cell-cycle progression, including cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Our recent studies showed that CDK2 participates in HIV-1 transcription and viral replication suggesting that inhibition of CDK2 by iron chelators might also affect HIV-1 transcription. Here we evaluated the effect of a clinically approved orally effective iron chelator, 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid (ICL670) and 311 on HIV-1 transcription. Both ICL670 and 311 inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in CEM-T cells, 293T and HeLa cells. Neither ICL670 nor 311 induced cytotoxicity at concentrations that inhibited HIV-1 transcription. The chelators decreased cellular activity of CDK2 and reduced HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2. Neither ICL670A or 311 decreased CDK9 protein level but significantly reduced association of CDK9 with cyclin T1 and reduced phosphorylation of Ser-2 residues of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. In conclusion, our findings add to the evidence that iron chelators can inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating CDK2 and CDK9. Further consideration should be given to the development of iron chelators for future anti-retroviral therapeutics

  13. The iron uptake repressor Fep1 in the fission yeast binds Fe-S cluster through conserved cysteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kang-Lok; Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Roe, Jung-Hye, E-mail: jhroe@snu.ac.kr

    2016-09-09

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated since iron is an essential but toxic element in the cell. The GATA-type transcription factor Fep1 and its orthologs contribute to iron homeostasis in many fungi by repressing genes for iron uptake when intracellular iron is high. Even though the function and interaction partners of Fep1 have been elucidated extensively In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the mechanism behind iron-sensing by Fep1 remains elusive. It has been reported that Fep1 interacts with Fe-S-containing monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 and Grx4-Fra2 complex. In this study, we demonstrate that Fep1 also binds iron, in the form of Fe-S cluster. Spectroscopic and biochemical analyses of as isolated and reconstituted Fep1 suggest that the dimeric Fep1 binds Fe-S clusters. The mutation study revealed that the cluster-binding depended on the conserved cysteines located between the two zinc fingers in the DNA binding domain. EPR analyses revealed [Fe-S]-specific peaks indicative of mixed presence of [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], or [4Fe-4S]. The finding that Fep1 is an Fe-S protein fits nicely with the model that the Fe-S-trafficking Grx4 senses intracellular iron environment and modulates the activity of Fep1. - Highlights: • Fep1, a prototype fungal iron uptake regulator, was isolated stably from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. • Fep1 exhibits UV–visible absorption spectrum, characteristic of [Fe-S] proteins. • The iron and sulfide contents in purified or reconstituted Fep1 also support [Fe-S]. • The conserved cysteines are critical for [Fe-S]-binding. • EPR spectra at 5 K and 123 K suggest a mixed population of [Fe-S].

  14. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

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    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  15. Unravelling the cross-talk between iron starvation and oxidative stress responses highlights the key role of PerR (alr0957) in peroxide signalling in the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120.

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    Yingping, Fan; Lemeille, Sylvain; Talla, Emmanuel; Janicki, Annick; Denis, Yann; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Latifi, Amel

    2014-10-01

    The cyanobacterial phylum includes oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a wide variety of morphologies, metabolisms and ecologies. Their adaptation to their various ecological niches is mainly achieved by sophisticated regulatory mechanisms and depends on a fine cross-talk between them. We assessed the global transcriptomic response of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 to iron starvation and oxidative stress. More than 20% of the differentially expressed genes in response to iron stress were also responsive to oxidative stress. These transcripts include antioxidant proteins-encoding genes that confirms that iron depletion leads to reactive oxygen accumulation. The activity of the Fe-superoxide dismutase was not significantly decreased under iron starvation, indicating that the oxidative stress generated under iron deficiency is not a consequence of (SOD) deficiency. The transcriptional data indicate that the adaptation of Nostoc to iron-depleted conditions displays important differences with what has been shown in unicellular cyanobacteria. While the FurA protein that regulates the response to iron deprivation has been well characterized in Nostoc, the regulators in charge of the oxidative stress response are unknown. Our study indicates that the alr0957 (perR) gene encodes the master regulator of the peroxide stress. PerR is a peroxide-sensor repressor that senses peroxide by metal-catalysed oxidation.

  16. Iron-induced changes in the proteome of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes.

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    Neritza Campo Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron plays a crucial role in metabolism as a key component of catalytic and redox cofactors, such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes and electron-transporting or regulatory proteins. Limitation of iron availability by the host is also one of the mechanisms involved in immunity. Pathogens must regulate their protein expression according to the iron concentration in their environment and optimize their metabolic pathways in cases of limitation through the availability of respective cofactors. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted pathogen of humans, requires high iron levels for optimal growth. It is an anaerobe that possesses hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that harbor pathways of energy metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We analyzed the proteomes of hydrogenosomes obtained from cells cultivated under iron-rich and iron-deficient conditions employing two-dimensional peptide separation combining IEF and nano-HPLC with quantitative MALDI-MS/MS. We identified 179 proteins, of which 58 were differentially expressed. Iron deficiency led to the upregulation of proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and the downregulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, iron affected the expression of only some of multiple protein paralogues, whereas the expression of others was iron independent. This finding indicates a stringent regulation of differentially expressed multiple gene copies in response to changes in the availability of exogenous iron.

  17. The Aging of Iron Man

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    Azhaar Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. The Aging of Iron Man.

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    Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

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    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Global transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 to changes in iron bioavailability in vitro

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    Rutzke Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (DC3000 is a Gram-negative model plant pathogen that is found in a wide variety of environments. To survive in these diverse conditions it must sense and respond to various environmental cues. One micronutrient required for most forms of life is iron. Bioavailable iron has been shown to be an important global regulator for many bacteria where it not only regulates a wide variety of genes involved in general cell physiology but also virulence determinants. In this study we used microarrays to study differential gene regulation in DC3000 in response to changes in levels of cell-associated iron. Results DC3000 cultures were grown under highly controlled conditions and analyzed after the addition of iron citrate or sodium citrate to the media. In the cultures supplemented with iron, we found that cell-associated iron increased rapidly while culture densities were not significantly different over 4 hours when compared to cultures with sodium citrate added. Microarray analysis of samples taken from before and after the addition of either sodium citrate or iron citrate identified 386 differentially regulated genes with high statistical confidence. Differentially regulated genes were clustered based on expression patterns observed between comparison of samples taken at different time points and with different supplements. This analysis grouped genes associated with the same regulatory motifs and/or had similar putative or known function. Conclusion This study shows iron is rapidly taken up from the medium by iron-depleted DC3000 cultures and that bioavailable iron is a global cue for the expression of iron transport, storage, and known virulence factors in DC3000. Furthermore approximately 34% of the differentially regulated genes are associated with one of four regulatory motifs for Fur, PvdS, HrpL, or RpoD.

  1. Desulphurization of steel and pig iron

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    J. Kijac

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical slag qualities must be defined by the whole complex of physico - chemical characteristics, such as an oxidative ability, optical basicity, sulphide capacity up to slag fluidity, its surface tension etc. The understanding of regulation of basic physico - chemical qualities of molten metals and slag depending on a chemical structure and a temperature has its importance at the level of the metallurgical process control. Presented paper deals with the possibilities how to exploit the sulphidic capacity for the desulphurisation evaluation in course of the metal reafining in the oxygen converter based on the set of the operational data. The integral part of the work is the process of the pig iron desulphurisation.

  2. The actin-binding protein profilin 2 is a novel regulator of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscieti, Sara; Galy, Bruno; Gutierrez, Lucia; Reinke, Michael; Couso, Jorge; Shvartsman, Maya; Di Pascale, Antonio; Witke, Walter; Hentze, Matthias W; Pilo Boyl, Pietro; Sanchez, Mayka

    2017-10-26

    Cellular iron homeostasis is controlled by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 that bind cis -regulatory iron-responsive elements (IRE) on target messenger RNAs (mRNA). We identified profilin 2 ( Pfn2 ) mRNA, which encodes an actin-binding protein involved in endocytosis and neurotransmitter release, as a novel IRP-interacting transcript, and studied its role in iron metabolism. A combination of electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments and bioinformatic analyses led to the identification of an atypical and conserved IRE in the 3' untranslated region of Pfn2 mRNA. Pfn2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in duodenal samples from mice with intestinal IRP ablation, suggesting that IRPs exert a positive effect on Pfn2 mRNA expression in vivo. Overexpression of Pfn2 in HeLa and Hepa1-6 cells reduced their metabolically active iron pool. Importantly, Pfn2-deficient mice showed iron accumulation in discrete areas of the brain (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and midbrain) and reduction of the hepatic iron store without anemia. Despite low liver iron levels, hepatic hepcidin expression remained high, likely because of compensatory activation of hepcidin by mild inflammation. Splenic ferroportin was increased probably to sustain hematopoiesis. Overall, our results indicate that Pfn2 expression is controlled by the IRPs in vivo and that Pfn2 contributes to maintaining iron homeostasis in cell lines and mice. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction

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    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P.; Luo, Feng; Xiong, Wenlu; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Arkin, Adam P.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-10-09

    Background: Iron homeostasis of Shewanella oneidensis, a gamma-proteobacterium possessing high iron content, is regulated by a global transcription factor Fur. However, knowledge is incomplete about other biological pathways that respond to changes in iron concentration, as well as details of the responses. In this work, we integrate physiological, transcriptomics and genetic approaches to delineate the iron response of S. oneidensis. Results: We show that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. Temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, and a gene co-expression network was reconstructed. Modules of iron acquisition systems, anaerobic energy metabolism and protein degradation were the most noteworthy in the gene network. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that genes in each of the modules might be regulated by DNA-binding proteins Fur, CRP and RpoH, respectively. Closer inspection of these modules revealed a transcriptional regulator (SO2426) involved in iron acquisition and ten transcriptional factors involved in anaerobic energy metabolism. Selected genes in the network were analyzed by genetic studies. Disruption of genes encoding a putative alcaligin biosynthesis protein (SO3032) and a gene previously implicated in protein degradation (SO2017) led to severe growth deficiency under iron depletion conditions. Disruption of a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) caused deficiency in both anaerobic iron reduction and growth with thiosulfate or TMAO as an electronic acceptor, suggesting that SO1415 is required for specific branches of anaerobic energy metabolism pathways. Conclusions: Using a reconstructed gene network, we identified major biological pathways that were differentially expressed during iron depletion and repletion. Genetic studies not only demonstrated the importance of iron acquisition and protein degradation for iron depletion, but also characterized a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) with a

  4. Disturbance of ion environment and immune regulation following biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles injected intravenously.

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    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Cheolho; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jong Sung

    2016-01-22

    Although it is expected that accumulation of metal oxide nanoparticles that can induce redox reaction in the biological system may influence ion homeostasis and immune regulation through generation of free radicals, the relationship is still unclear. In this study, mice received magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (M-FeNPs, 2 and 4 mg/kg) a single via the tail vein, and their distribution in tissues was investigated over time (1, 4, and 13 weeks). In addition, we evaluated the effects on homeostasis of redox reaction-related elements, the ion environment and immune regulation. The iron level in tissues reached at the maximum on 4 weeks after injection and M-FeNPs the most distributed in the spleen at 13 weeks. Additionally, levels of redox reaction-related elements in tissues were notably altered since 1 week post-injection. While levels of K(+) and Na(+) in tissue tended to decrease with time, Ca(2+) levels reached to the maximum at 4 weeks post-injection. On 13 weeks post-injection, the increased percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils, the enhanced release of LDH, and the elevated secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 were clearly observed in the blood of M-FeNP-treated mice compared to the control. While expression of antigen presentation related-proteins and the maturation of dendritic cells were markedly inhibited following distribution of M-FeNPs, the expression of several chemokines, including CXCR2, CCR5, and CD123, was enhanced on the splenocytes of the treated groups. Taken together, we suggest that accumulation of M-FeNPs may induce adverse health effects by disturbing homeostasis of the immune regulation and ion environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcellular Iron Localization Mechanisms in Plants

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    Emre Aksoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic micro-nutrient element iron (Fe is present as a cofactor in the active sites of many metalloproteins with important roles in the plant. On the other hand, since it is excessively reactive, excess accumulation in the cell triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to cell death. Therefore, iron homeostasis in the cell is very important for plant growth. Once uptake into the roots, iron is distributed to the subcellular compartments. Subcellular iron transport and hence cellular iron homeostasis is carried out through synchronous control of different membrane protein families. It has been discovered that expression levels of these membrane proteins increase under iron deficiency. Examination of the tasks and regulations of these carriers is very important in terms of understanding the iron intake and distribution mechanisms in plants. Therefore, in this review, the transporters responsible for the uptake of iron into the cell and its subcellular distribution between organelles will be discussed with an emphasis on the current developments about these transporters.

  6. Chronic Iron Limitation Confers Transient Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Marine Diatoms.

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    Graff van Creveld, Shiri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Levin, Yishai; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are single-celled, photosynthetic, bloom-forming algae that are responsible for at least 20% of global primary production. Nevertheless, more than 30% of the oceans are considered "ocean deserts" due to iron limitation. We used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model system to explore diatom's response to iron limitation and its interplay with susceptibility to oxidative stress. By analyzing physiological parameters and proteome profiling, we defined two distinct phases: short-term (chronic (>5 d, phase II) iron limitation. While at phase I no significant changes in physiological parameters were observed, molecular markers for iron starvation, such as Iron Starvation Induced Protein and flavodoxin, were highly up-regulated. At phase II, down-regulation of numerous iron-containing proteins was detected in parallel to reduction in growth rate, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, respiration rate, and antioxidant capacity. Intriguingly, while application of oxidative stress to phase I and II iron-limited cells similarly oxidized the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool, phase II iron limitation exhibited transient resistance to oxidative stress, despite the down regulation of many antioxidant proteins. By comparing proteomic profiles of P. tricornutum under iron limitation and metatranscriptomic data of an iron enrichment experiment conducted in the Pacific Ocean, we propose that iron-limited cells in the natural environment resemble the phase II metabolic state. These results provide insights into the trade-off between optimal growth rate and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the response of diatoms to iron quota in the marine environment. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD: an analysis of the 1-year FIND-CKD trial.

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    Roger, Simon D; Gaillard, Carlo A; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Macdougall, Iain C

    2017-09-01

    The evidence base regarding the safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete and largely based on small studies of relatively short duration. FIND-CKD (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00994318) was a 1-year, open-label, multicenter, prospective study of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, anemia and iron deficiency randomized (1:1:2) to IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin, or oral iron. A post hoc analysis of adverse event rates per 100 patient-years was performed to assess the safety of FCM versus oral iron over an extended period. The safety population included 616 patients. The incidence of one or more adverse events was 91.0, 100.0 and 105.0 per 100 patient-years in the high ferritin FCM, low ferritin FCM and oral iron groups, respectively. The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to study drug was 15.9, 17.8 and 36.7 per 100 patient-years in the three groups; for serious adverse events, the incidence was 28.2, 27.9 and 24.3 per 100 patient-years. The incidence of cardiac disorders and infections was similar between groups. At least one ferritin level ≥800 µg/L occurred in 26.6% of high ferritin FCM patients, with no associated increase in adverse events. No patient with ferritin ≥800 µg/L discontinued the study drug due to adverse events. Estimated glomerular filtration rate remained the stable in all groups. These results further support the conclusion that correction of iron deficiency anemia with IV FCM is safe in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  8. Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weijia; He Wen; Wang Meiting; Zhang Xudong; Yan Shunpu; Tian Xiuying; Sun Xianan; Han Xiuxiu; Li Peng

    2008-01-01

    Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic–inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented

  9. Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-target genes in cortical neurons by the novel multifunctional iron chelator anti-Alzheimer drug, M30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramovich-Tirosh, Y; Bar-Am, O; Amit, T; Youdim, M B H; Weinreb, O

    2010-06-01

    Based on a multimodal drug design paradigm, we have synthesized a multifunctional non-toxic, brain permeable iron chelator, M30, possessing the neuroprotective propargylamine moiety of the anti-Parkinsonian drug, rasagiline (Azilect) and antioxidant-iron chelator moiety of an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative of our iron chelator, VK28. M30 was recently found to confer potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in various preclinical neurodegenerative models and regulate the levels and processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein and its toxic amyloidogenic derivative, Abeta. Here, we show that M30 activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha signaling pathway, thus promoting HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as increasing transcription of HIF-1alpha-dependent genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, enolase-1, p21 and tyrosine hydroxylase in rat primary cortical cells. In addition, M30 also increased the expression levels of the transcripts of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Regarding aspects of relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD), western blotting analysis of glycogen synthase kinase- 3beta (GSK-3beta) signaling pathway revealed that M30 enhanced the levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and phospho- GSK-3beta (Ser9) and attenuated Tau phosphorylation. M30 was also shown to protect cultured cortical neurons against Abeta(25-35) toxicity. All these multimodal pharmacological activities of M30 might be beneficial for its potent efficacy in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and AD in which oxidative stress and iron-mediated toxicity are involved.

  10. Chronic Iron Limitation Confers Transient Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Marine Diatoms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff van Creveld, Shiri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms are single-celled, photosynthetic, bloom-forming algae that are responsible for at least 20% of global primary production. Nevertheless, more than 30% of the oceans are considered “ocean deserts” due to iron limitation. We used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model system to explore diatom’s response to iron limitation and its interplay with susceptibility to oxidative stress. By analyzing physiological parameters and proteome profiling, we defined two distinct phases: short-term (5 d, phase II) iron limitation. While at phase I no significant changes in physiological parameters were observed, molecular markers for iron starvation, such as Iron Starvation Induced Protein and flavodoxin, were highly up-regulated. At phase II, down-regulation of numerous iron-containing proteins was detected in parallel to reduction in growth rate, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, respiration rate, and antioxidant capacity. Intriguingly, while application of oxidative stress to phase I and II iron-limited cells similarly oxidized the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool, phase II iron limitation exhibited transient resistance to oxidative stress, despite the down regulation of many antioxidant proteins. By comparing proteomic profiles of P. tricornutum under iron limitation and metatranscriptomic data of an iron enrichment experiment conducted in the Pacific Ocean, we propose that iron-limited cells in the natural environment resemble the phase II metabolic state. These results provide insights into the trade-off between optimal growth rate and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the response of diatoms to iron quota in the marine environment. PMID:27503604

  11. Iron homeostasis and its disruption in mouse lung in iron deficiency and overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gisela; D'Anna, María Cecilia; Roque, Marta Elena

    2015-10-01

    . Ferroportin increased in iron overload. Prohepcidin was present in control groups, with no changes in iron deficiency and iron overload. In iron overload, ferritin showed intracytoplasmic localization close to the apical membrane of airway cells and intense immunostaining in macrophage-like cells. The results show that pulmonary hepcidin does not appear to modify cellular iron mobilization in the lung. We propose the following two novel pathways in the lung: (i) for supplying iron in iron deficiency, mediated principally by DMT1 and TfR and regulated by the action of FPN and HFE; and (ii) for iron detoxification in order to protect the lung against iron overload, facilitated by the action of DMT1, ZIP14, FPN and ferritin. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd 2+ uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance

  13. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting, E-mail: qixiaoting@cnu.edu.cn

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  14. A novel surface protein of Trichomonas vaginalis is regulated independently by low iron and contact with vaginal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang T-H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the number one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD that affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Immunoglobulin A (IgA has been implicated in resistance to mucosal infections by pathogens. No reports are available of IgA-reactive proteins and the role, if any, of this class of antibody in the control of this STD. The availability of an IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb immunoreactive to trichomonads by whole cell (WC-ELISA prompted us to characterize the IgA-reactive protein of T. vaginalis. Results An IgA mAb called 6B8 was isolated from a library of mAbs reactive to surface proteins of T. vaginalis. The 6B8 mAb recognized a 44-kDa protein (TV44 by immunoblot analysis, and a full-length cDNA clone encoded a protein of 438 amino acids. Southern analysis revealed the gene (tv44 of T. vaginalis to be single copy. The tv44 gene was down-regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels in iron-depleted trichomonads as well as in parasites after contact with immortalized MS-74 vaginal epithelial cells (VECs. Immunofluorescence on non-permeabilized organisms confirmed surface localization of TV44, and the intensity of fluorescence was reduced after parasite adherence to VECs. Lastly, an identical protein and gene were present in Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas tenax. Conclusion This is the first report of a T. vaginalis gene (tv44 encoding a surface protein (TV44 reactive with an IgA mAb, and both gene and protein were conserved in human and bovine trichomonads. Further, TV44 is independently down-regulated in expression and surface placement by iron and contact with VECs. TV44 is another member of T. vaginalis genes that are regulated by at least two independent signaling mechanisms involving iron and contact with VECs.

  15. Anti-sigma factor YlaD regulates transcriptional activity of sigma factor YlaC and sporulation via manganese-dependent redox-sensing molecular switch in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Ryu, Han-Bong; Song, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Won; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2018-05-14

    YlaD, a membrane-anchored anti-sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis , contains a HX 3 CXXC motif that functions as a redox-sensing domain and belongs to one of the zinc-coordinated anti-sigma factor families. Despite previously showing that the YlaC transcription is controlled by YlaD, experimental evidence of how the YlaC-YlaD interaction is affected by active cysteines and/or metal ions is lacking. Here, we showed that the P yla promoter is autoregulated solely by YlaC. Moreover, reduced YlaD contained zinc and iron, while oxidized YlaD did not. Cysteine substitution in YlaD led to changes in its secondary structure; Cys3 had important structural functions in YlaD, and its mutation caused dissociation from YlaC, indicating the essential requirement of a HX 3 CXXC motif for regulating interactions of YlaC with YlaD. Analyses of the far-UV CD spectrum and metal content revealed that the addition of Mn ions to Zn-YlaD changed its secondary structure and that iron was substituted for manganese. The ylaC gene expression using βGlu activity from P yla : gusA was observed at the late-exponential and early-stationary phase and the ylaC -overexpressing mutant constitutively expressed gene transcripts of clpP and sigH , an important alternative sigma factor regulated by ClpXP. Collectively, our data demonstrated that YlaD senses redox changes and elicits increase in manganese ion concentrations and that, in turn, YlaD-mediated transcriptional activity of YlaC regulates sporulation initiation under oxidative stress and manganese-substituted conditions by regulating clpP gene transcripts. This is the first report of the involvement of oxidative stress-responsive B. subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors during sporulation via a manganese-dependent redox-sensing molecular switch. ©2018 The Author(s).

  16. Misregulation of iron homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gajowiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for all mammalian cells, but it is toxic in excess. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms ensuring iron homeostasis at both cellular and systemic levels has dramatically increased over the past 15 years. However, despite major advances in this field, homeostatic regulation of iron in the central nervous system (CNS requires elucidation. It is unclear how iron moves in the CNS and how its transfer to the CNS across the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, which separate the CNS from the systemic circulation, is regulated. Increasing evidence indicates the role of iron dysregulation in neuronal cell death observed in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective cortical czynand spinal motor neuron dysfunction that results from a complex interplay among various pathogenic factors including oxidative stress. The latter is known to strongly affect cellular iron balance, creating a vicious circle to exacerbate oxidative injury. The role of iron in the pathogenesis of ALS is confirmed by therapeutic effects of iron chelation in ALS mouse models. These models are of great importance for deciphering molecular mechanisms of iron accumulation in neurons. Most of them consist of transgenic rodents overexpressing the mutated human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene. Mutations in the SOD1 gene constituteone of the most common genetic causes of the inherited form of ALS. However, it should beconsidered that overexpression of the SOD1 gene usually leads to increased SOD1 enzymaticactivity, a condition which does not occur in human pathology and which may itself changethe expression of iron metabolism genes.

  17. Statistical treatment of bleaching kaolin by iron removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, R. A.; Legorreta G, F.; Hernandez C, L. E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma, 42184 Hidalgo (Mexico); Martinez L, A., E-mail: angelitofox3@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza y Gonzalez Lobo s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, oxalic acid was used as a leaching reagent to remove iron from a kaolin mineral. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the most influential factors in the dissolution of iron from the kaolin mineral. Our goal was ferric iron solubilization and its reduction to ferrous iron to improve the iron removal in the acid medium. Leaching experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure. A two-level factorial design of the type 2{sup 4} was utilized. The dependent variable was the percentage of dissolved iron, and the dependent variables in this study were acid concentration (0.35 and 0.50 M), temperature (75 C and 100 C), leaching time (2 and 4 h), and ph (1.5 and 2.5). An analysis of variance revealed that the effects of the factors temperature (b), ph (d), and the combined effects of temperature and time (b c) resulted in the maximum dissolution of iron of 88% at 100 C, giving a kaolin mineral with a whiteness index 93.50. For the mineralogical analysis the X-ray diffraction technique was used. (Author)

  18. Statistical treatment of bleaching kaolin by iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, R. A.; Legorreta G, F.; Hernandez C, L. E.; Martinez L, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, oxalic acid was used as a leaching reagent to remove iron from a kaolin mineral. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the most influential factors in the dissolution of iron from the kaolin mineral. Our goal was ferric iron solubilization and its reduction to ferrous iron to improve the iron removal in the acid medium. Leaching experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure. A two-level factorial design of the type 2 4 was utilized. The dependent variable was the percentage of dissolved iron, and the dependent variables in this study were acid concentration (0.35 and 0.50 M), temperature (75 C and 100 C), leaching time (2 and 4 h), and ph (1.5 and 2.5). An analysis of variance revealed that the effects of the factors temperature (b), ph (d), and the combined effects of temperature and time (b c) resulted in the maximum dissolution of iron of 88% at 100 C, giving a kaolin mineral with a whiteness index 93.50. For the mineralogical analysis the X-ray diffraction technique was used. (Author)

  19. Measurements of fast neutron spectra in iron, uranium and sodium-iron assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappler, F.; Pieroni, N.; Rusch, D.; Schmidt, A.; Wattecamps, E.; Werle, H.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrum measurements were performed at the fast subcritical facility SUAK to test nuclear data and computer codes used in fast reactor calculations. In order to obtain a specific and quantitative interpretation of discrepancies between measured and calculated spectrum, homogeneous assemblies consisting of single materials were investigated. The leakage spectrum of iron and uranium cylinders was measured by time-of-flight and proportional counters. Time-dependent leakage spectra were measured by a NE 213 liquid scintillator. It was demonstrated that the investigation of time-dependent spectra is a sensitive test of inelastic scattering cross section data. The effect of an interface on fast neutron spectra was also investigated by measuring space dependent spectra across a sodium-iron interface. The measured spectra of these assemblies are suitable for testing the adequacy of computational approximations and cross section data. (author)

  20. A new lactoferrin- and iron-dependent lysosomal death pathway is induced by benzo[a]pyrene in hepatic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorria, Morgane; Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Sergent, Odile; Huc, Laurence; Landvik, Nina; Fardel, Olivier; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese; Holme, Jorn A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    While lysosomal disruption seems to be a late step of necrosis, a moderate lysosomal destabilization has been suggested to participate early in the apoptotic cascade. The origin of lysosomal dysfunction and its precise role in apoptosis or apoptosis-like process still needs to be clarified, especially upon carcinogen exposure. In this study, we focused on the implication of lysosomes in cell death induced by the prototype carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 50 nM) in rat hepatic epithelial F258 cells. We first demonstrated that B[a]P affected lysosomal morphology (increase in size) and pH (alkalinization), and that these changes were involved in caspase-3 activation and cell death. Subsequently, we showed that lysosomal modifications were partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction, and that lysosomes together with mitochondria participate in B[a]P-induced oxidative stress. Using two iron chelators (desferrioxamine and deferiprone) and siRNA targeting the lysosomal iron-binding protease lactoferrin, we further demonstrated that both lysosomal iron content and lactoferrin were required for caspase-3 activation and apoptosis-like cell death

  1. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  2. Regulation of MntH by a dual Mn(II- and Fe(II-dependent transcriptional repressor (DR2539 in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Sun

    Full Text Available The high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio observed within the bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans may contribute to its remarkable resistance to environmental stresses. We isolated DR2539, a novel regulator of intracellular Mn/Fe homeostasis in D. radiodurans. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays (EMSAs revealed that DR2539 binds specifically to the promoter of the manganese acquisition transporter (MntH gene, and that DR0865, the only Fur homologue in D. radiodurans, cannot bind to the promoter of mntH, but it can bind to the promoter of another manganese acquisition transporter, MntABC. β-galactosidase expression analysis indicated that DR2539 acts as a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor. Further sequence alignment analysis revealed that DR2539 has evolved some special characteristics. Site-directed mutagenesis suggested that His98 plays an important role in the activities of DR2539, and further protein-DNA binding activity assays showed that the activity of H98Y mutants decreased dramatically relative to wild type DR2539. Our study suggests that D. radiodurans has evolved a very efficient manganese regulation mechanism that involves its high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio and permits resistance to extreme conditions.

  3. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane.—Patel, C., Douard, V., Yu, S., Gao, N., Ferraris, R. P. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption. PMID:26071406

  4. Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Reveals Shp-2 Phosphatase-Dependent Regulators of Pdgf Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Papetti, Moreno; Pfeiffer, Anamarija

    2018-01-01

    Despite its low cellular abundance, phosphotyrosine (pTyr) regulates numerous cell signaling pathways in health and disease. We applied comprehensive phosphoproteomics to unravel differential regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-initiated signaling networks upon activation by Pdgf-ββ, Fgf-2...... of Pdgfr pTyr signaling. Application of a recently introduced allosteric Shp-2 inhibitor revealed global regulation of the Pdgf-dependent tyrosine phosphoproteome, which significantly impaired cell migration. In addition, we present a list of hundreds of Shp-2-dependent targets and putative substrates...

  5. Mutually Exclusive Alterations in Secondary Metabolism Are Critical for the Uptake of Insoluble Iron Compounds by Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Guin-Mau; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The generally low bioavailability of iron in aerobic soil systems forced plants to evolve sophisticated genetic strategies to improve the acquisition of iron from sparingly soluble and immobile iron pools. To distinguish between conserved and species-dependent components of such strategies, we analyzed iron deficiency-induced changes in the transcriptome of two model species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Medicago truncatula. Transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing revealed a massive up-regulation of genes coding for enzymes involved in riboflavin biosynthesis in M. truncatula and phenylpropanoid synthesis in Arabidopsis upon iron deficiency. Coexpression and promoter analysis indicated that the synthesis of flavins and phenylpropanoids is tightly linked to and putatively coregulated with other genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake. We further provide evidence that the production and secretion of phenolic compounds is critical for the uptake of iron from sources with low bioavailability but dispensable under conditions where iron is readily available. In Arabidopsis, homozygous mutations in the Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family gene F6′H1 and defects in the expression of PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE9, encoding a putative efflux transporter for products from the phenylpropanoid pathway, compromised iron uptake from an iron source of low bioavailability. Both mutants were partially rescued when grown alongside wild-type Arabidopsis or M. truncatula seedlings, presumably by secreted phenolics and flavins. We concluded that production and secretion of compounds that facilitate the uptake of iron is an essential but poorly understood aspect of the reduction-based iron acquisition strategy, which is likely to contribute substantially to the efficiency of iron uptake in natural conditions. PMID:23735511

  6. Synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine: crystal structure of the non-heme iron(II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase EctD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reuter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a response to high osmolality, many microorganisms synthesize various types of compatible solutes. These organic osmolytes aid in offsetting the detrimental effects of low water activity on cell physiology. One of these compatible solutes is ectoine. A sub-group of the ectoine producer's enzymatically convert this tetrahydropyrimidine into a hydroxylated derivative, 5-hydroxyectoine. This compound also functions as an effective osmostress protectant and compatible solute but it possesses properties that differ in several aspects from those of ectoine. The enzyme responsible for ectoine hydroxylation (EctD is a member of the non-heme iron(II-containing and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11. These enzymes couple the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate with the formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate to catalyze the oxidation of the bound organic substrate. We report here the crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase EctD from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens in complex with Fe(3+ at a resolution of 1.85 A. Like other non-heme iron(II and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, the core of the EctD structure consists of a double-stranded beta-helix forming the main portion of the active-site of the enzyme. The positioning of the iron ligand in the active-site of EctD is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. The side chains of the three residues forming this iron-binding site protrude into a deep cavity in the EctD structure that also harbours the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate-binding site. Database searches revealed a widespread occurrence of EctD-type proteins in members of the Bacteria but only in a single representative of the Archaea, the marine crenarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The EctD crystal structure reported here can serve as a template to guide further biochemical and structural studies of this biotechnologically interesting enzyme family.

  7. Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO 2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

  8. Secreted glyceraldehye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a multifunctional autocrine transferrin receptor for cellular iron acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheokand, Navdeep; Kumar, Santosh; Malhotra, Himanshu; Tillu, Vikas; Raje, Chaaya Iyengar; Raje, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    The long held view is that mammalian cells obtain transferrin (Tf) bound iron utilizing specialized membrane anchored receptors. Here we report that, during increased iron demand, cells secrete the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which enhances cellular uptake of Tf and iron. These observations could be mimicked by utilizing purified GAPDH injected into mice as well as when supplemented in culture medium of model cell lines and primary cell types that play a key role in iron metabolism. Transferrin and iron delivery was evaluated by biochemical, biophysical and imaging based assays. This mode of iron uptake is a saturable, energy dependent pathway, utilizing raft as well as non-raft domains of the cell membrane and also involves the membrane protein CD87 (uPAR). Tf internalized by this mode is also catabolized. Our research demonstrates that, even in cell types that express the known surface receptor based mechanism for transferrin uptake, more transferrin is delivered by this route which represents a hidden dimension of iron homeostasis. Iron is an essential trace metal for practically all living organisms however its acquisition presents major challenges. The current paradigm is that living organisms have developed well orchestrated and evolved mechanisms involving iron carrier molecules and their specific receptors to regulate its absorption, transport, storage and mobilization. Our research uncovers a hidden and primitive pathway of bulk iron trafficking involving a secreted receptor that is a multifunctional glycolytic enzyme that has implications in pathological conditions such as infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature dependence of the electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption of carbonyl iron particles/silicone resin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yingying; Zhou, Wancheng; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2015-01-15

    Microwave absorbing composites with thin thickness and wideband absorption were successfully prepared by a spraying method using carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) as absorbers and silicone resin as the matrix. The value of reflection loss (RL) below −5 dB can be obtained in the frequency range of 5.76–18 GHz for the composite with 0.8 mm thickness. The temperature dependence of electromagnetic properties and RL of the composites were investigated. The RL of the composite showed a slight variation when the temperature reached up to 200 °C while decreased at 300 °C. The room temperature RL of the composite did not display significant difference before and after the heat treatment at 300 °C for 10 h; the mechanism was also discussed. - Highlights: • Carbonyl iron particles/silicone resin composites are prepared by a spraying method. • Reflection loss values exceed −5 dB at 5.76–18 GHz for an absorber of 0.8 mm thickness. • The variation of reflection loss was studied from room temperature to 300 °C.

  10. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean; Rayapuram, Naganand; Pflieger, Delphine; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  11. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness ... If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Your ...

  13. Change of mechanical properties of irradiated silicon iron in dependence of preliminary deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkina, L.A.; Okovit, V.S.; Khinkis, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the data on the influence of the 225 MeV electron irradiation on flow limit and specific elongation of silicon iron specimens preliminary deformed by slipping and twinning. The irradiaton was carried out at the temperature up to 350 K with integral dose up to 7x10 18 el/cm 2 . The specimens were tested in the temperature range of 4-450 K. It is found that the ductile brittle transition temperature Tsub(c) and plastic deformation mode of the irradiated material heavily depends on the preliminary deformation mode. The irradiation of specimens deformed by slipping leads to the increase in transition temperature (Tsub(c)) by 80 deg and it reaches 420 K. The preliminary deformation by twinning results in the Tsub(c) increase up to 320 K

  14. Modern iron replacement therapy: clinical and pathophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Domenico; Ugolini, Sara; Busti, Fabiana; Marchi, Giacomo; Castagna, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is extremely frequent worldwide, representing a major public health problem. Iron replacement therapy dates back to the seventeenth century, and has progressed relatively slowly until recently. Both oral and intravenous traditional iron formulations are known to be far from ideal, mainly because of tolerability and safety issues, respectively. At the beginning of this century, the discovery of hepcidin/ferroportin axis has represented a turning point in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iron metabolism disorders, ushering a new era. In the meantime, advances in the pharmaceutical technologies are producing newer iron formulations aimed at minimizing the problems inherent with traditional approaches. The pharmacokinetic of oral and parenteral iron is substantially different, and diversities have become even clearer in light of the hepcidin master role in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Here we review how iron therapy is changing because of such important advances in both pathophysiology and pharmacology.

  15. The biological effect of asbestos exposure is dependent on changes in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that 1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and 2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and...

  16. Clinical consequences of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: the case for iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammo, Jamile M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2018-06-14

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS. Expert Commentary: While a benefit of ICT has been more firmly established in other transfusion-dependent conditions such as thalassemia, its role in reducing iron overload in MDS remains controversial due to the lack of prospective controlled data demonstrating a survival benefit. Orally administered chelation agents (e.g., deferasirox), are now available, and observational and/or retrospective data support a survival benefit of using ICT in MDS. The placebo-controlled TELESTO trial (NCT00940602) is currently examining the use of deferasirox in MDS patients with iron overload, and is evaluating specifically whether use of ICT to alleviate iron overload can also reduce iron overload-related complications in MDS and improve survival.

  17. New perspectives on the regulation of iron absorption via cellular zinc concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Marija; Graham, Robin D; Welch, Ross M; Stangoulis, James C R

    2017-07-03

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency, affecting more than 30% of the total world's population. It is a major public health problem in many countries around the world. Over the years various methods have been used with an effort to try and control iron-deficiency anemia. However, there has only been a marginal reduction in the global prevalence of anemia. Why is this so? Iron and zinc are essential trace elements for humans. These metals influence the transport and absorption of one another across the enterocytes and hepatocytes, due to similar ionic properties. This paper describes the structure and roles of major iron and zinc transport proteins, clarifies iron-zinc interactions at these sites, and provides a model for the mechanism of these interactions both at the local and systemic level. This review provides evidence that much of the massive extent of iron deficiency anemia in the world may be due to an underlying deficiency of zinc. It explains the reasons for predominance of cellular zinc status in determination of iron/zinc interactions and for the first time thoroughly explains mechanisms by which zinc brings about these changes.

  18. Solubility limit and precipitation kinetics of iron-phosphide in ferritic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    1992-01-01

    The solubility limit of iron-phosphide in ferritic iron was examined with electrical resistivity measurements by using the relationship between resistivity and the amount of dissolved phosphorous. The temperature dependence of the solubility obtained was in good agreement with previous results. The kinetics of precipitation of the phosphide from a supersaturated Fe-3.75 at.% P alloy was also investigated with changes of the resistivity by isochronal and isothermal annealing. The activation energy for the precipitation process of the phosphide was about 2.6 eV. Diffusivities of phosphorus were estimated from the annealing behaviour and the morphology of the precipitates, which were comparable to those obtained with the tracer method previously. This suggests that the precipitation process of phosphide is rate controlled by diffusion of phosphorus in ferritic iron-phosphorus alloys. (orig.) [de

  19. Activity-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of GAD Expression in a Homeostatic Fashion Is Mediated by BDNF-Dependent and Independent Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno-Iijima, Yoko; Tanaka, Masami; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, or synaptic scaling, is a mechanism that tunes neuronal transmission to compensate for prolonged, excessive changes in neuronal activity. Both excitatory and inhibitory neurons undergo homeostatic changes based on synaptic transmission strength, which could effectively contribute to a fine-tuning of circuit activity. However, gene regulation that underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity in GABAergic (GABA, gamma aminobutyric) neurons is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrated activity-dependent dynamic scaling in which NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) activity regulated the expression of GABA synthetic enzymes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67). Results revealed that activity-regulated BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) release is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity-dependent up-scaling of these GAD isoforms. Bidirectional forms of activity-dependent GAD expression require both BDNF-dependent and BDNF-independent pathways, both triggered by NMDA-R activity. Additional results indicated that these two GAD genes differ in their responsiveness to chronic changes in neuronal activity, which could be partially caused by differential dependence on BDNF. In parallel to activity-dependent bidirectional scaling in GAD expression, the present study further observed that a chronic change in neuronal activity leads to an alteration in neurotransmitter release from GABAergic neurons in a homeostatic, bidirectional fashion. Therefore, the differential expression of GAD65 and 67 during prolonged changes in neuronal activity may be implicated in some aspects of bidirectional homeostatic plasticity within mature GABAergic presynapses. PMID:26241953

  20. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  1. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  2. Females Are Protected From Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Independent of Iron Metabolism: Key Role of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhash K; Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Wang; DesAulniers, Jessica; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2017-01-23

    Sex-related differences in cardiac function and iron metabolism exist in humans and experimental animals. Male patients and preclinical animal models are more susceptible to cardiomyopathies and heart failure. However, whether similar differences are seen in iron-overload cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. Male and female wild-type and hemojuvelin-null mice were injected and fed with a high-iron diet, respectively, to develop secondary iron overload and genetic hemochromatosis. Female mice were completely protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy, whereas iron overload resulted in marked diastolic dysfunction in male iron-overloaded mice based on echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume analyses. Female mice demonstrated a marked suppression of iron-mediated oxidative stress and a lack of myocardial fibrosis despite an equivalent degree of myocardial iron deposition. Ovariectomized female mice with iron overload exhibited essential pathophysiological features of iron-overload cardiomyopathy showing distinct diastolic and systolic dysfunction, severe myocardial fibrosis, increased myocardial oxidative stress, and increased expression of cardiac disease markers. Ovariectomy prevented iron-induced upregulation of ferritin, decreased myocardial SERCA2a levels, and increased NCX1 levels. 17β-Estradiol therapy rescued the iron-overload cardiomyopathy in male wild-type mice. The responses in wild-type and hemojuvelin-null female mice were remarkably similar, highlighting a conserved mechanism of sex-dependent protection from iron-overload-mediated cardiac injury. Male and female mice respond differently to iron-overload-mediated effects on heart structure and function, and females are markedly protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Ovariectomy in female mice exacerbated iron-induced myocardial injury and precipitated severe cardiac dysfunction during iron-overload conditions, whereas 17β-estradiol therapy was protective in male iron-overloaded mice.

  3. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III) complexes of linear and tripodal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rate of oxygenation depends on the solvent and the. Lewis acidity of iron(III) ... has been achieved by non-heme iron enzymes and their ..... oxygen atoms of nitrate ion (figure 3). ... enhanced covalency of iron-catecholate interaction and.

  4. The physiological functions of iron regulatory proteins in iron homeostasis - an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Liang eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs regulate the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism by binding to RNA stem-loop structures known as iron responsive elements (IREs in target mRNAs. IRP binding inhibits the translation of mRNAs that contain an IRE in the 5’untranslated region of the transcripts, and increases the stability of mRNAs that contain IREs in the 3'untranslated region of transcripts. By these mechanisms, IRPs increase cellular iron absorption and decrease storage and export of iron to maintain an optimal intracellular iron balance. There are two members of the mammalian IRP protein family, IRP1 and IRP2, and they have redundant functions as evidenced by the embryonic lethality of the mice that completely lack IRP expression (Irp1-/-/Irp2-/- mice, which contrasts with the fact that Irp1-/- and Irp2-/- mice are viable. In addition, Irp2-/- mice also display neurodegenerative symptoms and microcytic hypochromic anemia, suggesting that IRP2 function predominates in the nervous system and erythropoietic homeostasis. Though the physiological significance of IRP1 had been unclear since Irp1-/- animals were first assessed in the early 1990’s, recent studies indicate that IRP1 plays an essential function in orchestrating the balance between erythropoiesis and bodily iron homeostasis. Additionally, Irp1-/- mice develop pulmonary hypertension, and they experience sudden death when maintained on an iron-deficient diet, indicating that IRP1 has a critical role in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in understanding the physiological roles of IRP1 and IRP2, and further discusses the implications for clinical research on patients with idiopathic polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension and neurodegeneration.

  5. Effect of dietary iron loading on recognition memory in growing rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murui Han

    Full Text Available While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047. Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002. Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR. Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the

  6. Iron phthalocyanine on Cu(111): Coverage-dependent assembly and symmetry breaking, temperature-induced homocoupling, and modification of the adsorbate-surface interaction by annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhkova, Olesia; Bischoff, Felix; He, Yuanqin; Wiengarten, Alissa; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Johansson, Niclas; Schulte, Karina; Knudsen, Jan; Barth, Johannes V; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Schnadt, Joachim

    2016-03-07

    We have examined the geometric and electronic structures of iron phthalocyanine assemblies on a Cu(111) surface at different sub- to mono-layer coverages and the changes induced by thermal annealing at temperatures between 250 and 320 °C by scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The symmetry breaking observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images is found to be coverage dependent and to persist upon annealing. Further, we find that annealing to temperatures between 300 and 320 °C leads to both desorption of iron phthalocyanine molecules from the surface and their agglomeration. We see clear evidence of temperature-induced homocoupling reactions of the iron phthalocyanine molecules following dehydrogenation of their isoindole rings, similar to what has been observed for related tetrapyrroles on transition metal surfaces. Finally, spectroscopy indicates a modified substrate-adsorbate interaction upon annealing with a shortened bond distance. This finding could potentially explain a changed reactivity of Cu-supported iron phthalocyanine in comparison to that of the pristine compound.

  7. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

  8. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  9. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  10. Immune Cells and Microbiota Response to Iron Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieppa, Marcello; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    Metal ions are essential for life on Earth, mostly as crucial components of all living organisms; indeed, they are necessary for bioenergetics functions as crucial redox catalysts. Due to the essential role of iron in biological processes, body iron content is finely regulated and is the battlefield of a tug-of-war between the host and the microbiota.

  11. Estrogen-dependent changes in serum iron levels as a translator of the adverse effects of estrogen during infection: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mawieh; Awadallah, Samir

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of estrogen often associate with increased susceptibility to infection. This has been attributed to the ability of estrogen to concomitantly enhance the growth and virulence of pathogens and suppress host immunity. But the exact mechanism of how estrogen mediates such effects, especially in cases where the pathogen and/or the immune components in question do not express estrogen receptors, has yet to be elucidated. Here we propose that translating the adverse effects of estrogen during infection is dependent to a significant degree upon its ability to manipulate iron homeostasis. For elevated levels of estrogen alter the synthesis and/or activity of several factors involved in iron metabolism including hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and hepcidin among others. This leads to the inhibition of hepcidin synthesis in hepatocytes and the maintenance of ferroportin (FPN) integrity on the surface of iron-releasing duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and macrophages. Intact FPN permits the continuous efflux of dietary and stored iron into the circulation, which further enhances pathogen growth and virulence on the one hand and suppresses host immunity on the other. This new conceptual framework may help explain a multitude of disparate clinical and experimental observations pertinent to the relationship between estrogen and infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.

  13. Theoretical Analyses of Superconductivity in Iron Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire7-

    using double time temperature dependent Green's function formalism and a suitable decoupling approximation technique, we ... phenomenon of zero electric resistivity in mercury was soon followed by the observation of the superconducting state in ... The iron, Fe2+ forms tetrahedron within the layers. This means that, iron-.

  14. Hunger for iron: the alternative siderophore iron scavenging systems in highly virulent Yersinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRakin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight siderophores are used by many living organisms to scavenge scarcely available ferric iron. Presence of at least a single siderophore-based iron acquisition system is usually acknowledged as a virulence-associated trait and a prerequisite to become an efficient and successful pathogen. Currently it is assumed that yersiniabactin (Ybt is the solely functional endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in highly virulent Yersinia (Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B. Genes responsible for biosynthesis, transport and regulation of the yersiniabactin (ybt production are clustered on a mobile genetic element, the High Pathogenicity Island (HPI that is responsible for broad dissemination of the ybt genes in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the ybt gene cluster is absent from nearly half of Y. pseudotuberculosis O3 isolates and epidemic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 isolates responsible for the Far East Scarlet-like Fever. Several potential siderophore-mediated iron uptake gene clusters are documented in Yersinia genomes, however neither of them have been proven to be functional. It has been suggested that at least two siderophores alternative to Ybt may operate in the highly virulent Yersinia pestis / Y. pseudotuberculosis group, and are referred to as pseudochelin (Pch and yersiniachelin (Ych. Furthermore, most sporadic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 strains possess gene clusters encoding all three iron scavenging systems. Thus, the Ybt system appears not to be the sole endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in the highly virulent yersiniae and may be efficiently substituted and / or supplemented by alternative iron scavenging systems.

  15. Preferential Iron Trafficking Characterizes Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonberg, David L; Miller, Tyler E; Wu, Qiulian

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas display hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). RNA sequencing and enhancer mapping revealed regulatory programs unique to CSCs causing upregulation of the iron transporter transferrin, the top differentially expressed gene compared with tissue......, to propagate and form tumors in vivo. Depleting ferritin disrupted CSC mitotic progression, through the STAT3-FoxM1 regulatory axis, revealing an iron-regulated CSC pathway. Iron is a unique, primordial metal fundamental for earliest life forms, on which CSCs have an epigenetically programmed, targetable...

  16. Genomic insights into microbial iron oxidation and iron uptake strategies in extremely acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S

    2012-07-01

    This minireview presents recent advances in our understanding of iron oxidation and homeostasis in acidophilic Bacteria and Archaea. These processes influence the flux of metals and nutrients in pristine and man-made acidic environments such as acid mine drainage and industrial bioleaching operations. Acidophiles are also being studied to understand life in extreme conditions and their role in the generation of biomarkers used in the search for evidence of existing or past extra-terrestrial life. Iron oxidation in acidophiles is best understood in the model organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, recent functional genomic analysis of acidophiles is leading to a deeper appreciation of the diversity of acidophilic iron-oxidizing pathways. Although it is too early to paint a detailed picture of the role played by lateral gene transfer in the evolution of iron oxidation, emerging evidence tends to support the view that iron oxidation arose independently more than once in evolution. Acidic environments are generally rich in soluble iron and extreme acidophiles (e.g. the Leptospirillum genus) have considerably fewer iron uptake systems compared with neutrophiles. However, some acidophiles have been shown to grow as high as pH 6 and, in the case of the Acidithiobacillus genus, to have multiple iron uptake systems. This could be an adaption allowing them to respond to different iron concentrations via the use of a multiplicity of different siderophores. Both Leptospirillum spp. and Acidithiobacillus spp. are predicted to synthesize the acid stable citrate siderophore for Fe(III) uptake. In addition, both groups have predicted receptors for siderophores produced by other microorganisms, suggesting that competition for iron occurs influencing the ecophysiology of acidic environments. Little is known about the genetic regulation of iron oxidation and iron uptake in acidophiles, especially how the use of iron as an energy source is balanced with its need to take up

  17. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  18. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sandra Azevedo; Canziani, Maria Eugênia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population. Resumo Anemia é uma complicação frequente e seu impacto na morbimortalidade é bem conhecido em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). A descoberta da hepcidina e de suas funções contribuíram para melhor compreensão dos distúrbios do metabolismo de ferro na anemia da DRC. Hepcidina é um peptídeo produzido principalmente pelos hepatócitos, e através de sua ligação com a ferroportina, regula a absorção de ferro no duodeno e sua liberação das células de estoque. Altas concentrações de hepcidina descritas em pacientes com DRC, principalmente em estádios mais avançados, são atribuídas à diminuição da excreção renal e ao aumento de sua produção. Elevação de hepcidina tem sido associada à ocorrência de infecção, inflamação, aterosclerose, resistência à insulina e estresse oxidativo. Algumas estratégias foram testadas para diminuir os efeitos da hepcidina em pacientes com DRC, entretanto, serão necessários mais estudos para avaliar o impacto de sua modulação no manejo da anemia nessa população.

  19. Context-dependent interactions and the regulation of species richness in freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Andrew S.; Harvey, Eric; McCune, Jenny L.; Nilsson, Karin A.; Bennett, Joseph; Firn, Jennifer; Bartley, Timothy; Grace, James B.; Kelly, Jocelyn; Tunney, Tyler D.; McMeans, Bailey; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Kadoya, Taku; Esch, Ellen; Cazelles, Kevin; Lester, Nigel; McCann, Kevin S.

    2018-01-01

    Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11olatitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators. Instead, interaction effects, when detectable among major functional groups and 231 species pairs, were strong, often positive, but contextually dependent on environment. These results are consistent with the idea that negative interactions internally structure lake communities but do not consistently ‘scale-up’ to regulate richness independently of the environment. The importance of environment for interaction outcomes and its role in the regulation of species richness highlights the potential sensitivity of fish communities to the environmental changes affecting lakes globally.

  20. TCA cycle activity in Staphylococcus aureus is essential for iron-regulated synthesis of staphyloferrin A, but not staphyloferrin B: the benefit of a second citrate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jessica R; Marolda, Cristina L; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus elaborates two citrate-containing siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB), that enhance growth under iron-restriction, yet, paradoxically, expression of the TCA cycle citrate synthase, CitZ, is downregulated during iron starvation. Iron starvation does, however, result in expression of SbnG, recently identified as a novel citrate synthase that is encoded from within the iron-regulated SB biosynthetic locus, suggesting an important role for SbnG in staphyloferrin production. We demonstrate that during growth of S. aureus in iron-restricted media containing glucose, SB is produced but, in contrast, SA production is severely repressed; accordingly, SB-deficient mutants grow poorly in these media. Hypothesizing that reduced TCA cycle activity hinders SA production, we show that a citZ mutant is capable of SB synthesis, but not SA synthesis, providing evidence that SbnG does not generate citrate for incorporation into SA. A citZ sbnG mutant synthesizes neither staphyloferrin, is severely compromised for growth in iron-restricted media, and is significantly more impaired for virulence than either of the single-deletion mutants. We propose that SB is the more important of the two siderophores for S. aureus insofar as it is synthesized, and supports iron-restricted growth, without need of TCA cycle activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fitting into the Harsh Reality: Regulation of Irondeficiency Responses in Dicotyledonous Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumen Ivanov; Tzvetina Brumbarova; Petra Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and its shortage,or excess,in the living organism may lead to severe health disorders.Plants serve as the primary source of dietary iron and improving crop iron content is an important step towards a better public health.Our review focuses on the control of iron acquisition in dicotyledonous plants and monocots that apply a reduction-based strategy in order to mobilize and import iron from the rhizosphere.Achieving a balance between shortage and excess of iron requires a tight regulation of the activity of the iron uptake system.A number of studies,ranging from single gene characterization to systems biology analyses,have led to the rapid expansion of our knowledge on iron uptake in recent years.Here,we summarize the novel insights into the regulation of iron acquisition and internal mobilization from intracellular stores.We present a detailed view of the main known regulatory networks defined by the Arabidopsis regulators FIT and POPEYE (PYE).Additionally,we analyze the root and leaf ironresponsive regulatory networks,revealing novel potential gene interactions and reliable iron-deficiency marker genes.We discuss perspectives and open questions with regard to iron sensing and post-translational regulation.

  2. Pressure dependence of the interfacial structure of potassium chloride films on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Dustin; Gao, Hongyu; Tang, Chun; Tysoe, Wilfred T.; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-01-01

    Potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface are used as a model system to explore the interfacial structure of the films and the dependence of that structure on film thickness and pressure. The interfacial structure of one-, two-, three- and four-layer films is measured experimentally using low-energy electron diffraction. Those findings are then complemented by molecular dynamics simulations in which the atomic interaction between the film and substrate is tuned to match film thickness-dependent sublimation activation energy obtained from temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The resultant simulation reliably predicts the structure of thicker films and is then used to study the effect of pressure on the distribution of the lattice constant within and between each layer of the potassium chloride films. Findings indicate that both film thickness and pressure affect the structure within the films as well as the degree of registry between the film and adjacent substrate. - Highlights: • KCl films on an Fe surface are used as a model system to explore interfacial structure • Thin film structure is measured using low-energy electron diffraction • An empirical potential is tuned to match sublimation activation energy • Simulations reveal the effect of pressure on the lattice constant within the KCl films • Pressure affects the film structure and registry between film and substrate

  3. Pressure dependence of the interfacial structure of potassium chloride films on iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Dustin [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Surface Studies, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Gao, Hongyu; Tang, Chun [School of Engineering, University of California Merced, Merced CA 95343 (United States); Tysoe, Wilfred T. [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Surface Studies, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Martini, Ashlie [School of Engineering, University of California Merced, Merced CA 95343 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface are used as a model system to explore the interfacial structure of the films and the dependence of that structure on film thickness and pressure. The interfacial structure of one-, two-, three- and four-layer films is measured experimentally using low-energy electron diffraction. Those findings are then complemented by molecular dynamics simulations in which the atomic interaction between the film and substrate is tuned to match film thickness-dependent sublimation activation energy obtained from temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The resultant simulation reliably predicts the structure of thicker films and is then used to study the effect of pressure on the distribution of the lattice constant within and between each layer of the potassium chloride films. Findings indicate that both film thickness and pressure affect the structure within the films as well as the degree of registry between the film and adjacent substrate. - Highlights: • KCl films on an Fe surface are used as a model system to explore interfacial structure • Thin film structure is measured using low-energy electron diffraction • An empirical potential is tuned to match sublimation activation energy • Simulations reveal the effect of pressure on the lattice constant within the KCl films • Pressure affects the film structure and registry between film and substrate.

  4. Transgenic petunia with the iron(III)-phytosiderophore transporter gene acquires tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshiko; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Takashi; Namba, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and the uptake of iron(II) by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III). Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III)-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III)-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2'-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III) complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems to diverse

  5. Transgenic petunia with the iron(III-phytosiderophore transporter gene acquires tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Murata

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III to iron(II and the uptake of iron(II by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III. Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2'-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems

  6. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  7. Moessbauer effect studies of magnetic interactions in iron and dilute iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, F. van der; Schurer, P.J.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A temperature-dependent Moessbauer study was conducted in FeX alloys, where X = Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni, aimed at solving the problem of 'what is localized and what is itinerant in iron ferromagnetism'. The experimental results are interpreted using a phenomenological model based on a modified Zener-Vonsovskij theory. Absorption spectra of FeX alloys were measured as a function of temperature. It was found that the 3d magnetic moments in iron were mainly localized while exchange coupling was provided by partly itinerant 3d electrons. (L.D.)

  8. Brain transcriptome perturbations in the Hfe(-/-) mouse model of genetic iron loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Daniel; Graham, Ross M; Trinder, Debbie; Delima, Roheeth D; Riveros, Carlos; Olynyk, John K; Scott, Rodney J; Moscato, Pablo; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-11

    Severe disruption of brain iron homeostasis can cause fatal neurodegenerative disease, however debate surrounds the neurologic effects of milder, more common iron loading disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis, which is usually caused by loss-of-function polymorphisms in the HFE gene. There is evidence from both human and animal studies that HFE gene variants may affect brain function and modify risks of brain disease. To investigate how disruption of HFE influences brain transcript levels, we used microarray and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess the brain transcriptome in Hfe(-/-) mice relative to wildtype AKR controls (age 10 weeks, n≥4/group). The Hfe(-/-) mouse brain showed numerous significant changes in transcript levels (pgenes relating to transcriptional regulation (FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene Fos, early growth response genes), neurotransmission (glutamate NMDA receptor Grin1, GABA receptor Gabbr1) and synaptic plasticity and memory (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα Camk2a). As previously reported for dietary iron-supplemented mice, there were altered levels of transcripts for genes linked to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a disease characterized by excessive lipofuscin deposition. Labile iron is known to enhance lipofuscin generation which may accelerate brain aging. The findings provide evidence that iron loading disorders can considerably perturb levels of transcripts for genes essential for normal brain function and may help explain some of the neurologic signs and symptoms reported in hemochromatosis patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  10. Iron and its complexes in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istratov, A. A.; Hieslmair, H.; Weber, E. R.

    This article is the first in a series of two reviews on the properties of iron in silicon. It offers a comprehensive of the current state of understanding of fundamental physical properties of iron and its complexes in silicon. The first section of this review discusses the position of iron in the silicon lattice and the electrical properties of interstitial iron. Updated expressions for the solubility and the diffusivity of iron in silicon are presented, and possible explanations for conflicting experimental data obtained by different groups are discussed. The second section of the article considers the electrical and the structural properties of complexes of interstitial iron with shallow acceptors (boron, aluminum, indium, gallium, and thallium), shallow donors (phosphorus and arsenic) and other impurities (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, zinc, sulfur, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen). Special attention is paid to the kinetics of iron pairing with shallow acceptors, the dissociation of these pairs, and the metastability of iron-acceptor pairs. The parameters of iron-related defects in silicon are summarized in tables that include more than 30 complexes of iron as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and almost 20 energy levels in the band gap associated with iron. The data presented in this review illustrate the enormous complexing activity of iron, which is attributed to the partial or complete (depending on the temperature and the conductivity type) ionization of iron as well as the high diffusivity of iron in silicon. It is shown that studies of iron in silicon require exceptional cleanliness of experimental facilities and highly reproducible diffusion and temperature ramping (quenching) procedures. Properties of iron that are not yet completely understood and need further research are outlined.

  11. α -Actinin TvACTN3 of Trichomonas vaginalis is an RNA-binding protein that could participate in its posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calla-Choque, Jaeson Santos; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted flagellated protist parasite responsible for trichomoniasis. This parasite is dependent on high levels of iron, favoring its growth and multiplication. Iron also differentially regulates some trichomonad virulence properties by unknown mechanisms. However, there is evidence to support the existence of gene regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels that are mediated by iron concentration in T. vaginalis. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify an RNA-binding protein in T. vaginalis that interacts with the tvcp4 RNA stem-loop structure, which may participate in a posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism mediated by RNA-protein interactions. We performed RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (REMSA) and supershift, UV cross-linking, Northwestern blot, and western blot (WB) assays using cytoplasmic protein extracts from T. vaginalis with the tvcp4 RNA hairpin structure as a probe. We identified a 135-kDa protein isolated by the UV cross-linking assays as α-actinin 3 (TvACTN3) by MALDI-TOF-MS that was confirmed by LS-MS/MS and de novo sequencing. TvACTN3 is a cytoplasmic protein that specifically binds to hairpin RNA structures from trichomonads and humans when the parasites are grown under iron-depleted conditions. Thus, TvACTN3 could participate in the regulation of gene expression by iron in T. vaginalis through a parallel posttranscriptional mechanism similar to that of the IRE/IRP system.

  12. Ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system of iron traffic in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; Musci; Fabio; Polticelli; Maria; Carmela; Bonaccorsi; di; Patti

    2014-01-01

    Safe trafficking of iron across the cell membrane is a delicate process that requires specific protein carriers. While many proteins involved in iron uptake by cells are known, only one cellular iron export protein has been identified in mammals: ferroportin(SLC40A1). Ceruloplasmin is a multicopper enzyme endowed with ferroxidase activity that is found as a soluble isoform in plasma or as a membrane-associated isoform in specific cell types. According to the currently accepted view, ferrous iron transported out of the cell by ferroportin would be safely oxidized by ceruloplasmin to facilitate loading on transferrin. Therefore, the ceruloplasminferroportin system represents the main pathway for cellular iron egress and it is responsible for physiological regulation of cellular iron levels. The most recent findings regarding the structural and functional features of ceruloplasmin and ferroportin and their relationship will be described in this review.

  13. FIND-CKD: a randomized trial of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Nolen, Jacqueline G; Roger, Simon D

    2014-11-01

    The optimal iron therapy regimen in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Ferinject® assessment in patients with Iron deficiency anaemia and Non-Dialysis-dependent Chronic Kidney Disease (FIND-CKD) was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective and randomized study of 626 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, anaemia and iron deficiency not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patients were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting a higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin or oral iron therapy. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA, other iron therapy or blood transfusion) or haemoglobin (Hb) trigger of two consecutive values <10 g/dL during Weeks 8-52. The primary end point occurred in 36 patients (23.5%), 49 patients (32.2%) and 98 patients (31.8%) in the high-ferritin FCM, low-ferritin FCM and oral iron groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR): 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.95; P = 0.026 for high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron]. The increase in Hb was greater with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (P = 0.014) and a greater proportion of patients achieved an Hb increase ≥1 g/dL with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.52-2.72; P < 0.001). Rates of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in all groups. Compared with oral iron, IV FCM targeting a ferritin of 400-600 µg/L quickly reached and maintained Hb level, and delayed and/or reduced the need for other anaemia management including ESAs. Within the limitations of this trial, no renal toxicity was observed, with no difference in cardiovascular or infectious events. NCT00994318. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  14. FOXO-dependent regulation of innate immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thomas; Loch, Gerrit; Beyer, Marc; Zinke, Ingo; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Carrera, Pilar; Inhester, Therese; Schultze, Joachim L; Hoch, Michael

    2010-01-21

    The innate immune system represents an ancient host defence mechanism that protects against invading microorganisms. An important class of immune effector molecules to fight pathogen infections are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are produced in plants and animals. In Drosophila, the induction of AMPs in response to infection is regulated through the activation of the evolutionarily conserved Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. Here we show that AMP activation can be achieved independently of these immunoregulatory pathways by the transcription factor FOXO, a key regulator of stress resistance, metabolism and ageing. In non-infected animals, AMP genes are activated in response to nuclear FOXO activity when induced by starvation, using insulin signalling mutants, or by applying small molecule inhibitors. AMP induction is lost in foxo null mutants but enhanced when FOXO is overexpressed. Expression of AMP genes in response to FOXO activity can also be triggered in animals unable to respond to immune challenges due to defects in both the Toll and IMD pathways. Molecular experiments at the Drosomycin promoter indicate that FOXO directly binds to its regulatory region, thereby inducing its transcription. In vivo studies in Drosophila, but also studies in human lung, gut, kidney and skin cells indicate that a FOXO-dependent regulation of AMPs is evolutionarily conserved. Our results indicate a new mechanism of cross-regulation of metabolism and innate immunity by which AMP genes can be activated under normal physiological conditions in response to the oscillating energy status of cells and tissues. This regulation seems to be independent of the pathogen-responsive innate immunity pathways whose activation is often associated with tissue damage and repair. The sparse production of AMPs in epithelial tissues in response to FOXO may help modulating the defence reaction without harming the host tissues, in particular when animals are suffering from energy shortage

  15. Immune Cells and Microbiota Response to Iron Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Chieppa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions are essential for life on Earth, mostly as crucial components of all living organisms; indeed, they are necessary for bioenergetics functions as crucial redox catalysts. Due to the essential role of iron in biological processes, body iron content is finely regulated and is the battlefield of a tug-of-war between the host and the microbiota.

  16. Silencing of Iron and Heme-Related Genes Revealed a Paramount Role of Iron in the Physiology of the Hematophagous Vector Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Walter-Nuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes. We observed that blood-meal modulates the expression of ferritin, Iron Responsive protein (IRP, Heme Oxygenase (HO and the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus C Receptor (FLVCR, components of major pathways involved in the regulation of iron and heme metabolism, particularly in the posterior midgut (PM, where an intense release of free heme occurs during the course of digestion. Knockdown of these genes impacted the survival of nymphs and adults, as well as molting, oogenesis and embryogenesis at different rates and time-courses. The silencing of FLVCR caused the highest levels of mortality in nymphs and adults and reduced nymph molting. The oogenesis was mildly affected by the diminished expression of all of the genes whereas embryogenesis was dramatically impaired by the knockdown of ferritin expression. Furthermore, an intense production of ROS in the midgut of blood-fed insects occurs when the expression of ferritin, but not HO, was inhibited. In this manner, the degradation of dietary heme inside the enterocytes may represent an oxidative challenge that is counteracted by ferritins, conferring to this protein a major antioxidant role. Taken together these results demonstrate that the regulation of iron and heme metabolism is of paramount importance for R. prolixus physiology and imbalances in the levels of

  17. Iron induction of ferritin synthesis in soybean cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, D; Briat, J F; Lescure, A M

    1989-06-01

    In animal cells specialized for iron storage, iron-induced accumulation of ferritin is known to result from a shift of stored mRNA from the ribonucleoprotein fraction to polysomes. Previous reports with bean leaves suggested that in plants iron induction of ferritin synthesis would result from a regulation at the transcriptional level (F van der Mark, F Bienfait, H van der Ende [1983] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 115:463-469). Soybean (Glycine max, cv Mandarin) cell suspension cultures have been used here to support these findings. Ferritin induction is obtained by addition of Fe-citrate to the culture medium. A good correlation is found between cellular iron content and the amount of ferritin accumulation. This protein accumulation corresponds to an increase of in vitro translatable ferritin mRNA. Addition of 4 micrograms actinomycin D per milliliter to the cultures inhibits completely in vivo RNA synthesis, whereas protein synthesis was poorly affected, at least for 24 hours. During the same time, this concentration of actinomycin D strongly inhibits the iron-induced synthesis of ferritin. These results show that in soybean cell cultures, the mechanism of regulation of ferritin synthesis in response to iron does not result from recruitment of preexisting mRNA. They confirm that in plant systems, ferritin synthesis results from increased transcription of the corresponding genes.

  18. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport. Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1 ) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2 ) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3 ) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4 ) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels. Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively ( P Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc ( P zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450.

  19. Adsorption of trace elements of radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs + , Rb + ) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag + , divalent cations (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ ) or trivalent cations (Cr 3+ , La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ ) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. The differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are also explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides. (author) 40 refs.; 9 figs

  20. Brain Iron Homeostasis: From Molecular Mechanisms To Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai K.; Horback, Katharine; Wong, Joseph; Sharma, Deepak; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; Anbalagan, Charumathi; Dev, Som; Mukhopadhyay, Chinmay K.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Iron has emerged as a significant cause of neurotoxicity in several neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), and others. In some cases, the underlying cause of iron mis-metabolism is known, while in others, our understanding is, at best, incomplete. Recent evidence implicating key proteins involved in the pathogenesis of AD, PD, and sCJD in cellular iron metabolism suggests that imbalance of brain iron homeostasis associated with these disorders is a direct consequence of disease pathogenesis. A complete understanding of the molecular events leading to this phenotype is lacking partly because of the complex regulation of iron homeostasis within the brain. Since systemic organs and the brain share several iron regulatory mechanisms and iron-modulating proteins, dysfunction of a specific pathway or selective absence of iron-modulating protein(s) in systemic organs has provided important insights into the maintenance of iron homeostasis within the brain. Here, we review recent information on the regulation of iron uptake and utilization in systemic organs and within the complex environment of the brain, with particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms leading to brain iron mis-metabolism in specific neurodegenerative conditions. Mouse models that have been instrumental in understanding systemic and brain disorders associated with iron mis-metabolism are also described, followed by current therapeutic strategies which are aimed at restoring brain iron homeostasis in different neurodegenerative conditions. We conclude by highlighting important gaps in our understanding of brain iron metabolism and mis-metabolism, particularly in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1324–1363. PMID:23815406

  1. Iron Acquisition in Bacillus cereus: The Roles of IlsA and Bacillibactin in Exogenous Ferritin Iron Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Christophe; Daou, Nadine; Kallassy, Mireille; Lereclus, Didier; Arosio, Paolo; Bou-Abdallah, Fadi; Nielsen Le Roux, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, the struggle for iron may have major consequences on the outcome of the disease. To overcome the low solubility and bio-availability of iron, bacteria have evolved multiple systems to acquire iron from various sources such as heme, hemoglobin and ferritin. The molecular basis of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin have been extensively studied; however, very little is known about iron acquisition from host ferritin, a 24-mer nanocage protein able to store thousands of iron atoms within its cavity. In the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, a surface protein named IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A) binds heme, hemoglobin and ferritin in vitro and is involved in virulence. Here, we demonstrate that IlsA acts as a ferritin receptor causing ferritin aggregation on the bacterial surface. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that IlsA binds several types of ferritins through direct interaction with the shell subunits. UV-vis kinetic data show a significant enhancement of iron release from ferritin in the presence of IlsA indicating for the first time that a bacterial protein might alter the stability of the ferritin iron core. Disruption of the siderophore bacillibactin production drastically reduces the ability of B. cereus to utilize ferritin for growth and results in attenuated bacterial virulence in insects. We propose a new model of iron acquisition in B. cereus that involves the binding of IlsA to host ferritin followed by siderophore assisted iron uptake. Our results highlight a possible interplay between a surface protein and a siderophore and provide new insights into host adaptation of B. cereus and general bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24550730

  2. Iron acquisition in Bacillus cereus: the roles of IlsA and bacillibactin in exogenous ferritin iron mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Segond

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In host-pathogen interactions, the struggle for iron may have major consequences on the outcome of the disease. To overcome the low solubility and bio-availability of iron, bacteria have evolved multiple systems to acquire iron from various sources such as heme, hemoglobin and ferritin. The molecular basis of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin have been extensively studied; however, very little is known about iron acquisition from host ferritin, a 24-mer nanocage protein able to store thousands of iron atoms within its cavity. In the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, a surface protein named IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A binds heme, hemoglobin and ferritin in vitro and is involved in virulence. Here, we demonstrate that IlsA acts as a ferritin receptor causing ferritin aggregation on the bacterial surface. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that IlsA binds several types of ferritins through direct interaction with the shell subunits. UV-vis kinetic data show a significant enhancement of iron release from ferritin in the presence of IlsA indicating for the first time that a bacterial protein might alter the stability of the ferritin iron core. Disruption of the siderophore bacillibactin production drastically reduces the ability of B. cereus to utilize ferritin for growth and results in attenuated bacterial virulence in insects. We propose a new model of iron acquisition in B. cereus that involves the binding of IlsA to host ferritin followed by siderophore assisted iron uptake. Our results highlight a possible interplay between a surface protein and a siderophore and provide new insights into host adaptation of B. cereus and general bacterial pathogenesis.

  3. Solubility of iron from combustion source particles in acidic media linked to iron speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-10-16

    In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.

  4. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  5. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  6. Iron oxides, divalent cations, silica, and the early earth phosphorus crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C.; Nomosatryo, S.; Crowe, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    As a nutrient required for growth, phosphorus regulates the activity of life in the oceans. Iron oxides sorb phosphorus from seawater, and through the Archean and early Proterozoic Eons, massive quantities of iron oxides precipitated from the oceans, producing a record of seawater chemistry...... that is preserved as banded iron formations (BIFs) today. Here we show that Ca2+, Mg2+, and silica in seawater control phosphorus sorption onto iron oxides, influencing the record of seawater phosphorus preserved in BIFs. Using a model for seawater cation chemistry through time, combined with the phosphorus...... waters shifted from phosphorus to iron limiting....

  7. Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

  8. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei

    2014-02-10

    Background: Acute malarial anemia remains a major public health problem. Hepcidin, the major hormone controlling the availability of iron, is raised during acute and asymptomatic parasitemia. Understanding the role and mechanism of raised hepcidin and so reduced iron availability during infection is critical to establish evidence-based guidelines for management of malaria anemia. Our recent clinical evidence suggests a potential role of IL-10 in the regulation of hepcidin in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production increased in primary macrophages when these cells were co-cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We found that IL-10 induced hepcidin secretion in primary macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-phosphorylation and completely abrogated by a specific STAT3 inhibitor. Conclusion: IL-10 can directly regulate hepcidin in primary macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. This effect can be modulated by Plasmodium falciparum. The results are consistent with a role for IL-10 in modulating iron metabolism during acute phase of infection. 2014 Huang et al.

  9. The Battle for Iron between Humans and Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Peggy L

    2018-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment. To describe complex 'tug of war' for iron that has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. A review of current literature was performed, to assess current approaches and controversies in iron therapy and chelation in humans. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection. The administration of iron chelating agents and siderophore- conjugate drugs to infected hosts seems a biologically plausible approach as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of infections caused by pathogens dependent on host iron supply (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, and many bacterial and fungal pathogens); however, thus far, studies in humans have proved unsuccessful. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Metal-metal interaction mediates the iron induction of Drosophila MtnB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Wenjia; Huang, Yunpeng; Wan, Zhihui; Zhou, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) protein families are a class of small and universal proteins rich in cysteine residues. They are synthesized in response to heavy metal stresses to sequester the toxic ions by metal-thiolate bridges. Five MT family members, namely MtnA, MtnB, MtnC, MtnD and MtnE, have been discovered and identified in Drosophila. These five isoforms of MTs are regulated by metal responsive transcription factor dMTF-1 and play differentiated but overlapping roles in detoxification of metal ions. Previous researches have shown that Drosophila MtnB responds to copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). Interestingly in this study we found that Drosophila MtnB expression also responds to elevated iron levels in the diet. Further investigations revealed that MtnB plays limited roles in iron detoxification, and the direct binding of MtnB to ferrous iron in vitro is also weak. The induction of MtnB by iron turns out to be mediated by iron interference of other metals, because EDTA at even a partial concentration of that of iron can suppress this induction. Indeed, in the presence of iron, zinc homeostasis is altered, as reflected by expression changes of zinc transporters dZIP1 and dZnT1. Thus, iron-mediated MtnB induction appears resulting from interrupted homeostasis of other metals such as zinc, which in turns induced MtnB expression. Metal-metal interaction may more widely exist than we expected. - Highlights: • Metallothionein B expression is regulated by iron in Drosophila melanogaster. • MtnB has limited physiological roles in iron detoxification. • Binding affinity of MtnB to iron is weak in vitro. • Induction of Drosophila MtnB by iron is mediated indirectly through metal-metal interaction.

  11. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Processes underlying the nutritional programming of embryonic development by iron deficiency in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13. Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.

  13. Glucagon Couples Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism to mTOR-Dependent Regulation of α-Cell Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Solloway

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of islet cell mass has important implications for the discovery of regenerative therapies for diabetes. The liver plays a central role in metabolism and the regulation of endocrine cell number, but liver-derived factors that regulate α-cell and β-cell mass remain unidentified. We propose a nutrient-sensing circuit between liver and pancreas in which glucagon-dependent control of hepatic amino acid metabolism regulates α-cell mass. We found that glucagon receptor inhibition reduced hepatic amino acid catabolism, increased serum amino acids, and induced α-cell proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner. In addition, mTOR inhibition blocked amino-acid-dependent α-cell replication ex vivo and enabled conversion of α-cells into β-like cells in vivo. Serum amino acids and α-cell proliferation were increased in neonatal mice but fell throughout postnatal development in a glucagon-dependent manner. These data reveal that amino acids act as sensors of glucagon signaling and can function as growth factors that increase α-cell proliferation.

  14. Impaired Na⁺-dependent regulation of acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifier K⁺ current modulates action potential rate dependence in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Niels; Heijman, Jordi; Trausch, Anne; Mintert-Jancke, Elisa; Pott, Lutz; Ravens, Ursula; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2013-08-01

    Shortened action-potential duration (APD) and blunted APD rate adaptation are hallmarks of chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF). Basal and muscarinic (M)-receptor-activated inward-rectifier K(+) currents (IK1 and IK,ACh, respectively) contribute to regulation of human atrial APD and are subject to cAF-dependent remodeling. Intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)]i) enhances IK,ACh in experimental models but the effect of [Na(+)]i-dependent regulation of inward-rectifier K(+) currents on APD in human atrial myocytes is currently unknown. Here, we report a [Na(+)]i-dependent inhibition of outward IK1 in atrial myocytes from sinus rhythm (SR) or cAF patients. In contrast, IK,ACh activated by carbachol, a non-selective M-receptor agonist, increased with elevation of [Na(+)]i in SR. This [Na(+)]i-dependent IK,ACh regulation was absent in cAF. Including [Na(+)]i dependence of IK1 and IK,ACh in a recent computational model of the human atrial myocyte revealed that [Na(+)]i accumulation at fast rates inhibits IK1 and blunts physiological APD rate dependence in both groups. [Na(+)]i-dependent IK,ACh augmentation at fast rates increased APD rate dependence in SR, but not in cAF. These results identify impaired Na(+)-sensitivity of IK,ACh as one potential mechanism contributing to the blunted APD rate dependence in patients with cAF. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes". Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  16. UDP/P2Y6 receptor signaling regulates IgE-dependent degranulation in human basophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nakano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that UDP/P2Y6 receptor signaling is involved in the regulation of IgE-dependent degranulation in basophils, which might stimulate the P2Y6 receptor via the autocrine secretion of UTP. Thus, this receptor represents a potential target to regulate IgE-dependent degranulation in basophils during allergic diseases.

  17. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  18. Electron Spectroscopy Studies of Iron, Iron Sulfides and Supported Iron Surfaces: Chemisorption of Simple Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yiu Chung

    EELS was used to investigate the chemisorption of oxygen and carbon on iron. The EELS spectra of oxidized iron show characteristic features with strong enhancement of the interband transitions involving the Fe 3d band (4.6 and 7.5 eV) and moderate enhancement of the M(,2,3) transition doublet (54.4 and 58.2 eV). The changes in the electron energy loss structures with an overlayer of graphitic or carbidic carbon were investigated. The adsorption and growth of iron on Ni(100) has been studied using the combined techniques of LEED and EELS. Initially iron grows by a layer-by-layer mechanism for the first few layers. High iron coverages result in the observation of complex LEED patterns with satellites around the main (1 x 1) diffraction sports. This is due to the formation of b.c.c. Fe(110) crystallites arranged in domains with different orientations. EELS studies show the presence of three stages in the growth of iron on Ni(100): low-coverage, film-like and bulk-like. Auger and EELS were used to study the iron sulfide (FeS(,2), Fe(,7)S(,8) and FeS) surfaces. A characteristic M(,2,3) VV Auger doublet with a separation of 5.0 eV was observed on the sulfides. An assignment of the electron energy loss peaks was made based on the energy dependence of the loss peaks and previous photoemission results. The effect of argon ion bombardment was studied. Peaks with strong iron and sulfur character were observed. Heating the damaged sulfides results in reconstruction of the sulfide surfaces. The reactions of the sulfides with simple gases, such as H(,2), CO, CH(,4), C(,2)H(,4), NH(,3) and O(,2) were also studied. Using XPS, the chemisorption of SO(,2) on CaO(100) has been studied. The chemical state of sulfur has been identified as that of sulfate. The kinetics of SO(,2) chemisorption on CaO are discussed. The binding states of Fe and Na on CaO were determined to be Fe('2+) and Na('+) respectively. At low Fe or Na coverages (< 0.5 ML), there is a large increase in the rate of

  19. Intra- and interspecies regulation of gene expression by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans LuxS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, K P; Chung, W O; Lamont, R J; Demuth, D R

    2001-12-01

    The cell density-dependent control of gene expression is employed by many bacteria for regulating a variety of physiological functions, including the generation of bioluminescence, sporulation, formation of biofilms, and the expression of virulence factors. Although periodontal organisms do not appear to secrete acyl-homoserine lactone signals, several species, e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, have recently been shown to secrete a signal related to the autoinducer II (AI-2) of the signal system 2 pathway in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans expresses a homolog of V. harveyi luxS and secretes an AI-2-like signal. Cell-free conditioned medium from A. actinomycetemcomitans or from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain (E. coli AIS) expressing A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS induced luminescence in V. harveyi BB170 >200-fold over controls. AI-2 levels peaked in mid-exponential-phase cultures of A. actinomycetemcomitans and were significantly reduced in late-log- and stationary-phase cultures. Incubation of early-log-phase A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with conditioned medium from A. actinomycetemcomitans or from E. coli AIS resulted in a threefold induction of leukotoxic activity and a concomitant increase in leukotoxin polypeptide. In contrast, no increase in leukotoxin expression occurred when cells were exposed to sterile medium or to conditioned broth from E. coli AIS(-), a recombinant strain in which luxS was insertionally inactivated. A. actinomycetemcomitans AI-2 also induced expression of afuA, encoding a periplasmic iron transport protein, approximately eightfold, suggesting that LuxS-dependent signaling may play a role in the regulation of iron acquisition by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, A. actinomycetemcomitans AI-2 added in trans complemented a luxS knockout mutation in P. gingivalis by modulating the expression of the luxS-regulated

  20. First-Principles Momentum Dependent Local Ansatz Approach to the Momentum Distribution Function in Iron-Group Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2017-03-01

    The momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz wavefunction method. It is found that the MDF for d electrons show a strong momentum dependence and a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function along high-symmetry lines of the first Brillouin zone, while the sp electrons behave as independent electrons. In particular, the deviation in bcc Fe (fcc Ni) is shown to be enhanced by the narrow eg (t2g) bands with flat dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Mass enhancement factors (MEF) calculated from the jump on the Fermi surface are also shown to be momentum dependent. Large mass enhancements of Mn and Fe are found to be caused by spin fluctuations due to d electrons, while that for Ni is mainly caused by charge fluctuations. Calculated MEF are consistent with electronic specific heat data as well as recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.

  1. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd. The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd or presence (−Fe/+Cd of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd. Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  2. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

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    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  4. Bicarbonate-regulated adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a sensor that regulates pH-dependent V-ATPase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Soler, Nuria; Beaulieu, Valerie; Litvin, Tatiana N; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Yanqiu; Brown, Dennis; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Breton, Sylvie

    2003-12-05

    Modulation of environmental pH is critical for the function of many biological systems. However, the molecular identity of the pH sensor and its interaction with downstream effector proteins remain poorly understood. Using the male reproductive tract as a model system in which luminal acidification is critical for sperm maturation and storage, we now report a novel pathway for pH regulation linking the bicarbonate activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to the vacuolar H+ATPase (V-ATPase). Clear cells of the epididymis and vas deferens contain abundant V-ATPase in their apical pole and are responsible for acidifying the lumen. Proton secretion is regulated via active recycling of V-ATPase. Here we demonstrate that this recycling is regulated by luminal pH and bicarbonate. sAC is highly expressed in clear cells, and apical membrane accumulation of V-ATPase is triggered by a sAC-dependent rise in cAMP in response to alkaline luminal pH. As sAC is expressed in other acid/base transporting epithelia, including kidney and choroid plexus, this cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway may be a widespread mechanism that allows cells to sense and modulate extracellular pH.

  5. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  6. Identification of iron-regulated genes of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 as a basis for controlled gene expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, M.; Zomer, A.L.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Sinderen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential growth factor for virtually all organisms. However, iron is not readily available in most environments and microorganisms have evolved specialized mechanisms, such as the use of siderophores and high-affinity transport systems, to acquire iron when confronted with iron-limiting

  7. The interaction of iron and the genome: For better and for worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troadec, Marie-Bérengère; Loréal, Olivier; Brissot, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Iron, as an essential nutrient, and the DNA, as the carrier of genetic information which is physically compacted into chromosomes, are both needed for normal life and well-being. Therefore, it is not surprising that close interactions exist between iron and the genome. On the one hand, iron, especially when present in excess, may alter genome stability through oxidative stress, and may favor cell cycle abnormalities and the development of malignant diseases. The genome also receives a feedback signal from the systemic iron status, leading to promotion of expression of genes that regulate iron metabolism. Conversely, on the other hand, DNA mutations may cause genetic iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis, archetype of iron-overload diseases, or refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Porphyromonas gingivalis ferric uptake regulator orthologue binds hemin and regulates hemin-responsive biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Butler

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative pathogen associated with the biofilm-mediated disease chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation is dependent on environmental heme for which P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement as it is unable to synthesize protoporphyrin IX de novo, hence P. gingivalis transports iron and heme liberated from the human host. Homeostasis of a variety of transition metal ions is often mediated in Gram-negative bacteria at the transcriptional level by members of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur superfamily. P. gingivalis has a single predicted Fur superfamily orthologue which we have designated Har (heme associated regulator. Recombinant Har formed dimers in the presence of Zn2+ and bound one hemin molecule per monomer with high affinity (Kd of 0.23 µM. The binding of hemin resulted in conformational changes of Zn(IIHar and residue 97Cys was involved in hemin binding as part of a predicted -97C-98P-99L- hemin binding motif. The expression of 35 genes was down-regulated and 9 up-regulated in a Har mutant (ECR455 relative to wild-type. Twenty six of the down-regulated genes were previously found to be up-regulated in P. gingivalis grown as a biofilm and 11 were up-regulated under hemin limitation. A truncated Zn(IIHar bound the promoter region of dnaA (PGN_0001, one of the up-regulated genes in the ECR455 mutant. This binding decreased as hemin concentration increased which was consistent with gene expression being regulated by hemin availability. ECR455 formed significantly less biofilm than the wild-type and unlike wild-type biofilm formation was independent of hemin availability. P. gingivalis possesses a hemin-binding Fur orthologue that regulates hemin-dependent biofilm formation.

  9. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF SPOT PRICE OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to construct an explanatory model of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. For this, the method of multiple linear regressions was used. As a dependent variable, the spot price of iron ore (62% Fe China Tianjin port was taken, between 2010 and 2013. As independents variables were taken seven variables of international iron ore market. The resulting model includes variables: Iron ore inventory in Chinese ports, Baltic Dry Index (BDI, Iron ore exports from Brazil & Australia and Chinese Rebar Steel Price, as explanatory variables of the behavior of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. The model has an adjusted coefficient of determination R2 of 0.90, and was validated by comparing its predictions vs. known values of 2014.

  10. Zinc and the iron donor frataxin regulate oligomerization of the scaffold protein to form new Fe-S cluster assembly centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, B K; Ranatunga, W; Gakh, O; Smith, D Y; Thompson, J R; Isaya, G

    2017-06-21

    Early studies of the bacterial Fe-S cluster assembly system provided structural details for how the scaffold protein and the cysteine desulfurase interact. This work and additional work on the yeast and human systems elucidated a conserved mechanism for sulfur donation but did not provide any conclusive insights into the mechanism for iron delivery from the iron donor, frataxin, to the scaffold. We previously showed that oligomerization is a mechanism by which yeast frataxin (Yfh1) can promote assembly of the core machinery for Fe-S cluster synthesis both in vitro and in cells, in such a manner that the scaffold protein, Isu1, can bind to Yfh1 independent of the presence of the cysteine desulfurase, Nfs1. Here, in the absence of Yfh1, Isu1 was found to exist in two forms, one mostly monomeric with limited tendency to dimerize, and one with a strong propensity to oligomerize. Whereas the monomeric form is stabilized by zinc, the loss of zinc promotes formation of dimer and higher order oligomers. However, upon binding to oligomeric Yfh1, both forms take on a similar symmetrical trimeric configuration that places the Fe-S cluster coordinating residues of Isu1 in close proximity of iron-binding residues of Yfh1. This configuration is suitable for docking of Nfs1 in a manner that provides a structural context for coordinate iron and sulfur donation to the scaffold. Moreover, distinct structural features suggest that in physiological conditions the zinc-regulated abundance of monomeric vs. oligomeric Isu1 yields [Yfh1]·[Isu1] complexes with different Isu1 configurations that afford unique functional properties for Fe-S cluster assembly and delivery.

  11. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  12. Phosphorylation of linker histones regulates ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, P.J.; Carruthers, L.M.; Logie, C.; Hill, D.A.; Solomon, M.J.; Wade, P.A.; Imbalzano, A.N.; Hansen, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Members of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes play key roles in the regulation of transcription, development, DNA repair and cell cycle control. We find that the remodeling activities of the ySWI/SNF, hSWI/SNF, xMi-2 and xACF complexes are nearly abolished by incorporation of

  13. Regnase-1 Maintains Iron Homeostasis via the Degradation of Transferrin Receptor 1 and Prolyl-Hydroxylase-Domain-Containing Protein 3 mRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshinaga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron metabolism is regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The mRNA of the iron-controlling gene, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, has long been believed to be negatively regulated by a yet-unidentified endonuclease. Here, we show that the endonuclease Regnase-1 is critical for the degradation of mRNAs involved in iron metabolism in vivo. First, we demonstrate that Regnase-1 promotes TfR1 mRNA decay. Next, we show that Regnase-1−/− mice suffer from severe iron deficiency anemia, although hepcidin expression is downregulated. The iron deficiency anemia is induced by a defect in duodenal iron uptake. We reveal that duodenal Regnase-1 controls the expression of PHD3, which impairs duodenal iron uptake via HIF2α suppression. Finally, we show that Regnase-1 is a HIF2α-inducible gene and thus provides a positive feedback loop for HIF2α activation via PHD3. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Regnase-1-mediated regulation of iron-related transcripts is essential for the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  14. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles combined with actein suppress non-small-cell lung cancer growth in a p53-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang MS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Shan Wang,1 Liang Chen,2 Ya-Qiong Xiong,2 Jing Xu,2 Ji-Peng Wang,2 Zi-Li Meng2 1Department of Oncology, Huaiyin Hospital of Huai’an City, Huai’an, China; 2Department of Respiration, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, China Abstract: Actein (AT is a triterpene glycoside isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida that has been investigated for its antitumor effects. AT treatment leads to apoptosis in various cell types, including breast cancer cells, by regulating different signaling pathways. Iron oxide (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are nanomaterials with biocompatible activity and low toxicity. In the present study, the possible benefits of AT in combination with MNPs on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC were explored in in vitro and in vivo studies. AT-MNP treatment contributed to apoptosis in NSCLC cells, as evidenced by activation of the caspase 3-signaling pathway, which was accompanied by downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL, and upregulation of the proapoptotic signals Bax and Bad. The death receptors of TRAIL were also elevated following AT-MNP treatment in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model in vivo revealed that AT-MNP treatment exhibited no toxicity and suppressed NSCLC growth compared to either AT or MNP monotherapies. In conclusion, this study suggests a novel therapy to induce apoptosis in suppressing NSCLC growth in a p53-dependent manner by combining AT with Fe3O4 MNPs. Keywords: actein, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, NSCLC, apoptosis, p53

  15. On surface reactions of iron tungstate with ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrubov, V.A.; Shchukin, V.P.; Averbukh, A.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigation of ethane oxidation reaction upon iron tungstate are presented. It is shown that catalytic oxidation of ethane is accompanied by the surface reaction of the catalyst reduction. Maximum reduction of surface depends upon temperature and considerably affects the direction of ethane oxidation process. Activation energies of ethane oxidation reactions and surface reaction of iron tungstate reduction depend on the surface actual state and at its reduction up to 5% from monolayer change in the limits 36.0-46.0 and 53.0-66.0 kcal/mol respectively

  16. Light Signaling-Dependent Regulation of Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Luyue; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Xiang, Xun; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Zhou, Yanhong

    2018-02-01

    Photoreceptor-mediated light signaling plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress responses but its contribution to the spatial regulation of photoinhibition and photoprotection within the canopy remains unclear. Here, we show that low-red/far-red ( L - R / FR ) ratio light conditions significantly alleviate PSII and PSI photoinhibition in the shade leaves of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants. This protection is accompanied by a phytochrome A-dependent induction of LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). HY5 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 ( ABI5 ), triggering RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 ( RBOH1 )-dependent H 2 O 2 production in the apoplast. Decreased levels of HY5 , ABI5 , and RBOH1 transcripts increased cold-induced photoinhibition and abolished L - R / FR -induced alleviation of photoinhibition. L - R / FR illumination induced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a fluorescence and increased the activities of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle enzymes and cyclic electron flux (CEF) around PSI. In contrast, decreased HY5 , ABI5 , and RBOH1 transcript levels abolished the positive effect of L - R / FR on photoprotection. Loss of PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 -dependent CEF led to increased photoinhibition and attenuated L - R / FR -dependent NPQ. These data demonstrate that HY5 is an important hub in the cross talk between light and cold response pathways, integrating ABA and reactive oxygen species signaling, leading to the attenuation of photoinhibition by enhanced induction of photoprotection in shade leaves. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Inverse isotope effect in iron-based superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirage, Parasharam M.; Kihou, Kunihiro; Miyazawa, Kiichi; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kito, Hijiri; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumoto; Iyo, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We have found that (Ba, K)Fe 2 As 2 superconductor (a transition temperature, T c ∼ 38 K) shows an inverse Iron isotope effect (α Fe = -0.18 ± 0.03, where T c ∼ M -αFe and M is the iron isotope mass), i.e. the sample containing the larger iron mass depicts higher T c . Systematic studies using three types of Fe-isotopes ( 54 Fe, natural Fe and 57 Fe) reveal a clear inverse shift on T c by measurements of temperature dependent magnetization and resistivity. The inverse isotope effect that is the first case in high-T c superconductors strongly suggests that superconducting mechanism of the iron-based system is not explained by conventional BCS theory mediated by phonons.

  18. Convergence of hepcidin deficiency, systemic iron overloading, heme accumulation, and REV-ERBα/β activation in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-elicited hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fader, Kelly A.; Nault, Rance [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kirby, Mathew P.; Markous, Gena [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Matthews, Jason [Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists elicit dose-dependent hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice. Iron (Fe) promotes AhR-mediated oxidative stress by catalyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further characterize the role of Fe in AhR-mediated hepatotoxicity, male C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 0.01–30 μg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) every 4 days for 28 days. Duodenal epithelial and hepatic RNA-Seq data were integrated with hepatic AhR ChIP-Seq, capillary electrophoresis protein measurements, and clinical chemistry analyses. TCDD dose-dependently repressed hepatic expression of hepcidin (Hamp and Hamp2), the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, resulting in a 2.6-fold increase in serum Fe with accumulating Fe spilling into urine. Total hepatic Fe levels were negligibly increased while transferrin saturation remained unchanged. Furthermore, TCDD elicited dose-dependent gene expression changes in heme biosynthesis including the induction of aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (Alas1) and repression of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Urod), leading to a 50% increase in hepatic hemin and a 13.2-fold increase in total urinary porphyrins. Consistent with this heme accumulation, differential gene expression suggests that heme activated BACH1 and REV-ERBα/β, causing induction of heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and repression of fatty acid biosynthesis, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that Hamp repression, Fe accumulation, and increased heme levels converge to promote oxidative stress and the progression of TCDD-elicited hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • TCDD represses hepatic hepcidin expression, leading to systemic iron overloading. • Dysregulation of heme biosynthesis is consistent with heme and porphyrin accumulation. • Heme-activated REV-ERBα/β repress circadian-regulated hepatic lipid metabolism. • Disruption of iron

  19. Explaining density-dependent regulation in earthworm populations using life-history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present there is little knowledge about how density regulates population growth rate and to what extent this is determined by life-history patterns. We compared density dependent population consequences in the Nicholsonian sense based oil experimental observations and life-history modeling for

  20. Superoxide scavenging activity of pirfenidone-iron complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoshihiro; Sato, Keizo; Muramoto, Yosuke; Karakawa, Tomohiro; Kitamado, Masataka; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Nabeshima, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ishida, Kazuhiko; Sasamoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Pirfenidone (PFD) is focused on a new anti-fibrotic drug, which can minimize lung fibrosis etc. We evaluated the superoxide (O 2 ·- ) scavenging activities of PFD and the PFD-iron complex by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay, and cytochrome c reduction assay. Firstly, we confirmed that the PFD-iron complex was formed by mixing iron chloride with threefold molar PFD, and the complex was stable in distillated water and ethanol. Secondary, the PFD-iron complex reduced the amount of O 2 ·- produced by xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine without inhibiting the enzyme activity. Thirdly, it also reduced the amount of O 2 ·- released from phorbor ester-stimulated human neutrophils. PFD alone showed few such effects. These results suggest the possibility that the O 2 ·- scavenging effect of the PFD-iron complex contributes to the anti-fibrotic action of PFD used for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  1. Negative regulation of quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ATP-dependent Lon protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akiko; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Tsuchiya, Hiroko; Isogai, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2008-06-01

    Lon protease, a member of the ATP-dependent protease family, regulates numerous cellular systems by degrading specific substrates. Here, we demonstrate that Lon is involved in the regulation of quorum-sensing (QS) signaling systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen. The organism has two acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS systems, LasR/LasI and RhlR/RhlI. Many reports have demonstrated that these two systems are regulated and interconnected by global regulators. We found that lon-disrupted cells overproduce pyocyanin, the biosynthesis of which depends on the RhlR/RhlI system, and show increased levels of a transcriptional regulator, RhlR. The QS systems are organized hierarchically: the RhlR/RhlI system is subordinate to LasR/LasI. To elucidate the mechanism by which Lon negatively regulates RhlR/RhlI, we examined the effect of lon disruption on the LasR/LasI system. We found that Lon represses the expression of LasR/LasI by degrading LasI, an HSL synthase, leading to negative regulation of the RhlR/RhlI system. RhlR/RhlI was also shown to be regulated by Lon independently of LasR/LasI via regulation of RhlI, an HSL synthase. In view of these findings, it is suggested that Lon protease is a powerful negative regulator of both HSL-mediated QS systems in P. aeruginosa.

  2. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  3. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE HOST MATRIX BASED ON IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES FOR THE VITRIFICATION OF SPECIALIZED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Delbert D.

    2000-01-01

    As mentioned above, the overall goal of this research project was to collect the scientific information essential to develop iron phosphate glass based nuclear wasteforms. The specific objectives of the project were: (1) Investigate the structure of binary iron phosphate glasses and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand atomic arrangements and nature of the bonding. Establish structure-property relationships. Determine the compositions and melting conditions which optimize the critical properties of the base glass. (2) Understand the structure of iron phosphate wasteforms and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Investigate how the waste elements are bonded and coordinated within the glass structure. Establish structure-property relationships for the waste glasses. Determine the compositions and melting atmosphere for which the critical properties of the waste forms would be optimum. (3) Determine the role(s) played by the valence states of iron ions and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand the different roles of iron(II) and iron(III) ions in determining the critical properties of the base glass and the waste forms. Investigate how the iron valence and its significance depend on the composition and melting atmosphere. (4) Investigate glass forming and crystallization processes of the iron phosphate glasses and their waste forms: Understand the dependence of the glass forming and crystallization characteristics on overall glass composition and valence states of iron ions. Identify the products of devitrification and investigate the critical properties of these crystalline compounds which may adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the waste forms

  6. Effect of the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers on the magnetic properties of nanocomposite LbL assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Ilker; Tozkoparan, Onur; German, Sergey V.; Markin, Alexey V.; Yildirim, Oguz; Khomutov, Gennady B.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Elerman, Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous colloidal suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized. Z-potential of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by citric acid was −35±3 mV. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by the light scattering method and transmission electron microscopy. The polyelectrolyte/iron oxide nanoparticle thin films with different numbers of iron oxide nanoparticle layers have been prepared on the surface of silicon substrates via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. The physical properties and chemical composition of nanocomposite thin films have been studied by atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, magnetization measurements, Raman spectroscopy. Using the analysis of experimental data it was established, that the magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers, the size of iron oxide nanoparticle aggregates, the distance between aggregates, and the chemical composition of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded into the nanocomposite films. The magnetic permeability of nanocomposite coatings has been calculated. The magnetic permeability values depend on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers in nanocomposite film. - Highlights: ► The magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers. ► The iron oxide nanoparticle phase in nanocomposite coatings is a mixture of magnetite and maghemite phases. ► The magnetite and maghemite phases depend on a number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers because the iron oxide nanoparticles are oxidized from magnetite to maghemite.

  7. Hemojuvelin: a supposed role in iron metabolism one year after its discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The discovery of hemojuvelin and its association with juvenile hemochromatosis are important not only for the diagnostics of this rare severe disease but also for the understanding of the complex mechanism of iron metabolism regulation. Currently, the physiological role of hemojuvelin is obscure. Recent experimental and clinical studies indicate that hemojuvelin will probably be a regulator of hepcidin, similar to HFE and transferrin receptor 2. However, in contrast to transferrin receptor 2, which is relevant in the hepcidin response to changes in transferrin saturation, HFE and especially hemojuvelin seem to be involved in the inflammation-induced hepcidin expression. Hepcidin, generally accepted as a hormone targeting enterocytes and macrophages, decreases iron absorption from the intestinal lumen and iron release from phagocytes. This mechanism explains the central role of hepcidin and, indirectly, its regulator, hemojuvelin, in the pathogenesis of hemochromatosis but also in anemia of chronic disease. Further basic and clinical research is needed to uncover the details of hemojuvelin pathophysiology required for potential pharmacological interventions.

  8. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  9. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  11. Radiation-induced synthesis of gold, iron-oxide composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takao; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Okuda, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using gamma-rays or electron beam. Ionizing irradiation induces the generation of reducing species inside the aqueous solution, and gold ions are reduced to form metallic Au nanoparticles. The size of Au nanoparticles depended on the dose rate and the concentration of support iron oxide. The gold nanoparticles on iron oxide nanoparticles selectively adsorb biomolecules via Au-S bonding. By using magnetic property of the support iron oxide nanoparticles, the composite nanoparticles are expected as a new type of magnetic nanocarrier for biomedical applications. (author)

  12. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  13. Age-dependent regulation of ERF-VII transcription factor activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Beatrice; Shukla, Vinay; Maggiorelli, Federica; Giorgi, Federico M; Lombardi, Lara; Perata, Pierdomenico; Licausi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The Group VII Ethylene Responsive Factors (ERFs-VII) RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 have been mainly characterized with regard to their contribution as activators of fermentation in plants. However, transcriptional changes measured in conditions that stabilize these transcription factors exceed the mere activation of this biochemical pathway, implying additional roles performed by the ERF-VIIs in other processes. We evaluated gene expression in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing a stabilized form of RAP2.12, or hampered in ERF-VII activity, and identified genes affected by this transcriptional regulator and its homologs, including some involved in oxidative stress response, which are not universally induced under anaerobic conditions. The contribution of the ERF-VIIs in regulating this set of genes in response to chemically induced or submergence-stimulated mitochondria malfunctioning was found to depend on the plant developmental stage. A similar age-dependent mechanism also restrained ERF-VII activity upon the core-hypoxic genes, independently of the N-end rule pathway, which is accounted for the control of the anaerobic response. To conclude, this study shed new light on a dual role of ERF-VII proteins under submergence: as positive regulators of the hypoxic response and as repressors of oxidative-stress related genes, depending on the developmental stage at which plants are challenged by stress conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of iron (III) in tap water using 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Beers law was obeyed in the range of 1 to 14 ug/ml Fe3+. The recovery was between 98.60 ... Federal and state regulations limit the iron content of drinking water to <1 ppm, though iron is easily .... weighed and dissolved in chloroform in a 100 ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark with chloroform.

  15. Comparative biogeochemical behaviors of iron-55 and stable iron in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Langford, J.C.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric aerosols have demonstrated that much of the 55 Fe associated with the aerosol input to the oceans is present as either an amorphous or hydrous iron oxide or as very small particulate species attached to the surfaces of the large aerosol particles. By comparison, nearly all of the stable iron is bound in the mineral phase of aerosol particles. This difference in the chemical and physical forms of the radioactive and stable iron isotopes results in the 55 Fe being more biologically available than is the stable iron. This difference in availability is responsible for the transfer of a much higher specific activity 55 Fe to certain ocean organisms and man relative to the specific activity of the total aerosol or of sea water. This differential biological uptake of the radioactive element and its stable element counterpart points out that natural levels of stable elements in the marine environment may not effectively dilute radioelements or other stable elements of anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of dilution by natural sources depends on the chemical and physical forms of the materials in both the source terms and the receiving environments. The large difference in specific activities of 55 Fe in aerosols and sea water relative to ocean organisms reflects the independent behaviors of 55 Fe and stable iron

  16. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques

  17. Iron and genome stability: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prá, Daniel; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Fenech, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient which is required in a relatively narrow range for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and genome stability. Iron participates in oxygen transport and mitochondrial respiration as well as in antioxidant and nucleic acid metabolism. Iron deficiency impairs these biological pathways, leading to oxidative stress and possibly carcinogenesis. Iron overload has been linked to genome instability as well as to cancer risk increase, as seen in hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron is an extremely reactive transition metal that can interact with hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals that form the 8-hydroxy-guanine adduct, cause point mutations as well as DNA single and double strand breaks. Iron overload also induces DNA hypermethylation and can reduce telomere length. The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, according with Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), is based in the concept of preventing anemia, and ranges from 7 mg/day to 18 mg/day depending on life stage and gender. Pregnant women need 27 mg/day. The maximum safety level for iron intake, the Upper Level (UL), is 40–45 mg/day, based on the prevention of gastrointestinal distress associated to high iron intakes. Preliminary evidence indicates that 20 mg/day iron, an intake slightly higher than the RDA, may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the elderly as well as increasing genome stability in lymphocytes of children and adolescents. Current dietary recommendations do not consider the concept of genome stability which is of concern because damage to the genome has been linked to the origin and progression of many diseases and is the most fundamental pathology. Given the importance of iron for homeostasis and its potential influence over genome stability and cancer it is recommended to conduct further studies that conclusively define these relationships.

  18. Iron and genome stability: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pra, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_pra@yahoo.com [PPG em Promocao da Saude, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); PPG em Saude e Comportamento, Universidade Catolica de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech [PPG em Promocao da Saude, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Henriques, Joao Antonio Pegas [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient which is required in a relatively narrow range for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and genome stability. Iron participates in oxygen transport and mitochondrial respiration as well as in antioxidant and nucleic acid metabolism. Iron deficiency impairs these biological pathways, leading to oxidative stress and possibly carcinogenesis. Iron overload has been linked to genome instability as well as to cancer risk increase, as seen in hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron is an extremely reactive transition metal that can interact with hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals that form the 8-hydroxy-guanine adduct, cause point mutations as well as DNA single and double strand breaks. Iron overload also induces DNA hypermethylation and can reduce telomere length. The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, according with Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), is based in the concept of preventing anemia, and ranges from 7 mg/day to 18 mg/day depending on life stage and gender. Pregnant women need 27 mg/day. The maximum safety level for iron intake, the Upper Level (UL), is 40-45 mg/day, based on the prevention of gastrointestinal distress associated to high iron intakes. Preliminary evidence indicates that 20 mg/day iron, an intake slightly higher than the RDA, may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the elderly as well as increasing genome stability in lymphocytes of children and adolescents. Current dietary recommendations do not consider the concept of genome stability which is of concern because damage to the genome has been linked to the origin and progression of many diseases and is the most fundamental pathology. Given the importance of iron for homeostasis and its potential influence over genome stability and cancer it is recommended to conduct further studies that conclusively define these relationships.

  19. Iron status of young children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Elevated temperature inhibits recruitment of transferrin-positive vesicles and induces iron-deficiency genes expression in Aiptasia pulchella host-harbored Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Po-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Hong, Ming-Chang; Chen, Ming-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Coral bleaching is the consequence of disruption of the mutualistic Cnidaria-dinoflagellate association. Elevated seawater temperatures have been proposed as the most likely cause of coral bleaching whose severity is enhanced by a limitation in the bioavailability of iron. Iron is required by numerous organisms including the zooxanthellae residing inside the symbiosome of cnidarian cells. However, the knowledge of how symbiotic zooxanthellae obtain iron from the host cells and how elevated water temperature affects the association is very limited. Since cellular iron acquisition is known to be mediated through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis, a vesicular trafficking pathway specifically regulated by Rab4 and Rab5, we set out to examine the roles of these key proteins in the iron acquisition by the symbiotic Symbiodinium. Thus, we hypothesized that the iron recruitments into symbiotic zooxanthellae-housed symbiosomes may be dependent on rab4/rab5-mediated fusion with vesicles containing iron-bound transferrins and will be retarded under elevated temperature. In this study, we cloned a novel monolobal transferrin (ApTF) gene from the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and confirmed that the association of ApTF with A. pulchella Rab4 (ApRab4) or A. pulchella Rab5 (ApRab5) vesicles is inhibited by elevated temperature through immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the iron-deficient phenomenon by demonstrating the induced overexpression of iron-deficiency-responsive genes, flavodoxin and high-affinity iron permease 1, and reduced intracellular iron concentration in zooxanthellae under desferrioxamine B (iron chelator) and high temperature treatment. In conclusion, our data are consistent with algal iron deficiency being a contributing factor for the thermal stress-induced bleaching of symbiotic cnidarians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regnase-1 Maintains Iron Homeostasis via the Degradation of Transferrin Receptor 1 and Prolyl-Hydroxylase-Domain-Containing Protein 3 mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masanori; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Vandenbon, Alexis; Ori, Daisuke; Uehata, Takuya; Tsujimura, Tohru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Mino, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2017-05-23

    Iron metabolism is regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The mRNA of the iron-controlling gene, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), has long been believed to be negatively regulated by a yet-unidentified endonuclease. Here, we show that the endonuclease Regnase-1 is critical for the degradation of mRNAs involved in iron metabolism in vivo. First, we demonstrate that Regnase-1 promotes TfR1 mRNA decay. Next, we show that Regnase-1 -/- mice suffer from severe iron deficiency anemia, although hepcidin expression is downregulated. The iron deficiency anemia is induced by a defect in duodenal iron uptake. We reveal that duodenal Regnase-1 controls the expression of PHD3, which impairs duodenal iron uptake via HIF2α suppression. Finally, we show that Regnase-1 is a HIF2α-inducible gene and thus provides a positive feedback loop for HIF2α activation via PHD3. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Regnase-1-mediated regulation of iron-related transcripts is essential for the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2018-07-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.

  3. IRON CHELATION THERAPY IN THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cianciulli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusional hemosiderosis is a frequent complication in patients with transfusion dependent chronic diseases such as  thalassemias and severe type of sickle cell diseases. As there are no physiological mechanisms to excrete the iron contained in transfused red cells (1 unit of blood contains approximately 200 mg of iron the excess of iron is stored in various organs. Cardiomyopathy is the most severe complication covering more than 70% of the causes of death of thalassemic patients. Although the current reference standard iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO has been used clinically for over four decades, its effectiveness is limited by a demanding therapeutic regimen that leads to poor compliance. Despite poor compliance, because of the inconvenience of subcutaneous infusion, DFO improved considerably the survival and quality of life of patients with thalassemia. Deferiprone since 1998 and Deferasirox since 2005 were licensed for clinical use. The oral chelators have a better compliance because of oral use, a comparable efficacy to DFO in iron excretion and probably a better penetration to myocardial cells. Considerable increase in iron excretion was documented with combination therapy of DFO and Deferiprone. The proper use of the three chelators will improve the prevention and treatment of iron overload, it will reduce  complications, and improve survival and quality of life of transfused patients

  4. PRMT5 regulates IRES-dependent translation via methylation of hnRNP A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guozhen; Dhar, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is responsible for the symmetric dimethylation of histone to generate the H3R8me2s and H4R3me2s marks, which correlate with the repression of transcription. However, the protein level of a number of genes (MEP50, CCND1, MYC, HIF1a, MTIF and CDKN1B) are reported to be downregulated by the loss of PRMT5, while their mRNA levels remain unchanged, which is counterintuitive for PRMT5's proposed role as a transcription repressor. We noticed that the majority of the genes regulated by PRMT5, at the posttranscriptional level, express mRNA containing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Using an IRES-dependent reporter system, we established that PRMT5 facilitates the translation of a subset of IRES-containing genes. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, hnRNP A1, is an IRES transacting factor (ITAF) that regulates the IRES-dependent translation of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. We showed that hnRNP A1 is methylated by PRMT5 on two residues, R218 and R225, and that this methylation facilitates the interaction of hnRNP A1 with IRES RNA to promote IRES-dependent translation. This study defines a new role for PRMT5 regulation of cellular protein levels, which goes beyond the known functions of PRMT5 as a transcription and splicing regulator. PMID:28115626

  5. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN).

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been cla...

  6. The Field-Dependent Rheological Properties of Magnetorheological Grease Based on Carbonyl-Iron-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Nordin, M. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents dynamic viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological (MR) grease under variation of magnetic fields and magnetic particle fractions. The tests to discern the field-dependent properties are undertaken using both rotational and oscillatory shear rheometers. As a first step, the MR grease is developed by dispersing the carbonyl iron (CI) particles into grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. Experimental data are obtained by changing the magnetic field from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature of 25 °C. It is found that a strong Payne effect limits the linear viscoelastic region of MR grease at strains above 0.1%. The results exhibit a high dynamic yield stress which is equivalent to Bingham plastic rheological model, and show relatively good MR effect at high shear rate of 2000 s-1. In addition, high dispersion of the magnetic particles and good thermal properties are proven. The results presented in this work directly indicate that MR grease is a smart material candidate that could be widely applicable to various fields including vibration control.

  7. Mössbauer study of pH dependence of iron-intercalation in montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, E., E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Garg, V. K.; Singh, H.; Oliveira, A. C. de; Pati, S. S. [University of Brasília, Institute of Physics (Brazil); Homonnay, Z.; Rudolf, M. [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Molnár, Á. M.; Kovács, E. M. [University of Debrecen, Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary); Baranyai, E. [University of Debrecen, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Kubuki, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Nagy, N. M.; Kónya, J. [University of Debrecen, Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and XRD have successfully been applied to show the incorporation of Fe ion into the interlayer space of montmorillonite via treatment with FeCl {sub 3} in acetone. The 78K {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of montmorillonite samples reflected magnetically split spectrum part indicating the intercalation of iron into the interlayer of montmorillonite via the treatment with FeCl {sub 3}+acetone and washed with water until the initial pH=2.3 increased to pH=4.14. It was found that the occurrence of intercalated iron in the form of oxide-oxihydroxide in montmorillonite increases with the pH. Intercalation was confirmed by the gradual increase in the basal spacing d{sub 001} with pH.

  8. Nuclear-physical methods of technical iron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Usmanova, M.M.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    The instrumental neutron-activation (INAA) techniques for detecting of regulated (Al, Si, P, S, Mn) and some metallic (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sb, W) impurities in iron with 10 -3 - 10 -5 % discovering limits while using heat and resonance neutrons of nuclear reactor have been carried out. Elaborated INAA techniques have been used on all stages of obtaining of compact material. According to the results the efficient purification of iron is done almost from all mentioned impurities (impurities content in initial iron is 0,01 - 0,5 %), besides Si, Co, Ni, Cu, thus its content in final compact metal is not more than 0,001%. X-ray radiometrical technique of obtaining of Fe in Fe-containing materials with error not more than 1 - 3% has been carried out. (author)

  9. Monomeric Yeast Frataxin is an Iron-Binding Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Bencze, K.; Jankovic, A.; Crater, A.; Busch, C.; Bradley, P.; Stemmler, A.; Spaller, M.; Stemmler, T.

    2006-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50 000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly) share requirements for iron, suggesting that monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. To provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal-site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron-loaded monomer, and the protein can bind two ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal-binding sites is consistent with a six-coordinate iron-(oxygen/nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. On the basis of our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron

  10. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (EsIscA2) is differentially regulated after immune and oxidative stress challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Min; Dong, Miren; Liu, Zhaoqun; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Anguo; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2018-07-01

    Iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors of proteins, are involved in catalysis reactions, electron transport reactions, regulation processes as well as sensing of ambient conditions. Iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein (IscA) is a scaffold protein member of ISC formation system, which plays a significant role in the assembly and maturation process of ISC proteins. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (designated as EsIscA2) was cloned from Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) of EsIscA2 was of 507 bp, encoding a peptide of 168 amino acids with a typically conserved Fe-S domain. A tetrameric form was predicated by the SWISS-MODEL prediction algorithm, and three conserved cysteine residues (Cys-93, Cys-158, Cys-160) from each IscA monomer were predicted to form a 'cysteine pocket'. The deduced amino acid sequence of EsIscA2 shared over 50% similarity with that of other IscAs. EsIscA2 was clustered with IscA2 proteins from invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that the protein was highly conservative in the evolution. rEsIscA2 exhibited a high iron binding affinity in the concentration ranging from 2 to 200 μM. EsIscA2 transcripts were detected in all the tested tissues including gonad, hemocytes, gill, muscle, heart, hepatopancreas and eyestalk, and EsIscA2 protein was detected in the mitochondria of hemocytes. The highest mRNA expression level of EsIscA2 was detected in muscle and hepatopancreas, which was about 34.66-fold (p < 0.05) and 27.07-fold (p < 0.05) of that in hemocytes, respectively. After Aeromonas hydrophila and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations, the mRNA expression of EsIscA2 in hemocytes was down-regulated and reached the lowest level at 24 h (0.31-fold, p < 0.05) and 48 h (0.29-fold, p < 0.05) compared to control group, respectively. And the expression of EsIscA2 mRNA in hepatopancreas was repressed from 6 h to 48 h post

  11. The effect of psychological stress on iron absorption in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Min

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress (PS is recognized as an important pathogenic factor which leads to metabolism disorder in many diseases. Previous studies have shown that systemic iron homeostasis in mammalians was changed under specific stress conditions. Methods In present study, we used communication box to create psychological stress model and investigated the iron apparent absorption, iron accumulation in the apical poles of villous enterocytes and protein expressions of ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1. Results Our study showed that iron apparent absorption decreased and iron significantly accumulated in the apical poles of villous enterocytes in 3 d and 7 d PS groups. The expression of intestinal FPN1 in 3 d and 7 d PS groups was lower than that of control, while the change of intestinal ferritin was opposite. However, the expression of DMT1 did not change. Conclusion These results demonstrate that PS can decrease iron absorption in rats, which might be related to regulation expression of iron transporters.

  12. Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  14. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest

  15. Root excretions in tobacco plants and possible implications on the Iron nutrition of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A

    1969-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that riboflavin produced in roots and perhaps other compounds produced either in roots or in microorganisms can facilitate either or both the absorption and translocation of iron in higher plants. Riboflavin production and increased iron transport are characteristic of iron-deficient plants, both are decreased by nitrogen deficiency, both evidently can be regulated by a microorganism. When large amounts of iron was transported in the xylem exudate of tobacco, riboflavin was also. An excess of the chelating agent, EDTA, without iron seems to increase the iron uptake from an iron chelate, EDDHA. All these effects are probably related and knowledge of them may help solve iron deficiency problems in horticultural crops.

  16. A Heme-responsive Regulator Controls Synthesis of Staphyloferrin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Holly A; Marolda, Cristina L; Pinter, Tyler B; Stillman, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a multitude of mechanisms by which it can obtain iron during growth under iron starvation conditions. It expresses an effective heme acquisition system (the iron-regulated surface determinant system), it produces two carboxylate-type siderophores staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B (SB), and it expresses transporters for many other siderophores that it does not synthesize. The ferric uptake regulator protein regulates expression of genes encoding all of these systems. Mechanisms of fine-tuning expression of iron-regulated genes, beyond simple iron regulation via ferric uptake regulator, have not been uncovered in this organism. Here, we identify the ninth gene of the sbn operon, sbnI, as encoding a ParB/Spo0J-like protein that is required for expression of genes in the sbn operon from sbnD onward. Expression of sbnD-I is drastically decreased in an sbnI mutant, and the mutant does not synthesize detectable SB during early phases of growth. Thus, SB-mediated iron acquisition is impaired in an sbnI mutant strain. We show that the protein forms dimers and tetramers in solution and binds to DNA within the sbnC coding region. Moreover, we show that SbnI binds heme and that heme-bound SbnI does not bind DNA. Finally, we show that providing exogenous heme to S. aureus growing in an iron-free medium results in delayed synthesis of SB. This is the first study in S. aureus that identifies a DNA-binding regulatory protein that senses heme to control gene expression for siderophore synthesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Montes de Oca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1 cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation.

  18. Iron – a key nexus in the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus eHaas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential but in excess toxic nutrient. Therefore, fungi evolved fine-tuned mechanisms for uptake and storage of iron, such as the production of siderophores (low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators. In Aspergillus fumigatus, iron starvation causes extensive transcriptional remodeling involving two central transcription factors, which are interconnected in a negative transcriptional feed-back loop: the GATA-factor SreA and the bZip-factor HapX. During iron sufficiency SreA represses iron uptake, including reductive iron assimilation and siderophore-mediated iron uptake, to avoid toxic effects. During iron starvation HapX represses iron-consuming pathways, including heme biosynthesis and respiration, to spare iron and activates synthesis of ribotoxin AspF1 and siderophores, the latter partly by ensuring supply of the precursor ornithine. In agreement with the expression pattern and mode of action, detrimental effects of inactivation of SreA and HapX are confined to growth during iron sufficiency and iron starvation, respectively. Deficiency in HapX, but not SreA, attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis, which underlines the crucial role of adaptation to iron limitation in virulence. Consistently, production of both extra- and intracellular siderophores is crucial for virulence of A. fumigatus. Recently, the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein SrbA was found to be essential for adaptation to iron starvation, thereby linking regulation of iron metabolism, ergosterol biosynthesis, azole drug resistance and hypoxia adaptation.

  19. Efficiency of Iron-Based Oxy-Hydroxides in Removing Antimony from Groundwater to Levels below the Drinking Water Regulation Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Simeonidis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides to remove antimony from groundwater to meet the requirements of drinking water regulations. Results obtained by batch adsorption experiments indicated that the qualified iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH, synthesized at pH 4 for maintaining a high positive charge density (2.5 mmol OH−/g achieved a residual concentration of Sb(III below the EU drinking water regulation limit of 5 μg/L by providing an adsorption capacity of 3.1 mg/g. This is more than twice greater compared either to similar commercial FeOOHs (GFH, Bayoxide or to tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte (Fe-MnOOH adsorbents. In contrast, all tested adsorbents failed to achieve a residual concentration below 5 μg/L for Sb(V. The higher efficiency of the qualified FeOOH was confirmed by rapid small-scale column tests, since an adsorption capacity of 3 mg Sb(III/g was determined at a breakthrough concentration of 5 μg/L. However, it completely failed to achieve Sb(V concentrations below 5 μg/L even at the beginning of the column experiments. The results of leaching tests classified the spent qualified FeOOH to inert wastes. Considering the rapid kinetics of this process (i.e., 85% of total removal was performed within 10 min, the developed qualified adsorbent may be promoted as a prospective material for point-of-use Sb(III removal from water in vulnerable communities, since the adsorbent’s cost was estimated to be close to 30 ± 3.4 €/103 m3 for every 10 μg Sb(III/L removed.

  20. A Heme-responsive Regulator Controls Synthesis of Staphyloferrin B in Staphylococcus aureus*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Holly A.; Marolda, Cristina L.; Pinter, Tyler B.; Stillman, Martin J.; Heinrichs, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a multitude of mechanisms by which it can obtain iron during growth under iron starvation conditions. It expresses an effective heme acquisition system (the iron-regulated surface determinant system), it produces two carboxylate-type siderophores staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B (SB), and it expresses transporters for many other siderophores that it does not synthesize. The ferric uptake regulator protein regulates expression of genes encoding all of these systems. Mechanisms of fine-tuning expression of iron-regulated genes, beyond simple iron regulation via ferric uptake regulator, have not been uncovered in this organism. Here, we identify the ninth gene of the sbn operon, sbnI, as encoding a ParB/Spo0J-like protein that is required for expression of genes in the sbn operon from sbnD onward. Expression of sbnD–I is drastically decreased in an sbnI mutant, and the mutant does not synthesize detectable SB during early phases of growth. Thus, SB-mediated iron acquisition is impaired in an sbnI mutant strain. We show that the protein forms dimers and tetramers in solution and binds to DNA within the sbnC coding region. Moreover, we show that SbnI binds heme and that heme-bound SbnI does not bind DNA. Finally, we show that providing exogenous heme to S. aureus growing in an iron-free medium results in delayed synthesis of SB. This is the first study in S. aureus that identifies a DNA-binding regulatory protein that senses heme to control gene expression for siderophore synthesis. PMID:26534960

  1. Effect of dietary iron source and iron status on iron bioavailability tests in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Hendricks, D.G.; Mahoney, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were made anemic in 7 days by feeding a low iron diet and bleeding. Healthy rats were fed the low iron diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (29 ppm Fe). Each group was subdivided and fed for 10 days on test diets containing about 29 ppm iron that were formulated with meat:spinach mixtures or meat:soy mixtures to provided 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100% of the dietary iron from these sources or from a ferrous sulfate diet. After 3 days on the diets all rats were dosed orally with 2 or 5 micro curries of 59 Fe after a 18 hour fast and refeeding for 1.5 hours. Iron status influenced liver iron, carcass iron, liver radio activity and percent of radioactive dose retained. Diet influenced fecal iron and apparent absorption of iron. In iron bioavailability studies assessment methodology and iron status of the test subject greatly influences the estimates of the value of dietary sources of iron

  2. Abnormal brain iron metabolism in Irp2 deficient mice is associated with mild neurological and behavioral impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Zumbrennen-Bullough

    Full Text Available Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2 is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2-/- mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc, expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2-/- mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments.

  3. Impact of dietary iron intake on anaemia in Tanzanian schoolchildren

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    economic implication.5 In developing countries dietary iron intake ... haem iron absorption ranges from 2% to 20%. Dependence on .... scale (calibrated in kg) and a fixed-base portable .... Of the 80 schoolchildren whose Hb concentration was .... Tolerance for entry ... several traditional methods of food processing.15 These.

  4. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A.; Philip, Lijy M.; Cheung, Guillaume; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Grasemann, Hartmut; Sweezey, Neil; Palaniyar, Nades

    2018-01-01

    Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45) into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe) conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox), neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi). Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units) increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements). Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging) during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs). In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots) and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative)-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive)-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM) increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  5. Regulating NETosis: Increasing pH Promotes NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NETosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraj A. Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35–7.45 into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox, neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi. Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation (NETosis is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis. Here, we found that raising pHe (ranging from 6.6 to 7.8; every 0.2 units increased pHi of both activated and resting neutrophils within 10–20 min (Seminaphtharhodafluor dual fluorescence measurements. Since Nox activity generates H+ ions, pHi is lower in neutrophils that are activated compared to resting. We also found that higher pH stimulated Nox-dependent ROS production (R123 generation; flow cytometry, plate reader assay, and imaging during spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate-induced NETosis (Sytox Green assays, immunoconfocal microscopy, and quantifying NETs. In neutrophils that are activated and not resting, higher pH stimulated histone H4 cleavage (Western blots and NETosis. Raising pH increased Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative-, and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive-induced NETosis. Thus, higher pHe promoted Nox-dependent ROS production, protease activity, and NETosis; lower pH has the opposite effect. These studies provided mechanistic steps of pHe-mediated regulation of Nox-dependent NETosis. Raising pH either by sodium bicarbonate or Tris base (clinically known as Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane, tromethamine, or THAM increases NETosis. Each Tris molecule can bind 3H+ ions, whereas each bicarbonate HCO3− ion binds 1H+ ion. Therefore, the amount of Tris solution required to cause the same increase in pH level is less than that of equimolar

  6. Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussou, Paraskevi; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS) in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS) exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women's infertility. PMID:24396593

  7. Structural transformations of heat-treated bacterial iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki-h@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Fujii, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nakanishi, Koji [Office of Society-Academia Collaboration for Innovation, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Yogi, Chihiro [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Peterlik, Herwig [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nakanishi, Makoto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takada, Jun [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); JST, CREST, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    A bacterial siliceous iron oxide microtubule (diameter: ca. 1 μm, 15Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·8SiO{sub 2}·P{sub 2}O{sub 5}·30H{sub 2}O) produced by Leptothrix ochracea was heat treated in air and its structural transformation was investigated in detail by microscopy, diffractometry, and spectroscopy. Although the heat-treated bacterial iron oxide retained its original microtubular structure, its nanoscopic, middle-range, and local structures changed drastically. Upon heat treatment, nanosized pores were formed and their size changed depending on temperature. The Fe–O–Si linkages were gradually cleaved with increasing temperature, causing the progressive separation of Fe and Si ions into iron oxide and amorphous silicate phases, respectively. Concomitantly, global connectivity and local structure of FeO{sub 6} octahedra in the iron oxide nanoparticles systematically changed depending on temperature. These comprehensive investigations clearly revealed various structural changes of the bacterial iron oxide which is an important guideline for the future exploration of novel bio-inspired materials. - Highlights: • Structural transformation of a bacterial iron oxide microtubule was investigated. • Si–O–Fe was cleaved with increasing temperature to form α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/silicate composite. • Crystallization to 2Fh started at 500 °C to give α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} >700 °C. • FeO{sub 6} octahedra were highly distorted <500 °C. • Formation of face-sharing FeO{sub 6} was promoted >500 °C, releasing the local strain of FeO{sub 6}.

  8. Hyperfine interactions of iron implanted into aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Drwiega, M.; Sawicki, J.; Stanek, J.

    1976-01-01

    Systematical investigations of the stable 57 Fe implanted into Al at energies of 10 to 70 keV and doses of 10 14 to 2.10 17 ions/cm 2 were performed by means of conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectra measured were interpreted as originated by iron monomers (single line) and by iron associations, mostly dimers (dublet). The isomer shifts of both components differ considerably and are constant against iron concentration. The ratio of both components depends strongly on the iron concentration. The quadrupole splitting of the doublet rises with the concentration, the rise being reproduced by computer simulations of efg distributions in densely packed random charge defected lattices. The annealing processes were investigated. The spectra of the Fe-Al samples made by ion implantation and by a splat-cooling technique are well comparable. (author)

  9. Deciphering the iron isotope message of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2005-04-01

    Mass-dependent variations in isotopic composition are known since decades for the light elements such as hydrogen, carbon or oxygen. Multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and double-spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) permit us now to resolve small variations in isotopic composition even for the heavier elements such as iron. Recent studies on the iron isotopic composition of human blood and dietary iron sources have shown that lighter iron isotopes are enriched along the food chain and that each individual bears a certain iron isotopic signature in blood. To make use of this finding in biomedical research, underlying mechanisms of isotope fractionation by the human body need to be understood. In this paper available iron isotope data for biological samples are discussed within the context of isotope fractionation concepts and fundamental aspects of human iron metabolism. This includes evaluation of new data for body tissues which show that blood and muscle tissue have a similar iron isotopic composition while heavier iron isotopes are concentrated in the liver. This new observation is in agreement with our earlier hypothesis of a preferential absorption of lighter iron isotopes by the human body. Possible mechanisms for inducing an iron isotope effect at the cellular and molecular level during iron uptake are presented and the potential of iron isotope effects in human blood as a long-term measure of dietary iron absorption is discussed.

  10. MFehi adipose tissue macrophages compensate for tissue iron pertubations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Merla J; Erikson, Keith M; Kennedy, Arion J; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2018-05-16

    Resident adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play multiple roles to maintain tissue homeostasis, such as removing excess FFAs and regulation of extracellular matrix. The phagocytic nature and oxidative resiliency of macrophages not only allows them to function as innate immune cells but also to respond to specific tissue needs, such as iron homeostasis. MFe hi ATMs are a subtype of resident ATMs that we recently identified to have twice the intracellular iron content as other ATMs and elevated expression of iron handling genes. While studies have demonstrated iron homeostasis is important for adipocyte health, little is known about how MFe hi ATMs may respond to and influence AT iron availability. Two methodologies were used to address this question - dietary iron supplementation and intraperitoneal iron injection. Upon exposure to high dietary iron, MFe hi ATMs accumulated excess iron, while the iron content of MFe lo ATMs and adipocytes remained unchanged. In this model of chronic iron excess, MFe hi ATMs exhibited increased expression of genes involved in iron storage. In the injection model, MFe hi ATMs incorporated high levels of iron and adipocytes were spared iron overload. This acute model of iron overload was associated with increased numbers of MFe hi ATMs; 17% could be attributed to monocyte recruitment and 83% to MFe lo ATM incorporation into the MFe hi pool. The MFe hi ATM population maintained its low inflammatory profile and iron cycling expression profile. These studies expand the field's understanding of ATMs and confirm that they can respond as a tissue iron sink in models of iron overload.

  11. Lack of Plasma Protein Hemopexin Results in Increased Duodenal Iron Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Veronica; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Silengo, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The body concentration of iron is regulated by a fine equilibrium between absorption and losses of iron. Iron can be absorbed from diet as inorganic iron or as heme. Hemopexin is an acute phase protein that limits iron access to microorganisms. Moreover, it is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for heme and thus it mediates heme-iron recycling. Considering its involvement in iron homeostasis, it was postulated that hemopexin may play a role in the physiological absorption of inorganic iron. Hemopexin-null mice showed elevated iron deposits in enterocytes, associated with higher duodenal H-Ferritin levels and a significant increase in duodenal expression and activity of heme oxygenase. The expression of heme-iron and inorganic iron transporters was normal. The rate of iron absorption was assessed by measuring the amount of (57)Fe retained in tissues from hemopexin-null and wild-type animals after administration of an oral dose of (57)FeSO4 or of (57)Fe-labelled heme. Higher iron retention in the duodenum of hemopexin-null mice was observed as compared with normal mice. Conversely, iron transfer from enterocytes to liver and bone marrow was unaffected in hemopexin-null mice. The increased iron level in hemopexin-null duodenum can be accounted for by an increased iron uptake by enterocytes and storage in ferritins. These data indicate that the lack of hemopexin under physiological conditions leads to an enhanced duodenal iron uptake thus providing new insights to our understanding of body iron homeostasis.

  12. Co-hydrothermal treatment of fallen leaves with iron sludge to prepare magnetic iron product and solid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Li, Binglian; Wen, Haifeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Liang; Ye, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was performed on Metasequoia Leaves (ML) in the presence of iron sludge, both of which were generated as solid residuals. The relations between sludge, char's properties and operating conditions were systemically investigated. Iron sludge primarily catalyzed the efficient formation of char with higher heating value (HHV) becoming 1.15-1.65 times of ML (18.21 MJ/kg) and was meanwhile reduced to magnetite. The hydrated Fe ions in octahedron crystals acted as nucleophiles facilitating the dehydration and decarboxylation reactions. The increased HHV is found strong temperature dependent while prolonging the residence time is more preferable for low organic acids generation. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the iron sludge enhanced conversion of volatile to fixed carbon. The as-prepared solid char showed better stability after catalytic HTC treatment, having ignition temperature increased from 253 to 426 °C as compared to the char prepared without iron sludge addition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron Deposition and Ferritin Heavy Chain (Fth Localization in Rodent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An iron rich layer on the labial surface is characteristic of the enamel of rodent incisors. In order to address a role for iron content in continuously growing incisors during odontogenesis, we studied iron deposition patterns in enamel and dentine using Perls’ blue staining and ferritin heavy chain (Fth immunolocalization. Fth expression is regulated by iron level; therefore its localization can be used as a sensitive indicator for iron deposition. Results Sagittal sections of 4-week old rat incisors showed a gradual increase in iron level in the enamel organ from secretory to maturation stages. In addition, iron was detected in ameloblasts of erupting third molars of 4-week old rats, suggesting iron plays a role in both incisor and molar development. In odontoblasts, the presence of iron was demonstrated, and this is consistent with iron’s role in collagen synthesis. Using postnatal 3-, 6-, 9-day old mice, the spatial and temporal expression of Fth in tooth development again indicated the presence of iron in mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Conclusions While these data do not explain what functional role iron has in tooth formation, it does highlight a significant molecular activity associated with the formation of the rodent dentition.

  14. Personalised iron supply for prophylaxis and treatment of pregnant women as a way to ensure normal iron levels in their breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, G H; Mestorino, N; Errecalde, J; Huber, B; Uriarte, A; Orchuela, J

    2012-02-22

    Because the characteristics of all body fluids depends on patient's health status, is it possible that disadvantaged and socially vulnerable mothers may have lower amounts of iron in their breast milk, and that their babies receive lower content of the mineral for their normal growth and development. Assuring a preventive treatment of the mother might solve this problem. To demonstrate breast milk iron content from disadvantaged mothers and impact of personalized iron supplementation program. cross-sectional study. Breast milk samples were obtained for ferritin analysis. Health's services usually provides free folic acid and iron treatment however, treatment compliance is low. Patients were random in two groups: "A: Controls" that had free iron tablets available from Health Centre; and "B: Intervention" group where patients accepted to be periodically contacted at home by health's team for personalized iron dispensation. 360 patients were included. Profilaxis and treatment compliance were 100% and 97,6% for B group while for "Control" one was 63% and 34%(p0.0001). Higher breast milk iron levels were detected in Intervention's mothers compared with control's patients (p0.007). Personalized iron prophylaxis and treatment increased breast milk iron levels. Public health policy must ensure iron dispensation for each underserved mother in order to reduce children problems associate to iron deficiency during the first year of their life.

  15. Clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with refractory chronic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Gao, Li Li, Baoan Chen, Huihui Song, Jian Cheng, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunyu SunDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with chronic refractory anemia.Methods: Clinical manifestations, main organ function, results of computed tomography (CT, endocrine evaluation, and serum ferritin levels were analyzed retrospectively in 13 patients who were transfusion-dependent for more than 1 year (receiving >50 units of red blood cells to determine the degree of iron overload and efficacy of iron-chelating therapy.Results: Serum ferritin levels increased to 1,830–5,740 ng/mL in all patients. Ten patients had abnormal liver function. The CT Hounsfield units in the liver increased significantly in eleven patients, and were proportional to their serum ferritin levels. Skin pigmentation, liver dysfunction, and endocrine dysfunction were observed in nine patients with serum ferritin >3,500 ng/mL, eight of whom have since died. Interestingly, serum ferritin levels did not decrease significantly in nine transfusion-dependent patients who had received 15–60 days of iron-chelating therapy.Conclusion: Transfusion-dependent patients may progress to secondary iron overload with organ impairment, which may be fatal in those who are heavily iron-overloaded. The CT Hounsfield unit is a sensitive indicator of iron overload in the liver. Iron chelation therapy should be initiated when serum ferritin is >1,000 ng/mL and continued until it is <1,000 ng/mL in transfusional iron-overloaded patients.Keywords: anemia, aplastic, iron overload, myelodysplastic syndromes

  16. Synthesis and characterization of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predescu, Andra Mihaela; Matei, Ecaterina; Berbecaru, Andrei Constantin; Pantilimon, Cristian; Drăgan, Claudia; Vidu, Ruxandra; Predescu, Cristian; Kuncser, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a large molar weight dextran for environmental applications are reported. The first experiments involved the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles which were coated with dextran at different concentrations. The synthesis was performed by a co-precipitation technique, while the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles was carried out in solution. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results demonstrated a successful coating of iron oxide nanoparticles with large molar weight dextran, of which agglomeration tendency depended on the amount of dextran in the coating solution. SEM and TEM observations have shown that the iron oxide nanoparticles are of about 7 nm in size.

  17. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  18. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  19. An iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic study of titania-supported iron- and iron-iridium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.; Jobson, S.

    1992-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that titania-supported iron is reduced by treatment in hydrogen at significantly lower temperatures than corresponding silica- and alumina-supported catalysts. The metallic iron formed under hydrogen at 600deg C is partially converted to carbide by treatment in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In contrast to its alumina- and silica-supported counterparts, the remainder of the titania-supported iron is unchanged by this gaseous mixture. The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of EXAFS show that iron and iridium in the titania-supported iron-iridium catalysts are reduced in hydrogen at even lower temperatures and, after treatment at 600deg C, are predominantly present as the iron-iridium alloy. The treatment of these reduced catalysts in carbon monoxide and hydrogen is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy and EXAFS to induce the segregation of iron from the iron-iridium alloy and its conversion to iron oxide. (orig.)

  20. Ceruloplasmin Oxidation, a Feature of Parkinson's Disease CSF, Inhibits Ferroxidase Activity and Promotes Cellular Iron Retention

    KAUST Repository

    Olivieri, S.; Conti, A.; Iannaccone, S.; Cannistraci, C. V.; Campanella, A.; Barbariga, M.; Codazzi, F.; Pelizzoni, I.; Magnani, G.; Pesca, M.; Franciotta, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Alessio, M.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by oxidative stress and CNS iron deposition. Ceruloplasmin is an extracellular ferroxidase that regulates cellular iron loading and export, and hence protects tissues from oxidative

  1. The spatial expression and regulation of transcription factors IDEF1 and IDEF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Ogo, Yuko; Aung, May Sann; Nozoye, Tomoko; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Under conditions of low iron availability, rice plants induce genes involved in iron uptake and utilization. The iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element binding factors 1 and 2 (IDEF1 and IDEF2) regulate transcriptional response to iron deficiency in rice roots. Clarification of the functions of IDEF1 and IDEF2 could uncover the gene regulation mechanism. Methods Spatial patterns of IDEF1 and IDEF2 expression were analysed by histochemical staining of IDEF1 and IDEF2 promoter-GUS transgenic rice lines. Expression patterns of the target genes of IDEF1 and IDEF2 were analysed using transformants with induced or repressed expression of IDEF1 or IDEF2 grown in iron-rich or in iron-deficient solutions for 1 d. Key Results IDEF1 and IDEF2 were highly expressed in the basal parts of the lateral roots and vascular bundles. IDEF1 and IDEF2 expression was dominant in leaf mesophyll and vascular cells, respectively. These expression patterns were similar under both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. IDEF1 was strongly expressed in pollen, ovaries, the aleurone layer and embryo. IDEF2 was expressed in pollen, ovaries and the dorsal vascular region of the endosperm. During seed germination, IDEF1 and IDEF2 were expressed in the endosperm and embryo. Expression of IDEF1 target genes was regulated in iron-rich roots similar to early iron-deficiency stages. In addition, the expression patterns of IDEF2 target genes were similar between iron-rich conditions and early or subsequent iron deficiency. Conclusions IDEF1 and IDEF2 are constitutively expressed during both vegetative and reproductive stages. The spatial expression patterns of IDEF1 and IDEF2 overlap with their target genes in restricted cell types, but not in all cells. The spatial expression patterns and gene regulation of IDEF1 and IDEF2 in roots are generally conserved under conditions of iron sufficiency and deficiency, suggesting complicated interactions with unknown factors for

  2. Doping dependence of spin fluctuations and electron correlations in iron pnictides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ikeda, H.; Arita, R.; Kuneš, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 024508/1-024508/6 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : iron pnicitdes * dynamic spin susceptibility * fluctuation-exchange approximation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v82/i2/e024508

  3. Study of nanodispersed aluminum and iron alcosols by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Vladimir; de Izarra, Charles; Saveliev, Gennady

    2011-06-01

    Nanodispersed aluminum and iron alcosols were prepared by ultrasonic dispersion of nanodispersed aluminum and iron powders in absolute ethanol. The photoacoustic signal (PAS) produced in modulated CO2 laser irradiation (1.026 and 1.096 kHz) of alcosols depends on the nature and method of nanoparticle fabrication and does not depend on their concentration in ethanol (within 1-5 g/l). Chemical interaction between metal nanoparticles and ethanol activated by laser irradiation or/and ultrasound is considered as the cause of the PAS.

  4. Effect of iron and silicon in aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.

    1990-01-01

    The iron and silicon are the main impurities in aluminium, they are always present in alloys made from commercially pure base material. The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low, therefore its largest amount forms intermetallic compounds the kind of which depends strongly on the other impurities of alloying elements. Although the solid solubility of silicon is much larger than that of the iron, it is the constituent of both the primary and the secondary particles, the structure of which depends in general on the iron-silicon concentration ratio. These Fe and Si containing particles can cause various and basic changes in the macroscopic properties of the alloy. Since commercially pure aluminium has extensive consumer and industrial use, it is very important to know, not only from scientific but also from practical point of view, the effect of iron and silicon on the physical and mechanical properties of aluminium and its alloys. The aim of the ''International Workshop on the Effect of Iron and Silicon in Aluminium and its Alloys'' was to clarify the present knowledge on this subject. The thirty papers presented at the Workshop and collected in this Proceedings cover many important fields of the subject. I hope that they will contribute to both the deeper understanding of the related phenomena and the improvement of technologies for producing better aluminium alloys

  5. The transcription factor ABI4 Is required for the ascorbic acid-dependent regulation of growth and regulation of jasmonate-dependent defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Pellny, Till K; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-09-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation.

  6. Iron/iron oxide core-shell nanoclusters for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang You; Antony, Jiji; Sharma, Amit; Nutting, Joseph; Sikes, Daniel; Meyer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. Most magnetic particles or beads currently used in biomedical applications are based on ferromagnetic iron oxides with very low specific magnetic moments of about 20-30 emu/g. Here we report a new approach to synthesize monodispersed core-shell nanostructured clusters with high specific magnetic moments above 200 emu/g. Iron nanoclusters with monodispersive size of diameters from 2 nm to 100 nm are produced by our newly developed nanocluster source and go to a deposition chamber, where a chemical reaction starts, and the nanoclusters are coated with iron oxides. HRTEM Images show the coatings are very uniform and stable. The core-shell nanoclusters are superparamagnetic at room temperature for sizes less than 15 nm, and then become ferromagnetic when the cluster size increases. The specific magnetic moment of core-shell nanoclusters is size dependent, and increases rapidly from about 80 emu/g at the cluster size of around 3 nm to over 200 emu/g up to the size of 100 nm. The use of high magnetic moment nanoclusters for biomedical applications could dramatically enhance the contrast for MRI, reduce the concentration of magnetic particle needs for cell separation, or make drug delivery possible with much lower magnetic field gradients

  7. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2007-09-01

    Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

  8. Comparing soluble ferric pyrophosphate to common iron salts and chelates as sources of bioavailable iron in a Caco-2 cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Le; Glahn, Raymond P; Nelson, Deanna; Miller, Dennis D

    2009-06-10

    Iron bioavailability from supplements and fortificants varies depending upon the form of the iron and the presence or absence of iron absorption enhancers and inhibitors. Our objectives were to compare the effects of pH and selected enhancers and inhibitors and food matrices on the bioavailability of iron in soluble ferric pyrophosphate (SFP) to other iron fortificants using a Caco-2 cell culture model with or without the combination of in vitro digestion. Ferritin formation was the highest in cells treated with SFP compared to those treated with other iron compounds or chelates. Exposure to pH 2 followed by adjustment to pH 7 markedly decreased FeSO(4) bioavailability but had a smaller effect on bioavailabilities from SFP and sodium iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), suggesting that chelating agents minimize the effects of pH on iron bioavailability. Adding ascorbic acid (AA) and cysteine to SFP in a 20:1 molar ratio increased ferritin formation by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas adding citrate had no significant effect on the bioavailability of SFP. Adding phytic acid (10:1) and tannic acid (1:1) to iron decreased iron bioavailability from SFP by 91 and 99%, respectively. The addition of zinc had a marked inhibitory effect on iron bioavailability. Calcium and magnesium also inhibited iron bioavailability but to a lesser extent. Incorporating SFP in rice greatly reduced iron bioavailability from SFP, but this effect can be partially reversed with the addition of AA. SFP and FeSO(4) were taken up similarly when added to nonfat dry milk. Our results suggest that dietary factors known to enhance and inhibit iron bioavailability from various iron sources affect iron bioavailability from SFP in similar directions. However, the magnitude of the effects of iron absorption inhibitors on SFP iron appears to be smaller than on iron salts, such as FeSO(4) and FeCl(3). This supports the hypothesis that SFP is a promising iron source for food fortification

  9. Serum hepcidin is significantly associated with iron absorption from food and supplemental sources in healthy young woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, but to date no studies have examined the effect of hepcidin on iron absorption in humans. Our objective was to assess relations between both serum hepcidin and serum prohepcidin with nonheme-iron absorption in the presence and absence of food with the...

  10. IRON REDOX EQUILIBRIUM AND DIFFUSIVITY IN MIXED ALKALI-ALKALINE EARTH-SILICA GLASS MELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KI-DONG KIM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of redox behavior and diffusivity of iron on temperature and composition was studied in mixed alkali-alkaline earth-silica glass melts by means of square wave voltammetry (SWV. The voltammograms showed that irrespective of K2O/(Na2O+K2O the peak potential due to Fe3+/Fe2+ moved toward negative direction with temperature decrease and the peak current showed a strong dependence on frequency at constant temperature. Iron diffusion coefficient versus melt viscosity showed a good linearity. The compositional dependence showed that the peak potential shifted to the positive direction with increase of K2O but a typical mixed alkali effect occurred in iron diffusion either at constant temperature or at constant viscosity.

  11. NLRC5: a key regulator of MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koichi S; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules is crucial for the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses against pathogens. NOD-, LRR- and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5) was recently identified as a specific transactivator of MHC class I genes (CITA). NLRC5 and the master regulator for MHC class II genes, class II transactivator (CIITA), interact with similar MHC promoter-bound factors. Here, we provide a broad overview of the molecular mechanisms behind MHC class I transcription and the role of the class I transactivator NLRC5 in MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

  12. Size-Dependent Accumulation of PEGylated Silane-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Murine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, T.; Wittenborn, T.

    2009-01-01

    following intravenous injection. Biocompatible iron oxide MNPs coated with PEG were prepared by replacing oleic acid with a biocompatible and commercially available silane-PEG to provide an easy and effective method for chemical coating. The colloidal stable PEGylated MNPs were magnetically separated...... into two distinct size subpopulations of 20 and 40 nm mean diameters with increased phagocytic uptake observed for the 40 nm size range in vitro. MRI detection revealed greater iron accumulation in murine tumors for 40 nm nanoparticles after intravenous injection. The enhanced MRI contrast of the larger...

  13. Thermally stimulated iron oxide transformations and magnetic behaviour of cerium dioxide/iron oxide reactive sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luňáček, J., E-mail: jiri.lunacek@vsb.cz [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Životský, O. [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Jirásková, Y. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Buršík, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Janoš, P. [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is devoted to detailed study of the magnetically separable sorbents based on a cerium dioxide/iron oxide composite annealed at temperatures T{sub a} = 773 K, 873 K, and 973 K. The X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the phase composition and microstructure morphology. Mössbauer spectroscopy at room (300 K) and low (5 K) temperatures has contributed to more exact identification of iron oxides and their transformations Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} → γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) → α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in dependence on calcination temperature. Different iron oxide phase compositions and grain size distributions influence the magnetic characteristics determined from the room- and low-temperature hysteresis loop measurements. The results are supported by zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization measurements allowing a quantitative estimation of the grain size distribution and its effect on the iron oxide transformations. - Highlights: •Magnetically separable sorbents based on a CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were investigated. •Microstructure of sorbents was determined by XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. •Magnetic properties were studied by hysteresis loops at room- and low-temperatures. •Phase transitions of iron oxides with increasing annealing temperature are observed.

  14. Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lipiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways – heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S] – is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  15. [Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Paweł; Starzyński, Rafał R; Styś, Agnieszka; Gajowiak, Anna; Staroń, Robert

    2014-01-02

    Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways--heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S])--is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis) as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  16. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, enhances HIF-1α accumulation via cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Kyung Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inducible enzyme in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis through increase of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in a number of neoplasms, including colorectal carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated some mechanistic aspects of DFX-induced hypoxia-driven COX-2 expression. Desferrioxamine (DFX), an iron chelator, is known to upregulate inflammatory mediators. DFX induced the expression of COX-2 and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in dose-dependent manners, but hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein but not increase of COX-2 expression. DFX-induced increase of COX-2 expression and HIF-1α protein level was attenuated by addition of ferric citrate. This result suggested that the iron chelating function of DFX was important to induce the increase of COX-2 and HIF-1α protein. PD98059 significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of HIF-1α, suggesting that DFX-induced increase of HIF-1α and COX-2 protein was mediated, at least in part, through the ERK signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with NS-398 to inhibit COX-2 activity also effectively suppressed DFX-induced HIF-1α accumulation in human colon cancer cells, providing the evidence that COX-2 plays as a regulator of HIF-1α accumulation in DFX-treated colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that iron metabolism may regulate stabilization of HIF-1α protein by modulating cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

  17. Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters.

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    Emma S Kritzberg

    Full Text Available This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters--the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system.

  18. Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Jeffrey B.; Kustka, Adam B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; McCrow, John P.; Karas, Bogumil J.; Zheng, Hong; Kindeberg, Theodor; Andersson, Andreas J.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Allen, Andrew E.

    2018-03-01

    In vast areas of the ocean, the scarcity of iron controls the growth and productivity of phytoplankton. Although most dissolved iron in the marine environment is complexed with organic molecules, picomolar amounts of labile inorganic iron species (labile iron) are maintained within the euphotic zone and serve as an important source of iron for eukaryotic phytoplankton and particularly for diatoms. Genome-enabled studies of labile iron utilization by diatoms have previously revealed novel iron-responsive transcripts, including the ferric iron-concentrating protein ISIP2A, but the mechanism behind the acquisition of picomolar labile iron remains unknown. Here we show that ISIP2A is a phytotransferrin that independently and convergently evolved carbonate ion-coordinated ferric iron binding. Deletion of ISIP2A disrupts high-affinity iron uptake in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and uptake is restored by complementation with human transferrin. ISIP2A is internalized by endocytosis, and manipulation of the seawater carbonic acid system reveals a second-order dependence on the concentrations of labile iron and carbonate ions. In P. tricornutum, the synergistic interaction of labile iron and carbonate ions occurs at environmentally relevant concentrations, revealing that carbonate availability co-limits iron uptake. Phytotransferrin sequences have a broad taxonomic distribution and are abundant in marine environmental genomic datasets, suggesting that acidification-driven declines in the concentration of seawater carbonate ions will have a negative effect on this globally important eukaryotic iron acquisition mechanism.

  19. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1muCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72+-3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon tetrachloride or

  20. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck

    1971-01-01

    Since the iron balance is maintained by regulated intestinal absorption rather than regulated excretion, there have been many reports concerning the factors which may influence the intestinal iron absorption. As the liver is the largest iron storage organ of the body, any hepatocellular damage may result in disturbances in iron metabolism, e,g., frequent co-existence of haemochromatosis and liver cirrhosis, or elevated serum iron level and increased iron absorption rate in patients with infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis. In one effort to demonstrate the influence of hepatocellular damage on intestinal iron absorption, the iron absorption rate was measured in the rabbits whose livers were injured by a single subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 cc per kg of body weight) or by a single irradiation of 2, 000 to 16, 000 rads with Co on the liver locally. A single oral dose of 1μCi of Fe-citrate with 0.5 mg of ferrous citrate was fed in the fasting state, 24 hours after hepatic damage had been induced, without any reducing or chelating agents, and stool was collected for one week thereafter. Serum iron levels, together with conventional liver function teats, were measured at 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after liver damage had been induced. All animals were sacrificed upon the completing of the one week's test period and tissue specimens were prepared for H-E and Gomori's iron stain. Following are the results. 1. Normal iron absorption rate of the rabbit was 41.72±3.61% when 0.5 mg of iron was given in the fasting state, as measured by subtracting the amount recovered in stool collected for 7 days from the amount given. The test period of 7 days is adequate, for only 1% of the iron given was excreted thereafter. 2. The intestinal iron absorption rate and serum iron level were significantly increased when the animal was poisoned by a single subcutaneous injection of 0.15 cc, per kg. of body weight of carbon tetrachloride or

  1. Dependence of the phosphate sorption capacity on the aluminium and iron in Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study to what extent the capacity of the more or less acid soils in Finland to sorb phosphate may be explained on the basis of their content of aluminium and iron. The indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity was calculated on the basis of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm according to the procedure proposed by TERÄSVUORI (8. The material consisted of 390 samples from cultivated and virgin soils representing both topsoils and subsoils. The indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, the coefficient k, varied in the present material from 40 to 1510. The mean values (with the confidence limits at the 95 per cent level were for the 109 samples of sand and fine sand soils 290 ± 17, for the 103 samples of loam and silt soils 201 ± 24, for the 151 clay soils 308 ± 20, and for the 27 humus soils 236 ± 41. The total linear correlation coefficients between k and the soil pH, and its contents of organic carbon or clay were low or negligible in most of the soil groups. The correlation of k with the content of aluminium extracted by Tamm’s acid ammonium oxalate was fairly close in the clay soils (r = 0.84***, lower in the sand and fine sand soils (r = 0.77***, and in the loam and silt soils, and in the humus soils it was rather poor (r = 0.65*** and 0.63*** resp.. The elimination of the effect of the ammonium oxalate soluble iron decreased the correlation in the two latter groups quite markedly (to 0.32** and 0.37 resp., while the corresponding decrease in the coefficients for the former groups was less significant (to 0.64*** and 0.75*** resp.. The elimination of the effect of the ammonium oxalate soluble aluminium, on the other hand, decreased the correlation coefficients between k and the ammonium oxalate soluble iron in the sand and fine sand soils from 0.59*** to 0.26**, in the loam and silt soils from 0.73*** to 0.54***, in the clay soils from 0.70*** to 0.51***, and in the humus soils from 0.68*** to 0.49*. The

  2. EPR spectroscopy of complex biological iron-sulfur systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilfred R

    2018-02-21

    From the very first discovery of biological iron-sulfur clusters with EPR, the spectroscopy has been used to study not only purified proteins but also complex systems such as respiratory complexes, membrane particles and, later, whole cells. In recent times, the emphasis of iron-sulfur biochemistry has moved from characterization of individual proteins to the systems biology of iron-sulfur biosynthesis, regulation, degradation, and implications for human health. Although this move would suggest a blossoming of System-EPR as a specific, non-invasive monitor of Fe/S (dys)homeostasis in whole cells, a review of the literature reveals limited success possibly due to technical difficulties in adherence to EPR spectroscopic and biochemical standards. In an attempt to boost application of System-EPR the required boundary conditions and their practical applications are explicitly and comprehensively formulated.

  3. Erythrocytic ferroportin reduces intracellular iron accumulation, hemolysis, and malaria risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Wu, Jian; Shah, Binal N; Greutélaers, Katja C; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre, Hayden; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Thuma, Philip E; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Gordeuk, Victor R; Rouault, Tracey A

    2018-03-30

    Malaria parasites invade red blood cells (RBCs), consume copious amounts of hemoglobin, and severely disrupt iron regulation in humans. Anemia often accompanies malaria disease; however, iron supplementation therapy inexplicably exacerbates malarial infections. Here we found that the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN) was highly abundant in RBCs, and iron supplementation suppressed its activity. Conditional deletion of the Fpn gene in erythroid cells resulted in accumulation of excess intracellular iron, cellular damage, hemolysis, and increased fatality in malaria-infected mice. In humans, a prevalent FPN mutation, Q248H (glutamine to histidine at position 248), prevented hepcidin-induced degradation of FPN and protected against severe malaria disease. FPN Q248H appears to have been positively selected in African populations in response to the impact of malaria disease. Thus, FPN protects RBCs against oxidative stress and malaria infection. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. HFE gene variants and iron-induced oxygen radical generation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiuolo, Federica; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Pezzuto, Gabriella; Cavalli, Francesco; Longo, Giuliana; Comandini, Alessia; Di Pierro, Donato; Pallante, Marco; Sergiacomi, Gianluigi; Simonetti, Giovanni; Zompatori, Maurizio; Orlandi, Augusto; Magrini, Andrea; Amicosante, Massimo; Mariani, Francesca; Losi, Monica; Fraboni, Daniela; Bisetti, Alberto; Saltini, Cesare

    2015-02-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), lung accumulation of excessive extracellular iron and macrophage haemosiderin may suggest disordered iron homeostasis leading to recurring microscopic injury and fibrosing damage. The current study population comprised 89 consistent IPF patients and 107 controls. 54 patients and 11 controls underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Haemosiderin was assessed by Perls' stain, BAL fluid malondialdehyde (MDA) by high-performance liquid chromatography, BAL cell iron-dependent oxygen radical generation by fluorimetry and the frequency of hereditary haemochromatosis HFE gene variants by reverse dot blot hybridisation. Macrophage haemosiderin, BAL fluid MDA and BAL cell unstimulated iron-dependent oxygen radical generation were all significantly increased above controls (pHFE allelic variants was markedly higher in IPF compared with controls (40.4% versus 22.4%, OR 2.35, p=0.008) and was associated with higher iron-dependent oxygen radical generation (HFE variant 107.4±56.0, HFE wild type (wt) 59.4±36.4 and controls 16.7±11.8 fluorescence units per 10(5) BAL cells; p=0.028 HFE variant versus HFE wt, p=0.006 HFE wt versus controls). The data suggest iron dysregulation associated with HFE allelic variants may play an important role in increasing susceptibility to environmental exposures, leading to recurring injury and fibrosis in IPF. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Higher iron bioavailability of a human-like collagen iron complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Yang, Fan; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Ya; Yu, Yuanyuan

    2017-07-01

    Iron deficiency remains a public health problem around the world due to low iron intake and/or bioavailability. FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, and ferrous glycinate chelate are rich in iron but have poor bioavailability. To solve the problem of iron deficiency, following previous research studies, a thiolated human-like collagen-ironcomplex supplement with a high iron content was prepared in an anaerobic workstation. In addition, cell viability tests were evaluated after conducting an MTT assay, and a quantitative analysis of the thiolated human-like collagen-iron digesta samples was performed using the SDS-PAGE method coupled with gel filtration chromatography. The iron bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cell monolayers and iron-deficiency anemia mice models. The results showed that (1) one mole of thiolated human-like collagen-iron possessed approximately 35.34 moles of iron; (2) thiolated human-like collagen-iron did not exhibit cytotoxity and (3) thiolated human-like collagen- iron digesta samples had higher bioavailability than other iron supplements, including FeSO 4 , ferrous succinate, ferrous glycine chelate and thiolated human-like collagen-Fe iron. Finally, the iron bioavailability was significantly enhanced by vitamin C. These results indicated that thiolated human-like collagen-iron is a promising iron supplement for use in the future.

  6. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  7. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Saito, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Kudo, Isao; Kiyosawa, Hiroshi; Shiomoto, Akihiro; Imai, Keiri; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Hinuma, Akira; Kinugasa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Koji; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Tani, Heihachiro; Deguchi, Yuji; Tsurushima, Nobuo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Fukami, Kimio; Kuma, Kenshi; Saino, Toshiro

    2003-05-09

    We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a centric diatom, Chaetoceros debilis, that showed a very high growth rate, 2.6 doublings per day. We conclude that the bioavailability of iron regulates the magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass and the key phytoplankton species that determine the biogeochemical sensitivity to iron supply of high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters.

  8. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison Jarles da Silva Diniz

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV, were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05 found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  9. Serum Albumin Alters the Expression of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Iron Controlled Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect serum on global transcription within P. aeruginosa at different phases of growth and the role of iron in this regulation. Results presented in this study suggest a novel mechanism through which serum regulates the expression of different P. ae...

  10. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  11. Co-operative intermolecular kinetics of 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases may be essential for system-level regulation of plant cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Can the stimulus-driven synergistic association of 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases be influenced by the kinetic parameters of binding and catalysis?In this manuscript, I posit that these indices are necessary and specific for a particular stimulus, and are key determinants of a dynamic clustering that may function to mitigate the effects of this trigger. The protein(s)/sequence(s) that comprise this group are representative of all major kingdoms of life, and catalyze a generic hydroxylation, which is, in most cases accompanied by a specialized conversion of the substrate molecule. Iron is an essential co-factor for this transformation and the response to waning levels is systemic, and mandates the simultaneous participation of molecular sensors, transporters, and signal transducers. Here, I present a proof-of-concept model, that an evolving molecular network of 2OG-dependent enzymes can maintain iron homeostasis in the cytosol of root hair cells of members of the family Gramineae by actuating a non-reductive compensatory chelation by the phytosiderophores. Regression models of empirically available kinetic data (iron and alpha-ketoglutarate) were formulated, analyzed, and compared. The results, when viewed in context of the superfamily responding as a unit, suggest that members can indeed, work together to accomplish system-level function. This is achieved by the establishment of transient metabolic conduits, wherein the flux is dictated by kinetic compatibility of the participating enzymes. The approach adopted, i.e., predictive mathematical modeling, is integral to the hypothesis-driven acquisition of experimental data points and, in association with suitable visualization aids may be utilized for exploring complex plant biochemical systems.

  12. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  13. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  14. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio vulnificus Required for Heme Utilization: Regulation of Expression and Determination of the Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M.; Byrne, Burke L.

    1998-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic, marine pathogen that has been associated with septicemia and serious wound infections in patients with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. For V. vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. V. vulnificus is able to use host iron sources such as hemoglobin and heme. We previously constructed a fur mutant of V. vulnificus which constitutively expresses at least two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins, of 72 and 77 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 77-kDa protein purified from the V. vulnificus fur mutant had 67% homology with the first 15 amino acids of the mature protein of the Vibrio cholerae heme receptor, HutA. In this report, we describe the cloning, DNA sequence, mutagenesis, and analysis of transcriptional regulation of the structural gene for HupA, the heme receptor of V. vulnificus. DNA sequencing of hupA demonstrated a single open reading frame of 712 amino acids that was 50% identical and 66% similar to the sequence of V. cholerae HutA and similar to those of other TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Primer extension analysis localized one promoter for the V. vulnificus hupA gene. Analysis of the promoter region of V. vulnificus hupA showed a sequence homologous to the consensus Fur box. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcript was strongly regulated by iron. An internal deletion in the V. vulnificus hupA gene, done by using marker exchange, resulted in the loss of expression of the 77-kDa protein and the loss of the ability to use hemin or hemoglobin as a source of iron. The hupA deletion mutant of V. vulnificus will be helpful in future studies of the role of heme iron in V. vulnificus pathogenesis. PMID:9632577

  16. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  17. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for