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Sample records for irna agents targeting

  1. "To Teach and To Sell": Irna Phillips and Her Sponsors, 1930-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationships between Irna Phillips, the most powerful woman in soap opera production from the 1930s through the 1960s, and the sponsors of her radio soap operas. Explores how Phillips represented women both in her scripts and in her public relations efforts. (MM)

  2. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  3. Multi-Agent Cooperative Target Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwen Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation.

  4. Novel targeted agents for gastric cancer

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    Liu Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contemporary advancements have had little impact on the treatment of gastric cancer (GC, the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. Agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor mediated pathways have been a common topic of contemporary cancer research, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Trastuzumab is the first target agent evidencing improvements in overall survival in HER2-positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gastric cancer patients. Agents targeting vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, and other biological pathways are also undergoing clinical trials, with some marginally positive results. Effective targeted therapy requires patient selection based on predictive molecular biomarkers. Most phase III clinical trials are carried out without patient selection; therefore, it is hard to achieve personalized treatment and to monitor patient outcome individually. The trend for future clinical trials requires patient selection methods based on current understanding of GC biology with the application of biomarkers.

  5. Annexin A9 (ANXA9) biomarker and therapeutic target in epithelial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi [El Cerrito, CA; Kuo, Wen-Lin [San Ramon, CA; Neve, Richard M [San Mateo, CA; Gray, Joe W [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-12

    Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.

  6. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

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    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  7. Targeting cancer chemotherapeutic agents by use of lipiodol contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.

    1990-01-01

    Arterially administered Lipiodol Ultrafluid contrast medium selectively remained in various malignant solid tumors because of the difference in time required for the removal of Lipiodol contrast medium from normal capillaries and tumor neovasculature. Although blood flow was maintained in the tumor, even immediately after injection Lipiodol contrast medium remained in the neovasculature of the tumor. To target anti-cancer agents to tumors by using Lipiodol contrast medium as a carrier, the characteristics of the agents were examined. Anti-cancer agents had to be soluble in Lipiodol, be stable in it, and separate gradually from it so that the anti-cancer agents would selectively remain in the tumor. These conditions were found to be necessary on the basis of the measurement of radioactivity in VX2 tumors implanted in the liver of 16 rabbits that received arterial injections of 14C-labeled doxorubicin. Antitumor activities and side effects of arterial injections of two types of anti-cancer agents were compared in 76 rabbits with VX2 tumors. Oily anti-cancer agents that had characteristics essential for targeting were compared with simple mixtures of anti-cancer agents with Lipiodol contrast medium that did not have these essential characteristics. Groups of rabbits that received oily anti-cancer agents responded significantly better than groups that received simple mixtures, and side effects were observed more frequently in the groups that received the simple mixtures. These results suggest that targeting of the anti-cancer agent to the tumor is important for treatment of solid malignant tumors

  8. Combined-modality treatment of solid tumors using radiotherapy and molecular targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Brigette B Y; Bristow, Robert G; Kim, John; Siu, Lillian L

    2003-07-15

    Molecular targeted agents have been combined with radiotherapy (RT) in recent clinical trials in an effort to optimize the therapeutic index of RT. The appeal of this strategy lies in their potential target specificity and clinically acceptable toxicity. This article integrates the salient, published research findings into the underlying molecular mechanisms, preclinical efficacy, and clinical applicability of combining RT with molecular targeted agents. These agents include inhibitors of intracellular signal transduction molecules, modulators of apoptosis, inhibitors of cell cycle checkpoints control, antiangiogenic agents, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. Molecular targeted agents can have direct effects on the cytoprotective and cytotoxic pathways implicated in the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). These pathways involve cellular proliferation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, nuclear transcription, tumor angiogenesis, and prostanoid-associated inflammation. These pathways can also converge to alter RT-induced apoptosis, terminal growth arrest, and reproductive cell death. Pharmacologic modulation of these pathways may potentially enhance tumor response to RT though inhibition of tumor repopulation, improvement of tumor oxygenation, redistribution during the cell cycle, and alteration of intrinsic tumor radiosensitivity. Combining RT and molecular targeted agents is a rational approach in the treatment of solid tumors. Translation of this approach from promising preclinical data to clinical trials is actively underway.

  9. Biochemical studies of immune RNA using a cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.D.; Sellin, H.G.; Novelli, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Immune RNA (iRNA), a subcellular macromolecular species usually prepared by phenol extraction of lymphoid tissue, can confer some manifestation(s) of cellular immunity on naive lymphocytes. Experiments were done to develop an assay system to detect activation of lymphocytes by iRNA to become cytotoxic toward tumor cells, and to study certain properties of iRNA using this system. Guinea pigs were immunized with human mammary carcinoma cells and the iRNA, prepared from spleens of animals shown by prior assay to have blood lymphocytes highly cytotoxic against the tumor cells, was assayed by ability of iRNA-activated lymphocytes to lyse /sup 51/Cr-labelled tumor cells. The ability of iRNA to activate lymphocytes to tumor cytotoxicity could only be differentiated from a cytotoxic activation by RNA preparations from unimmunized animals at very low doses of RNA. The most active iRNA preparations were from cytoplasmic subcellular fractions, extracted by a cold phenol procedure, while iRNA isolated by hot phenol methods was no more active than control RNA prepared by the same techniques. Attempts to demonstrate poly(A) sequences in iRNA were inconclusive.

  10. Development of new releasing agents for preparation of thin self-supporting target films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugai, I; Takaku, S; Hasegawa, T [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1978-06-01

    Several kinds of materials were examined for the usefulness as releasing agents in the preparation of various thin self-supporting target films for use in nuclear reaction experiments. NaCl, BaCl/sub 2/, KCl, CsI, Teepol, glucose, KIO/sub 3/, mica, nitrocellulose of Formvar was deposited onto glass plates as the release agent by vacuum evaporation or dipping method. The obtained target film was tested on impurities from the release agent by using nuclear reactions. The relative effectiveness of each release agent was also considered from ease in the stripping of target films.

  11. Development of new releasing agents for preparation of thin self-supporting target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao; Takaku, Seisaku; Hasegawa, Takeo

    1978-01-01

    Several kinds of materials were examined for the usefulness as releasing agents in the preparation of various thin self-supporting target films for use in nuclear reaction experiments. NaCl, BaCl 2 , KCl, CsI, Teepol, glucose, KIO 3 , mica, nitrocellulose of Formvar was deposited onto glass plates as the release agent by vacuum evaporation or dipping method. The obtained target film was tested on impurities from the release agent by using nuclear reactions. The relative effectiveness of each release agent was also considered from ease in the stripping of target films. (auth.)

  12. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M

    2016-05-05

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared - non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer agents for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Zips, Daniel; Thames, Howard D.; Kummermehr, Johann; Baumann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The combination of molecular-targeted agents with irradiation is a highly promising avenue for cancer research and patient care. Molecular-targeted agents are in themselves not curative in solid tumours, whereas radiotherapy is highly efficient in eradicating tumour stem cells. Recurrences after high-dose radiotherapy are caused by only one or few surviving tumour stem cells. Thus, even if a novel agent has the potential to kill only few tumour stem cells, or if it interferes in mechanisms of radioresistance of tumours, combination with radiotherapy may lead to an important improvement in local tumour control and survival. To evaluate the effects of novel agents combined with radiotherapy, it is therefore necessary to use experimental endpoints which reflect the killing of tumour stem cells, in particular tumour control assays. Such endpoints often do not correlate with volume-based parameters of tumour response such as tumour regression and growth delay. This calls for radiotherapy specific research strategies in the preclinical testing of novel anti-cancer drugs, which in many aspects are different from research approaches for medical oncology

  15. Agent Collaborative Target Localization and Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are autonomous networks that have beenfrequently deployed to collaboratively perform target localization and classification tasks.Their autonomous and collaborative features resemble the characteristics of agents. Suchsimilarities inspire the development of heterogeneous agent architecture for WSN in thispaper. The proposed agent architecture views WSN as multi-agent systems and mobileagents are employed to reduce in-network communication. According to the architecture,an energy based acoustic localization algorithm is proposed. In localization, estimate oftarget location is obtained by steepest descent search. The search algorithm adapts tomeasurement environments by dynamically adjusting its termination condition. With theagent architecture, target classification is accomplished by distributed support vectormachine (SVM. Mobile agents are employed for feature extraction and distributed SVMlearning to reduce communication load. Desirable learning performance is guaranteed bycombining support vectors and convex hull vectors. Fusion algorithms are designed tomerge SVM classification decisions made from various modalities. Real world experimentswith MICAz sensor nodes are conducted for vehicle localization and classification.Experimental results show the proposed agent architecture remarkably facilitates WSNdesigns and algorithm implementation. The localization and classification algorithms alsoprove to be accurate and energy efficient.

  16. Multi-target consensus circle pursuit for multi-agent systems via a distributed multi-flocking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the multi-target consensus pursuit problem of multi-agent systems. For solving the problem, a distributed multi-flocking method is designed based on the partial information exchange, which is employed to realise the pursuit of multi-target and the uniform distribution of the number of pursuing agents with the dynamic target. Combining with the proposed circle formation control strategy, agents can adaptively choose the target to form the different circle formation groups accomplishing a multi-target pursuit. The speed state of pursuing agents in each group converges to the same value. A Lyapunov approach is utilised to analyse the stability of multi-agent systems. In addition, a sufficient condition is given for achieving the dynamic target consensus pursuit, and which is then analysed. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  17. A targeted nanoglobular contrast agent from host-guest self-assembly for MR cancer molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Han, Zhen; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The clinical application of nanoparticular Gd(III) based contrast agents for tumor molecular MRI has been hindered by safety concerns associated with prolonged tissue retention, although they can produce strong tumor enhancement. In this study, a targeted well-defined cyclodextrin-based nanoglobular contrast agent was developed through self-assembly driven by host-guest interactions for safe and effective cancer molecular MRI. Multiple β-cyclodextrins attached POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) nanoglobule was used as host molecule. Adamantane-modified macrocyclic Gd(III) contrast agent, cRGD (cyclic RGDfK peptide) targeting ligand and fluorescent probe was used as guest molecules. The targeted host-guest nanoglobular contrast agent cRGD-POSS-βCD-(DOTA-Gd) specifically bond to αvβ3 integrin in malignant 4T1 breast tumor and provided greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding non-targeted agent. The agent also provided significant fluorescence signal in tumor tissue. The histological analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed its specific and effective targeting to αvβ3 integrin. The targeted imaging agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular MR and fluorescent imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Designing multi-targeted agents: An emerging anticancer drug discovery paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong-Geng; Sun, Yuan; Sheng, Wen-Bing; Liao, Duan-Fang

    2017-08-18

    The dominant paradigm in drug discovery is to design ligands with maximum selectivity to act on individual drug targets. With the target-based approach, many new chemical entities have been discovered, developed, and further approved as drugs. However, there are a large number of complex diseases such as cancer that cannot be effectively treated or cured only with one medicine to modulate the biological function of a single target. As simultaneous intervention of two (or multiple) cancer progression relevant targets has shown improved therapeutic efficacy, the innovation of multi-targeted drugs has become a promising and prevailing research topic and numerous multi-targeted anticancer agents are currently at various developmental stages. However, most multi-pharmacophore scaffolds are usually discovered by serendipity or screening, while rational design by combining existing pharmacophore scaffolds remains an enormous challenge. In this review, four types of multi-pharmacophore modes are discussed, and the examples from literature will be used to introduce attractive lead compounds with the capability of simultaneously interfering with different enzyme or signaling pathway of cancer progression, which will reveal the trends and insights to help the design of the next generation multi-targeted anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Gloriam, David E.; Attwood, Misty M.

    2017-01-01

    current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially...... are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug......G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals...

  20. Possible targets for the aneugenic activity of alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerano, P. [IST-National Institute for Research on Cancer, Genova (Italy); Abbondandolo, A. [Univ. of Genova (Italy); Bonatti, S.; Simili, M. [CNR Institute of Mutagenesis and Differentiation, Pisa (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    Alkylating agents have been of invaluable help in mutation research for half a century. In all tested organisms, they have proved able to induce a large variety of genetic effects, including aneuploidy. Credible molecular models exist to explain the ability of alkylating agents to induce gene mutation and to act as initiators in carcinogenesis as a consequence of DNA alkylation at specific sites. On the contrary, neither the mechanism of aneuploidy induction nor the relevant cellular targets are known.

  1. In vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0242 TITLE: In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using T argeted Contrast Agent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0242 5b. GRANT...diagnose prostate cancer based on the near-infrared optical absorption of either endogenous tissue constituents or exogenous contrast agents . Although

  2. The feasibility of a targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides to hypoxic HUVEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ju; Wang Zhigang; Ren Jianli; Zhang Qingfeng; Liu Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare an anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) and to investigate its feasibility of delivery to hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods: Anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying a green fluorescent protein gene (pEGFP-N1) and CPP was prepared by mechanical vibration and carbodiimide techniques. The appearance, distribution, concentration and diameter of the ultrasound contrast agent were measured. The gene and CPP distribution on the agent was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The efficiency of the ultrasound contrast agent to carry the gene and CPP was investigated by fluorospectrophotometry. HUVEC were cultured in vitro and hypoxic HUVEC were prepared using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hypoxic HUVEC were randomly assigned targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for transfection. The transfection effect of green fluorescent protein in the two groups was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. T-test and linear correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The average diameter of anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agents carrying gene and CPP was (2.15 ±0.36) μm and the concentration was (1.58 ± 0.23) × 10 7 /ml.The results of CLSM showed that gene and CPP were distributed on the shell of the agent. The gene encapsulation efficiency was 28% (y=0.932x-0.09, r=0.993, P<0.05), and the CPP encapsulation efficiency was 25% (y=5.875x-0.81, r=0.987, P<0.05). EGFP expression was observed using fluorescence microscopy in targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents. The average transfection efficiencies of targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents were (18.74 ± 0.47) % and (15.34 ± 0.22) % after 24 h (t=10.923, P<0.001). Conclusions: The in vitro studies

  3. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Alexander S; Attwood, Misty M; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Schiöth, Helgi B; Gloriam, David E

    2017-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has increased. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer disease, although several central nervous system disorders are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug discovery.

  4. Lipoprotein Nanoplatform for Targeted Delivery of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Glickson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of visible or near-infrared fluorescent optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and photodynamic therapy and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that overexpress low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs. Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from about 10 nm (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] to over a micron (chylomicrons is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents onto or into these particles has been achieved by protein loading (covalent attachment to protein side chains, surface loading (intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer, and core loading (extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Core and surface loading of LDL have been used for delivery of optical imaging agents to tumor cells in vivo and in culture. Surface loading was used for delivery of gadolinium-bis-stearylamide contrast agents for in vivo MRI detection in tumor-bearing mice. Chlorin and phthalocyanine near-infrared photodynamic therapy agents (≤ 400/LDL have been attached by core loading. Protein loading was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR to folate receptors and could be used to target other receptors. A semisynthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer of phospholipid to which apolipoprotein A1 or E was adsorbed for targeting HDL or adsorbing synthetic amphipathic helical peptides ltargeting LDL or folate receptors. These particles can be used for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI-monitored cell tracking or gene expression.

  5. Cell targeting peptides as smart ligands for targeting of therapeutic or diagnostic agents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavizadeh, Ali; Jabbari, Ali; Akrami, Mohammad; Bardania, Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Cell targeting peptides (CTP) are small peptides which have high affinity and specificity to a cell or tissue targets. They are typically identified by using phage display and chemical synthetic peptide library methods. CTPs have attracted considerable attention as a new class of ligands to delivery specifically therapeutic and diagnostic agents, because of the fact they have several advantages including easy synthesis, smaller physical sizes, lower immunogenicity and cytotoxicity and their simple and better conjugation to nano-carriers and therapeutic or diagnostic agents compared to conventional antibodies. In this systematic review, we will focus on the basic concepts concerning the use of cell-targeting peptides (CTPs), following the approaches of selecting them from peptide libraries. We discuss several developed strategies for cell-specific delivery of different cargos by CTPs, which are designed for drug delivery and diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents targeting the innate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents targeting the innate immune system. ... Some of the positive effects of probiotics are: growth promotion of farm animals, protection of host from intestinal infections, alleviation of lactose intolerance, relief of constipation, anticarcinogenic effect, anticholesterolaemic effects, ...

  7. Connexin 43-targeted T1 contrast agent for MRI diagnosis of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, Tatiana; Abakumov, Maxim; Shein, Sergey; Chelushkin, Pavel; Bychkov, Dmitry; Mukhin, Vladimir; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar; Grinenko, Nadezhda; Kabanov, Alexander; Nukolova, Natalia; Chekhonin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive form of brain tumor. Early and accurate diagnosis of glioma and its borders is an important step for its successful treatment. One of the promising targets for selective visualization of glioma and its margins is connexin 43 (Cx43), which is highly expressed in reactive astrocytes and migrating glioma cells. The purpose of this study was to synthesize a Gd-based contrast agent conjugated with specific antibodies to Cx43 for efficient visualization of glioma C6 in vivo. We have prepared stable nontoxic conjugates of monoclonal antibody to Cx43 and polylysine-DTPA ligands complexed with Gd(III), which are characterized by higher T1 relaxivity (6.5 mM(-1) s(-1) at 7 T) than the commercial agent Magnevist® (3.4 mM(-1) s(-1)). Cellular uptake of Cx43-specific T1 contrast agent in glioma C6 cells was more than four times higher than the nonspecific IgG-contrast agent, as detected by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. MRI experiments showed that the obtained agents could markedly enhance visualization of glioma C6 in vivo after their intravenous administration. Significant accumulation of Cx43-targeted contrast agents in glioma and the peritumoral zone led not only to enhanced contrast but also to improved detection of the tumor periphery. Fluorescence imaging confirmed notable accumulation of Cx43-specific conjugates in the peritumoral zone compared with nonspecific IgG conjugates at 24 h after intravenous injection. All these features of Cx43-targeted contrast agents might be useful for more precise diagnosis of glioma and its borders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Computation of the target state and feedback controls for time optimal consensus in multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Ameer K.; Patil, Deepak U.; Chakraborty, Debraj

    2018-02-01

    N identical agents with bounded inputs aim to reach a common target state (consensus) in the minimum possible time. Algorithms for computing this time-optimal consensus point, the control law to be used by each agent and the time taken for the consensus to occur, are proposed. Two types of multi-agent systems are considered, namely (1) coupled single-integrator agents on a plane and, (2) double-integrator agents on a line. At the initial time instant, each agent is assumed to have access to the state information of all the other agents. An algorithm, using convexity of attainable sets and Helly's theorem, is proposed, to compute the final consensus target state and the minimum time to achieve this consensus. Further, parts of the computation are parallelised amongst the agents such that each agent has to perform computations of O(N2) run time complexity. Finally, local feedback time-optimal control laws are synthesised to drive each agent to the target point in minimum time. During this part of the operation, the controller for each agent uses measurements of only its own states and does not need to communicate with any neighbouring agents.

  9. PEGylated chitosan grafted with polyamidoaminedendron as tumor-targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangyue Zu; Xiaoyan Tong; Yi Cao; Ye Kuang; Yajie Zhang; Min Liu; Renjun Pei

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular contrast agents labeled with targeting ligands are now receiving growing interest in tumor-targeted magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a macromolecular contrast agent based on PEGylated chitosan was synthesized and characterized, and its application as an MRI contrast agent was then demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. First, the chitosan backbone was partially grafted with poly(ethylene glycol), which was used to improve the in vivo stability, followed by modifying with azide groups. Second, alkynyl-terminated PAMAM dendron modified with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was synthesized and conjugated onto the chitosan backbone through click chemistry. Finally, the obtained mCA was further functionalized with folic acid to improve the target specificity. The obtained FA labeled mCA exhibited higher relaxivity (9.53 mM"-"1.s"-"1) relative to Gd-DTPA (4.25 mM"-"1.s"-"1) and showed negligible toxicity as determined by the WST assay. In vivo MRI results suggested that a relatively high signal enhancement was observed in the tumor region, which made it a promising candidate for tumor-targeted MRI CA. (authors)

  10. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Lu, Zaijun

    2009-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid-polyethylene glycol/gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA) nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA-PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd-DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was -12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed ( r = 0.987). The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd-DTPA. PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular targeted imaging contrast agent.

  11. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dexin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid–polyethylene glycol/gadolinium–diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. The PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA–PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd–DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was −12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed (r = 0.987. The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd–DTPA. PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular

  12. Comparing methods of targeting obesity interventions in populations: An agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment. We develop an ABM to compare conventional targeting methods (random selection, based on individual obesity risk, and vulnerable areas) with network-based targeting methods. We adapt a previously published and validated model of network diffusion of obesity-related behavior. We then build social networks among agents using a more realistic approach. We calibrate our model first against national-level data. Our results show that network-based targeting may lead to greater population impact. We also present a new targeting method that outperforms other methods in terms of intervention effectiveness at the population level.

  13. Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

    2008-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

  14. Near infrared spectral polarization imaging of prostate cancer tissues using Cybesin: a receptor-targeted contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, W. B.; Tang, G. C.; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, S.; Alfano, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    Cybesin, a smart contrast agent to target cancer cells, was investigated using a near infrared (NIR) spectral polarization imaging technique for prostate cancer detection. The approach relies on applying a contrast agent that can target cancer cells. Cybesin, as a small ICG-derivative dye-peptide, emit fluorescence between 750 nm and 900 nm, which is in the "tissue optical window". Cybesin was reported targeting the over-expressed bombesin receptors in cancer cells in animal model and the human prostate cancers over-expressing bombesin receptors. The NIR spectral polarization imaging study reported here demonstrated that Cybesin can be used as a smart optical biomarker and as a prostate cancer receptor targeted contrast agent.

  15. Fluorine-Containing Taxoid Anticancer Agents and Their Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Joshua; Vineberg, Jacob G.; Zuniga, Edison S.; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing problem of conventional chemotherapy is the lack of tumor-specific treatments. Traditional chemotherapy relies on the premise that rapidly proliferating cancer cells are more likely to be killed by a cytotoxic agent. In reality, however, cytotoxic agents have very little or no specificity, which leads to systemic toxicity, causing undesirable severe side effects. Consequently, various “molecularly targeted cancer therapies” have been developed for use in specific cancers, incl...

  16. A Functional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with PLA-PEG-DG as Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Hu, Ke; Yu, Haoli; Zhou, Lijun; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianping; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe 3 O 4 @OA NPs. The stability and anti phagocytosis of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG was tested in vitro; the MRI efficiency and toxicity was also detected in vivo. These functional magnetic nanoparticles demonstrated good biocompatibility and stability both in vitro and in vivo. Cell experiments showed that Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles exist good anti phagocytosis and high targetability. In vivo MRI images showed that the contrast effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles prevailed over the commercial non tumor-targeting magnetic nanomaterials MRI agent at a relatively low dose. The DG can validly enhance the tumor-targetting effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG nanoparticle. Maybe MRI agents with DG can hold promise as tumor-targetting development in the future.

  17. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  18. Ultrasonic Analysis of Peptide- and Antibody-Targeted Microbubble Contrast Agents for Molecular Imaging of αvβ3-Expressing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dayton

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of targeted ultrasound contrast agents is to significantly and selectively enhance the detection of a targeted vascular site. In this manuscript, three distinct contrast agents targeted to the αvβ3 integrin are examined. The αvβ3 integrin has been shown to be highly expressed on metastatic tumors and endothelial cells during neovascularization, and its expression has been shown to correlate with tumor grade. Specific adhesion of these contrast agents to αvβ3-expressing cell monolayers is demonstrated in vitro, and compared with that of nontargeted agents. Acoustic studies illustrate a backscatter amplitude increase from monolayers exposed to the targeted contrast agents of up to 13-fold (22 dB relative to enhancement due to control bubbles. A linear dependence between the echo amplitude and bubble concentration was observed for bound agents. The decorrelation of the echo from adherent targeted agents is observed over successive pulses as a function of acoustic pressure and bubble density. Frequency–domain analysis demonstrates that adherent targeted bubbles exhibit high-amplitude narrowband echo components, in contrast to the primarily wideband response from free microbubbles. Results suggest that adherent targeted contrast agents are differentiable from free-floating microbubbles, that targeted contrast agents provide higher sensitivity in the detection of angiogenesis, and that conventional ultrasound imaging techniques such as signal subtraction or decorrelation detection can be used to detect integrin-expressing vasculature with sufficient signal-to-noise.

  19. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  20. Synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as liver targeting MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, Farshad; Fattahi, Bahare; Azizi, Najmodin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was the preparation of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as a liver targeting contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with silica via the Stober method and finally the coated nanoparticles were functionalized with mebrofenin. Formation of crystalline magnetite particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) of the final product showed that silica had been effectively bonded onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles and the coated nanoparticles functionalized with mebrofenin. The magnetic resonance imaging of the functional nanoparticles showed that the Fe_3O_4–SiO_2-mebrofenin composite is an effective MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by simple and economical method. • Preperation of functional MNPs as a MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. • Gaining a good r_2 relaxivity of the coated functional nanoparticles.

  1. The combination of novel targeted molecular agents and radiation in the treatment of pediatric gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eDasgupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric malignancy. For high-grade, recurrent or refractory pediatric brain tumors, radiation therapy (XRT is an integral treatment modality. In the era of personalized cancer therapy, molecularly targeted agents have been designed to inhibit pathways critical to tumorigenesis. Our evolving knowledge of genetic aberrations in low-grade gliomas is being exploited with targeted inhibitors. These agents are also being combined with XRT to increase their efficacy. In this review, we discuss novel agents targeting three different pathways in low-grade gliomas, and their potential combination with XRT. B-Raf is a kinase in the Ras/Raf/MAPK kinase pathway, which is integral to cellular division, survival and metabolism. In low-grade pediatric gliomas, point mutations in BRAF (BRAF V600E or a BRAF fusion mutation (KIAA1549:BRAF causes overactivation of the MEK/MAPK pathway. Pre-clinical data shows cooperation between XRT and tagrgeted inhibitors of BRAF V600E, and MEK and mTOR inhibitors in the gliomas with the BRAF fusion. A second important signaling cascade in pediatric glioma pathogenesis is the PI3 kinase (PI3K/mTOR pathway. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are poised to enter studies of pediatric tumors. Finally, many brain tumors express potent stimulators of angiogenesis. Several inhibitors of immunomodulators are currently being evaluated in in clinical trials for the treatment of recurrent or refractory pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors. In summary, combinations of these targeted inhibitors with radiation are currently under investigation in both translational bench research and early clinical trials. We summarize the molecular rationale for, and the pre-clinical data supporting the combinations of these targeted agents with other anti-cancer agents and XRT in pediatric gliomas. Parallels are drawn to adult gliomas, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of these agents is discussed

  2. Gadolinium-conjugated PLA-PEG nanoparticles as liver targeted molecular MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Liu, Chunxi; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Song, Jibin; Lu, Zaijun

    2011-09-01

    A nanoparticle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent targeted to liver was developed by conjugation of gadolinium (Gd) chelate groups onto the biocompatible poly(l-lactide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) nanoparticles. PLA-PEG conjugated with diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) was used to formulate PLA-PEG-DTPA nanoparticles by solvent diffusion method, and then Gd was loaded onto the nanoparticles by chelated with the unfolding DTPA on the surface of the PLA-PEG-DTPA nanoparticles. The mean size of the nanoparticles was 265.9 ± 6.7 nm. The relaxivity of the Gd-labeled nanoparticles was measured, and the distribution in vivo was evaluated in rats. Compared with conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), the Gd-labeled PLA-PEG nanoparticles showed significant enhancement both on liver targeting ability and imaging signal intensity. The T(1) and T(2) relaxivities per [Gd] of the Gd-labeled nanoparticles was 18.865 mM(-1) s(-1) and 24.863 mM(-1) s(-1) at 3 T, respectively. In addition, the signal intensity in vivo was stronger comparing with the Gd-DTPA and the T(1) weight time was lasting for 4.5 h. The liver targeting efficiency of the Gd-labeled PLA-PEG nanoparticles in rats was 14.57 comparing with Magnevist injection. Therefore, the Gd-labeled nanoparticles showed the potential as targeting molecular MRI contrast agent for further clinical utilization.

  3. Contrast agent based on nano-emulsion for targeted biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging agents are essential in combination with X-ray computed tomography to improve contrast enhancement aiming at providing complete visualization of blood vessels and giving structural and functional information on lesions allowing the detection of a tumor. As well as it is fundamental tool to discriminate between healthy cells and pathogens. We successfully limit the problems presented in commercial X-ray contrast agents like poor contrasting in Fenestra VC associated with short blood circulation time and to avoid rapid renal elimination from the body as found in Xenetix (Iobitriol). We developed nontoxic and blood pool iodine-containing nano-emulsion contrast agents serving in preclinical X-ray μ-CT imaging such as, a- Tocopherol (vitamin E), Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), Castor oil, Capmul MCMC8 oil and oleic acid. Those formulated nano emulsions were prepared by low energy spontaneous emulsification technic with slight modification for each platform. They showed new specific features rendering them promising agents in in vivo experiments as improving the balance between the efficacy and the toxicity of targeted therapeutic interventions. We investigate the effect of size and the chemical composition of the nanoparticles on their biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. They demonstrated that the chemical structures of the droplet's cores have significant role in targeting for example vitamin E was mainly accumulated in liver and castor oil formulation was passively accumulated in spleen explaining the proof-of-concept of EPR effect. On the other hand, two different platform sizes of Cholecalciferol molecule revealing that no real impact on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution but presented remarkable effect on the toxicity. Of particular interest is studying the effect of the surface charge of nanoparticles on their biodistribution, this is why oleic acid nano-emulsion was selected to proceed this study by presence of amphiphilic polymer

  4. Multi-agent target tracking using particle filters enhanced with context data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claessens, R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework for Multi-Agent Target Tracking supports i) tracking of objects and ii) search and rescue based on the fusion of very heterogeneous data. The system is based on a novel approach to fusing sensory observations, intelligence...

  5. Immunological Effects of Conventional Chemotherapy and Targeted Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Buqué, Aitziber; Kepp, Oliver; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-12-14

    The tremendous clinical success of checkpoint blockers illustrates the potential of reestablishing latent immunosurveillance for cancer therapy. Although largely neglected in the clinical practice, accumulating evidence indicates that the efficacy of conventional and targeted anticancer agents does not only involve direct cytostatic/cytotoxic effects, but also relies on the (re)activation of tumor-targeting immune responses. Chemotherapy can promote such responses by increasing the immunogenicity of malignant cells, or by inhibiting immunosuppressive circuitries that are established by developing neoplasms. These immunological "side" effects of chemotherapy are desirable, and their in-depth comprehension will facilitate the design of novel combinatorial regimens with improved clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Targeted Agents With Modern Radiotherapy in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A.; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with extremity STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing agents could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with agents modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery provides an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted agents to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640

  7. Targeted nanodiamonds as phenotype-specific photoacoustic contrast agents for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-03-01

    The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly targeted contrast agent for high-resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with PEG to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-HER2 peptide with a final nanoparticle size of approximately 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near-infrared laser. PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 h. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are nontoxic. PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high-resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype-specific monitoring of cancer growth.

  8. MIDAS: a practical Bayesian design for platform trials with molecularly targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Guo, Beibei; Munsell, Mark; Lu, Karen; Jazaeri, Amir

    2016-09-30

    Recent success of immunotherapy and other targeted therapies in cancer treatment has led to an unprecedented surge in the number of novel therapeutic agents that need to be evaluated in clinical trials. Traditional phase II clinical trial designs were developed for evaluating one candidate treatment at a time and thus not efficient for this task. We propose a Bayesian phase II platform design, the multi-candidate iterative design with adaptive selection (MIDAS), which allows investigators to continuously screen a large number of candidate agents in an efficient and seamless fashion. MIDAS consists of one control arm, which contains a standard therapy as the control, and several experimental arms, which contain the experimental agents. Patients are adaptively randomized to the control and experimental agents based on their estimated efficacy. During the trial, we adaptively drop inefficacious or overly toxic agents and 'graduate' the promising agents from the trial to the next stage of development. Whenever an experimental agent graduates or is dropped, the corresponding arm opens immediately for testing the next available new agent. Simulation studies show that MIDAS substantially outperforms the conventional approach. The proposed design yields a significantly higher probability for identifying the promising agents and dropping the futile agents. In addition, MIDAS requires only one master protocol, which streamlines trial conduct and substantially decreases the overhead burden. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Inherent characteristics of metachronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jang Hee; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ham, Won Sik; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Yoon, Young Eun

    2017-10-03

    To assess the prognostic and predictive factors of time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS), respectively, in patients with metachronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who were treated with targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed metachronous mRCC patients, defined as individuals diagnosed with metastatic disease >3 months after initial nephrectomy, treated at an institute since 2005. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to discover the most determinant variables associated with TTF and OS. Sarcomatoid features, absence of metastasectomy, multiple site metastasis, time to metastasis risk group (0-1 risk factors) did not reach the median OS, whereas the OS for the intermediate (2 risk factors) and high risk groups (3-5 risk factors) were 58.6 and 23.6 months, respectively (prisk criteria models. Initial tumor size or T stage did not affect TTF or OS. Patients who could not undergo metastasectomy and rapidly developed multiple metastases with higher corrected calcium and initial tumors with sarcomatoid features were less likely to benefit from targeted therapy; thus, the new agents under development or clinical trials could be more helpful than the use of standard targeted agents.

  10. Bayesian Nonparametric Estimation of Targeted Agent Effects on Biomarker Change to Predict Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Rebecca; Guindani, Michele; Thall, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of a targeted agent on a cancer patient's clinical outcome putatively is mediated through the agent's effect on one or more early biological events. This is motivated by pre-clinical experiments with cells or animals that identify such events, represented by binary or quantitative biomarkers. When evaluating targeted agents in humans, central questions are whether the distribution of a targeted biomarker changes following treatment, the nature and magnitude of this change, and whether it is associated with clinical outcome. Major difficulties in estimating these effects are that a biomarker's distribution may be complex, vary substantially between patients, and have complicated relationships with clinical outcomes. We present a probabilistically coherent framework for modeling and estimation in this setting, including a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for biomarkers that we use to define a functional profile of pre-versus-post treatment biomarker distribution change. The functional is similar to the receiver operating characteristic used in diagnostic testing. The hierarchical model yields clusters of individual patient biomarker profile functionals, and we use the profile as a covariate in a regression model for clinical outcome. The methodology is illustrated by analysis of a dataset from a clinical trial in prostate cancer using imatinib to target platelet-derived growth factor, with the clinical aim to improve progression-free survival time. PMID:25319212

  11. Targeting Bacterial Dsb Proteins for the Development of Anti-Virulence Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne P. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of novel antibiotics. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat the growing threat posed by multidrug resistant bacterial infections. The Dsb disulfide bond forming pathways are potential targets for the development of antimicrobial agents because they play a central role in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the DsbA/DsbB system catalyses disulfide bond formation in a wide array of virulence factors, which are essential for many pathogens to establish infections and cause disease. These redox enzymes are well placed as antimicrobial targets because they are taxonomically widespread, share low sequence identity with human proteins, and many years of basic research have provided a deep molecular understanding of these systems in bacteria. In this review, we discuss disulfide bond catalytic pathways in bacteria and their significance in pathogenesis. We also review the use of different approaches to develop inhibitors against Dsb proteins as potential anti-virulence agents, including fragment-based drug discovery, high-throughput screening and other structure-based drug discovery methods.

  12. Targeted Nanodiamonds as Phenotype Specific Photoacoustic Contrast Agents for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly-targeted contrast agent for high resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Materials & Methods The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) peptide (KCCYSL) with a final nanoparticle size of ca. 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2 positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near infrared laser. Results PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 hours. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are non-toxic. Conclusions PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype specific monitoring of cancer growth. PMID:25723091

  13. Molecular Targeted Agents for Gastric Cancer: A Step Forward Towards Personalized Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Geldart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC represents a major cancer burden worldwide, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Due to its insidious nature, presentation is usually late and often carries a poor prognosis. Despite having improved treatment modalities over the last decade, for most patients only modest improvements have been seen in overall survival. Recent progress in understanding the molecular biology of GC and its signaling pathways, offers the hope of clinically significant promising advances for selected groups of patients. Patients with Her-2 overexpression or amplification have experienced benefit from the integration of monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab to the standard chemotherapy. Additionally, drugs targeting angiogenesis (bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib are under investigation and other targeted agents such as mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors are in preclinical or early clinical development. Patient selection and the development of reliable biomarkers to accurately select patients most likely to benefit from these tailored therapies is now key. Future trials should focus on these advances to optimize the treatment for GC patients. This article will review recent progress and current status of targeted agents in GC.

  14. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Ae; Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jung Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images

  15. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Ae, E-mail: jpark@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Min [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Young, E-mail: jykim@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images.

  16. Augmentation of radiation response with the vascular targeting agent ZD6126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Tien; Huang Shyhmin; Armstrong, Eric; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Harari, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the antivascular and antitumor activity of the vascular targeting agent ZD6126 in combination with radiation in lung and head-and-neck (H and N) cancer models. The overall hypothesis was that simultaneous targeting of tumor cells (radiation) and tumor vasculature (ZD6126) might enhance tumor cell killing. Methods and Materials: A series of in vitro studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in vivo studies in athymic mice bearing human lung (H226) and H and N (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]1, SCC6) tumor xenografts treated with ZD6126 and/or radiation were performed. Results: ZD6126 inhibited the capillary-like network formation in HUVEC. Treatment of HUVEC with ZD6126 resulted in cell cycle arrest in G2/M, with decrease of cells in S phase and proliferation inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. ZD6126 augmented the cell-killing effect of radiation and radiation-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. The combination of ZD6126 and radiation further decreased tumor vascularization in an in vivo Matrigel angiogenesis assay. In tumor xenografts, ZD6126 enhanced the antitumor activity of radiation, resulting in tumor growth delay. Conclusions: These preclinical studies suggest that ZD6126 can augment the radiation response of proliferating endothelial H and N and lung cancer cells. These results complement recent reports suggesting the potential value of combining radiation with vascular targeting/antiangiogenic agents

  17. Radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors and binding agents targeting PSMA: Effective theranostic tools for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Nanabala, Raviteja; Joy, Ajith; Sasikumar, Arun; Knapp, Furn F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the broad incidence, morbidity and mortality associated with prostate-derived cancer, the development of more effective new technologies continues to be an important goal for the accurate detection and treatment of localized prostate cancer, lymphatic involvement and metastases. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; Glycoprotein II) is expressed in high levels on prostate-derived cells and is an important target for visualization and treatment of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled peptide targeting technologies have rapidly evolved over the last decade and have focused on the successful development of radiolabeled small molecules that act as inhibitors to the binding of the N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) substrate to the PSMA molecule. A number of radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors have been described in the literature and labeled with SPECT, PET and therapeutic radionuclides. Clinical studies with these agents have demonstrated the improved potential of PSMA-targeted PET imaging agents to detect metastatic prostate cancer in comparison with conventional imaging technologies. Although many of these agents have been evaluated in humans, by far the most extensive clinical literature has described use of the 68 Ga and 177 Lu agents. This review describes the design and development of these agents, with a focus on the broad clinical introduction of PSMA targeting motifs labeled with 68 Ga for PET-CT imaging and 177 Lu for therapy. In particular, because of availability from the long-lived 68 Ge (T 1/2 = 270 days)/ 68 Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min) generator system and increasing availability of PET-CT, the 68 Ga-labeled PSMA targeted agent is receiving widespread interest and is one of the fastest growing radiopharmaceuticals for PET-CT imaging.

  18. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  19. How Transparent About its Inflation Target Should a Central Bank be? An Agent-Based Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, I.; Sénégas, M.A.; Yıldızoğlu, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the benefits of explicitly announcing an inflation target for the con- duct of monetary policy in the framework of an agent-based model (ABM). This framework offers a flexible tool for modeling heterogeneity among individual agents and their bounded rationality, and to emphasize,

  20. Biological evaluation and molecular docking of Rhein as a multi-targeted radiotherapy sensitization agent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhengying; Tian, Wei; Li, Jing; Wang, Chunmiao; Pan, Zhiyu; Li, Danrong; Hou, Huaxin

    2017-11-01

    Radiation resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a joint effect caused by complex molecular mechanisms. The development of multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agents offered a promising method for the treatment of NPC. In this work, the probability of Rhein to be a multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agent was explored through computer aid virtual screening by inverse docking study. In order to validate the accuracy of the computational results, radiotherapy sensitization of Rhein to NPC cells and its effects on the expression of target proteins were evaluated separately by CCK8 assay and Western blotting analysis. Our result demonstrated that Rhein possessed strong binding affinity with RAC1 and HSP90. No cytotoxic concentration of Rhein had radiosensitization effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells. After treatment with Rhein and 2Gy radiation, the expression of RAC1 upregulated and the expression of HSP90 down-regulated in cells. Based on the above data, Rhein is likely to become an attractive lead compound for the future design of multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agents.

  1. Editor’s Pick: Targeted Agents in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma on Dialysis: Myths and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Guida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR pathway, as well as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have revolutionised the therapeutic landscape of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC in the past decade, greatly improving the survival rates of these patients. However, translating results of registrative Phase III trials into everyday clinical practice is often troublesome, since real-world patients are completely different from those enrolled in randomised controlled Phase III trials. Prospective data on active oncological treatments in mRCC patients on dialysis are dramatically lacking. This literature review summarises and critically comments on available data relative to mRCC patients on dialysis receiving either VEGF/VEGFR-targeting agents, or mTOR inhibitors. Although prospective studies would definitely be warranted in these specific patient populations, all the available data suggest that mRCC patients on dialysis have the same outcome, both in terms of efficacy and safety, as mRCC patients with normal or marginally impaired kidney function, when treated with VEGF/VEGFR-targeting agents and/or mTOR inhibitors.

  2. Melanoma affinity in mice and immunosuppressed sheep of [125I]N-(4-dipropylaminobutyl)-4-iodobenzamide, a new targeting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, Pierre; Papon, Janine; Rose, Alison H.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Morandeau, Laurence; Wu, Ting-di; Moreau, Marie-France; Bayle, Martine; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Croisy, Alain; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Turner, Harvey; Moins, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy have prompted the development of new vectors, more specific to the pigmented tumor, for early detection and treatment. Targeted agents have to exhibit a rapid, high tumor uptake, long tumor retention and rapid clearance from nontarget organs. This joint work presents results obtained with a new melanoma targeting agent, [ 125 I]-N-(4-dipropylaminobutyl)-4-iodobenzamide or [ 125 I]BZ18. After labeling with a high specific activity, the biodistribution of the compound was investigated in two animal models, the mouse and the sheep. Melanotic tumor retention was observed lasting several days. We visualized the internalization of the agent inside the melanosomes by secondary ion mass spectroscopy imaging, we measured the affinity constants of [ 125 I]BZ18 on a synthetic melanin model and we demonstrated a radiotoxic effect of this labeled agent on B16F0 melanoma cell culture due to its cellular internalization. From this work, [ 125 I]BZ18 appeared a promising melanoma targeting agent in the nuclear medicine field

  3. [Preparation and preliminary evaluation of KGDS-targeted ultrasound contrast agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ding, Yanfei; Sheng, Xiaoxi; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qi; Luo, Zhuoqiong; Zhou, Ping; Li, Hui

    2009-12-01

    To prepare a thrombus-targeted ultrasonic contrast agent and to investigate its targeted ability to fresh blood clots. We first synthesized FITC-KGDS-Palm compound, and then prepared thrombus-targeted microbubbles using "ultrasound & high speed shearing method". Fluorescence labeling thrombus-specific peptides and KGDS, directed at the activated glycoprotein(GP)IIb/IIIa receptor of platelets were attached to the surface of lipid microbubbles. The concentration and size of TUCA were measured by Malvern Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS590 and Coulter counter. Immunofluorescence was applied to confirm the conjugation. The conjunct ratio was assessed by flow cytometer (FCM). The KGDS-TUCA was straw yellow turbid liquor, and the concentration was 1.5 x 10(9)/mL, and the average size was 1.5 microm. The targeted microbubbles conjugated with the thrombus-specific peptides showed bright green rings by fluorescence microscope. FCM demonstrated that the wavelength of shell of KGDS-TUCA changed greatly, and the conjunct ratio was 90.04%. In vitro study showed KGDS-TUCA remained stable for 48 h at 4 degree C and target-attached to blood clots and showed good stability. The ultrasound & high speed shearing method to prepare TUCA is easy and in favor of purification. KGDS-TUCA has high specific biological activity. The conjunct ratio and stability of KGDS-TUCA are excellent.

  4. 3-bromopyruvate: a new targeted antiglycolytic agent and a promise for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, S; Vali, M; Kunjithapatham, R; Buijs, M; Syed, L H; Rao, P P; Ota, S; Kwak, B K; Loffroy, R; Geschwind, J F

    2010-08-01

    The pyruvate analog, 3-bromopyruvate, is an alkylating agent and a potent inhibitor of glycolysis. This antiglycolytic property of 3-bromopyruvate has recently been exploited to target cancer cells, as most tumors depend on glycolysis for their energy requirements. The anticancer effect of 3-bromopyruvate is achieved by depleting intracellular energy (ATP) resulting in tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss the principal mechanism of action and primary targets of 3-bromopyruvate, and report the impressive antitumor effects of 3-bromopyruvate in multiple animal tumor models. We describe that the primary mechanism of 3-bromopyruvate is via preferential alkylation of GAPDH and that 3-bromopyruvate mediated cell death is linked to generation of free radicals. Research in our laboratory also revealed that 3-bromopyruvate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, inhibits global protein synthesis further contributing to cancer cell death. Therefore, these and other studies reveal the tremendous potential of 3-bromopyruvate as an anticancer agent.

  5. Methyl-hydroxylamine as an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Julián

    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has encouraged vigorous efforts to develop antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR is a key enzyme in DNA replication that acts by converting ribonucleotides into the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA replication and repair. RNR has been extensively studied as an ideal target for DNA inhibition, and several drugs that are already available on the market are used for anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the high toxicity of these current drugs to eukaryotic cells does not permit their use as antibacterial agents. Here, we present a radical scavenger compound that inhibited bacterial RNR, and the compound's activity as an antibacterial agent together with its toxicity in eukaryotic cells were evaluated. First, the efficacy of N-methyl-hydroxylamine (M-HA in inhibiting the growth of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was demonstrated, and no effect on eukaryotic cells was observed. M-HA showed remarkable efficacy against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, given the M-HA activity against these two bacteria, our results showed that M-HA has intracellular antimycobacterial activity against BCG-infected macrophages, and it is efficacious in partially disassembling and inhibiting the further formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Furthermore, M-HA and ciprofloxacin showed a synergistic effect that caused a massive reduction in a P. aeruginosa biofilm. Overall, our results suggest the vast potential of M-HA as an antibacterial agent, which acts by specifically targeting a bacterial RNR enzyme.

  6. Methyl-hydroxylamine as an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Esther; Baelo, Aida; Gavaldà, Joan; Torrents, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has encouraged vigorous efforts to develop antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme in DNA replication that acts by converting ribonucleotides into the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA replication and repair. RNR has been extensively studied as an ideal target for DNA inhibition, and several drugs that are already available on the market are used for anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the high toxicity of these current drugs to eukaryotic cells does not permit their use as antibacterial agents. Here, we present a radical scavenger compound that inhibited bacterial RNR, and the compound's activity as an antibacterial agent together with its toxicity in eukaryotic cells were evaluated. First, the efficacy of N-methyl-hydroxylamine (M-HA) in inhibiting the growth of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was demonstrated, and no effect on eukaryotic cells was observed. M-HA showed remarkable efficacy against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, given the M-HA activity against these two bacteria, our results showed that M-HA has intracellular antimycobacterial activity against BCG-infected macrophages, and it is efficacious in partially disassembling and inhibiting the further formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Furthermore, M-HA and ciprofloxacin showed a synergistic effect that caused a massive reduction in a P. aeruginosa biofilm. Overall, our results suggest the vast potential of M-HA as an antibacterial agent, which acts by specifically targeting a bacterial RNR enzyme.

  7. Transforming a Targeted Porphyrin Theranostic Agent into a PET Imaging Probe for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyun Shi, Tracy W.B. Liu, Juan Chen, David Green, David Jaffray, Brian C. Wilson, Fan Wang, Gang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrin based photosensitizers are useful agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT and fluorescence imaging of cancer. Porphyrins are also excellent metal chelators forming highly stable metallo-complexes making them efficient delivery vehicles for radioisotopes. Here we investigated the possibility of incorporating 64Cu into a porphyrin-peptide-folate (PPF probe developed previously as folate receptor (FR targeted fluorescent/PDT agent, and evaluated the potential of turning the resulting 64Cu-PPF into a positron emission tomography (PET probe for cancer imaging. Noninvasive PET imaging followed by radioassay evaluated the tumor accumulation, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of 64Cu-PPF. 64Cu-PPF uptake in FR-positive tumors was visible on small-animal PET images with high tumor-to-muscle ratio (8.88 ± 3.60 observed after 24 h. Competitive blocking studies confirmed the FR-mediated tracer uptake by the tumor. The ease of efficient 64Cu-radiolabeling of PPF while retaining its favorable biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and selective tumor uptake, provides a robust strategy to transform tumor-targeted porphyrin-based photosensitizers into PET imaging probes.

  8. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting MRI contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Hou,* Huijuan Zhang,* Yating Wang, Lili Wang, Xiaomin Yang, Zhenzhong ZhangSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A tumor-targeting carrier, hyaluronic acid (HA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents (CAs targeting to the tumor cells specifically. In this system, HA surface modification for SWCNTs was simply accomplished by amidation process and could make this nanomaterial highly hydrophilic. Cellular uptake was performed to evaluate the intracellular transport capabilities of HA-SWCNTs for tumor cells and the uptake rank was HA-SWCNTs> SWCNTs owing to the presence of HA, which was also evidenced by flow cytometry. The safety evaluation of this MRI CAs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. It revealed that HA-SWCNTs could stand as a biocompatible nanocarrier and gadolinium (Gd/HA-SWCNTs demonstrated almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Moreover, GdCl3 bearing HA-SWCNTs could significantly increase the circulation time for MRI. Finally, to investigate the MRI contrast enhancing capabilities of Gd/HA-SWCNTs, T1-weighted MR images of tumor-bearing mice were acquired. The results suggested Gd/HA-SWCNTs had the highest tumor-targeting efficiency and T1-relaxivity enhancement, indicating HA-SWCNTs could be developed as a tumor-targeting carrier to deliver the CAs, GdCl3, for the identifiable diagnosis of tumor.Keywords: gadolinium, magnetic resonance, SWCNTs, hyaluronic acid, contrast agent

  9. Antitumor efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs is enhanced by the vascular targeting agent ZD6126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Dietmar W.; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The present report reviews the preclinical data on combined chemotherapy/vascular targeting agent treatments. Basic principles are illustrated in studies evaluating the antitumor efficacy of the vascular targeting agent ZD6126 (N-acetylcochinol-O-phosphate) when combined with the anticancer drug cisplatin in experimental rodent (KHT sarcoma) and human renal (Caki-1) tumor models. Methods and Materials: C3H/HeJ and NCR/nu-nu mice bearing i.m. tumors were injected i.p. with ZD6126 (0-150 mg/kg) or cisplatin (0-20 mg/kg) either alone or in combination. Tumor response to treatment was assessed by clonogenic cell survival. Results: Treatment with ZD6126 was found to damage existing neovasculature, leading to a rapid vascular shutdown. Histologic evaluation showed dose-dependent morphologic damage of tumor cells within a few hours after drug exposure, followed by extensive central tumor necrosis and neoplastic cell death as a result of prolonged ischemia. ZD6126 doses that led to pathophysiologic effects also enhanced the tumor cell killing of cisplatin when administered either 24 h before or 1-24 h after chemotherapy. In both tumor models, the administration of a 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126 1 h after a range of doses of cisplatin resulted in an increase in tumor cell kill 10-500-fold greater than that seen with chemotherapy alone. In contrast, the inclusion of the antivascular agent did not increase bone marrow stem cell toxicity associated with this anticancer drug. Conclusion: The results obtained in the KHT and Caki-1 tumor models indicate that ZD6126 effectively enhanced the antitumor effects of cisplatin therapy. These findings are representative of the marked enhancements generally observed when vascular targeting agents are combined with chemotherapy in solid tumor therapy

  10. A screen to identify drug resistant variants to target-directed anti-cancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of oncogenes and signal transduction pathways important for mitogenesis has triggered the development of target-specific small molecule anti-cancer compounds. As exemplified by imatinib (Gleevec, a specific inhibitor of the Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-associated Bcr-Abl kinase, these agents promise impressive activity in clinical trials, with low levels of clinical toxicity. However, such therapy is susceptible to the emergence of drug resistance due to amino acid substitutions in the target protein. Defining the spectrum of such mutations is important for patient monitoring and the design of next-generation inhibitors. Using imatinib and BCR/ABL as a paradigm for a drug-target pair, we recently reported a retroviral vector-based screening strategy to identify the spectrum of resistance-conferring mutations. Here we provide a detailed methodology for the screen, which can be generally applied to any drug-target pair.

  11. Development of a new anti-cancer agent for targeted radionuclide therapy: β- radiolabeled RAFT-RGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitprin, A.

    2013-01-01

    β-emitters radiolabeled RAFT-RGD as new agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. The αvβ3 integrin is known to play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, survival and metastasis. Because of its overexpression on neo-endothelial cells such as those present in growing tumors, as well as on tumor cells of various origins, αvβ3 integrin is an attractive molecular target for diagnosis and therapy of the rapidly growing and metastatic tumors. A tetrameric RGD-based peptide, regioselectively addressable functionalized template-(cyclo-[RGDfK])4 (RAFT-RGD), specifically targets integrin αvβ3 in vitro and in vivo. RAFT-RGD has been used for tumor imaging and drug targeting. This study is the first to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the β-emitters radiolabeled tetrameric RGD peptide RAFT-RGD in a Nude mouse model of αvβ3 -expressing tumors. An injection of 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD in mice with αvβ3 -positive tumors caused a significant growth delay as compared with mice treated with 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RAD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RAD or untreated mice. In comparison, an injection of 30 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD had no efficacy for the treatment of αvβ3 -negative tumors. 90 Y-RAFT-RGD and 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD are potent αvβ3 -expressing tumor targeting agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Multi-agent Negotiation Mechanisms for Statistical Target Classification in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Bi, Dao-wei; Ding, Liang; Wang, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The recent availability of low cost and miniaturized hardware has allowed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to retrieve audio and video data in real world applications, which has fostered the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). Resource constraints and challenging multimedia data volume make development of efficient algorithms to perform in-network processing of multimedia contents imperative. This paper proposes solving problems in the domain of WMSNs from the perspective of multi-agent systems. The multi-agent framework enables flexible network configuration and efficient collaborative in-network processing. The focus is placed on target classification in WMSNs where audio information is retrieved by microphones. To deal with the uncertainties related to audio information retrieval, the statistical approaches of power spectral density estimates, principal component analysis and Gaussian process classification are employed. A multi-agent negotiation mechanism is specially developed to efficiently utilize limited resources and simultaneously enhance classification accuracy and reliability. The negotiation is composed of two phases, where an auction based approach is first exploited to allocate the classification task among the agents and then individual agent decisions are combined by the committee decision mechanism. Simulation experiments with real world data are conducted and the results show that the proposed statistical approaches and negotiation mechanism not only reduce memory and computation requirements in WMSNs but also significantly enhance classification accuracy and reliability. PMID:28903223

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of tumor-targeted positive MRI contrast agent based on ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yue, Tao; Xu, Ke; Golzarian, Jafar; Yu, Jiahui; Huang, Jin

    2015-07-01

    Gd(III) chelate is currently used as positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in clinical diagnosis, but generally induces the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) due to the dissociated Gd(3+) from Gd(III) chelates. To develop a novel positive MRI contrast agent with low toxicity and high sensitivity, ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles were PEGylated via catechol-Mn chelation and conjugated with cRGD as active targeting function to tumor. Particularly, the MnO nanoparticles with a size of ca. 5nm were modified by α,β-poly(aspartic acid)-based graft polymer containing PEG and DOPA moieties and, meanwhile, conjugated with cRGD to produce the contrast agent with a size of ca. 100nm and a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 10.2mM(-1)S(-1). Such nanoscaled contrast agent integrated passive- and active-targeting function to tumor, and its efficient accumulation behavior in tumor was verified by in vivo distribution study. At the same time, the PEG moiety played a role of hydrophilic coating to improve the biocompatibility and stability under storing and physiological conditions, and especially might guarantee enough circulation time in blood. Moreover, in vivo MRI revealed a good and long-term effect of enhancing MRI signal for as-fabricated contrast agent while cell viability assay proved its acceptable cytotoxicity for MRI application. On the whole, the as-fabricated PEGylated and cRGD-functionalized contrast agent based on ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles showed a great potential to the T1-weighted MRI diagnosis of tumor. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of VEGFR-targeted macromolecular MRI contrast agent based on biotin-avidin-specific binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Wu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Xiaohe; Wang, Dan; Zhong, Ying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Tianqi; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    Developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity and specificity was essential to increase MRI diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, the MRI contrast agent, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted poly (l-lysine) (PLL)-diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA)-gadolinium (Gd) (VEGFR-targeted PLL-DTPA-Gd, VPDG), was designed and prepared to enhance the MRI diagnosis capacity of tumor. Biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd was synthesized first, then, VEGFR antibody was linked to biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd using biotin-avidin reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity study results showed that VPDG had low toxicity to MCF-7 cells and HepG2 cells at experimental concentrations. In cell uptake experiments, VPDG could significantly increase the internalization rates (61.75%±5.22%) in VEGFR-positive HepG2 cells compared to PLL-DTPA-Gd (PDG) (25.16%±4.71%, P contrast agent and held great potential for molecular diagnosis of tumor.

  15. Gd-functionalised Au nanoparticles as targeted contrast agents in MRI: relaxivity enhancement by polyelectrolyte coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Adams, Ralph W; Duckett, Simon B; Chechik, Victor

    2010-01-21

    Monolayer-protected, Gd(3+)-functionalised gold nanoparticles with enhanced spin-lattice relaxivity (r(1)) were prepared; adsorption of polyelectrolytes on these materials further increased r(1) and ligand exchange with a biotin-derivatised disulfide led to a prototype avidin-targeted contrast agent.

  16. GE11 Peptide as an Active Targeting Agent in Antitumor Therapy: A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Genta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of solid tumors are characterized by uncontrolled signal transduction triggered by receptors related to cellular growth. The targeting of these cell receptors with antitumor drugs is essential to improve chemotherapy efficacy. This can be achieved by conjugation of an active targeting agent to the polymer portion of a colloidal drug delivery system loaded with an antitumor drug. The goal of this minireview is to report and discuss some recent results in epidermal growth factor receptor targeting by the GE11 peptide combined with colloidal drug delivery systems as smart carriers for antitumor drugs. The minireview chapters will focus on explaining and discussing: (i Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR structures and functions; (ii GE11 structure and biologic activity; (iii examples of GE11 conjugation and GE11-conjugated drug delivery systems. The rationale is to contribute in gathering information on the topic of active targeting to tumors. A case study is introduced, involving research on tumor cell targeting by the GE11 peptide combined with polymer nanoparticles.

  17. Activation of the human immune system by chemotherapeutic or targeted agents combined with the oncolytic parvovirus H-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehler, Markus; Sieben, Maike; Roth, Susanne; Springsguth, Franziska; Leuchs, Barbara; Zeidler, Maja; Dinsart, Christiane; Rommelaere, Jean; Galle, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) infects and lyses human tumor cells including melanoma, hepatoma, gastric, colorectal, cervix and pancreatic cancers. We assessed whether the beneficial effects of chemotherapeutic agents or targeted agents could be combined with the oncolytic and immunostimmulatory properties of H-1PV. Using human ex vivo models we evaluated the biological and immunological effects of H-1PV-induced tumor cell lysis alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic or targeted agents in human melanoma cells +/- characterized human cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) and HLA-A2-restricted dendritic cells (DC). H-1PV-infected MZ7-Mel cells showed a clear reduction in cell viability of >50%, which appeared to occur primarily through apoptosis. This correlated with viral NS1 expression levels and was enhanced by combination with chemotherapeutic agents or sunitinib. Tumor cell preparations were phagocytosed by DC whose maturation was measured according to the treatment administered. Immature DC incubated with H-1PV-induced MZ7-Mel lysates significantly increased DC maturation compared with non-infected or necrotic MZ7-Mel cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release was clearly increased by DC incubated with H-1PV-induced SK29-Mel tumor cell lysates (TCL) and was also high with DC-CTL co-cultures incubated with H-1PV-induced TCL. Similarly, DC co-cultures with TCL incubated with H-1PV combined with cytotoxic agents or sunitinib enhanced DC maturation to a greater extent than cytotoxic agents or sunitinib alone. Again, these combinations increased pro-inflammatory responses in DC-CTL co-cultures compared with chemotherapy or sunitinib alone. In our human models, chemotherapeutic or targeted agents did not only interfere with the pronounced immunomodulatory properties of H-1PV, but also reinforced drug-induced tumor cell killing. H-1PV combined with cisplatin, vincristine or sunitinib induced effective immunostimulation via a pronounced DC maturation, better cytokine

  18. MRI contrast agent for targeting glioma: interleukin-13 labeled liposome encapsulating gadolinium-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Madhankumar, Achuthamangalam B; Miller, Patti A; Duck, Kari A; Hafenstein, Susan; Rizk, Elias; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Sheehan, Jonas M; Connor, James R; Yang, Qing X

    2016-05-01

    Detection of glioma with MRI contrast agent is limited to cases in which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised as contrast agents cannot cross the BBB. Thus, an early-stage infiltrating tumor is not detectable. Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2), which has been shown to be overexpressed in glioma, can be used as a target moiety. We hypothesized that liposomes conjugated with IL-13 and encapsulating MRI contrast agent are capable of passing through an intact BBB and producing MRI contrast with greater sensitivity. The targeted MRI contrast agent was created by encapsulating Magnevist (Gd-DTPA) into liposomes conjugated with IL-13 and characterized by particle size distribution, cytotoxicity, and MRI relaxivity. MR image intensity was evaluated in the brain in normal mice post injection of Gd-DTPA and IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA one day apart. The specificity for glioma detection by IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA was demonstrated in an intracranial glioma mouse model and validated histologically. The average size of IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA was 137 ± 43 nm with relaxivity of 4.0 ± 0.4 L/mmole-s at 7 Tesla. No significant cytotoxicity was observed with MTS assay and serum chemistry in mice. The MRI signal intensity was enhanced up to 15% post injection of IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA in normal brain tissue following a similar time course as that for the pituitary gland outside of the BBB. MRI enhanced by IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA detected small tumor masses in addition to those seen with Magnevist-enhanced MRI. IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA is able to pass through the uncompromised BBB and detect an early stage glioma that cannot be seen with conventional contrast-enhanced MRI. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Characterization of image heterogeneity using 2D Minkowski functionals increases the sensitivity of detection of a targeted MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Holly C; McLachlan, Charles; Kettunen, Mikko I; Velic, Marko; Krishnan, Anant S; Neves, Andre' A; de Backer, Maaike; Hu, D-E; Hobson, Michael P; Brindle, Kevin M

    2009-05-01

    A targeted Gd(3+)-based contrast agent has been developed that detects tumor cell death by binding to the phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on the plasma membrane of dying cells. Although this agent has been used to detect tumor cell death in vivo, the differences in signal intensity between treated and untreated tumors was relatively small. As cell death is often spatially heterogeneous within tumors, we investigated whether an image analysis technique that parameterizes heterogeneity could be used to increase the sensitivity of detection of this targeted contrast agent. Two-dimensional (2D) Minkowski functionals (MFs) provided an automated and reliable method for parameterization of image heterogeneity, which does not require prior assumptions about the number of regions or features in the image, and were shown to increase the sensitivity of detection of the contrast agent as compared to simple signal intensity analysis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Streptococcus sanguinis isolate displaying a phenotype with cross-resistance to several rRNA-targeting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Kim, Jihye; Myers, Debra S; Ross, James E; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-08-01

    This study describes a clinical case of a 71-year-old male with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and a rare linezolid-resistant Streptococcus sanguinis strain (MIC, 32 μg/ml). The patient received courses of several antimicrobial agents, including linezolid for 79 days. The S. sanguinis strain had mutations in the 23S rRNA (T2211C, T2406C, G2576T, C2610T) and an amino acid substitution (N56D) in L22 and exhibited cross-resistance to ribosome-targeting agents.

  1. The distribution of alternative agents for targeted radiotherapy within human neuroblastoma spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, R.J.; Gaze, M.N.; Murray, T.; Reid, R.; McSharry, C.; Babich, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to select the radiopharmaceutical vehicle for targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma which is most likely to penetrate readily the centre of micrometastases in vivo. The human neuroblastoma cell line NB1-G, grown as multicellular spheroids provided an in vitro model for micrometastases. The radiopharmaceuticals studied were the catecholamine analogue metaiodobenzyl guanidine (mIBG), a specific neuroectodermal monoclonal antibody (UJ13A) and β nerve growth factor (βNGF). Following incubation of each drug with neuroblastoma spheroids, autoradiographs of frozen sections were prepared to demonstrate their relative distributions. mIBG and βNGF were found to penetrate the centre of spheroids readily although the concentration of mIBG greatly exceeded that of βNGF. In contrast, UJ13A was only bound peripherally. We conclude that mIBG is the best available vehicle for targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma cells with active uptake mechanisms for catecholimines. It is suggested that radionuclides with a shorter range of emissions than 131 I may be conjugated to benzyl guanidine to constitute more effective targeting agents with potentially less toxicity to adjacent normal tissues. (author)

  2. Maintenance Therapy in Ovarian Cancer with Targeted Agents Improves PFS and OS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Qian

    Full Text Available Maintenance therapy with targeted agents for prolonging remission for ovarian cancer patients remains controversial. As a result, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of using maintenance therapy with targeted agents for the treatment of ovarian cancer.From inception to January 2015, we searched for randomized, controlled trials (RCTs using the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials.gov and EBSCO. Eligible trials included RCTs that evaluated standard chemotherapy which was either followed or not followed by targeted maintenance in patients with ovarian cancer who had been previously receiving adjunctive treatments, such as cytoreductive surgery and standard chemotherapy. The outcome measures included progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and incidence of adverse events.A total of 13 RCTs, which were published between 2006 and 2014, were found to be in accordance with our inclusion criteria. The primary meta-analysis indicated that both PFS and OS were statistically and significantly improved in the targeted maintenance therapy group as compared to the control group (PFS: HR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.75 to 0.95, p = 0.001; OS: HR = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84 to 0.98, p = 0.02. When taking safety into consideration, the use of targeted agents was significantly correlated with increased risks of fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and hypertension. However, no significant differences were found in incidence rates of abdominal pain, constipation or joint pain.Our results indicate that targeted maintenance therapy clearly improves the survival of ovarian cancer patients but may also increase the incidence of adverse events. Additional randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter investigations will be required on a larger cohort of patients to verify our findings.

  3. Role of chemotherapy and molecularly targeted agents in the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Razak, Albiruni R A; Levy, Christine; Calugaru, Valentin; Galatoire, Olivier; Dendale, Rémi; Desjardins, Laurence; Gan, Hui K

    2011-11-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the most common malignant epithelial cancer of the lacrimal gland. Despite a slow rate of growth, ACCs are ultimately associated with poor clinical outcome. Given the rarity of this disease, most recommendations regarding therapy are guided by expert opinion and retrospective data rather than level 1 evidence. Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy are commonly used as initial local treatment. In patients at high risk of recurrence, concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy may be added to postoperative radiotherapy in an attempt to enhance radio-sensitivity. While encouraging responses have been reported with intra-arterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy, this strategy is associated with substantial toxicity and should be considered investigational. For patients with metastatic disease not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy, chemotherapy may have a role based on its modest efficacy in non-lacrimal ACC. Similarly, molecular targeted agents may have a role, although the agents tested to date in non-lacrimal ACC have been disappointing. A better understanding of the biology of ACC will be crucial to the future success of developing targeted agents for this disease.

  4. Repurposing Auranofin, Ebselen, and PX-12 as Antimicrobial Agents Targeting the Thioredoxin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C. May

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As microbial resistance to drugs continues to rise at an alarming rate, finding new ways to combat pathogens is an issue of utmost importance. Development of novel and specific antimicrobial drugs is a time-consuming and expensive process. However, the re-purposing of previously tested and/or approved drugs could be a feasible way to circumvent this long and costly process. In this review, we evaluate the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested drugs auranofin, ebselen, and PX-12 as antimicrobial agents targeting the thioredoxin system. These drugs have been shown to act on bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and helminth pathogens without significant toxicity to the host. We propose that the thioredoxin system could serve as a useful therapeutic target with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteosarcoma using a bis(alendronate)-based bone-targeted contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pingju; Sheng, Fugeng; Jin, Yiguang; Tong, Li; Du, Lina; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Ning; Li, Gongjie

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is currently used for diagnosis of osteosarcoma but not well even though contrast agents are administered. Here, we report a novel bone-targeted MR imaging contrast agent, Gd 2 -diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-bis(alendronate) (Gd 2 -DTPA-BA) for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. It is the conjugate of a bone cell-seeking molecule (i.e., alendronate) and an MR imaging contrast agent (i.e., Gd-DTPA). Its physicochemical parameters were measured, including pK a , complex constant, and T 1 relaxivity. Its bone cell-seeking ability was evaluated by measuring its adsorption on hydroxyapatite. Hemolysis was investigated. MR imaging and biodistribution of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA and Gd-DTPA were studied on healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA showed high adsorption on hydroxyapatite, the high MR relaxivity (r 1 ) of 7.613mM -1 s -1 (2.6 folds of Gd-DTPA), and no hemolysis. The MR contrast effect of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA was much higher than that of Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection to the mice. More importantly, the MR imaging of osteosarcoma was significantly improved by Gd 2 -DTPA-BA. The signal intensity of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA reached 120.3% at 50min, equal to three folds of Gd-DTPA. The bone targeting index (bone/blood) of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA in the osteosarcoma-bearing mice was very high to 130 at 180min. Furthermore, the contrast enhancement could also be found in the lung due to metastasis of osteosarcoma. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA plays a promising role in the diagnoses of osteosacomas, including the primary bone tumors and metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted agents for patients with advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Baoshan; Pan, Bei; Ge, Long; Ma, Jichun; Wu, Yiting; Guo, Tiankang

    2018-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating malignant tumor. Although surgical resection may offer a good prognosis and prolong survival, approximately 80% patients with PC are always diagnosed as unresectable tumor. National Comprehensive Cancer Network's (NCCN) recommended gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as efficient treatment. While, according to recent studies, targeted agents might be a better available option for advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis will be to examine the differences of different targeted interventions for advanced/metastatic PC patients. We will conduct this systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian method and according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, 6 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of science, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), and CBM (Chinese Biological Medical Database) will be searched. The risk of bias in included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be assessed using the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. And we will use GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence from network meta-analysis. Data will be analyzed using R 3.4.1 software. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review and network meta-analysis will firstly use both direct and indirect evidence to compare the differences of different targeted agents and targeted agents plus chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. This is a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis, so the ethical approval and patient consent are not required. We will disseminate the results of this review by submitting to a peer-reviewed journal.

  7. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  8. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100''s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots

  9. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

  10. Host-Targeting Agents to Prevent and Cure Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Mirjam B; Crouchet, Emilie; Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine

    2015-11-02

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which are leading indications of liver transplantation (LT). To date, there is no vaccine to prevent HCV infection and LT is invariably followed by infection of the liver graft. Within the past years, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on the management of chronic hepatitis C, which has become a curable disease in the majority of DAA-treated patients. In contrast to DAAs that target viral proteins, host-targeting agents (HTAs) interfere with cellular factors involved in the viral life cycle. By acting through a complementary mechanism of action and by exhibiting a generally higher barrier to resistance, HTAs offer a prospective option to prevent and treat viral resistance. Indeed, given their complementary mechanism of action, HTAs and DAAs can act in a synergistic manner to reduce viral loads. This review summarizes the different classes of HTAs against HCV infection that are in preclinical or clinical development and highlights their potential to prevent HCV infection, e.g., following LT, and to tailor combination treatments to cure chronic HCV infection.

  11. Identification of poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a target protein of immunosuppressive agent 15-deoxyspergualin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murahashi, Masataka; Simizu, Siro; Morioka, Masahiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Umezawa, Kazuo, E-mail: umezawa@aichi-med-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Target Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yazako-Karimata, Nagakute 480-1195 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG) is an immunosuppressive agent being clinically used. Unlike tacrolimus and cyclosporine A, it does not inhibit the calcineurin pathway, and its mechanism of action and target molecule have not been elucidated. Therefore, we previously prepared biotinylated derivative of DSG (BDSG) to fish up the target protein. In the present research, we identified poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a DSG-binding protein using this probe. DSG was confirmed to bind to PCBP2 by pull-down assay. Intracellular localization of PCBP2 was changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by DSG treatment. DSG inhibited the cell growth, and over-expression of PCBP2 reduced the anti-proliferative activity of DSG. PCBP2 is known to regulate various proteins including STAT1/2. Thus, we found PCBP2 as the first target protein of DSG that can explain the immunosuppressive activity. -- Highlights: •Fifteen-deoxyspergualin (DSG) is an immunosuppressive agent clinically used. •We have identified PCBP2, an RNA-binding protein, as a molecular target of DSG. •Alteration of PCBP2 activity may explain the immunosuppressive activity of DSG.

  12. Tricyclic GyrB/ParE (TriBE inhibitors: a new class of broad-spectrum dual-targeting antibacterial agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W Tari

    Full Text Available Increasing resistance to every major class of antibiotics and a dearth of novel classes of antibacterial agents in development pipelines has created a dwindling reservoir of treatment options for serious bacterial infections. The bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, are validated antibacterial drug targets with multiple prospective drug binding sites, including the catalytic site targeted by the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. However, growing resistance to fluoroquinolones, frequently mediated by mutations in the drug-binding site, is increasingly limiting the utility of this antibiotic class, prompting the search for other inhibitor classes that target different sites on the topoisomerase complexes. The highly conserved ATP-binding subunits of DNA gyrase (GyrB and topoisomerase IV (ParE have long been recognized as excellent candidates for the development of dual-targeting antibacterial agents with broad-spectrum potential. However, to date, no natural product or small molecule inhibitors targeting these sites have succeeded in the clinic, and no inhibitors of these enzymes have yet been reported with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing the majority of Gram-negative pathogens. Using structure-based drug design (SBDD, we have created a novel dual-targeting pyrimidoindole inhibitor series with exquisite potency against GyrB and ParE enzymes from a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Inhibitors from this series demonstrate potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens of clinical importance, including fluoroquinolone resistant and multidrug resistant strains. Lead compounds have been discovered with clinical potential; they are well tolerated in animals, and efficacious in Gram-negative infection models.

  13. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  14. Immunoregulation by interference RNA (iRNA – mechanisms, role, perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sikora

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of an organism depends on the precise control mechanisms, constantly adjusted to the actual state. Therefore, there is a need for efficient communication between both adjacent and distant cells, which may be executed by proteins such as hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokines. Recently another means of regulation has emerged – short regulatory RNAs (srRNAs. Although discovered only a couple of years ago, the mechanism of RNA interference has already become a topic of thousands of publications, defining its roles in both physiological and pathological processes, such as cancerogenesis and autoimmunization.RNAs regulating cell function may be coded in its genome (both exons and introns or be introduced from the external environment. In mammals microRNAs (miRNAs cooperate with proteins from the Ago/PIWI family to form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes, and owing to their complementarity to the target mRNA, control genes’ expression at the posttranscriptional level, either through the suppression of mRNA translation or through mRNA degradation.SrRNAs are crucial regulators throughout the development of immune cells, starting from hematopoietic stem cells, up to the effector cells of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, some of the regulatory cells perform their function by releasing miRNAs, which are then transported to the target cells, possibly enclosed in the exosomes.

  15. Targeting property and toxicity of a novel ultrasound contrast agent microbubble carrying the targeting and drug-loaded complex FA-CNTs-PTX on MCF7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Junxi; Li, Guozhong; Wen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xiangyu; Liu, Fenghua

    2017-10-01

    The application of ultrasound contrast agents not only is confined to the enhancement of ultrasound imaging but also has started to be used as a drug system for diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, Span60 and PEG1500 were used as membrane materials, and a new targeting and drug-loading multifunctional ultrasound contrast agent microbubble enveloping the FA-CNTs-PTX complex was successfully prepared by acoustic cavitation. With the breast cancer cell line MCF7 as the research target, the effects of the microbubble with FA-CNTs-PTX on the proliferation and toxicity of MCF7 cells were studied using a CCK-8 and AO/EB double-staining method. The influences of the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX on the cellular morphology and apoptosis period of the MCF7 cells were detected using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The apoptosis of MCF7 cells induced by the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was investigated with flow cytometry and an annexin and PI double staining fluorescence quantitative analysis. The results indicated that the ultrasound contrast agent microbubble with FA-CNTs-PTX remarkably inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, which was mainly controlled by the drug loading rate and the nanometer size of the microbubbles. Moreover, the proliferative inhibition rate of the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was related to the cell apoptosis period of MCF7 cells. Its inhibition degree on the proliferation of MCF7 cells was higher than that of the hepatoma HepG2 cells. The apoptosis rate of MCF7 cells induced by the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was higher than that of normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX could target the MCF7 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Atefeh; Shayesteh, Saber Farjami; Salouti, Mojtaba; Heidari, Zahra; Rajabi, Ahmad Bitarafan; Boustani, Komail; Nahardani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION–BBN in human blood serum. DSPION–BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION–BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T 2 -weighted and T 2 *-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION–BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T 2 *-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors. (paper)

  17. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  18. RNA glycosidase and other agents target Tat to inhibit HIV-1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrich, David; Jin, Hongping

    2018-03-20

    The HIV-1 tat gene encodes a small 86-104 amino acid protein depending on the HIV-1 strain. Tat is essential for HIV-1 replication through interactions with numerous cellular transcription factors. The interaction between Tat and P-TEFb, which is a cellular protein complex composed of cyclin T1 and CDK9, delivers P-TEFb to the newly transcribed viral mRNAs where phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CDK9 leads to highly efficient mRNA transcription. It has long been recognized that Tat is a potential anti-HIV-1 target and possibly a viral Achilles' heel. However, specifically targeting Tat without affecting normal host cell functions has been challenging. Means to inactivate Tat have been reported that includes small compounds, transdominant negative Tat proteins, and by plant-derived antivirals. Investigations of these agents have reported encouraging outcomes that inform and may hopefully affect strategies for a functional HIV-1 cure. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Biodegradable Drug-Loaded Hydroxyapatite Nanotherapeutic Agent for Targeted Drug Release in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Fan, Jiangli; Wang, Suzhen; Kang, Yao; Du, Jianjun; Peng, Xiaojun

    2018-03-07

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to improve the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and reduce their toxic side effects in vivo. Focused on this point, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods consisting of folic acid (FA) modification (DOX@HAP-FA) were developed for efficient antitumor treatment. The DOX-loaded nanorods were synthesized through in situ coprecipitation and hydrothermal method with a DOX template, demonstrating a new procedure for drug loading in HAP materials. DOX could be efficiently released from DOX@HAP-FA within 24 h in weakly acidic buffer solution (pH = 6.0) because of the degradation of HAP nanorods. With endocytosis under the mediation of folate receptors, the nanorods exhibited enhanced cellular uptake and further degraded, and consequently, the proliferation of targeted cells was inhibited. More importantly, in a tumor-bearing mouse model, DOX@HAP-FA treatment demonstrated excellent tumor growth inhibition. In addition, no apparent side effects were observed during the treatment. These results suggested that DOX@HAP-FA may be a promising nanotherapeutic agent for effective cancer treatment in vivo.

  20. The prince and the pauper. A tale of anticancer targeted agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fierro Aurora

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer rates are set to increase at an alarming rate, from 10 million new cases globally in 2000 to 15 million in 2020. Regarding the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we currently are in the interphase of two treatment eras. The so-called pregenomic therapy which names the traditional cancer drugs, mainly cytotoxic drug types, and post-genomic era-type drugs referring to rationally-based designed. Although there are successful examples of this newer drug discovery approach, most target-specific agents only provide small gains in symptom control and/or survival, whereas others have consistently failed in the clinical testing. There is however, a characteristic shared by these agents: -their high cost-. This is expected as drug discovery and development is generally carried out within the commercial rather than the academic realm. Given the extraordinarily high therapeutic drug discovery-associated costs and risks, it is highly unlikely that any single public-sector research group will see a novel chemical "probe" become a "drug". An alternative drug development strategy is the exploitation of established drugs that have already been approved for treatment of non-cancerous diseases and whose cancer target has already been discovered. This strategy is also denominated drug repositioning, drug repurposing, or indication switch. Although traditionally development of these drugs was unlikely to be pursued by Big Pharma due to their limited commercial value, biopharmaceutical companies attempting to increase productivity at present are pursuing drug repositioning. More and more companies are scanning the existing pharmacopoeia for repositioning candidates, and the number of repositioning success stories is increasing. Here we provide noteworthy examples of known drugs whose potential anticancer activities have been highlighted, to encourage further research on these known drugs as a means to foster their translation into clinical trials

  1. The prince and the pauper. A tale of anticancer targeted agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-González, Alfonso; García-López, Patricia; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis; González-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna

    2008-10-23

    Cancer rates are set to increase at an alarming rate, from 10 million new cases globally in 2000 to 15 million in 2020. Regarding the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we currently are in the interphase of two treatment eras. The so-called pregenomic therapy which names the traditional cancer drugs, mainly cytotoxic drug types, and post-genomic era-type drugs referring to rationally-based designed. Although there are successful examples of this newer drug discovery approach, most target-specific agents only provide small gains in symptom control and/or survival, whereas others have consistently failed in the clinical testing. There is however, a characteristic shared by these agents: -their high cost-. This is expected as drug discovery and development is generally carried out within the commercial rather than the academic realm. Given the extraordinarily high therapeutic drug discovery-associated costs and risks, it is highly unlikely that any single public-sector research group will see a novel chemical "probe" become a "drug". An alternative drug development strategy is the exploitation of established drugs that have already been approved for treatment of non-cancerous diseases and whose cancer target has already been discovered. This strategy is also denominated drug repositioning, drug repurposing, or indication switch. Although traditionally development of these drugs was unlikely to be pursued by Big Pharma due to their limited commercial value, biopharmaceutical companies attempting to increase productivity at present are pursuing drug repositioning. More and more companies are scanning the existing pharmacopoeia for repositioning candidates, and the number of repositioning success stories is increasing. Here we provide noteworthy examples of known drugs whose potential anticancer activities have been highlighted, to encourage further research on these known drugs as a means to foster their translation into clinical trials utilizing the more limited

  2. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of VEGFR-targeted macromolecular MRI contrast agent based on biotin–avidin-specific binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Wu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Xiaohe; Wang, Dan; Zhong, Ying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Tianqi; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    Developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity and specificity was essential to increase MRI diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, the MRI contrast agent, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted poly (l-lysine) (PLL)-diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA)-gadolinium (Gd) (VEGFR-targeted PLL-DTPA-Gd, VPDG), was designed and prepared to enhance the MRI diagnosis capacity of tumor. Biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd was synthesized first, then, VEGFR antibody was linked to biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd using biotin–avidin reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity study results showed that VPDG had low toxicity to MCF-7 cells and HepG2 cells at experimental concentrations. In cell uptake experiments, VPDG could significantly increase the internalization rates (61.75%±5.22%) in VEGFR-positive HepG2 cells compared to PLL-DTPA-Gd (PDG) (25.16%±4.71%, P<0.05). In MRI studies in vitro, significantly higher T1 relaxivity (14.184 mM−1 s−1) was observed compared to Magnevist® (4.9 mM−1 s−1; P<0.01). Furthermore, in vivo MRI study results showed that VPDG could significantly enhance the tumor signal intensity and prolong the diagnostic time (from <1 h to 2.5 h). These results indicated that macromolecular VPDG was a promising MRI contrast agent and held great potential for molecular diagnosis of tumor. PMID:28765707

  3. Assessment of a novel VEGF targeted agent using patient-derived tumor tissue xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketao Jin

    Full Text Available The lack of appropriate tumor models of primary tumors and corresponding metastases that can reliably predict for response to anticancer agents remains a major deficiency in the clinical practice of cancer therapy. It was the aim of our study to establish patient-derived tumor tissue (PDTT xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastases useful for testing of novel molecularly targeted agents. PDTT of primary colon carcinoma, lymphatic and hepatic metastases were used to create xenograft models. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, genome-wide gene expression analysis, pyrosequencing, qRT-PCR, and western blotting were used to determine the biological stability of the xenografts during serial transplantation compared with the original tumor tissues. Early passages of the PDTT xenograft models of primary colon carcinoma, lymphatic and hepatic metastases revealed a high degree of similarity with the original clinical tumor samples with regard to histology, immunohistochemistry, genes expression, and mutation status as well as mRNA expression. After we have ascertained that these xenografts models retained similar histopathological features and molecular signatures as the original tumors, drug sensitivities of the xenografts to a novel VEGF targeted agent, FP3 was evaluated. In this study, PDTT xenograft models of colon carcinoma with lymphatic and hepatic metastasis have been successfully established. They provide appropriate models for testing of novel molecularly targeted agents.

  4. Tumor vascular-targeted co-delivery of anti-angiogenesis and chemotherapeutic agents by mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for synergetic therapy of tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyu Li, Meiying Wu, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To overcome the drawback of drug non-selectivity in traditional chemotherapy, the construction of multifunctional targeting drug delivery systems is one of the most effective and prevailing approaches. The intratumoral anti-angiogenesis and the tumor cell-killing are two basic approaches in fighting tumors. Herein we report a novel tumor vascular-targeting multidrug delivery system using mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carrier to co-load an antiangiogenic agent (combretastatin A4 and a chemotherapeutic drug (doxorubicin and conjugate with targeting molecules (iRGD peptide for combined anti-angiogenesis and chemotherapy. Such a dual-loaded drug delivery system is capable of delivering the two agents at tumor vasculature and then within tumors through a differentiated drug release strategy, which consequently results in greatly improved antitumor efficacy at a very low doxorubicin dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The fast release of the antiangiogenic agent at tumor vasculatures led to the disruption of vascular structure and had a synergetic effect with the chemotherapeutic drug slowly released in the following delivery of chemotherapeutic drug into tumors. Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles, drug delivery, tumor vasculatures targeting, antiangiogenic agent

  5. A method for evaluating cognitively informed micro-targeted campaign strategies: An agent-based model proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens Koed; Pilditch, Toby D

    2018-01-01

    In political campaigns, perceived candidate credibility influences the persuasiveness of messages. In campaigns aiming to influence people's beliefs, micro-targeted campaigns (MTCs) that target specific voters using their psychological profile have become increasingly prevalent. It remains open how effective MTCs are, notably in comparison to population-targeted campaign strategies. Using an agent-based model, the paper applies recent insights from cognitive models of persuasion, extending them to the societal level in a novel framework for exploring political campaigning. The paper provides an initial treatment of the complex dynamics of population level political campaigning in a psychologically informed manner. Model simulations show that MTCs can take advantage of the psychology of the electorate by targeting voters favourable disposed towards the candidate. Relative to broad campaigning, MTCs allow for efficient and adaptive management of complex campaigns. Findings show that disliked MTC candidates can beat liked population-targeting candidates, pointing to societal questions concerning campaign regulations.

  6. The status of targeted agents in the setting of neoadjuvant radiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, Rob; Hadaki, Maher; Harrison, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Radiotherapy has a longstanding and well-defined role in the treatment of resectable rectal cancer to reduce the historically high risk of local recurrence. In more advanced borderline or unresectable cases, where the circumferential resection margin (CRM) is breached or threatened according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), despite optimized local multimodality treatment and the gains achieved by modern high quality total mesorectal excision (TME), at least half the patients fail to achieve sufficient downstaging with current schedules. Many do not achieve an R0 resection. In less locally advanced cases, even if local control is achieved, this confers only a small impact on distant metastases and a significant proportion of patients (30-40%) still subsequently develop metastatic disease. In fact, distant metastases have now become the predominant cause of failure in rectal cancer. Therefore, increasing the intensity and efficacy of chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy by integrating additional cytotoxics and biologically targetted agents seems an appealing strategy to explore-with the aim of enhancing curative resection rates and improving distant control and survival. However, to date, we lack validated biomarkers for these biological agents apart from wild-type KRAS. For cetuximab, the appearance of an acneiform rash is associated with response, but low levels of magnesium appear more controversial. There are no molecular biomarkers for bevacizumab. Although some less invasive clinical markers have been proposed for bevacizumab, such as circulating endothelial cells (CECS), circulating levels of VEGF and the development of overt hypertension, these biomarkers have not been validated and are observed to emerge only after a trial of the agent. We also lack a simple method of ongoing monitoring of 'on target' effects of these biological agents, which could determine and pre-empt the development of resistance, prior to radiological and clinical assessessments or

  7. Mitochondrial targeting of human O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase protects against cell killing by chemotherapeutic alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanbao; Xu, Yi; Cooper, Ryan J; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Hartwell, Jennifer R; Pollok, Karen E; Kelley, Mark R

    2005-04-15

    DNA repair capacity of eukaryotic cells has been studied extensively in recent years. Mammalian cells have been engineered to overexpress recombinant nuclear DNA repair proteins from ectopic genes to assess the impact of increased DNA repair capacity on genome stability. This approach has been used in this study to specifically target O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to the mitochondria and examine its impact on cell survival after exposure to DNA alkylating agents. Survival of human hematopoietic cell lines and primary hematopoietic CD34(+) committed progenitor cells was monitored because the baseline repair capacity for alkylation-induced DNA damage is typically low due to insufficient expression of MGMT. Increased DNA repair capacity was observed when K562 cells were transfected with nuclear-targeted MGMT (nucl-MGMT) or mitochondrial-targeted MGMT (mito-MGMT). Furthermore, overexpression of mito-MGMT provided greater resistance to cell killing by 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) than overexpression of nucl-MGMT. Simultaneous overexpression of mito-MGMT and nucl-MGMT did not enhance the resistance provided by mito-MGMT alone. Overexpression of either mito-MGMT or nucl-MGMT also conferred a similar level of resistance to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and temozolomide (TMZ) but simultaneous overexpression in both cellular compartments was neither additive nor synergistic. When human CD34(+) cells were infected with oncoretroviral vectors that targeted O(6)-benzylguanine (6BG)-resistant MGMT (MGMT(P140K)) to the nucleus or the mitochondria, committed progenitors derived from infected cells were resistant to 6BG/BCNU or 6BG/TMZ. These studies indicate that mitochondrial or nuclear targeting of MGMT protects hematopoietic cells against cell killing by BCNU, TMZ, and MMS, which is consistent with the possibility that mitochondrial DNA damage and nuclear DNA damage contribute equally to alkylating agent-induced cell killing during chemotherapy.

  8. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of VEGFR-targeted macromolecular MRI contrast agent based on biotin–avidin-specific binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yongjun Liu,1 Xiaoyun Wu,1 Xiaohe Sun,1 Dan Wang,1 Ying Zhong,1 Dandan Jiang,1 Tianqi Wang,1 Dexin Yu,2 Na Zhang1 1School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, 2Department of Radiology Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents with high relaxivity and specificity was essential to increase MRI diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, the MRI contrast agent, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-targeted poly (l-lysine (PLL-diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA-gadolinium (Gd (VEGFR-targeted PLL-DTPA-Gd, VPDG, was designed and prepared to enhance the MRI diagnosis capacity of tumor. Biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd was synthesized first, then, VEGFR antibody was linked to biotin-PLL-DTPA-Gd using biotin–avidin reaction. In vitro cytotoxicity study results showed that VPDG had low toxicity to MCF-7 cells and HepG2 cells at experimental concentrations. In cell uptake experiments, VPDG could significantly increase the internalization rates (61.75%±5.22% in VEGFR-positive HepG2 cells compared to PLL-DTPA-Gd (PDG (25.16%±4.71%, P<0.05. In MRI studies in vitro, significantly higher T1 relaxivity (14.184 mM-1 s-1 was observed compared to Magnevist® (4.9 mM-1 s-1; P<0.01. Furthermore, in vivo MRI study results showed that VPDG could significantly enhance the tumor signal intensity and prolong the diagnostic time (from <1 h to 2.5 h. These results indicated that macromolecular VPDG was a promising MRI contrast agent and held great potential for molecular diagnosis of tumor. Keywords: MRI, contrast agent, VEGFR, biotin–avidin reaction, relaxivity

  9. Patients with advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy in the Czech Republic: twenty cancer centres, six agents, one database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprach, Alexandr; Bortlíček, Zbyněk; Büchler, Tomáš; Melichar, Bohuslav; Lakomý, Radek; Vyzula, Rostislav; Brabec, Petr; Svoboda, Marek; Dušek, Ladislav; Gregor, Jakub

    2012-12-01

    The incidence and mortality of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Czech Republic are among the highest in the world. Several targeted agents have been recently approved for the treatment of advanced/metastatic RCC. Presentation of a national clinical database for monitoring and assessment of patients with advanced/metastatic RCC treated with targeted therapy. The RenIS (RENal Information System, http://renis.registry.cz ) registry is a non-interventional post-registration database of epidemiological and clinical data of patients with RCC treated with targeted therapies in the Czech Republic. Twenty cancer centres eligible for targeted therapy administration participate in the project. As of November 2011, six agents were approved and reimbursed from public health insurance, including bevacizumab, everolimus, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and temsirolimus. As of 10 October 2011, 1,541 patients with valid records were entered into the database. Comparison with population-based data from the Czech National Cancer Registry revealed that RCC patients treated with targeted therapy are significantly younger (median age at diagnosis 59 vs. 66 years). Most RenIS registry patients were treated with sorafenib and sunitinib, many patients sequentially with both agents. Over 10 % of patients were also treated with everolimus in the second or third line. Progression-free survival times achieved were comparable to phase III clinical trials. The RenIS registry has become an important tool and source of information for the management of cancer care and clinical practice, providing comprehensive data on monitoring and assessment of RCC targeted therapy on a national level.

  10. Asymptotic bounded consensus tracking of double-integrator multi-agent systems with bounded-jerk target based on sampled-data without velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuang-Shuang; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li; Xie Lin-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates asymptotic bounded consensus tracking (ABCT) of double-integrator multi-agent systems (MASs) with an asymptotically-unbounded-acceleration and bounded-jerk target (AUABJT) available to partial agents based on sampled-data without velocity measurements. A sampled-data consensus tracking protocol (CTP) without velocity measurements is proposed to guarantee that double-integrator MASs track an AUABJT available to only partial agents. The eigenvalue analysis method together with the augmented matrix method is used to obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for ABCT. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical results. (paper)

  11. Glucose-installed, SPIO-loaded PEG- b-PCL micelles as MR contrast agents to target prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerasilp, Man; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sungkarat, Witaya; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) bearing glucose analog encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Glu-SPIO micelles) were synthesized as an MRI contrast agent to target cancer cells based on high-glucose metabolism. Compared to SPIO micelles (non-targeting SPIO micelles), Glu-SPIO micelles demonstrated higher toxicity to human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) at high concentration. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of iron in cells. It was found that the iron in cancer cells treated by Glu-SPIO micelles were 27-fold higher than cancer cells treated by SPIO micelles at the iron concentration of 25 ppm and fivefold at the iron concentration of 100 ppm. To implement Glu-SPIO micelles as a MR contrast agent, the 3-T clinical MRI was applied to determine transverse relaxivities ( r 2*) and relaxation rate (1/ T 2*) values. In vitro MRI showed different MRI signal from cancer cells after cellular uptake of SPIO micelles and Glu-SPIO micelles. Glu-SPIO micelles was highly sensitive with the r 2* in agarose gel at 155 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, the higher 1/ T 2* value was found for cancer cells treated with Glu-SPIO micelles. These results supported that glucose ligand increased the cellular uptake of micelles by PC-3 cells with over-expressing glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Thus, glucose can be used as a small molecule ligand for targeting prostate cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporter.

  12. Modern dose-finding designs for cancer phase I trials drug combinations and molecularly targeted agents

    CERN Document Server

    Hirakawa, Akihiro; Daimon, Takashi; Matsui, Shigeyuki

    2018-01-01

    This book deals with advanced methods for adaptive phase I dose-finding clinical trials for combination of two agents and molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) in oncology. It provides not only methodological aspects of the dose-finding methods, but also software implementations and practical considerations in applying these complex methods to real cancer clinical trials. Thus, the book aims to furnish researchers in biostatistics and statistical science with a good summary of recent developments of adaptive dose-finding methods as well as providing practitioners in biostatistics and clinical investigators with advanced materials for designing, conducting, monitoring, and analyzing adaptive dose-finding trials. The topics in the book are mainly related to cancer clinical trials, but many of those topics are potentially applicable or can be extended to trials for other diseases. The focus is mainly on model-based dose-finding methods for two kinds of phase I trials. One is clinical trials with combinations of tw...

  13. Analyzing the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using optimal assignment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kwan S.; Driessen, Brian J.; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Tovey, Craig A.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of maximum utilization of a set of mobile robots with limited sensor-range capabilities and limited travel distances. The robots are initially in random positions. A set of robots properly guards or covers a region if every point within the region is within the effective sensor range of at least one vehicle. We wish to move the vehicles into surveillance positions so as to guard or cover a region, while minimizing the maximum distance traveled by any vehicle. This problem can be formulated as an assignment problem, in which we must optimally decide which robot to assign to which slot of a desired matrix of grid points. The cost function is the maximum distance traveled by any robot. Assignment problems can be solved very efficiently. Solution times for one hundred robots took only seconds on a silicon graphics crimson workstation. The initial positions of all the robots can be sampled by a central base station and their newly assigned positions communicated back to the robots. Alternatively, the robots can establish their own coordinate system with the origin fixed at one of the robots and orientation determined by the compass bearing of another robot relative to this robot. This paper presents example solutions to the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using a matching algorithm. Two separate cases with one hundred agents in each were analyzed using this method. We have found these mobile robot problems to be a very interesting application of network optimization methods, and we expect this to be a fruitful area for future research.

  14. Analyzing the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using optimal assignment algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Phillips, C.A.; Tovey, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the problem of maximum utilization of a set of mobile robots with limited sensor-range capabilities and limited travel distances. The robots are initially in random positions. A set of robots properly guards or covers a region if every point within the region is within the effective sensor range of at least one vehicle. The authors wish to move the vehicles into surveillance positions so as to guard or cover a region, while minimizing the maximum distance traveled by any vehicle. This problem can be formulated as an assignment problem, in which they must optimally decide which robot to assign to which slot of a desired matrix of grid points. The cost function is the maximum distance traveled by any robot. Assignment problems can be solved very efficiently. Solutions times for one hundred robots took only seconds on a Silicon Graphics Crimson workstation. The initial positions of all the robots can be sampled by a central base station and their newly assigned positions communicated back to the robots. Alternatively, the robots can establish their own coordinate system with the origin fixed at one of the robots and orientation determined by the compass bearing of another robot relative to this robot. This paper presents example solutions to the multiple-target-multiple-agent scenario using a matching algorithm. Two separate cases with one hundred agents in each were analyzed using this method. They have found these mobile robot problems to be a very interesting application of network optimization methods, and they expect this to be a fruitful area for future research

  15. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Byoung Dae

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS: Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Hur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Consensus pursuit of heterogeneous multi-agent systems under a directed acyclic graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Guan, Xin-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the cooperative target pursuit problem by multiple agents based on directed acyclic graph. The target appears at a random location and moves only when sensed by the agents, and agents will pursue the target once they detect its existence. Since the ability of each agent may be different, we consider the heterogeneous multi-agent systems. According to the topology of the multi-agent systems, a novel consensus-based control law is proposed, where the target and agents are modeled as a leader and followers, respectively. Based on Mason's rule and signal flow graph analysis, the convergence conditions are provided to show that the agents can catch the target in a finite time. Finally, simulation studies are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Mitochondrially targeted anti-cancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biasutto, L.; Dong, L.A.; Zoratti, M.; Neužil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2010), s. 670-681 ISSN 1567-7249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitochondrial targeting * pro-oxidant effect * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2010

  19. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  20. Cranial nerve contrast using nerve-specific fluorophores improved by paired-agent imaging with indocyanine green as a control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Veronica C.; Vuong, Victoria D.; Wilson, Todd; Wewel, Joshua; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2017-09-01

    Nerve preservation during surgery is critical because damage can result in significant morbidity. This remains a challenge especially for skull base surgeries where cranial nerves (CNs) are involved because visualization and access are particularly poor in that location. We present a paired-agent imaging method to enhance identification of CNs using nerve-specific fluorophores. Two myelin-targeting imaging agents were evaluated, Oxazine 4 and Rhodamine 800, and coadministered with a control agent, indocyanine green, either intravenously or topically in rats. Fluorescence imaging was performed on excised brains ex vivo, and nerve contrast was evaluated via paired-agent ratiometric data analysis. Although contrast was improved among all experimental groups using paired-agent imaging compared to conventional, solely targeted imaging, Oxazine 4 applied directly exhibited the greatest enhancement, with a minimum 3 times improvement in CNs delineation. This work highlights the importance of accounting for nonspecific signal of targeted agents, and demonstrates that paired-agent imaging is one method capable of doing so. Although staining, rinsing, and imaging protocols need to be optimized, these findings serve as a demonstration for the potential use of paired-agent imaging to improve contrast of CNs, and consequently, surgical outcome.

  1. Mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Damia, G.; D‘Incalci, M.

    1998-01-01

    Alkylating agents are the most widely used anticancer drugs whose main target is the DNA, although how exactly the DNA lesions cause cell death is still not clear. The emergence of resistance to this class of drugs as well as to other antitumor agents is one of the major causes of failure of cancer treatment. This paper reviews some of the best characterized mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents. Pre- and post-target mechanisms are recognized, the former able to limit the formation of...

  2. Smart Plasmonic Glucose Nanosensors as Generic Theranostic Agents for Targeting-Free Cancer Cell Screening and Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Limei; Li, Haijuan; He, Haili; Wu, Haoxi; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-07-07

    Fast and accurate identification of cancer cells from healthy normal cells in a simple, generic way is very crucial for early cancer detection and treatment. Although functional nanoparticles, like fluorescent quantum dots and plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs), have been successfully applied for cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy, they suffer from the main drawback of needing time-consuming targeting preparation for specific cancer cell detection and selective ablation. The lack of a generic and effective method therefore limits their potential high-throughput cancer cell preliminary screening and theranostic applications. We report herein a generic in vitro method for fast, targeting-free (avoiding time-consuming preparations of targeting moiety for specific cancer cells) visual screening and selective killing of cancer cells from normal cells, by using glucose-responsive/-sensitive glucose oxidase-modified Ag/Au nanoshells (Ag/Au-GOx NSs) as a smart plasmonic theranostic agent. The method is generic to some extent since it is based on the distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) responses (and colors) of the smart nanoprobe with cancer cells (typically have a higher glucose uptake level) and normal cells.

  3. MHI-148 Cyanine Dye Conjugated Chitosan Nanomicelle with NIR Light-Trigger Release Property as Cancer Targeting Theranostic Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Surendran, Suchithra Poilil; Park, Hyeong Ju; Park, In-Kyu; Lee, Byeong-Il; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2018-02-15

    Paclitaxel (PTX) loaded hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan (HGC) micelle is biocompatible in nature, but it requires cancer targeting ability and stimuli release property for better efficiency. To improve tumor retention and drug release characteristic of HGC-PTX nanomicelles, we conjugated cancer targeting heptamethine dye, MHI-148, which acts as an optical imaging agent, targeting moiety and also trigger on-demand drug release on application of NIR 808 nm laser. The amine group of glycol chitosan modified with hydrophobic 5β-cholanic acid and the carboxyl group of MHI-148 were bonded by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Paclitaxel was loaded to MHI-HGC nanomicelle by an oil-in-water emulsion method, thereby forming MHI-HGC-PTX. Comparison of near infrared (NIR) dyes, MHI-148, and Flamma-774 conjugated to HGC showed higher accumulation for MHI-HGC in 4T1 tumor and 4T1 tumor spheroid. In vitro studies showed high accumulation of MHI-HGC-PTX in 4T1 and SCC7 cancer cell lines compared to NIH3T3 cell line. In vivo fluorescence imaging of the 4T1 and SCC7 tumor showed peak accumulation of MHI-HGC-PTX at day 1 and elimination from the body at day 6. MHI-HGC-PTX showed good photothermal heating ability (50.3 °C), even at a low concentration of 33 μg/ml in 1 W/cm 2 808 nm laser at 1 min time point. Tumor reduction studies in BALB/c nude mice with SCC7 tumor showed marked reduction in MHI-HGC-PTX in the PTT group combined with photothermal therapy compared to MHI-HGC-PTX in the group without PTT. MHI-HGC-PTX is a cancer theranostic agent with cancer targeting and optical imaging capability. Our studies also showed that it has cancer targeting property independent of tumor type and tumor reduction property by combined photothermal and chemotherapeutic effects.

  4. Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic molecular imaging employs contrast agents, such as microbubbles, nanoparticles, or liposomes, coated with ligands specific for receptors expressed on cells at sites of angiogenesis, inflammation, or thrombus. Concentration of these highly echogenic contrast agents at a target site enhances the ultrasound signal received from that site, promoting ultrasonic detection and analysis of disease states. In this article, we show that acoustic radiation force can be used to displace targeted contrast agents to a vessel wall, greatly increasing the number of agents binding to available surface receptors. We provide a theoretical evaluation of the magnitude of acoustic radiation force and show that it is possible to displace micron-sized agents physiologically relevant distances. Following this, we show in a series of experiments that acoustic radiation force can enhance the binding of targeted agents: The number of biotinylated microbubbles adherent to a synthetic vessel coated with avidin increases as much as 20-fold when acoustic radiation force is applied; the adhesion of contrast agents targeted to αvβ3 expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells increases 27-fold within a mimetic vessel when radiation force is applied; and finally, the image signal-to-noise ratio in a phantom vessel increases up to 25 dB using a combination of radiation force and a targeted contrast agent, over use of a targeted contrast agent alone.

  5. Utilization of SA-gal as clearing agent in pre-targeting RII of colon carcinoma xenograft bearing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hubing; Huang Zuhan; Peng Wuhe; Gao Xiao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To conjugate galactose streptavidin (SA-gal) and use it as a clearing agent in pre-targeting radioimmunoimaging (RII) of colon carcinoma xenograft models. Methods: SA-gal was obtained by incubating galactose moiety with streptavidin at a molar ratio of 45 : 1. For imaging in vivo, biotinylated antibody radiolabelled with 131 I was injected into the nude mice bearing the colon carcinoma xenograft via the tail vein. 24 h later, SA-gal were intraperitoneally injected at a ratio of 10-fold (molar) excess to antibody. At 0.5 h and 6 h after SA-gal administration, the animals of different test groups were killed for biodistribution study or imaging. No clearing agent was administrated to the animals of two control groups and they were also killed for biodistribution study or imaging at 24 h or 30 h after injection of 131 I labelled antibody. Results: 1) Galactose moiety was bound to SA at a molar ratio of 20 : 1. 2) In pre-targeting RII, SA-gal undertook the chase effect very fast. At 0.5 h after injection, the blood level of radioactivity decreased very fast and tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratio increased from 0.32 to 1.44. At 6 h after SA-gal administration, T/B ratio reached 5.23, significantly higher than 0.41 of the control group (P 131 I-biotinylated antitumor antibody RII

  6. Perspectives in the development of hybrid bifunctional antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Zunino, Franco

    2015-08-15

    In spite of the development of a large number of novel target-specific antitumour agents, the single-agent therapy is in general not able to provide an effective durable control of the malignant process. The limited efficacy of the available agents (both conventional cytotoxic and novel target-specific) reflects not only the expression of defence mechanisms, but also the complexity of tumour cell alterations and the redundancy of survival pathways, thus resulting in tumour cell ability to survive under stress conditions. A well-established strategy to improve the efficacy of antitumour therapy is the rational design of drug combinations aimed at achieving synergistic effects and overcoming drug resistance. An alternative strategy could be the use of agents designed to inhibit simultaneously multiple cellular targets relevant to tumour growth/survival. Among these novel agents are hybrid bifunctional drugs, i.e. compounds resulting by conjugation of different drugs or containing the pharmocophores of different drugs. This strategy has been pursued using various conventional or target-specific agents (with DNA damaging agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors as the most exploited compounds). A critical overview of the most representative compounds is provided with emphasis on the HDAC inhibitor-based hybrid agents. In spite of some promising results, the actual pharmacological advantages of the hybrid agents remain to be defined. This commentary summarizes the recent advances in this field and highlights the pharmacological basis for a rational design of hybrid bifunctional agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Ultrasmall cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nontoxic and efficient MRI contrast agent and magnetic-targeting tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchiyama MK

    2015-07-01

    thigh by a magnet showing its potential as magnetically targeted carriers of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Summarizing, cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are nontoxic and efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents useful as platform for the development of new materials for application in theranostics.Keywords: cationic USPIOs, MRI, contrast agent, magnetic targeting, in vivo toxicity, intravital microscopy

  8. Relay tracking control for second-order multi-agent systems with damaged agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijing; Li, Jing; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a situation where smart agents capable of sensory and mobility are deployed to monitor a designated area. A preset number of agents start tracking when a target intrudes this area. Some of the tracking agents are possible to be out of order over the tracking course. Thus, we propose a cooperative relay tracking strategy to ensure the successful tracking with existence of damaged agents. Relay means that, when a tracking agent quits tracking due to malfunction, one of the near deployed agents replaces it to continue the tracking task. This results in jump of tracking errors and dynamic switching of topology of the multi-agent system. Switched system technique is employed to solve this specific problem. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed tracking strategy and validity of the theoretical results are verified by conducting a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly biocompatible TiO2:Gd3+ nano-contrast agent with enhanced longitudinal relaxivity for targeted cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Sasidharan, Abhilash; Ashokan, Anusha; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a novel magnetic nano-contrast agent (nano-CA) based on Gd3+ doped amorphous TiO2 of size ~25 nm, exhibiting enhanced longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and magnetic resonance (MR) contrasting together with excellent biocompatibility. Quantitative T1 mapping of phantom samples using a 1.5 T clinical MR imaging system revealed that the amorphous phase of doped titania has the highest r1 relaxivity which is ~2.5 fold higher than the commercially used CA Magnevist™. The crystalline (anatase) samples formed by air annealing at 250 °C and 500 °C showed significant reduction in r1 values and MR contrast, which is attributed to the loss of proton-exchange contribution from the adsorbed water and atomic re-arrangement of Gd3+ ions in the crystalline host lattice. Nanotoxicity studies including cell viability, plasma membrane integrity, reactive oxygen stress and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, performed on human primary endothelial cells (HUVEC), human blood derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cell line showed excellent biocompatibility up to relatively higher doses of 200 μg ml-1. The potential of this nano-CA to cause hemolysis, platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation were studied using human peripheral blood samples and found no adverse effects, illustrating the possibility of the safe intravenous administration of these agents for human applications. Furthermore, the ability of these agents to specifically detect cancer cells by targeting molecular receptors on the cell membrane was demonstrated on folate receptor (FR) positive oral carcinoma (KB) cells, where the folic acid conjugated nano-CA showed receptor specific accumulation on cell membrane while leaving the normal fibroblast cells (L929) unstained. This study reveals that the Gd3+ doped amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles having enhanced magnetic resonance contrast and high biocompatibility is a promising candidate for

  10. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long; Bao, Jin-ku

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. → ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. → ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca 2+ /Mn 2+ -dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-κB-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  11. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  12. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  13. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. Studies in our laboratory have identified significant differences in the expression levels of certain genes and proteins between normal and brain tumor capillary endothelial cells. In this study, we validated the non-invasive and clinically relevant Dynamic Contrast Enhancing-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI method with invasive, clinically irrelevant but highly accurate Quantitative Autoradiography (QAR method using rat glioma model. We also showed that DCE-MRI metric of tissue vessel perfusion-permeability is sensitive to changes in blood vessel permeability following administration of calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channel activator NS-1619. Our results show that human gliomas and brain tumor endothelial cells that overexpress BKCa channels can be targeted for increased BTB permeability for MRI enhancing agents to brain tumors. We conclude that monitoring the outcome of increased MRI enhancing agents’ delivery to microsatellites and leading tumor edges in glioma patients would lead to beneficial clinical outcome.

  14. Treatment outcomes regarding the addition of targeted agents in the therapeutic portfolio for stage II-III rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin-Tung; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, John; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2017-11-24

    To evaluate the impact of targeted agents in stage II-III rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). A retrospective study was performed in 124 consecutive patients with clinically T 3 N 0-2 M 0 -staged rectal cancer incorporating targeted agents in CCRT. Pathologic complete response was detected in 34.2% (n=26) of bevacizumab+FOLFOX-treated patients (n=76), which was significantly higher (p=0.019, post-hoc statistical power =35.87%) than that (n=10, 20.8%) of the cetuximab+FOLFOX-treated patients (n=48). Patients receiving cetuximab+FOLFOX therapy tended to develop severe liver toxicity (91.7%, n=44 versus 17.1%, n=13, panalysis within bevacizumab+FOLFOX-treated patients with either wild-type (n=36) or mutant (n=40) K-ras status indicated K-ras status did not significantly influence the treatment outcomes. The addition of bevacizumab instead of cetuximab to FOLFOX in the neoadjuvant settings for T 3 N 0-2 M 0 -staged rectal cancer could induce a promising rate of pathologic complete response and lesser hepatotoxicity.

  15. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  16. The flavonoid fisetin as an anticancer agent targeting the growth signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Yaacob, Nik Soriani

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological studies show that consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risks of cancer. This evidence has kindled interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds is fisetin (3,7,3,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol that is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. Fisetin has been shown to inhibit or retard the growth of various cancer cells in culture and implanted tumors in vivo. Fisetin targets many components of intracellular signaling pathways including regulators of cell survival and apoptosis, tumor angiogenic and metastatic switches by modulating a distinct set of upstream kinases, transcription factors and their regulators. Current evidence supports the idea that fisetin is a promising agent for cancer treatment. This review summarizes reported anticancer effects of fisetin, and re-emphasizes its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasmall cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nontoxic and efficient MRI contrast agent and magnetic-targeting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Mayara Klimuk; Toma, Sergio Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Cervantes Rodríguez, Hernán Joel; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Luz, Maciel Santos; Rabbani, Said Rahnamaye; Toma, Henrique Eisi; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Araki, Koiti

    2015-01-01

    Fully dispersible, cationic ultrasmall (7 nm diameter) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, exhibiting high relaxivity (178 mM−1s−1 in 0.47 T) and no acute or subchronic toxicity in Wistar rats, were studied and their suitability as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and material for development of new diagnostic and treatment tools demonstrated. After intravenous injection (10 mg/kg body weight), they circulated throughout the vascular system causing no microhemorrhage or thrombus, neither inflammatory processes at the mesentery vascular bed and hepatic sinusoids (leukocyte rolling, adhesion, or migration as evaluated by intravital microscopy), but having been spontaneously concentrated in the liver, spleen, and kidneys, they caused strong negative contrast. The nanoparticles are cleared from kidneys and bladder in few days, whereas the complete elimination from liver and spleen occurred only after 4 weeks. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles caused no effects on hepatic and renal enzymes dosage as well as on leukocyte count. In addition, they were readily concentrated in rat thigh by a magnet showing its potential as magnetically targeted carriers of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Summarizing, cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are nontoxic and efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents useful as platform for the development of new materials for application in theranostics. PMID:26251595

  18. Trends and developments in MRI contrast agent research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagna, F.M.; Dapra, M.; Castelli, P.M.; Maggioni, F.; Kirchin, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The currently prevailing trends in industrial contrast agent research for MRI are discussed. Specific mention is made of contrast agents for liver imaging using both static and delayed procedures, of the potential for blood pool agents and the form such agents may take, and of the ultimate challenge for contrast agent R and D: tissue-targeting in a wider sense to both normal and pathologic tissues. (orig.)

  19. Implications of a Reduction in the Hemoglobin Target in Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent-Treated Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V. Nguyen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs to a hemoglobin (Hb level >12.0 g/dl have increased risk of multiple complications, including death. The optimal Hb target for ESA use has not been established. We hypothesized that reducing the target Hb would prevent levels >12 g/dl and lead to significant cost savings. Methods: Our target Hb range was reduced to 9–11 g/dl from 10–12 g/dl. Thirty-five chronic hemodialysis (HD patients received erythropoietin (EPO and intravenous iron from January to December 2009. Data analysis included: Hb level, EPO dose, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels. EPO was administered via subcutaneous injection weekly or twice weekly. Results: The mean monthly Hb level changed from 11.2 to 10.6 g/dl. The percentages of patients with mean Hb >10.0, 12.0 and 13.0 g/dl were 82 ± 6.5, 10 ± 5.6 and 1.8 ± 1.9%, respectively. Weekly EPO dose decreased from 9,500 to 5,600 units, a 40% reduction per dose per patient and costs. The savings exceeded USD 60,000 per year for 35 patients. More than 80% of patients had transferrin saturation >20% and ferritin >200 ng/ml throughout the entire period. Conclusions: Lowering the target Hb range to 9–11 g/dl in HD patients achieved quality anemia management, avoided values >12.0 g/dl and resulted in cost savings. A minimal reduction in quality of life and no change in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality would be expected. The study has important implications in the new American bundled reimbursement model.

  20. Prevalence of acid-reducing agents (ARA) in cancer populations and ARA drug-drug interaction potential for molecular targeted agents in clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelick, Gillian S; Heffron, Timothy P; Chu, Laura; Dean, Brian; West, David A; Duvall, Scott L; Lum, Bert L; Budha, Nageshwar; Holden, Scott N; Benet, Leslie Z; Frymoyer, Adam; Dresser, Mark J; Ware, Joseph A

    2013-11-04

    Acid-reducing agents (ARAs) are the most commonly prescribed medications in North America and Western Europe. There are currently no data describing the prevalence of their use among cancer patients. However, this is a paramount question due to the potential for significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between ARAs, most commonly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and orally administered cancer therapeutics that display pH-dependent solubility, which may lead to decreased drug absorption and decreased therapeutic benefit. Of recently approved orally administered cancer therapeutics, >50% are characterized as having pH-dependent solubility, but there are currently no data describing the potential for this ARA-DDI liability among targeted agents currently in clinical development. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of ARA use among different cancer populations and (2) investigate the prevalence of orally administered cancer therapeutics currently in development that may be liable for an ARA-DDI. To address the question of ARA use among cancer patients, a retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed using two large healthcare databases: Thomson Reuters MarketScan (N = 1,776,443) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA, N = 1,171,833). Among all cancer patients, the total prevalence proportion of ARA use (no. of cancer patients receiving an ARA/total no. of cancer patients) was 20% and 33% for the MarketScan and VA databases, respectively. PPIs were the most commonly prescribed agent, comprising 79% and 65% of all cancer patients receiving a prescription for an ARA (no. of cancer patients receiving a PPI /no. of cancer patients receiving an ARA) for the MarketScan and VA databases, respectively. To estimate the ARA-DDI liability of orally administered molecular targeted cancer therapeutics currently in development, two publicly available databases, (1) Kinase SARfari and (2) canSAR, were examined. For those orally administered

  1. Targeting Antibacterial Agents by Using Drug-Carrying Filamentous Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Shamis, Marina; Bar, Hagit; Shabat, Doron; Benhar, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been used for more than a century for (unconventional) therapy of bacterial infections, for half a century as tools in genetic research, for 2 decades as tools for discovery of specific target-binding proteins, and for nearly a decade as tools for vaccination or as gene delivery vehicles. Here we present a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages (phages) as targeted drug carriers for the eradication of (pathogenic) bacteria. The phages are genetically modified to display a targeting moiety on their surface and are used to deliver a large payload of a cytotoxic drug to the target bacteria. The drug is linked to the phages by means of chemical conjugation through a labile linker subject to controlled release. In the conjugated state, the drug is in fact a prodrug devoid of cytotoxic activity and is activated following its dissociation from the phage at the target site in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Our model target was Staphylococcus aureus, and the model drug was the antibiotic chloramphenicol. We demonstrated the potential of using filamentous phages as universal drug carriers for targetable cells involved in disease. Our approach replaces the selectivity of the drug itself with target selectivity borne by the targeting moiety, which may allow the reintroduction of nonspecific drugs that have thus far been excluded from antibacterial use (because of toxicity or low selectivity). Reintroduction of such drugs into the arsenal of useful tools may help to combat emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:16723570

  2. Targeting the Oxidative Stress Response System of Fungi with Redox-Potent Chemosensitizing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Faria, Natália C. G.; Martins, M. de L.; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole (ITZ), in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidant system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (a MAPK gene deletion mutant in the polyalcohol sugar utilization system). Complete fungal kill (≥99.9%) by ITZ or AMB was also achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator) and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs) are in the same stress response network under tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ sensitivity and antioxidant capacity of fungi. Enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ was achieved when these drugs were co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. We concluded that redox-potent compounds, which target the antioxidant system in fungi, possess a chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs. PMID:22438852

  3. Targeted Agents Active Against Breast Cancer: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTTO was a clinical trial designed to determine whether the combination of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and the drug lapatinib (Tykerb) was more effective in treating HER2/ErbB2-positive breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy than either agent alone. Results from ALTTO did not show additional benefit from combining lapatinib and trastuzumab compared with trastuzumab treatment alone.

  4. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  5. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  6. Antifungal Resistance, Metabolic Routes as Drug Targets, and New Antifungal Agents: An Overview about Endemic Dimorphic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by fungi can occur in healthy people, but immunocompromised patients are the major risk group for invasive fungal infections. Cases of fungal resistance and the difficulty of treatment make fungal infections a public health problem. This review explores mechanisms used by fungi to promote fungal resistance, such as the mutation or overexpression of drug targets, efflux and degradation systems, and pleiotropic drug responses. Alternative novel drug targets have been investigated; these include metabolic routes used by fungi during infection, such as trehalose and amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial proteins. An overview of new antifungal agents, including nanostructured antifungals, as well as of repositioning approaches is discussed. Studies focusing on the development of vaccines against antifungal diseases have increased in recent years, as these strategies can be applied in combination with antifungal therapy to prevent posttreatment sequelae. Studies focused on the development of a pan-fungal vaccine and antifungal drugs can improve the treatment of immunocompromised patients and reduce treatment costs.

  7. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles targeting FtsZ as antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bora; Awasthi, Divya; Chowdhury, Soumya R; Melief, Eduard H; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E; Slayden, Richard A; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-05-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), an essential cell division protein, is a promising target for the drug discovery of new-generation antibacterial agents against various bacterial pathogens. As a part of SAR studies on benzimidazoles, we have synthesized a library of 376 novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, bearing ether or thioether linkage at the 6-position. In a preliminary HTP screening against Mtb H37Rv, 108 compounds were identified as hits at a cut off concentration of 5 μg/mL. Among those hits, 10 compounds exhibited MIC values in the range of 0.63-12.5 μg/mL. Light scattering assay and TEM analysis with the most potent compound 5a clearly indicate that its molecular target is Mtb-FtsZ. Also, the Kd of 5a with Mtb-FtsZ was determined to be 1.32 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. α-Linolenic Acid, A Nutraceutical with Pleiotropic Properties That Targets Endogenous Neuroprotective Pathways to Protect against Organophosphate Nerve Agent-Induced Neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsade Piermartiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available α-Linolenic acid (ALA is a nutraceutical found in vegetable products such as flax and walnuts. The pleiotropic properties of ALA target endogenous neuroprotective and neurorestorative pathways in brain and involve the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a major neuroprotective protein in brain, and downstream signaling pathways likely mediated via activation of TrkB, the cognate receptor of BDNF. In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms of ALA efficacy against the highly toxic OP nerve agent soman. Organophosphate (OP nerve agents are highly toxic chemical warfare agents and a threat to military and civilian populations. Once considered only for battlefield use, these agents are now used by terrorists to inflict mass casualties. OP nerve agents inhibit the critical enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE that rapidly leads to a cholinergic crisis involving multiple organs. Status epilepticus results from the excessive accumulation of synaptic acetylcholine which in turn leads to the overactivation of muscarinic receptors; prolonged seizures cause the neuropathology and long-term consequences in survivors. Current countermeasures mitigate symptoms and signs as well as reduce brain damage, but must be given within minutes after exposure to OP nerve agents supporting interest in newer and more effective therapies. The pleiotropic properties of ALA result in a coordinated molecular and cellular program to restore neuronal networks and improve cognitive function in soman-exposed animals. Collectively, ALA should be brought to the clinic to treat the long-term consequences of nerve agents in survivors. ALA may be an effective therapy for other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of 10 B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10 5 -10 6 EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10 8 boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight (∼ 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing ∼ 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule 3 , which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using 131 I- or 99m T c -labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma

  10. Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography: A Focus on Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, David P.; Naha, Pratap C.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an X-ray based whole body imaging technique that is widely used in medicine. Clinically approved contrast agents for CT are iodinated small molecules or barium suspensions. Over the past seven years there has been a great increase in the development of nanoparticles as CT contrast agents. Nanoparticles have several advantages over small molecule CT contrast agents, such as long blood-pool residence times, and the potential for cell tracking and targeted imaging applications. Furthermore, there is a need for novel CT contrast agents, due to the growing population of renally impaired patients and patients hypersensitive to iodinated contrast. Micelles and lipoproteins, a micelle-related class of nanoparticle, have notably been adapted as CT contrast agents. In this review we discuss the principles of CT image formation and the generation of CT contrast. We discuss the progress in developing non-targeted, targeted and cell tracking nanoparticle CT contrast agents. We feature agents based on micelles and used in conjunction with spectral CT. The large contrast agent doses needed will necessitate careful toxicology studies prior to clinical translation. However, the field has seen tremendous advances in the past decade and we expect many more advances to come in the next decade. PMID:24470293

  11. The Role of Potential Agents in Making Spatial Perspective Taking Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Clements-Stephens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking relationship between visual spatial perspective taking (VSPT and social skills has been demonstrated for perspective-taking tasks in which the target of the imagined or inferred perspective is a potential agent, suggesting that the presence of a potential agent may create a social context for the seemingly spatial task of imagining a novel visual perspective. In a series of studies, we set out to investigate how and when a target might be viewed as sufficiently agent-like to incur a social influence on VSPT performance. By varying the perceptual and conceptual features that defined the targets as potential agents, we find that even something as simple as suggesting animacy for a simple wooden block may be sufficient. More critically, we found that experience with one potential agent influenced the performance with subsequent targets, either by inducing or eliminating the influence of social skills on VSPT performance. These carryover effects suggest that the relationship between social skills and VSPT performance is mediated by a complex relationship that includes the task, the target, and the context in which that target is perceived. These findings highlight potential problems that arise when identifying a task as belonging exclusively to a single cognitive domain and stress instead the highly interactive nature of cognitive domains and their susceptibility to cross-domain individual differences.

  12. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  13. Development of novel alkylating drugs as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicka, Elzbieta; Tolcher, Anthony W

    2004-06-01

    Although conventional alkylating drugs have proven efficacy in the treatment of malignancies, the agents themselves are not selective. Therefore, non-specific alkylation of cellular nucleophilic targets may contribute to many of the observed toxic effects. Novel approaches to drug discovery have resulted in candidate agents that are focused on 'soft alkylation'--alkylators with greater target selectivity. This review highlights the discovery of small molecule drugs that bind to DNA with higher selectivity, act in a unique hypoxic tumor environment, or covalently bind specific protein targets overexpressed in cancer, such as topoisomerase II, glutathione transferase pi1, beta-tubulin and histone deacetylase.

  14. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  15. Use of Bifunctional Immunotherapeutic Agents to Target Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Science 270, 1500–1502. 32. Pasqualini , R., Koivunen, E., and Ruoslahti, E. (1997) v integrins as receptors for tumor targeting by circulating ligands...Nat. Biotech- nol. 15, 542–546. 33. Arap, W., Pasqualini , R., and Ruoslahti, E. (1998) Cancer treatment by targeted drug delivery to tumor...Cancer Res. 2, 663–673. 47. Arap, W., Pasqualini , R., and Ruoslahti, E. (1998) Cancer treatment by targeted drug delivery to tumor vasculature in a

  16. Tumor Vessel Development and Expansion in Ewing's Sarcoma: A Review of the Vasculogenesis Process and Clinical Trials with Vascular-Targeting Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Keri S.; Kleinerman, Eugenie S.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma accounts for a disproportionately high portion of the overall pediatric mortality rate compared to its rare incidence in the pediatric population. Little progress has been made since the introduction of traditional chemotherapies, and understanding the biology of the tumor is critical for developing new therapies. Ewing's sarcomas rely on a functional vascular supply, which is formed by a combination of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Recent insights into the molecular regulation of bone marrow (BM) cell participation in vascular development have identified VEGF, SDF-1α, and DLL4 as critical players in the vasculogenesis process. Clinical trials using vascular targeting agents, specifically targeting VEGF or DLL4, are underway. PMID:21785569

  17. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  18. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  19. Toward a new and noninvasive diagnostic method of papillary thyroid cancer by using peptide vectorized contrast agents targeted to galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfone, Deborah; Despretz, Nadège; Stanicki, Dimitri; Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer; Fossépré, Mathieu; Surin, Mathieu; Rorive, Sandrine; Salmon, Isabelle; Vander Elst, Luce; Laurent, Sophie; Muller, Robert N; Saussez, Sven; Burtea, Carmen

    2017-10-06

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer has increased these last decades due to a better detection. High prevalence of nodules combined with the low incidence of thyroid cancers constitutes an important diagnostic challenge. We propose to develop an alternative diagnostic method to reduce the number of useless and painful thyroidectomies using a vectorized contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Galectin-1 (gal-1), a protein overexpressed in well-differentiated thyroid cancer, has been targeted with a randomized linear 12-mer peptide library using the phage display technique. Selected peptides have been conjugated to ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO). Peptides and their corresponding contrast agents have been tested in vitro for their specific binding and toxicity. Two peptides (P1 and P7) were selected according to their affinity toward gal-1. Their binding has been revealed by immunohistochemistry on human thyroid cancer biopsies, and they were co-localized with gal-1 by immunofluorescence on TPC-1 cell line. Both peptides induce a decrease in TPC-1 cells' adhesion to gal-1 immobilized on culture plates. After coupling to USPIO, the peptides preserved their affinity toward gal-1. Their specific binding has been corroborated by co-localization with gal-1 expressed by TPC-1 cells and by their ability to compete with anti-gal-1 antibody. The peptides and their USPIO derivatives produce no toxicity in HepaRG cells as determined by MTT assay. The vectorized contrast agents are potential imaging probes for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Moreover, the two gal-1-targeted peptides prevent cancer cell adhesion by interacting with the carbohydrate-recognition domain of gal-1.

  20. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  1. Chemotherapy Agents: A Primer for the Interventional Radiologist

    OpenAIRE

    Mihlon, Frank; Ray, Charles E.; Messersmith, Wells

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the basic principles of cancer chemotherapy and provide an overview of each of the general classes of chemotherapeutic agents with a target audience of interventional radiologists in mind. Special attention is paid to agents used in regional chemotherapy as well as agents commonly included in systemic chemotherapeutic regimens for patients who also require regional chemotherapy.

  2. Valorization of agroforest crops for biomass utilization. Editorial Note

    OpenAIRE

    Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2010-01-01

    Editorial Note. Special issue on "Valorization of Agroforest Crops for Biomass Utilization", The Open Agriculture Journal. José C. del Río (Guest Editor) Department of Plant Biotechnology Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Seville (IRNAS-CSIC) Seville, Spain E-mail:

  3. Uptake of three [3H]progestins by target tissues in vivo: implications for the design of diagnostic imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Brandes, S.J.; Pomper, M.G.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the tissue distribution of radioactivity for 0.5-4 h following the i.v. injection of three tritium-labeled progestins in estrogen-primed, immature rats. Whereas [ 3 H]progesterone shows minimal uterine uptake ( 3 H]R 5020 (promegestrone) and [ 3 H]ORG 2058 show highly selective uptake that reaches 4-5% ID/g by 1-3 h. The uterus to non-target tissue activity ratio at 2-4 h is approximately 12-20 for R 5020 and ORG 2058, but less than 2 for progesterone; the uterus to blood activity ratio for R 5020 is also high (approximately 15), but is lower for ORG 2058, possibly due to the accumulation of radiolabeled metabolites in the blood. The uterine uptake is selectively blocked by simultaneous injection of a large dose of unlabeled steroid, indicating that the uptake is mediated by a high affinity, low capacity binding system, presumably the progesterone receptor. Pronounced uptake is also observed by the liver and into fat, but is not receptor-mediated. The highly selective target tissue uptake by the two synthetic steroids, but not by progesterone, indicates that one must have ligands with sufficiently high affinity for the target tissue receptor, as well as low affinity for certain non-receptor binding proteins, in order to obtain adequate contrast between target and non-target tissues in dynamic uptake studies. These guidelines will be important in the development of suitable in vivo imaging agents based on the progesterone receptor. (author)

  4. In vitro chondrocyte toxicity following long-term, high-dose exposure to Gd-DTPA and a novel cartilage-targeted MR contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midura, Sharon; Midura, Ronald J. [Cleveland Clinic, Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schneider, Erika [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, A21, Cleveland, OH (United States); NitroSci Pharmaceuticals, New Berlin, WI (United States); Rosen, Gerald M. [University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); NitroSci Pharmaceuticals, New Berlin, WI (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, A21, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the concentrations exhibiting toxicity of a cartilage-targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DT-PA) in chondrocyte cultures. A long-term Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocyte-like cell line was exposed for 48 h to 1.0-20 mM concentrations of diaminobutyl-linked nitroxide (DAB4-DLN) citrate, 1.0-20 mM Gd-DTPA, 1.0 μM staurosporine (positive control), or left untreated. Cell appearance, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of metabolic activity, quantitative PicoGreen assays of DNA content, and calcein-AM viability assays were compared. At 1.0-7.5 mM, minimal decrease in cell proliferation was found for both agents. At all doses of both agents, cell culture appearances were similar after 24 h of treatment. At the higher doses, differences in cell culture appearance were found after 48 h of treatment, with dose-dependent declines in chondrocyte populations for both agents. Concentration-dependent declines in DNA content and calcein fluorescence were found after 48 h of treatment, but beginning at a lower dose of DAB4-DLN citrate than Gd-DTPA. Dose-dependent decreases in MTT staining (cell metabolism) were apparent for both agents, but larger effects were evident at a lower dose for DAB-DLN citrate. Poor MTT staining of cells exposed for 48 h to 20 mM DAB4-DLN citrate probably indicates dead or dying cells. The minimal effect of the long-term exposure of model chondrocyte cell cultures to DAB4-DLN citrate and Gd-DTPA concentrations up to 7.5 mM (3x typical arthrographic administration) is supporting evidence that these doses are acceptable for MR arthrography. The findings are reassuring given that the experimental exposure to the contrast agents at sustained concentrations was much longer than when used clinically. (orig.)

  5. In vitro chondrocyte toxicity following long-term, high-dose exposure to Gd-DTPA and a novel cartilage-targeted MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midura, Sharon; Midura, Ronald J.; Schneider, Erika; Rosen, Gerald M.; Winalski, Carl S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the concentrations exhibiting toxicity of a cartilage-targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DT-PA) in chondrocyte cultures. A long-term Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocyte-like cell line was exposed for 48 h to 1.0-20 mM concentrations of diaminobutyl-linked nitroxide (DAB4-DLN) citrate, 1.0-20 mM Gd-DTPA, 1.0 μM staurosporine (positive control), or left untreated. Cell appearance, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of metabolic activity, quantitative PicoGreen assays of DNA content, and calcein-AM viability assays were compared. At 1.0-7.5 mM, minimal decrease in cell proliferation was found for both agents. At all doses of both agents, cell culture appearances were similar after 24 h of treatment. At the higher doses, differences in cell culture appearance were found after 48 h of treatment, with dose-dependent declines in chondrocyte populations for both agents. Concentration-dependent declines in DNA content and calcein fluorescence were found after 48 h of treatment, but beginning at a lower dose of DAB4-DLN citrate than Gd-DTPA. Dose-dependent decreases in MTT staining (cell metabolism) were apparent for both agents, but larger effects were evident at a lower dose for DAB-DLN citrate. Poor MTT staining of cells exposed for 48 h to 20 mM DAB4-DLN citrate probably indicates dead or dying cells. The minimal effect of the long-term exposure of model chondrocyte cell cultures to DAB4-DLN citrate and Gd-DTPA concentrations up to 7.5 mM (3x typical arthrographic administration) is supporting evidence that these doses are acceptable for MR arthrography. The findings are reassuring given that the experimental exposure to the contrast agents at sustained concentrations was much longer than when used clinically. (orig.)

  6. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  7. From old alkylating agents to new minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyo, Stéphane; Montaudon, Danièle; Pourquier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Alkylating agents represent the oldest class of anticancer agents with the approval of mechloretamine by the FDA in 1949. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in the treatment of specific malignancies, sometimes representing the unique option for the treatment of refractory tumors. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents, with a particular focus on the latest generations of compounds that specifically target the minor groove of the DNA. These naturally occurring derivatives have a unique mechanism of action that explains the recent regain of interest in developing new classes of alkylating agents that could be used in combination with other anticancer drugs to enhance tumor response in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anginex-conjugated liposomes for targeting of angiogenic endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandwijk, Ricardo J. M. G. E.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Nicolay, Klaas; Mayo, Kevin H.; Thijssen, Victor L. J. L.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of a tumor angiogenesis specific ligand would allow targeting of tumor vasculature. Lipidic vehicles can be used to deliver therapeutic agents for treatment of disease or contrast agents for molecular imaging. A targeting ligand would allow specific delivery of such formulations to

  9. Nitric oxide: cancer target or anticancer agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2009-03-01

    Despite the improved understanding of nitric oxide (NO) biology and the large amount of preclinical experiments testing its role in cancer development and progression, it is still debated whether NO should be considered a potential anticancer agent or instead a carcinogen. The complexity of NO effects within a cell and the variability of the final biological outcome depending upon NO levels makes it highly challenging to determine the therapeutic value of interfering with the activity of this intriguing gaseous messenger. This uncertainty has so far halted the clinical implementation of NO-based therapeutics in the field of oncology. Accordingly, only an in depth knowledge of the mechanisms leading to experimental tumor regression or progression in response to NO will allow us to exploit this molecule to fight cancer.

  10. ZD6126: A novel small molecule vascular targeting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, David C.; Ashton, Susan E.; Westwood, F. Russell; Walker, Mike; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of these studies was to evaluate factors that contribute to the selectivity of the novel vascular targeting agent ZD6126. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with ZD6126 phenol, and effects on morphology, detachment, and cytotoxicity (sulforhodamine-B dye incorporation) were determined. Hras5-transformed mouse 3T3 fibroblasts were implanted s.c. in athymic nude rats, and effects on the tumor were assessed after either i.v. bolus or 24-h minipump infusion of ZD6126. Results: In vitro, ZD6126 phenol (∼0.1 μm) rapidly (<40 min) destabilized the tubulin cytoskeleton of proliferating endothelial cells, resulting in cell shape change ('rounding up') and cell detachment at noncytotoxic drug concentrations. In vivo, in rats, an i.v. bolus dose of ZD6126 (20 mg/kg) was rapidly broken down to ZD6126 phenol, which has a short plasma elimination half-life (∼1 h). Peak plasma levels of ZD6126 phenol were well above the level required to induce HUVEC morphology changes in vitro, but cytotoxic concentrations were not maintained. A single i.v. bolus dose (50 and 20 mg/kg) of ZD6126 was well tolerated and resulted in extensive central tumor necrosis in the Hras5 model. Administration of ZD6126 using a 24-h s.c. minipump resulted in decreased (∼30-fold) peak plasma levels, but maintained cytotoxic drug levels over 24 h. Infusion of 50 mg/kg ZD6126 over 24 h was not tolerated. Infusion of 20 mg/kg ZD6126 resulted in increased toxicity compared with the i.v. bolus doses of ZD6126 and did not result in any increased tumor necrosis after 24 h. Conclusion: ZD6126 phenol induces rapid morphologic changes in HUVECs at noncytotoxic drug levels. These rapid morphologic effects combined with the rapid elimination of ZD6126 phenol contribute to the selective effects of ZD6126 on tumor vasculature at well-tolerated doses

  11. Significance and nature of bystander responses induced by various agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neha; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2017-07-01

    Bystander effects in a biological system are the responses shown by non-targeted neighbouring cells/tissues/organisms. These responses are triggered by factors released from targeted cells when exposed to a stress inducing agent. The biological response to stress inducing agents is complex, owing to the diversity of mechanisms and pathways activated in directly targeted and bystander cells. These responses are highly variable and can be either beneficial or hazardous depending on the cell lines tested, dose of agent used, experimental end points and time course selected. Recently non-targeted cells have even been reported to rescue the directly exposed cells by releasing protective signals that might be induced by non-targeted bystander responses. The nature of bystander signal/s is not yet clear. However, there are evidences suggesting involvement of ROS, RNS, protein factors and even DNA molecules leading to the activation of a number of signaling pathways. These can act independently or in a cascade, to induce events leading to changes in gene expression patterns that could elicit detrimental or beneficial effects. Many review articles on radiation induced bystander responses have been published. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive review on bystander responses induced by other genotoxic chemicals and stress inducing agents has not been published so far. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to give an overview of the literature on different aspects of bystander responses: agents that induce these responses, factors that can modulate bystander responses and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highlights from the 2015 WIN Symposium: novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies-a WINning strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide innovative networking (WIN) consortium comprises a global alliance of 28 academic and clinical cancer centres, 11 pharmaceutical and technology companies and five charitable or health payer organisations. Since its inception the consortium has striven to provide a forum for all of its members to network, share information and experience, and perform clinical trials with the overarching goal of advancing the care of patients with cancer through the use of precision medicine. The annual 2-day WIN Symposium is the most visible output of the consortium and provides an opportunity for around 400 experts and other delegates to meet and discuss the latest research and initiatives in personalised cancer medicine. The seventh WIN Symposium, held in Paris, France, 29-30 June 2015, consisted of nine plenary and eight poster sessions that covered the overarching theme of novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies being a winning strategy. Highlights included discussions of immune mechanisms and ways to target the cancer immunome and systems biology approaches to supporting personalised cancer. The latest data from the BATTLE-2 and WINther trials were discussed, and round table discussions were held that focused on how best to design the next generation of clinical trials, which included SPRING, SUMMER, and BOOSTER being initiated by the WIN Consortium.

  13. MODELING OF TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY PART II. MULTIPLE DRUG ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zaborovskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncology practice, despite significant advances in early cancer detection, surgery, radiotherapy, laser therapy, targeted therapy, etc., chemotherapy is unlikely to lose its relevance in the near future. In this context, the development of new antitumor agents is one of the most important problems of cancer research. In spite of the importance of searching for new compounds with antitumor activity, the possibilities of the “old” agents have not been fully exhausted. Targeted delivery of antitumor agents can give them a “second life”. When developing new targeted drugs and their further introduction into clinical practice, the change in their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics plays a special role. The paper describes a pharmacokinetic model of the targeted drug delivery. The conditions under which it is meaningful to search for a delivery vehicle for the active substance were described. Primary screening of antitumor agents was undertaken to modify them for the targeted delivery based on underlying assumptions of the model.

  14. Emerging protein targets for metal-based pharmaceutical agents : An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida, Andreia; Oliveira, Bruno L.; Correia, Joao D. G.; Soveral, Graca; Casini, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar chemical properties of metal-based drugs impart innovative pharmacological profiles to this class of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, most likely in relation to novel molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. However, inorganic drugs have been scarcely considered for medicinal

  15. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  16. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. Issues and Problems in Ethical Practices amongst Takaful Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Nor a Abdul; Ghani, Abdullah Haji Abdul; Shaari, Hasnizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses contributing factors pertaining to the ethical behaviour of Takaful agents in Malaysia. Perspective of sales, selling pressure and the level of competitiveness are identified as factors, influencing ethical behaviour of Takaful agents. This study is conducted through focus group and formed a personal interview among branch managers, executives and Takaful agents. It revealed that unethical behaviour is evident among the Takaful agents in meeting the sales target. These fa...

  18. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  19. Companion diagnostics for the targeted therapy of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changhoon; Park, Young Soo

    2015-10-21

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and represents a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. With recent biomedical advances in our understanding of the molecular characteristics of gastric cancer, many genetic alterations have been identified as potential targets for its treatment. Multiple novel agents are currently under development as the demand for active agents that improve the survival of gastric cancer patients constantly increases. Based on lessons from previous trials of targeted agents, it is now widely accepted that the establishment of an optimal diagnostic test to select molecularly defined patients is of equal importance to the development of active agents against targetable genetic alterations. Herein, we highlight the current status and future perspectives of companion diagnostics in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  20. Targeted Drug-Carrying Bacteriophages as Antibacterial Nanomedicines▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-01-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, w...

  1. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, β-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  2. Innovative agents in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P

    2005-01-01

    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  3. Cellular effects of the microtubule-targeting agent peloruside A in hypoxia-conditioned colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řehulka, Jiří; Annadurai, Narendran; Frydrych, Ivo; Znojek, Pawel; Džubák, Petr; Northcote, Peter; Miller, John H; Hajdúch, Marián; Das, Viswanath

    2017-07-01

    Hypoxia is a prominent feature of solid tumors, dramatically remodeling microtubule structures and cellular pathways and contributing to paclitaxel resistance. Peloruside A (PLA), a microtubule-targeting agent, has shown promising anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies. Although it has a similar mode of action to paclitaxel, it binds to a distinct site on β-tubulin that differs from the classical taxane site. In this study, we examined the unexplored effects of PLA in hypoxia-conditioned colorectal HCT116 cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of PLA was determined by cell proliferation assay. The effects of a pre-exposure to hypoxia on PLA-induced cell cycle alterations and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry, time-lapse imaging, and western blot analysis of selected markers. The hypoxia effect on stabilization of microtubules by PLA was monitored by an intracellular tubulin polymerization assay. Our findings show that the cytotoxicity of PLA is not altered in hypoxia-conditioned cells compared to paclitaxel and vincristine. Furthermore, hypoxia does not alter PLA-induced microtubule stabilization nor the multinucleation of cells. PLA causes cyclin B1 and G2/M accumulation followed by apoptosis. The cellular and molecular effects of PLA have been determined in normoxic conditions, but there are no reports of PLA effects in hypoxic cells. Our findings reveal that hypoxia preconditioning does not alter the sensitivity of HCT116 to PLA. These data report on the cellular and molecular effects of PLA in hypoxia-conditioned cells for the first time, and will encourage further exploration of PLA as a promising anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. El suelo y la materia orgánica en la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    Conferencia impartida en el Curso "Materia orgánica del suelo: metodología para su análisis y su incidencia en el medioambiente y el cambio climático". Coordinado por José María de la Rosa Arranz. IRNAS, CSIC, 16-19 octubre 2017.

  5. Targeting neddylation induces DNA damage and checkpoint activation and sensitizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, C; Godbersen, J C; Berger, A; Brown, J R; Danilov, A V

    2015-07-09

    Microenvironment-mediated upregulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in CLL cells resident in the lymph node and bone marrow promotes apoptosis evasion and clonal expansion. We recently reported that MLN4924 (pevonedistat), an investigational agent that inhibits the NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), abrogates stromal-mediated NF-κB pathway activity and CLL cell survival. However, the NAE pathway also assists degradation of multiple other substrates. MLN4924 has been shown to induce DNA damage and cell cycle arrest, but the importance of this mechanism in primary neoplastic B cells has not been studied. Here we mimicked the lymph node microenvironment using CD40 ligand (CD40L)-expressing stroma and interleukin-21 (IL-21) to find that inducing proliferation of the primary CLL cells conferred enhanced sensitivity to NAE inhibition. Treatment of the CD40-stimulated CLL cells with MLN4924 resulted in deregulation of Cdt1, a DNA replication licensing factor, and cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. This led to DNA damage, checkpoint activation and G2 arrest. Alkylating agents bendamustine and chlorambucil enhanced MLN4924-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. These events were more prominent in cells stimulated with IL-21 compared with CD40L alone, indicating that, following NAE inhibition, the culture conditions were able to direct CLL cell fate from an NF-κB inhibition to a Cdt1 induction program. Our data provide insight into the biological consequences of targeting NAE in CLL and serves as further rationale for studying the clinical activity of MLN4924 in CLL, particularly in combination with alkylating agents.

  6. Modelling Agent-Environment Interaction in Multi-Agent Simulations with Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    armoured personnel carriers served two purposes. First it provided potential enemy targets for the strike aircraft on CAS missions and second, it... strategies for constructing and ruling coordination activities. The work subsequently involves agents executing actions on these artifacts and a set of...that broadcasts its functionality to actors in the game. This is called advertising data in The Sims, and contains a list of possible actions and what

  7. Targeting Antibacterial Agents by Using Drug-Carrying Filamentous Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoby, Iftach; Shamis, Marina; Bar, Hagit; Shabat, Doron; Benhar, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been used for more than a century for (unconventional) therapy of bacterial infections, for half a century as tools in genetic research, for 2 decades as tools for discovery of specific target-binding proteins, and for nearly a decade as tools for vaccination or as gene delivery vehicles. Here we present a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages (phages) as targeted drug carriers for the eradication of (pathogenic) bacteria. The phages are genetically modified to d...

  8. Chemotherapeutic targets in parasites: contemporary strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansour, Tag E; Mansour, Joan MacKinnon

    2002-01-01

    ... identify effective antiparasitic agents. An introduction to the early development of parasite chemotherapy is followed by an overview of biophysical techniques and genomic and proteomic analyses. Several chapters are devoted to specific types of chemotherapeutic agents and their targets in malaria, trypanosomes, leishmania, and amitochondrial...

  9. [Utilization of polymeric micelle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for theranostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We applied a polymeric micelle carrier system for the targeting of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Prepared polymeric micelle MRI contrast agent exhibited a long circulation characteristic in blood, and considerable amount of the contrast agent was found to accumulate in colon 26 solid tumor by the EPR effect. The signal intensities of tumor area showed 2-folds increase in T1-weighted images at 24 h after i.v. injection. To observe enhancement of the EPR effect by Cderiv pretreatment on tumor targeting, we used the contrast agent for the evaluation by means of MRI. Cderiv pretreatment significantly enhanced tumor accumulation of the contrast agent. Interestingly, very high signal intensity in tumor region was found at 24 h after the contrast agent injection in Cderiv pretreated mice. The contrast agent visualized a microenvironmental change in tumor. These results indicate that the contrast agent exhibits potential use for tumor diagnostic agent. To combine with a polymeric micelle carrier system for therapeutic agent, the usage of the combination makes a new concept of "theranostic" for a better cancer treatment.

  10. Enhancement of 67Ga tumor-to-blood ratios by chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Yokoyama, Akira; Hata, Naotaka; Misaki, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1980-01-01

    Chelating agent, such as, CaEDTA, CaDTPA, D-penicillamine, DMSA, desferoxamine, NTA, cysteine ethyl ester, BAL, α-MPG, phthalein complexone, were tested as a possible contrast enhancing agent for tumor imaging with 67 Ga-citrate. The intravenous administration of a chelating agent to Ehrlich's tumor bearing mice, one hour after the injection of 67 Ga-citrate, accelerated the blood clearance with only a very slight change of activity in the target, increasing the tumor-to-blood ratio, and consequently achieving a better visualization. Among the tested chelating agents, D-penicillamine showed the highest target-to-nontarget ratio at a shorter time: a good tumor-to-blood ratio, performed after 24 hr with non-treated animals, was achieved in only 1-3 hr with post-treated animals. Thus, D-penicillamine hold a considerable promise as a contrast enhancing agent for future clinical use. (author)

  11. Mitochondrial complex II, a novel target for anti-cancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klučková, Katarína; Bezawork-Geleta, A.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1827, č. 5 (2013), s. 552-564 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitochondrion * Complex II * Anti-cancer agent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2013

  12. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Furocoumarin Derivatives as Possible Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mattarei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeting small molecules to appropriate subcellular compartments is a way to increase their selectivity and effectiveness while minimizing side effects. This can be accomplished either by stably incorporating specific “homing” properties into the structure of the active principle, or by attaching to it a targeting moiety via a labile linker, i.e., by producing a “targeting pro-drug.” Mitochondria are a recognized therapeutic target in oncology, and blocking the population of the potassium channel Kv1.3 residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane (mtKv1.3 has been shown to cause apoptosis of cancerous cells expressing it. These concepts have led us to devise novel, mitochondria-targeted, membrane-permeant drug candidates containing the furocoumarin (psoralenic ring system and the triphenylphosphonium (TPP lipophilic cation. The strategy has proven effective in various cancer models, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and glioblastoma, stimulating us to devise further novel molecules to extend and diversify the range of available drugs of this type. New compounds were synthesized and tested in vitro; one of them—a prodrug in which the coumarinic moiety and the TPP group are linked by a bridge comprising a labile carbonate bond system—proved quite effective in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Selective death induction is attributed to inhibition of mtKv1.3. This results in oxidative stress, which is fatal for the already-stressed malignant cells. This compound may thus be a candidate drug for the mtKv1.3-targeting therapeutic approach.

  13. Targeting Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα for Radiosensitization: A Potential Model of Drug Repositioning Using an Anti-Hepatitis C Viral Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dan Hyo; Park, Ji Min [Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Yeo Hyun [Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah, E-mail: inah228@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate which isotype of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) may affect radiosensitivity and examine whether anti–hepatitis C viral (HCV) agents, some of which have been shown to inhibit PI4K IIIα activity, could be repositioned as a radiosensitizer in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: U251, BT474, and HepG2 cell lines and normal human astrocyte were used. Ribonucleic acid interference, clonogenic assays, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, annexin V assay, lysotracker staining, and β-galactosidase assay were performed. Results: Of the 4 PI4K isotypes, specific inhibition of IIIα increased radiosensitivity. For pharmacologic inhibition of PI4K IIIα, we screened 9 anti-HCV agents by half-maximal inhibitory concentration assay. Simeprevir was selected, and its inhibition of PI4K IIIα activity was confirmed. Combination of simeprevir treatment and radiation significantly attenuated expression of phospho-phospho-PKC and phospho-Akt and increased radiation-induced cell death in tested cell lines. Pretreatment with simeprevir prolonged γH2AX foci formation and down-regulation of phospho-DNA-PKcs, indicating impairment of nonhomologous end-joining repair. Cells pretreated with simeprevir exhibited mixed modes of cell death, including apoptosis and autophagy. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that targeting PI4K IIIα using an anti-HCV agent is a viable approach to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of radiation therapy in various human cancers, such as glioma, breast, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Hyperglycemia Associated With Targeted Oncologic Treatment: Mechanisms and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jonathan W; Mendenhall, Melody A; Rettinger, Sarah R

    2016-07-29

    : Molecularly targeted cancer therapy has rapidly changed the landscape of oncologic care, often improving patients' prognosis without causing as substantial a quality-of-life decrement as cytotoxic chemotherapy does. Nevertheless, targeted agents can cause side effects that may be less familiar to medical oncologists and that require the attention and expertise of subspecialists. In this review, we focus on hyperglycemia, which can occur with use of new anticancer agents that interact with cell proliferation pathways. Key mediators of these pathways include the tyrosine kinase receptors insulin growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as intracellular signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We summarize available information on hyperglycemia associated with agents that inhibit these molecules within the larger context of adverse event profiles. The highest incidence of hyperglycemia is observed with inhibition of IGF-1R or mTOR, and although the incidence is lower with PI3K, AKT, and EGFR inhibitors, hyperglycemia is still a common adverse event. Given the interrelationships between the IGF-1R and cell proliferation pathways, it is important for oncologists to understand the etiology of hyperglycemia caused by anticancer agents that target those pathways. We also discuss monitoring and management approaches for treatment-related hyperglycemia for some of these agents, with a focus on our experience during the clinical development of the EGFR inhibitor rociletinib. Treatment-related hyperglycemia is associated with several anticancer agents. Many cancer patients may also have preexisting or undiagnosed diabetes or glucose intolerance. Screening can identify patients at risk for hyperglycemia before treatment with these agents. Proper monitoring and management of symptoms, including lifestyle changes and pharmacologic intervention, may allow patients to

  15. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  16. DNA-Destabilizing Agents as an Alternative Approach for Targeting DNA: Mechanisms of Action and Cellular Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Lenglet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA targeting drugs represent a large proportion of the actual anticancer drug pharmacopeia, both in terms of drug brands and prescription volumes. Small DNA-interacting molecules share the ability of certain proteins to change the DNA helix's overall organization and geometrical orientation via tilt, roll, twist, slip, and flip effects. In this ocean of DNA-interacting compounds, most stabilize both DNA strands and very few display helix-destabilizing properties. These types of DNA-destabilizing effect are observed with certain mono- or bis-intercalators and DNA alkylating agents (some of which have been or are being developed as cancer drugs. The formation of locally destabilized DNA portions could interfere with protein/DNA recognition and potentially affect several crucial cellular processes, such as DNA repair, replication, and transcription. The present paper describes the molecular basis of DNA destabilization, the cellular impact on protein recognition, and DNA repair processes and the latter's relationships with antitumour efficacy.

  17. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  18. Optimization-Based Selection of Influential Agents in a Rural Afghan Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    nonlethal targeting model, a nonlinear programming ( NLP ) optimization formulation that identifies the k US agent assignment strategy producing the greatest...leader social network, and 3) the nonlethal targeting model, a nonlinear programming ( NLP ) optimization formulation that identifies the k US agent...NATO Coalition in Afghanistan. 55 for Afghanistan ( [54], [31], [48], [55], [30]). While Arab tribes tend to be more hierarchical, Pashtun tribes are

  19. 3l1rhiral ~nlIrnaL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constant bah-bahing of laughter about nothing, above all a sort of heaviness and richness combined with a fundamental ill-will ... People one instinctively feels ... are the enemies of anything intelligent or sensitive or beautiful.' As Orwell's progress was not satisfactory he was moved to University College Hospital" in London.

  20. 3l1rhiral ~nlIrnaL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissue injury and carcinogenesis, are highlighted. Neutrophil production ... a family of 3 distinct glycoprotein adhesion molecules (L, E and P selectins), each of which .... transition metal-independent pathway of ·OH has been demonstrated in ...

  1. Targeting nominal income growth or inflation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Within a simple New Keynesian model emphasizing forward-looking behavior of private agents, I evaluate optimal nominal income growth targeting versus optimal inflation targeting. When the economy is mainly subject to shocks that do not involve monetary policy trade-offs for society, inflation...

  2. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...... cancer cells for cancer diagnosis in MRI. F127-Folate coated SPION were stable in various types of suspension medium for over six months. They could specifically target folate receptor of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo thus enhancing the contrast in MRI T2/T2* weighted images. These are preliminary...

  3. Multi-agent Negotiation Mechanisms for Statistical Target Classification in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of low cost and miniaturized hardware has allowedwireless sensor networks (WSNs to retrieve audio and video data in real worldapplications, which has fostered the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks(WMSNs. Resource constraints and challenging multimedia data volume makedevelopment of efficient algorithms to perform in-network processing of multimediacontents imperative. This paper proposes solving problems in the domain of WMSNs fromthe perspective of multi-agent systems. The multi-agent framework enables flexible networkconfiguration and efficient collaborative in-network processing. The focus is placed ontarget classification in WMSNs where audio information is retrieved by microphones. Todeal with the uncertainties related to audio information retrieval, the statistical approachesof power spectral density estimates, principal component analysis and Gaussian processclassification are employed. A multi-agent negotiation mechanism is specially developed toefficiently utilize limited resources and simultaneously enhance classification accuracy andreliability. The negotiation is composed of two phases, where an auction based approach isfirst exploited to allocate the classification task among the agents and then individual agentdecisions are combined by the committee decision mechanism. Simulation experiments withreal world data are conducted and the results show that the proposed statistical approachesand negotiation mechanism not only reduce memory and computation requi

  4. Multiplexed evaluation of capture agent binding kinetics using arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Ji-Yeon; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-09-07

    High affinity capture agents recognizing biomolecular targets are essential in the performance of many proteomic detection methods. Herein, we report the application of a label-free silicon photonic biomolecular analysis platform for simultaneously determining kinetic association and dissociation constants for two representative protein capture agents: a thrombin-binding DNA aptamer and an anti-thrombin monoclonal antibody. The scalability and inherent multiplexing capability of the technology make it an attractive platform for simultaneously evaluating the binding characteristics of multiple capture agents recognizing the same target antigen, and thus a tool complementary to emerging high-throughput capture agent generation strategies.

  5. Polarized proton and deuteron targets for the usage in intensive proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporo, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized proton and deuteron targets are developed and tested for conducting investigations in intense photon beams. A flowsheet of polarization targets which includes: working agent of the target, superconducting magnet, cryostat of 3 He evaporation with 3 He pumping and recirculation systems, SHF system of 4 mm range for polarization pumping, measuring system of target polarization protons is presented. Working agent of the targets includes frozen balls with 1.5 mm diameter. Ethylene-glucol and 1.2-propylene-glycol were used as a working substance for proton targets. Completely deuterated ethylene-glycol was used for the deuteron target. Vertical magnetic field with 2.7 T intensity is produced by a superconducting magnetic system. Polarization pumping is exercised at 75 GHz frequency. Q-meter of direct current is used for determination of polarization. Working temperature of the cryostat is approximately 0.5 K. The lock device permits to exercise replacement of the target working agent during 30 minutes

  6. Photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality contrast agent and its application to thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hsin; Liao, Ai-Ho; Chen, Jui-Hao; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates a photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality contrast agent, including extending its applications from image-contrast enhancement to combined diagnosis and therapy with site-specific targeting. The contrast agent comprises albumin-shelled microbubbles with encapsulated gold nanorods (AuMBs). The gas-filled microbubbles, whose diameters range from submicrometer to several micrometers, are not only echogenic but also can serve as drug-delivery vehicles. The gold nanorods are used to enhance the generation of both photoacoustic and photothermal signals. The optical absorption peak of the gold nanorods is tuned to 760 nm and is invariant after microbubble encapsulation. Dual-modality contrast enhancement is first described here, and the applications to cellular targeting and laser-induced thermotherapy in a phantom are demonstrated. Photoacoustic imaging can be used to monitor temperature increases during the treatment. The targeting capability of AuMBs was verified, and the temperature increased by 26°C for a laser power of 980 mW, demonstrating the potential of combined diagnosis and therapy with the dual-modality agent. Targeted photo- or acoustic-mediated delivery is also possible.

  7. Adverse Renal Effects of Novel Molecular Oncologic Targeted Therapies: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D. Jhaveri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel targeted anti-cancer therapies have resulted in improvement in patient survival compared to standard chemotherapy. Renal toxicities of targeted agents are increasingly being recognized. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here we review the adverse renal effects associated with a selection of currently approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to EGFR, HER2, BRAF, MEK, ALK, PD1/PDL1, CTLA-4, and novel agents targeted to VEGF/R and TKIs. In summary, electrolyte disorders, renal impairment and hypertension are the most commonly reported events. Of the novel targeted agents, ipilumumab and cetuximab have the most nephrotoxic events reported. The early diagnosis and prompt recognition of these renal adverse events are essential for the general nephrologist taking care of these patients.

  8. The biology of Mur ligases as an antibacterial target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidmi, Imène; Levesque, Roger C; Paradis-Bleau, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    With antibiotic resistance mechanisms increasing in diversity and spreading among bacterial pathogens, the development of new classes of antibacterial agents against judiciously chosen targets is a high-priority task. The biochemical pathway for peptidoglycan biosynthesis is one of the best sources of antibacterial targets. Within this pathway are the Mur ligases, described in this review as highly suitable targets for the development of new classes of antibacterial agents. The amide ligases MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF function with the same catalytic mechanism and share conserved amino acid regions and structural features that can conceivably be exploited for the design of inhibitors that simultaneously target more than one enzyme. This would provide multi-target antibacterial weapons with minimized likelihood of target-mediated resistance development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Orotracheal administration of contrast agents: a new protocol for brain tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Andrea; Moncelet, Damien; Lux, François; Plissonneau, Marie; Rizzitelli, Silvia; Ribot, Emeline Julie; Tassali, Nawal; Bouchaud, Véronique; Tillement, Olivier; Voisin, Pierre; Crémillieux, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    The development of new non-invasive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is of paramount importance in order to improve the outcome of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In this work we investigated a completely non-invasive pre-clinical protocol to effectively target and detect brain tumors through the orotracheal route, using ultra-small nanoparticles (USRPs) and MRI. A mouse model of GBM was developed. In vivo MRI acquisitions were performed before and after intravenous or orotracheal administration of the nanoparticles to identify and segment the tumor. The accumulation of the nanoparticles in neoplastic lesions was assessed ex vivo through fluorescence microscopy. Before the administration of contrast agents, MR images allowed the identification of the presence of abnormal brain tissue in 73% of animals. After orotracheal or intravenous administration of USRPs, in all the mice an excellent co-localization of the position of the tumor with MRI and histology was observed. The elimination time of the USRPs from the tumor after the orotracheal administration was approximately 70% longer compared with intravenous injection. MRI and USRPs were shown to be powerful imaging tools able to detect, quantify and longitudinally monitor the development of GBMs. The absence of ionizing radiation and high resolution of MRI, along with the complete non-invasiveness and good reproducibility of the proposed protocol, make this technique potentially translatable to humans. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the advantages of a needle-free orotracheal administration route have been demonstrated for the investigation of the pathomorphological changes due to GBMs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs to macrophages: targeting mannose receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. Yu; Klyachko, N. L.; Kudryashova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of systems for targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs is a challenge of modern biotechnology. Currently, these drugs are encapsulated in a variety of carriers such as liposomes, polymers, emulsions and so on. Despite successful in vitro testing of these systems, virtually no success was achieved in vivo, because of low accessibility of the foci of infection located in alveolar macrophage cells. A promising strategy for increasing the efficiency of therapeutic action of anti-tuberculosis drugs is to encapsulate the agents into mannosylated carriers targeting the mannose receptors of alveolar macrophages. The review addresses the methods for modification of drug substance carriers, such as liposomes and biodegradable polymers, with mannose residues. The use of mannosylated carriers to deliver anti-tuberculosis agents increases the drug circulation time in the blood stream and increases the drug concentration in alveolar macrophage cells. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  11. Targets of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  12. SU-E-T-256: Optimizing the Combination of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Agents Using a Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Dosimetry Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B; Titz, B; Grudzinski, J; Weichert, J; Hall, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Combination targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is appealing because it can potentially exploit different mechanisms of action from multiple radionuclides as well as the variable dose rates due to the different radionuclide half-lives. The work describes the development of a multiobjective optimization algorithm to calculate the optimal ratio of radionuclide injection activities for delivery of combination TRT. Methods: The ‘diapeutic’ (diagnostic and therapeutic) agent, CLR1404, was used as a proof-of-principle compound in this work. Isosteric iodine substitution in CLR1404 creates a molecular imaging agent when labeled with I-124 or a targeted radiotherapeutic agent when labeled with I-125 or I-131. PET/CT images of high grade glioma patients were acquired at 4.5, 24, and 48 hours post injection of 124I-CLR1404. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 and 125ICLR1404 absorbed dose (AD) and biological effective dose (BED) were calculated for each patient using a patient-specific Monte Carlo dosimetry platform. The optimal ratio of injection activities for each radionuclide was calculated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm using the weighted sum method. Objective functions such as the tumor dose heterogeneity and the ratio of the normal tissue to tumor doses were minimized and the relative importance weights of each optimization function were varied. Results: For each optimization function, the program outputs a Pareto surface map representing all possible combinations of radionuclide injection activities so that values that minimize the objective function can be visualized. A Pareto surface map of the weighted sum given a set of user-specified importance weights is also displayed. Additionally, the ratio of optimal injection activities as a function of the all possible importance weights is generated so that the user can select the optimal ratio based on the desired weights. Conclusion: Multi-objective optimization of radionuclide injection activities

  13. The role of antiseptic agents in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Van Bever, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis has a susceptibility to be colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. This has been associated with increased frequency and severity of exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the use of antiseptic agents to target primary bacterial colonization and infection. Antiseptic agents have been found to be better tolerated and less likely to induce bacterial resistance as compared to antibiotics. There is also a wide variety of antiseptic agents available. The efficacy of antiseptic agents has yet to be established as the studies reviewed previously have been small and of suboptimal quality. This review discusses the rationale behind targeting S. aureus with antiseptic agents and presents findings from a review of studies assessing the efficacy of antiseptics in atopic dermatitis in the last five years. Four studies were found, including a bleach bath study which has already been reviewed elsewhere. The remaining 3 studies assessed the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite containing cleansing body wash, sodium hypochlorite baths and 1% triclosan in leave on emollient. These studies suggested some benefit for the inclusion of antiseptic use with the mainstay management of atopic dermatitis, including a potential steroid sparring effect. However, there are many limitations to these studies which therefore warrant further investigation on the impact of antiseptic use in atopic dermatitis.

  14. Superparamagnetic Bifunctional Bisphosphonates Nanoparticles: A Potential MRI Contrast Agent for Osteoporosis Therapy and Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lalatonne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bone targeting nanosystem is reported here which combined magnetic contrast agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and a therapeutic agent (bisphosphonates into one drug delivery system. This new targeting nanoplatform consists of superparamagnetic γFe2O3 nanoparticles conjugated to 1,5-dihydroxy-1,5,5-tris-phosphono-pentyl-phosphonic acid (di-HMBPs molecules with a bisphosphonate function at the outer of the nanoparticle surface for bone targeting. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated as a specific MRI contrast agent by adsorption study onto hydroxyapatite and MRI measurment. The strong adsorption of the bisphosphonates nanoparticles to hydroxyapatite and their use as MRI T2∗ contrast agent were demonstrated. Cellular tests performed on human osteosarcoma cells (MG63 show that γFe2O3@di-HMBP hybrid nanomaterial has no citoxity effect in cell viability and may act as a diagnostic and therapeutic system.

  15. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  16. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. Liposomes derivatized with multimeric copies of KCCYSL peptide as targeting agents for HER-2-overexpressing tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringhieri P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ringhieri,1 Silvia Mannucci,2 Giamaica Conti,2 Elena Nicolato,2 Giulio Fracasso,3 Pasquina Marzola,4 Giancarlo Morelli,1 Antonella Accardo1 1Department of Pharmacy and Interuniversity Research Centre on Bioactive Peptides (CIRPeB, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, 2Department of Neurological Biomedical and Movement Sciences, 3Section of Immunology, Department of Medicine, 4Department of Informatics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Abstract: Mixed liposomes, obtained by coaggregation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and of the synthetic monomer containing a gadolinium complex ([C18]2DTPA[Gd] have been prepared. Liposomes externally decorated with KCCYSL (P6.1 peptide sequence in its monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric forms are studied as target-selective delivery systems toward cancer cells overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2 receptors. Derivatization of liposomal surface with targeting peptides is achieved using the postmodification method: the alkyne-peptide derivative Pra-KCCYSL reacts, through click chemistry procedures, with a synthetic surfactant modified with 1, 2, or 4 azido moieties previously inserted in liposome formulation. Preliminary in vitro data on MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells indicated that liposomes functionalized with P6.1 peptide in its tetrameric form had better binding to and uptake into BT-474 cells compared to liposomes decorated with monomeric or dimeric versions of the P6.1 peptide. BT-474 cells treated with liposomes functionalized with the tetrameric form of P6.1 showed high degree of liposome uptake, which was comparable with the uptake of anti-HER-2 antibodies such as Herceptin. Moreover, magnetic MRI experiments have demonstrated the potential of liposomes to act as MRI contrast agents. Keywords: anti-HER2 liposomes, target peptide, KCCYSL peptide, breast cancer, click chemistry, branched peptides 

  18. PRICE-LEVEL TARGETING – A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION TARGETING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vasile Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that has led some central banks reaching the zero lower bound of their interest rate to use unconventional monetary policy instruments, has brought to the forefront theacademic discussions on the shift from inflation targeting (IT to price level targeting. This paper provides a comparative analysis on IT strategy and targeting the price level, assesses the implications and highlights the challenges of an eventual transition to a new monetary policy strategy. Balancing the advantages (mainly better anchored inflation expectations and disadvantages (communication difficulties generated by following a potential price-level targeting strategy and the necessary prerequisites for its functionality (predictive agents, fully familiar with the implications of such a strategy and with complete confidence in themonetary authority has led us to the conclusion that there is no common acceptance that price level targeting strategy might replace the present IT framework.

  19. Radiotherapy in combination with vascular-targeted therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciric, Eva; Sersa, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Given the critical role of tumor vasculature in tumor development, considerable efforts have been spent on developing therapeutic strategies targeting the tumor vascular network. A variety of agents have been developed, with two general approaches being pursued. Antiangiogenic agents (AAs) aim to interfere with the process of angiogenesis, preventing new tumor blood vessel formation. Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) target existing tumor vessels causing tumor ischemia and necrosis. Despite their great therapeutic potential, it has become clear that their greatest clinical utility may lie in combination with conventional anticancer therapies. Radiotherapy is a widely used treatment modality for cancer with its distinct therapeutic challenges. Thus, combining the two approaches seems reasonable. Strong biological rationale exist for combining vascular-targeted therapies with radiation. AAs and VDAs were shown to alter the tumor microenvironment in such a way as to enhance responses to radiation. The results of preclinical and early clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic potential of this new treatment strategy in the clinical setting. However, concerns about increased normal tissue toxicity, have been raised

  20. Molecular targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Gwang

    2013-03-01

    Although medical treatment has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong survival, no significant progress has been made in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) within the last two decades. Thus, the optimum standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for AGC remains debatable, and most responses to chemotherapy are partial and of short duration; the median survival is approximately 7 to 11 months, and survival at 2 years is exceptionally > 10%. Recently, remarkable progress in tumor biology has led to the development of new agents that target critical aspects of oncogenic pathways. For AGC, many molecular targeting agents have been evaluated in international randomized studies, and trastuzumab, an anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody, has shown antitumor activity against HER-2-positive AGC. However, this benefit is limited to only ~20% of patients with AGC (patients with HER-2-positive AGC). Therefore, there remains a critical need for both the development of more effective agents and the identification of molecular predictive and prognostic markers to select those patients who will benefit most from specific chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted therapies.

  1. Exploration of the medical periodic table: towards new targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-06-07

    Metallodrugs offer potential for unique mechanisms of drug action based on the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, the types and number of coordinated ligands and the coordination geometry. We discuss recent progress in identifying new target sites and elucidating the mechanisms of action of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-neurodegenerative agents, as well as in the design of metal-based diagnostic agents. Progress in identifying and defining target sites has been accelerated recently by advances in proteomics, genomics and metal speciation analysis. Examples of metal compounds and chelating agents (enzyme inhibitors) currently in clinical use, clinical trials or preclinical development are highlighted.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guoping; Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive clinical imaging modality, which has become widely used in the diagnosis and/or staging of human diseases around the world. Some MRI examinations include the use of contrast agents. The categorizations of currently available contrast agents have been described according to their effect on the image, magnetic behavior and biodistribution in the body, respectively. In this field, superparamagnetic iron oxide particles and soluble paramagnetic metal chelates are two main classes of contrast agents for MRI. This review outlines the research and development of MRI contrast agents. In future, the ideal MRI contrast agent will be focused on the neutral tissue- or organ-targeting materials with high relaxivity and specificity, low toxicity and side effects, suitable long intravascular duration and excretion time, high contrast enhancement with low dose in vivo, and with minimal cost

  3. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2006-01-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted...

  4. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  5. Improvement of skin whitening agents efficiency through encapsulation: Current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephrem, Elissa; Elaissari, Hamid; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2017-06-30

    Hyperpigmentation is one of the most common skin disorder that affects both men and women of all ethnic groups, caused by several factors, such as UV exposure and skin inflammation. Topical whitening agents were found to be the best and the least aggressive therapy for treating hyperpigmentation compared to instrumental approaches. However, topical treatment faces several obstacles due to the low stability of the whitening agents. Therefore, the encapsulation of these agents was found to be crucial as it enhances their physicochemical stability and increases their concentration at the targeted site via an improved skin permeation, penetration or distribution. In this article, we review the literature aimed to enhance the stability and the targeting of skin whitening agents through their encapsulation in various nano and micro-particulate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of vascular targeting agents with thermal or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsman, Michael R.; Murata, Rumi

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The most likely clinical application of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) is in combination with more conventional therapies. In this study, we report on preclinical studies in which VTAs were combined with hyperthermia and/or radiation. Methods and Materials: A C3H mammary carcinoma grown in the right rear foot of female CDF1 mice was treated when at 200 mm 3 in size. The VTAs were combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP, 25 mg/kg), flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg), and 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg), and were all injected i.p. Hyperthermia and radiation were locally administered to tumors of restrained, nonanesthetized mice, and response was assessed using either a tumor growth or tumor control assay. Results: Heating tumors at 41.5 degree sign C gave rise to a linear relationship between the heating time and tumor growth with a slope of 0.02. This slope was increased to 0.06, 0.09, and 0.08, respectively, by injecting the VTAs either 30 min (CA4DP), 3 h (FAA), or 6 h (DMXAA) before heating. The radiation dose (±95% confidence interval) that controls 50% of treated tumors (the TCD 50 value) was estimated to be 53 Gy (51-55 Gy) for radiation alone. This was decreased to 48 Gy (46-51 Gy), 45 Gy (41-49 Gy), and 42 Gy (39-45 Gy), respectively, by injecting CA4DP, DMXAA, or FAA 30-60 min after irradiating. These values were further decreased to around 28-33 Gy if the tumors of VTA-treated mice were also heated to 41.5 degree sign C for 1 h, starting 4 h after irradiation, and this effect was much larger than the enhancement seen with either 41.5 degree sign C or even 43 degree sign C alone. Conclusions: Our preclinical studies and those of others clearly demonstrate that VTAs can enhance tumor response to hyperthermia and/or radiation and support the concept that such combination studies should be undertaken clinically for the full potential of VTAs to be realized

  7. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Lai, Jeffrey Kam Fatt; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2014-02-12

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease.

  8. Targeted Drug-Carrying Bacteriophages as Antibacterial Nanomedicines▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-01-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of ∼20,000 compared to the free drug. PMID:17404004

  9. Monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunodetection of tumours and for targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.W.; Embleton, M.J.; Pimm, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody 791T/36 prepared against human osteogenic sarcoma has been used to detect primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas by external imaging of patients following injection of 131 I-labelled antibody. In 10 of 11 patients radiolabelled 791T/36 antibody localized in tumours, the tumour/non tumour ratio of radioactivity ranging from 1.5:1 to 8.1. 791T/36 antibody was also evaluated for its potential for targeting anti-tumour agents including cytotoxic drugs (Vindesine) and immunomodulating agents (interferon). Vindesine-791T/36 conjugates were preferentially cytotoxic in vitro for target cells expressing the 791T/36 anti-body defined antigen. Also interferon conjugated to 791T/36 antibody, like free interferon activated peripheral blood natural killer cell activity. These in vitro tests together with related studies on antibody localization in vivo indicate the potential of monoclonal antibody targeting of anti-tumour agents

  10. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  11. N-Succinimidyl guanidinomethyl iodobenzoate protein radiohalogenation agents: Influence of isomeric substitution on radiolabeling and target cell residualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaeyeon; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Koumarianou, Eftychia; McDougald, Darryl; Pruszynski, Marek; Osada, Takuya; Lahoutte, Tony; Lyerly, H. Kim; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[ ⁎ I]iodobenzoate ([ ⁎ I]SGMIB) has shown promise for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other proteins that undergo extensive internalization after receptor binding, enhancing tumor targeting compared to direct electrophilic radioiodination. However, radiochemical yields for [ 131 I]SGMIB synthesis are low, which we hypothesize is due to steric hindrance from the Boc-protected guanidinomethyl group ortho to the tin moiety. To overcome this, we developed the isomeric compound, N-succinimidyl 3-guanidinomethyl-5-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate (iso-[ 131 I]SGMIB) wherein this bulky group was moved from ortho to meta position. Methods: Boc 2 -iso-SGMIB standard and its tin precursor, N-succinimidyl 3-((1,2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)guanidino)methyl)-5-(trimethylstannyl) benzoate (Boc 2 -iso-SGMTB), were synthesized using two disparate routes, and iso-[*I]SGMIB synthesized from the tin precursor. Two HER2-targeted vectors — trastuzumab (Tras) and a nanobody 5 F7 (Nb) — were labeled using iso-[ ⁎ I]SGMIB and [ ⁎ I]SGMIB. Paired-label internalization assays in vitro with both proteins, and biodistribution in vivo with trastuzumab, labeled using the two isomeric prosthetic agents were performed. Results: When the reactions were performed under identical conditions, radioiodination yields for the synthesis of Boc 2 -iso-[ 131 I]SGMIB were significantly higher than those for Boc 2 -[ 131 I]SGMIB (70.7 ± 2.0% vs 56.5 ± 5.5%). With both Nb and trastuzumab, conjugation efficiency also was higher with iso-[ 131 I]SGMIB than with [ 131 I]SGMIB (Nb, 33.1 ± 7.1% vs 28.9 ± 13.0%; Tras, 45.1 ± 4.5% vs 34.8 ± 10.3%); however, the differences were not statistically significant. Internalization assays performed on BT474 cells with 5 F7 Nb indicated similar residualizing capacity over 6 h; however, at 24 h, radioactivity retained intracellularly for iso-[ 131 I]SGMIB-Nb was lower than for [ 125 I]SGMIB-Nb (46

  12. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith ePotashkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available.

  13. Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Junji; Okusaka, Takuji

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer, because most of these patients are unsuitable candidates for surgery, and even patients undergoing curative surgery often have recurrence. Recently, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine was reported to show survival benefits over gemcitabine alone in randomized clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom and Japan. Thus, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine is now recognized as the standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. One of the next issues that need to be addressed is whether molecular targeted agents might also be effective against biliary tract cancer. Although some targeted agents have been investigated as monotherapy for first-line chemotherapy, none were found to exert satisfactory efficacy. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab and cetuximab have also been investigated in combination with a gemcitabine-based regimen and have been demonstrated to show promising activity. Furthermore, clinical trials using new targeted agents for biliary tract cancer are also proposed. This cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous tumor consisting of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm the efficacy of chemotherapy, and international collaboration is important

  14. Cycloxygenase-2(cox-2) - a potential target for screening of small molecules as radiation countermeasure agents: an in silico study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Jayadev; Shrivastava, Nitisha; Dimri, Manali; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Prem Kumar, I.; Barik, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    COX-2 is well established for its role in inflammation and cancer, and has also been reported to play a significant role in radiation induced inflammation and by standard effect. It's already reported to have a role in protection against radiation induced damage suggesting it to be an important target for identifying novel radiation countermeasure agents. Present study aims at identifying novel small molecules from pharmacopoeia using COX-2 as target in-silico. Systematic search of the reported molecules exhibiting radiation protection revealed lat around 29 % (40 in 138) of them have a role in inflammation and a small percentage of these molecules (20 %; 8 in 40) are reported to as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Docking studies performed further clarified that all these 8 radioprotective molecules shows high binding affinity and inhibit COX-2. Further Johns Hopkins clinical compound library (JHCCL), a collection of small molecule clinical compounds, were screened virtually for COX-2 inhibition by docking approach. Docking of around 1400 small molecules against COX-2 lead to identification of a number of previously unreported molecules which are likely to act as radioprotectors. (author)

  15. Cycloxygenase-2(cox-2) - a potential target for screening of small molecules as radiation countermeasure agents: an in silico study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jayadev; Shrivastava, Nitisha; Dimri, Manali; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Prem Kumar, I., E-mail: prem_indra@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biosciences Division, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Barik, Tapan Kumar [P.G. Department of Zoology, Berhampur University, Berhampur (India)

    2012-07-01

    COX-2 is well established for its role in inflammation and cancer, and has also been reported to play a significant role in radiation induced inflammation and by standard effect. It's already reported to have a role in protection against radiation induced damage suggesting it to be an important target for identifying novel radiation countermeasure agents. Present study aims at identifying novel small molecules from pharmacopoeia using COX-2 as target in-silico. Systematic search of the reported molecules exhibiting radiation protection revealed lat around 29 % (40 in 138) of them have a role in inflammation and a small percentage of these molecules (20 %; 8 in 40) are reported to as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Docking studies performed further clarified that all these 8 radioprotective molecules shows high binding affinity and inhibit COX-2. Further Johns Hopkins clinical compound library (JHCCL), a collection of small molecule clinical compounds, were screened virtually for COX-2 inhibition by docking approach. Docking of around 1400 small molecules against COX-2 lead to identification of a number of previously unreported molecules which are likely to act as radioprotectors. (author)

  16. Enhancing the efficacy of cytotoxic agents for cancer therapy using photochemical internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Alejandra; Moore, Caroline M; Loizidou, Marilena; MacRobert, Alexander J; Woodhams, Josephine H

    2016-03-01

    Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a technique for improving cellular delivery of certain bioactive agents which are prone to sequestration within endolysosomes. There is a wide range of agents suitable for PCI-based delivery including toxins, oligonucleotides, genes and immunoconjugates which demonstrates the versatility of this technique. The basic mechanism of PCI involves triggering release of the agent from endolysosomes within the target cells using a photosensitiser which is selectively retained with the endolysosomal membranes. Excitation of the photosensitiser by visible light leads to disruption of the membranes via photooxidative damage thereby releasing the agent into the cytosol. This treatment enables the drugs to reach their intended subcellular target more efficiently and improves their efficacy. In this review we summarise the applications of this technique with the main emphasis placed on cancer chemotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  17. Investigation of the effect of physical parameters on the design of tumour targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joanne Lois

    Tumour targeting using radiolabelled antibodies for radioimmunodetection (RAID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been studied for many years. The main factors that have limited clinical success are low tumour uptake, immunogenicity and poor therapeutic ratios. This thesis has applied current technology to make advances in this area of research. The effect of physical parameters (antibody size, valency, affinity and charge) on the design of tumour targeting agents was studied by constructing divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) forms of the murine anti-CEA antibody A5B7 Fab' by chemical cross-linking. This involves partial reduction of the hinge disulphides to expose thiol (-SH) groups and subsequent reaction with a maleimide cross-linker to form a thioether bond at the hinge region. Previous studies have suggested that the stability of thioether bonds is superior to naturally occurring disulphide bonds present at the hinge region of IgG and F(ab')2. The aim was to compare the functional affinities and in vivo tumour targeting in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts of DFM and TFM to similar sized parent IgG and F(ab')2. Radiolabelling with 131I and 90Y was also compared with a view to determine which combination would be optimal for RIT. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly faster on-rate of DFM compared to all other antibody forms and estimated dosimetry analysis suggested that DFM would be the most suitable antibody form radiolabelled with 131I for RIT. Both F(ab')2 and DFM showed high kidney uptake levels on labelling with which is unacceptable for RIT. Despite the improved tumour: blood ratios for TFM, the increased estimated dose to normal tissues and lower therapeutic effect in RIT studies suggests that the most promising combination with the radionuclide appears to be IgG. A humanised version of A5B7 hFab' has been constructed previously in order to reduce its immunogenicity in man. The in vivo stability of hDFM proved to be superior to hF(ab')2

  18. Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Riaz, Muhammad Adil; Zhang, Xue; Lin, Congcong; Wong, Ka Hong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Lu, Aiping

    2018-01-01

    Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed. PMID:29315231

  19. Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Riaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed.

  20. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  1. The targets of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here.

  2. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  3. [Insulin-sensitizing agents: metformin and thiazolidinedione derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jo

    2003-07-01

    Both metformin and thiazolidinedione derivatives(TZDs) improve insulin resistance, a major pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and decrease blood glucose levels without stimulating insulin secretion. Metformin inhibits glucose output from the liver, while TZDs increase glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues. In addition, there has been indicated that these agents ameliorate metabolic syndrome beyond glucose-level lowering. Molecular targets of these agents have recently been revealed; AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for metformin and adiponectin, while PPAR gamma for TZDs which induce gene expression of adipocyte glycerol kinase and adiponectin. Insulin-sensitizing agents are clinically useful for obese diabetic patients with insulin resistance. However, periodical examinations are necessary to avoid serious adverse effects such as lactic acidosis, although rare, by metformin and liver injury by TZDs.

  4. Universal, class-specific and drug-specific reversal agents for the new oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Jack E

    2016-02-01

    Although there is controversy about the absolute need for a reversal agent for the new direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), the absence of such an agent is a barrier to more widespread use of these agents. For the management of major life-threatening bleeding with the DOACs, most authorities recommend the use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrates, although the evidence to support their use in terms of improving outcomes is meager. At the present time, there are three antidotes in development and poised to enter the market. Idarucizumab is a drug-specific antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran. Andexanet alfa is a class-specific antidote targeted to reverse the oral direct factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor, enoxaparin. Ciraparantag is a universal antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor, enoxaparin.

  5. Discovery of 1-(4-((3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)amino)benzyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one, an orally active multi-target agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Peng, Zhangzhe; Lu, Miaomiao; Xiong, Xuan; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Qianbin; Cheng, Zeneng; Jiang, Dejian; Tao, Lijian; Hu, Gaoyun

    2018-01-15

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis can cause irreversible damage on cell structure and function of kidney and are key pathological factors in Diabetic Nephropathy (DN). Therefore, multi-target agents are urgently need for the clinical treatment of DN. Using Pirfenidone as a lead compound and based on the previous research, two novel series (5-trifluoromethyl)-2(1H)-pyridone analogs were designed and synthesized. SAR of (5-trifluoromethyl)-2(1H)-pyridone derivatives containing nitrogen heterocyclic ring have been established for in vitro potency. In addition, compound 8, a novel agent that act on multiple targets of anti-DN with IC 50 of 90μM in NIH3T3 cell lines, t 1/2 of 4.89±1.33h in male rats and LD 50 >2000mg/kg in mice, has been advanced to preclinical studies as an oral treatment for DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  7. Combination of Vessel-Targeting Agents and Fractionated Radiation Therapy: The Role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung; Yang, Ying-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

  8. Inflation Targeting and Liquidity Traps under Endogenous Credibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.

    2015-01-01

    We derive policy implications for an inflation targeting central bank, who's credibility is endogenous and depends on its past ability to achieve its targets. We do this in a New Keynesian framework with heterogeneous agents and boundely rational expectations. Our assumptions about expectation

  9. Palliative chemotherapy and targeted therapies for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Vincent T; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Gaast, Ate; Mathijssen, Ron Hj; Bruno, Marco J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon Cw

    2017-11-28

    Almost half of people with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies are increasingly used with a palliative intent to control tumor growth, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. To date, and with the exception of ramucirumab, evidence for the efficacy of palliative treatments for esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer is lacking. To assess the effects of cytostatic or targeted therapy for treating esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer with palliative intent. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, PubMed Publisher, Google Scholar, and trial registries up to 13 May 2015, and we handsearched the reference lists of studies. We did not restrict the search to publications in English. Additional searches were run in September 2017 prior to publication, and they are listed in the 'Studies awaiting assessment' section. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on palliative chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy versus best supportive care or control in people with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Two authors independently extracted data. We assessed the quality and risk of bias of eligible studies according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We calculated pooled estimates of effect using an inverse variance random-effects model for meta-analysis. We identified 41 RCTs with 11,853 participants for inclusion in the review as well as 49 ongoing studies. For the main comparison of adding a cytostatic and/or targeted agent to a control arm, we included 11 studies with 1347 participants. This analysis demonstrated an increase in overall survival in favor of the arm with an additional cytostatic or targeted therapeutic agent with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.84, high-quality evidence). The median increased

  10. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  11. Photoactivatable Lipid-based Nanoparticles as a Vehicle for Dual Agent Delivery | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) RNA Biology Laboratory have developed nanoparticles that can deliver an agent (i.e., therapeutic or imaging) and release the agent upon targeted photoactivation allowing for controlled temporal and localized release of the agent.

  12. Novel agents in development for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The identification of EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the rapid development of targeted therapies and significant changes in the treatment paradigm. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are now standard therapies for patients with the appropriate molecular alteration. Current investigations are determining the mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies and developing novel agents to combat resistance. For patients with KRAS mutant NSCLC, a phase III trial of the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, has been initiated. For patients without a defined mutation or a mutation without a known targeted therapy, immunotherapy, ganetespib, nintedanib and MET inhibitors in combination with EGFR TKIs are in development. Preliminary results of phase III trials raise doubts about the future development of dacomitinib as a second-line agent.

  13. Macromolecular and dendrimer-based magnetic resonance contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumb, Ambika; Brechbiel, Martin W. (Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Inst., National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)), e-mail: pchoyke@mail.nih.gov; Choyke, Peter (Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Inst., National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that can provide an assessment of function or molecular expression in tandem with anatomic detail. Over the last 20-25 years, a number of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have been developed to enhance signal by altering proton relaxation properties. This review explores a range of these agents from small molecule chelates, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, to macromolecular structures composed of albumin, polylysine, polysaccharides (dextran, inulin, starch), poly(ethylene glycol), copolymers of cystamine and cystine with GD-DTPA, and various dendritic structures based on polyamidoamine and polylysine (Gadomers). The synthesis, structure, biodistribution, and targeting of dendrimer-based MR contrast agents are also discussed

  14. EphB4 as a therapeutic target in mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ren; Ferguson, Benjamin D; Zhou, Yue; Naga, Kranthi; Salgia, Ravi; Gill, Parkash S; Krasnoperov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) often develops decades following exposure to asbestos. Current best therapy produces a response in only half of patients, and the median survival with this therapy remains under a year. A search for novel targets and therapeutics is underway, and recently identified targets include VEGF, Notch, and EphB4-Ephrin-B2. Each of these targets has dual activity, promoting tumor cell growth as well as tumor angiogenesis. We investigated EphB4 expression in 39 human mesothelioma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Xenograft tumors established with human mesothelioma cells were treated with an EphB4 inhibitor (monomeric soluble EphB4 fused to human serum albumin, or sEphB4-HSA). The combinatorial effect of sEphB4-HSA and biologic agent was also studied. EphB4 was overexpressed in 72% of mesothelioma tissues evaluated, with 85% of epithelioid and 38% of sarcomatoid subtypes demonstrating overexpression. The EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA was highly active as a single agent to inhibit tumor growth, accompanied by tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of PI3K and Src signaling. Combination of sEphB4-HSA and the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) was superior to each agent alone and led to complete tumor regression. EphB4 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma. Clinical investigation of sEphB4-HSA as a single agent and in combination with VEGF inhibitors is warranted

  15. Rational drug design for anti-cancer chemotherapy: multi-target QSAR models for the in silico discovery of anti-colorectal cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2012-08-01

    The discovery of new and more potent anti-cancer agents constitutes one of the most active fields of research in chemotherapy. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most studied cancers because of its high prevalence and number of deaths. In the current pharmaceutical design of more efficient anti-CRC drugs, the use of methodologies based on Chemoinformatics has played a decisive role, including Quantitative-Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) techniques. However, until now, there is no methodology able to predict anti-CRC activity of compounds against more than one CRC cell line, which should constitute the principal goal. In an attempt to overcome this problem we develop here the first multi-target (mt) approach for the virtual screening and rational in silico discovery of anti-CRC agents against ten cell lines. Here, two mt-QSAR classification models were constructed using a large and heterogeneous database of compounds. The first model was based on linear discriminant analysis (mt-QSAR-LDA) employing fragment-based descriptors while the second model was obtained using artificial neural networks (mt-QSAR-ANN) with global 2D descriptors. Both models correctly classified more than 90% of active and inactive compounds in training and prediction sets. Some fragments were extracted from the molecules and their contributions to anti-CRC activity were calculated using mt-QSAR-LDA model. Several fragments were identified as potential substructural features responsible for the anti-CRC activity and new molecules designed from those fragments with positive contributions were suggested and correctly predicted by the two models as possible potent and versatile anti-CRC agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Fisher, Richard [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia); Binns, David [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Hospital, Centre for PET, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne (Australia); Peters, Lester J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  17. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Rodney J.; Rischin, Danny; Fisher, Richard; Binns, David; Scott, Andrew M.; Peters, Lester J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  18. Dual HER2\\PIK3CA targeting overcomes single-agent acquired resistance in HER2 amplified uterine serous carcinoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvatore; Cocco, Emiliano; Black, Jonathan; Bellone, Stefania; Bonazzoli, Elena; Predolini, Federica; Ferrari, Francesca; Schwab, Carlton L.; English, Diana P.; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.; Terranova, Corrado; Angioli, Roberto; Santin, Alessandro D.

    2015-01-01

    HER2/neu gene amplification and PIK3CA driver mutations are common in uterine serous carcinoma (USC), and may represent ideal therapeutic targets against this aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. We examined the sensitivity to neratinib, taselisib and the combination of the two compounds in in vitro and in vivo experiments using PIK3CA mutated and PIK3CA-wild type HER2/neu amplified USC cell lines. Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were assessed using flow-cytometry assays. Downstream signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. Preclinical efficacy of single versus dual inhibition was evaluated in vivo using two USC-xenografts. We found both single agent neratinib and taselisib to be active but only transiently effective in controlling the in vivo growth of USC xenografts harboring HER2/neu gene amplification with or without oncogenic PIK3CA mutations. In contrast, the combination of the two inhibitors caused a stronger and long lasting growth inhibition in both USC xenografts when compared to single agent therapy. Combined targeting of HER2 and PIK3CA was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and a dose-dependent decline in the phosphorylation of S6. Importantly, dual inhibition therapy initiated after tumor progression in single agent-treated mice was still remarkably effective at inducing tumor regression in both large PIK3CA or pan-ErbB inhibitor-resistant USC xenografts. Dual HER2/PIK3CA blockade may represent a novel therapeutic option for USC patients harboring tumors with HER2/neu gene amplification and mutated or wild type PIK3CA resistant to chemotherapy. PMID:26333383

  19. Dual HER2/PIK3CA Targeting Overcomes Single-Agent Acquired Resistance in HER2-Amplified Uterine Serous Carcinoma Cell Lines In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvatore; Cocco, Emiliano; Black, Jonathan; Bellone, Stefania; Bonazzoli, Elena; Predolini, Federica; Ferrari, Francesca; Schwab, Carlton L; English, Diana P; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Terranova, Corrado; Angioli, Roberto; Santin, Alessandro D

    2015-11-01

    HER2/neu gene amplification and PIK3CA driver mutations are common in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and may represent ideal therapeutic targets against this aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. We examined the sensitivity to neratinib, taselisib, and the combination of the two compounds in in vitro and in vivo experiments using PIK3CA-mutated and PIK3CA wild-type HER2/neu-amplified USC cell lines. Cell viability and cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow-cytometry assays. Downstream signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. Preclinical efficacy of single versus dual inhibition was evaluated in vivo using two USC xenografts. We found both single-agent neratinib and taselisib to be active but only transiently effective in controlling the in vivo growth of USC xenografts harboring HER2/neu gene amplification with or without oncogenic PIK3CA mutations. In contrast, the combination of the two inhibitors caused a stronger and long-lasting growth inhibition in both USC xenografts when compared with single-agent therapy. Combined targeting of HER2 and PIK3CA was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle and a dose-dependent decline in the phosphorylation of S6. Importantly, dual inhibition therapy initiated after tumor progression in single-agent-treated mice was still remarkably effective at inducing tumor regression in both large PIK3CA and pan-ErbB inhibitor-resistant USC xenografts. Dual HER2/PIK3CA blockade may represent a novel therapeutic option for USC patients harboring tumors with HER2/neu gene amplification and mutated or wild-type PIK3CA resistant to chemotherapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Selective Attention and Control of Action: Comparative Psychology of an Artificial, Evolved Agent and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the selective attention abilities of a simple, artificial, evolved agent and considered implications of the agent's performance for theories of selective attention and action. The agent processed two targets in continuous time, catching one and then the other. This task required many cognitive operations, including prioritizing…

  1. Engineering liposomal nanoparticles for targeted gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, C; Gaskill, K; Pasley, S; Matosevic, S

    2017-08-01

    Recent mechanistic studies have attempted to deepen our understanding of the process by which liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material occurs. Understanding the interactions between lipid nanoparticles and cells is still largely elusive. Liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material faces systemic obstacles alongside entry into the cell, endosomal escape, lysosomal degradation and nuclear uptake. Rational design approaches for targeted delivery have been developed to reduce off-target effects and enhance transfection. These strategies, which have included the modification of lipid nanoparticles with target-specific ligands to enhance intracellular uptake, have shown significant promise at the proof-of-concept stage. Control of physical and chemical specifications of liposome composition, which includes lipid-to-DNA charge, size, presence of ester bonds, chain length and nature of ligand complexation, is integral to the performance of targeted liposomes as genetic delivery agents. Clinical advances are expected to rely on such systems in the therapeutic application of liposome nanoparticle-based gene therapy. Here, we discuss the latest breakthroughs in the development of targeted liposome-based agents for the delivery of genetic material, paying particular attention to new ligand and cationic lipid design as well as recent in vivo advances.

  2. Theranostic gas-generating nanoparticles for targeted ultrasound imaging and treatment of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwook; Min, Hyun-Su; You, Dong Gil; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2016-02-10

    The development of safe and efficient diagnostic/therapeutic agents for treating cancer in clinics remains challenging due to the potential toxicity of conventional agents. Although the annual incidence of neuroblastoma is not that high, the disease mainly occurs in children, a population vulnerable to toxic contrast agents and therapeutics. We demonstrate here that cancer-targeting, gas-generating polymeric nanoparticles are useful as a theranostic tool for ultrasound (US) imaging and treating neuroblastoma. We encapsulated calcium carbonate using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) and created gas-generating polymer nanoparticles (GNPs). These nanoparticles release carbon dioxide bubbles under acidic conditions and enhance US signals. When GNPs are modified using rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide, a targeting moiety to neuroblastoma, RVG-GNPs effectively accumulate at the tumor site and substantially enhance US signals in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Intravenous administration of RVG-GNPs also reduces tumor growth in the mouse model without the use of conventional therapeutic agents. This approach to developing theranostic agents with disease-targeting ability may provide useful strategy for the detection and treatment of cancers, allowing safe and efficient clinical applications with fewer side effects than may occur with conventional agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents, many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise. With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms (particularly bacteria) rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise.The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, carbapenemases (CREs) and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection.A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host. It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to

  4. Antitumor activity of ZD6126, a novel vascular-targeting agent, is enhanced when combined with ZD1839, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and potentiates the effects of radiation in a human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, David; Bianco, Cataldo; Damiano, Vincenzo; Bianco, Roberto; Melisi, Davide; Mignogna, Chiara; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Cionini, Luca; Bianco, A Raffaele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Bunn, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Targeting the tumor vasculature may offer an alternative or complementary therapeutic approach to targeting growth factor signaling in lung cancer. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the antitumor effects in vivo of the combination of ZD6126, a tumor-selective vascular-targeting agent; ZD1839 (gefitinib, Iressa), an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; and ionizing radiation in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model. Athymic nude mice with established flank A549 human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model xenografts were treated with fractionated radiation therapy, ZD6126, ZD1839, or combinations of each treatment. ZD6126 (150 mg/kg) was given i.p. the day after each course of radiation. Animals treated with ZD1839 received 100 mg/kg per dose per animal, 5 or 7 days/wk for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was done to evaluate the effects on tumor growth using an anti-Ki67 monoclonal antibody. Effects on tumor-induced vascularization were quantified using an anti-factor VIII-related antigen monoclonal antibody. ZD6126 attenuated the growth of human A549 flank xenografts compared with untreated animals. Marked antitumor effects were observed when animals were treated with a combination of ZD6126 and fractionated radiation therapy with protracted tumor regression. ZD6126 + ZD1839 resulted in a greater tumor growth delay than either agent alone. Similar additive effects were seen with ZD1839 + fractionated radiation. Finally, the addition of ZD6126 to ZD1839 and radiation therapy seemed to further improve tumor growth control, with a significant tumor growth delay compared with animals treated with single agent or with double combinations. Immunohistochemistry showed that ZD1839 induced a marked reduction in A549 tumor cell proliferation. Both ZD1839 and ZD6126 treatment substantially reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis. ZD6126 caused marked vessel destruction through loss of endothelial cells and thrombosis

  5. Social scaling of extrapersonal space: target objects are judged as closer when the reference frame is a human agent with available movement potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, C; Brass, M; Committeri, G

    2015-01-01

    Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, Sinigaglia, & Gallese, 2011; Bloesch, Davoli, Roth, Brockmole, & Abrams, 2012) can interact with it. Similarly, an object only triggers specific movements when it is placed in our peripersonal space (Costantini, Ambrosini, Tieri, Sinigaglia, & Committeri, 2010) or in the other's peripersonal space (Costantini, Committeri, & Sinigaglia, 2011; Cardellicchio, Sinigaglia, & Costantini, 2013). Moreover, also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, & Epstein, 2003; Sugovic & Witt, 2013). However, not much is known about the influence of the other's movement potentialities on our extrapersonal space perception. Three experiments were carried out investigating the categorization of distance in extrapersonal space using human or non-human allocentric reference frames (RF). Subjects were asked to judge the distance ("Near" or "Far") of a target object (a beach umbrella) placed at progressively increasing or decreasing distances until a change from near to far or vice versa was reported. In the first experiment we found a significant "Near space extension" when the allocentric RF was a human virtual agent instead of a static, inanimate object. In the second experiment we tested whether the "Near space extension" depended on the anatomical structure of the RF or its movement potentialities by adding a wooden dummy. The "Near space extension" was only observed for the human agent but not for the dummy. Finally, to rule out the possibility that the

  6. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Kelly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo. We directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo by multichannel fluorescence ratio imaging. Using Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (osteonectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as model targets, we show that: 1 fluorescently labeled phage retains target specificity on labeling; 2 in vivo distribution can be quantitated (detection thresholds of ~ 300 phage/mm3 tissue throughout the entire depth of the tumor using fluorescent tomographic imaging; and 3 fluorescently labeled phage itself can serve as a replenishable molecular imaging agent. The described method should find widespread application in the rapid in vivo discovery and validation of affinity ligands and, importantly, in the use of fluorochrome-labeled phage clones as in vivo imaging agents.

  7. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H. eKim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidation system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB and itraconazole (ITZ, in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (MAPK gene deletion mutant in polyalcohol sugar utilization system. The sakAΔ mutant showed no growth at 0.5 μg mL-1 of ITZ or reduced growth at 1.0 to 2.0 μg mL-1 of AMB, while the other strains exhibited robust growth. Complete fungal kill (≥ 99.9% by ITZ or AMB was achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. SakA and MpkC appear to have overlapping roles in marshalling the oxidative stress response under treatment by an organic peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The SakA signalling pathway was found to be responsible for fungal tolerance to AMB or ITZ toxicity. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs are in the same stress response network under t-BuOOH-, H2O2- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens (Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ toxicity and oxidative stress response. This was shown by enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ when co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. Hence, redox compounds, which target the antioxidation system in fungi, possess a potent chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs inducing oxidative stress. Such chemosensitization can reduce costs and alleviate negative side effects associated with current

  8. The Role of High Dose Interleukin-2 in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gills, Jessie; Parker, William P; Pate, Scott; Niu, Sida; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Mirza, Moben; Holzbeierlein, Jeffery M; Lee, Eugene K

    2017-09-01

    We assessed survival outcomes following high dose interleukin-2 in a contemporary cohort of patients during the era of targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with high dose interleukin-2 between July 2007 and September 2014. Clinicopathological data were abstracted and patient response to therapy was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors), version 1.1 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free and overall survival in the entire cohort, the response to high dose interleukin-2 in regard to previous targeted agent therapy and the response to the targeted agent in relation to the response to high dose interleukin-2. We identified 92 patients, of whom 87 had documentation of a response to high dose interleukin-2. Median overall survival was 34.4 months from the initiation of high dose interleukin-2 therapy in the entire cohort. Patients who received targeted therapy before high dose interleukin-2 had overall survival (median 34.4 and 30.0 months, p = 0.88) and progression-free survival (median 1.5 and 1.7 months, p = 0.8) similar to those in patients who received no prior therapy, respectively. Additionally, patients with a complete or partial response to high dose interleukin-2 had similar outcomes for subsequent targeted agents compared to patients whose best response was stable or progressive disease (median overall survival 30.1 vs 25.4 months, p = 0.4). Our data demonstrate that patient responses to high dose interleukin-2 and to targeted agents before and after receiving high dose interleukin-2 are independent. As such, carefully selected patients should be offered high dose interleukin-2 for the possibility of a complete and durable response without the fear of limiting the treatment benefit of targeted agents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Should Low Molecular Weight PSMA Targeted Ligands Get Bigger and Use Albumin Ligands for PSMA Targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Steve S.; Heston, Warren D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is strongly expressed in prostate cancer. Recently a number of low-molecular-weight inhibitors have demonstrated excellent PSMA targeting activity for both imaging as well as Lutecium-177 radiotherapy in human trials. The paper by Choy et al raises the question of whether we can further increase the effectiveness of PSMA targeted therapy by adding an albumin-binding entity to low-molecular-weight agents

  10. Oligo-branched peptides for tumor targeting: from magic bullets to magic forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciani, Chiara; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2009-02-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells is the final goal of research and drug discovery for cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy. After the invention of hybridoma technology, the concept of magic bullet was introduced into the field of oncology, referring to selective killing of tumor cells, by specific antibodies. More recently, small molecules and peptides have also been proposed as selective targeting agents. We analyze the state of the art of tumor-selective agents that are presently available and tested in clinical settings. A novel approach based on 'armed' oligo-branched peptides as tumor targeting agents, is discussed and compared with existing tumor-selective therapies mediated by antibodies, small molecules or monomeric peptides. Oligo-branched peptides could be novel drugs that combine the advantages of antibodies and small molecules.

  11. Beyond Alkylating Agents for Gliomas: Quo Vadimus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puduvalli, Vinay K; Chaudhary, Rekha; McClugage, Samuel G; Markert, James

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in therapies have yielded notable success in terms of improved survival in several cancers. However, such treatments have failed to improve outcome in patients with gliomas for whom surgery followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents remain the standard of care. Genetic and epigenetic studies have helped identify several alterations specific to gliomas. Attempts to target these altered pathways have been unsuccessful due to various factors, including tumor heterogeneity, adaptive resistance of tumor cells, and limitations of access across the blood-brain barrier. Novel therapies that circumvent such limitations have been the focus of intense study and include approaches such as immunotherapy, targeting of signaling hubs and metabolic pathways, and use of biologic agents. Immunotherapeutic approaches including tumor-targeted vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade, antibody-drug conjugates, and chimeric antigen receptor-expressing cell therapies are in various stages of clinical trials. Similarly, identification of key metabolic pathways or converging hubs of signaling pathways that are tumor specific have yielded novel targets for therapy of gliomas. In addition, the failure of conventional therapies against gliomas has led to a growing interest among patients in the use of alternative therapies, which in turn has necessitated developing evidence-based approaches to the application of such therapies in clinical studies. The development of these novel approaches bears potential for providing breakthroughs in treatment of more meaningful and improved outcomes for patients with gliomas.

  12. An albumin-based gold nanocomposites as potential dual mode CT/MRI contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Chen, Lina; Wang, Zhiming; Huang, Yuankui; Jia, Nengqin

    2018-02-01

    In pursuit of the biological detection applications, recent years have witnessed the prosperity of novel multi-modal nanoprobes. In this study, biocompatible bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) containing Gd (III) as the contrast agent for both X-ray CT and T1-weighted MR imaging is reported. Firstly, the Au NPs with BSA coating (Au@BSA) was prepared through a moderate one-pot reduction route in the presence of hydrazine hydrate as reducer. Sequentially, the BSA coating enables modification of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as well as targeting reagent hyaluronic acid (HA), and further chelation of Gd (III) ions led to the formation of biomimetic nanoagent HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs (HA-targeted Au@BSA-Gd-DTPA). Several techniques were used to thoroughly characterize the formed HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs. As expected, the as-prepared nanoagent with mean diameter of 13.82 nm exhibits not only good colloid stablility and water dispersibility, but also satisfying low cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility in the tested concentration range. Additionally, for the CT phantoms, the obtained nanocomplex shows an improved contrast in CT scanning than that of Au@BSA as well as small molecule iodine-based CT contrast agents such as iopromide. Meanwhile, for the T1-weighted MRI images, there is a linear increase of contrast with concentration of Gd for the two cases of HA-targeted Gd-Au NPs and Magnevist. Strikingly, the nanoagent we explored displays a relatively higher r1 relaxivity than that of commercial MR contrast agents. Therefore, this newly constructed nanoagent could be used as contrast agents for synergistically enhanced X-ray CT and MR phantoms, holding promising potential for future biomedical applications.

  13. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Biodegradable polymers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.

  15. Targeting epigenetics for the treatment of prostate cancer: recent progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianqing; Wang, Chenguang; Kelly, Wm Kevin

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic aberrations contribute to prostate cancer carcinogenesis and disease progression. Efforts have been made to target DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in prostate cancer and other solid tumors but have not had the success that was seen in the hematologic malignancies. Oral, less toxic, and more specific agents are being developed in solid tumors including prostate cancer. Combinations of epigenetic agents alone or with a targeted agent such as androgen receptor signaling inhibitors are promising approaches and will be discussed further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Training strategic community agents in health effects of ionizing radiation; Capacitacao de agentes comunitarios de saude em efeitos das radiacoes ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Teresa C.S.B.; Silva, IIson P.M. da; Jannuzzi, Denise M.S. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CIRA/FEAM), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Informacoes em Radioepidemiologia; Maurmo, Alexandre M., E-mail: ammaurmo@gmail.com [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CMRl/CTNV/FEAM), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Treinamento Prof. Nelson Valverde. Centro de Medicina das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2013-11-01

    The main motivation for the development of training was the need to train agents (opinion makers) with proximity and credibility among the population, to clarify the most frequently asked questions in relation to ionizing radiation, the operation of nuclear power plants, emergency plans and about the possibility of there effects of radiation on the health of inhabitants in regions close to the central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The project has a target audience of 420 agents, 60 of them have already been trained in a pilot project . The results indicate that the topics of training were adequate and the agents have expanded their knowledge. On the other hand, the information passed on to communities by agents, recognized by this population as ' the most reliable people', is of greater credibility and likelihood of success in communicating important issues for the population living in the vicinity of the CNAAA. (author)

  17. Comparing the Suitability of Autodock, Gold and Glide for the Docking and Predicting the Possible Targets of Ru(II-Based Complexes as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cancer chemotherapy, metal-based complexes have been recognized as the most promising means of inhibiting cancer growth due to the successful application of cis-platin and its derivatives above many of the existing organic anticancer agents. The limitations in their rational design can be traced to the complexity of the mechanism of their operations, lack of proper knowledge of their targets and lack of force fields in docking packages to appropriately define the metal centre of the organometallic complexes. In this paper, some of the promising anticancer complexes of Ru(II such as the rapta-based complexes formulated as [Ru(η6-p-cymeneL2(pta] and those with unusual ligands are considered. CatB and kinases which have been experimentally confirmed as possible targets of the complexes are also predicted by the three methods as one of the most targeted receptors while TopII and HDAC7 are predicted by two and one of the methods as best targets. The interesting features of the binding of the complexes show that some of the complexes preferentially target specific macromolecules than the others, which is an indication of their specificity and possibility of their therapeutic combination without severe side effects that may come from competition for the same target. Also, introduction of unusual ligands is found to significantly improve the activities of most of the complexes studied. Strong correlations are observed for the predicted binding sites and the orientation of the complexes within the binding site by the three methods of docking. However there are disparities in the ranking of the complexes by the three method of docking, especially that of Glide.

  18. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy.

  19. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Yoon, Tae Jong; Yoon, Young Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy

  20. Degradation of Akt using protein-catalyzed capture agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Ryan K; Varghese, Joseph O; Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Tang, Grace; Tang, Kevin; Sutherland, Alexander M; Heath, James R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal signaling of the protein kinase Akt has been shown to contribute to human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but Akt has proven to be a challenging target for drugging. Using iterative in situ click chemistry, we recently developed multiple protein-catalyzed capture (PCC) agents that allosterically modulate Akt enzymatic activity in a protein-based assay. Here, we utilize similar PCCs to exploit endogenous protein degradation pathways. We use the modularity of the anti-Akt PCCs to prepare proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules that are shown to promote the rapid degradation of Akt in live cancer cells. These novel proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules demonstrate that the epitope targeting selectivity of PCCs can be coupled with non-traditional drugging moieties to inhibit challenging targets. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Ultrasound molecular imaging of breast cancer in MCF-7 orthotopic mice using gold nanoshelled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocapsules: a novel dual-targeted ultrasound contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Xu,Li; Du,Jing; Wan,Caifeng; Zhang,Yu; Xie,Shaowei; Li,Hongli; Yang,Hong; Li,Fenghua

    2018-01-01

    Li Xu,1,* Jing Du,1,* Caifeng Wan,1 Yu Zhang,1 Shaowei Xie,1 Hongli Li,1 Hong Yang,2 Fenghua Li1 1Department of Ultrasound, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The development of nanoscale molecularly targeted ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with high affinity and specif...

  2. Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jon, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions including targeting, imaging, therapy, and etc have been intensively studied aiming to overcome limitations associated with conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used asmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constrast agents in clinic and their features could be easily tailored by including targeting moieties, fluorescence dyes, or therapeutic agents. This review summarizes targeting strategies for construction of multifunctional nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles-based theranostic systems, and the various surface engineering strategies of nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:22272217

  3. Biocompatible KMnF3 nanoparticular contrast agent with proper plasma retention time for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jun; Song, Xiao-xia; Xu, Xian-zhu; Tang, Qun

    2014-04-18

    Nanoparticular MRI contrast agents are rapidly becoming suitable for use in clinical diagnosis. An ideal nanoparticular contrast agent should be endowed with high relaxivity, biocompatibility, proper plasma retention time, and tissue-specific or tumor-targeting imaging. Herein we introduce PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles as a new type of T1 contrast agent. Studies showed that the nanoparticular contrast agent revealed high bio-stability with bovine serum albumin in PBS buffer solution, and presented excellent biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity, undetectable hemolysis and hemagglutination). Meanwhile the new contrast agent possessed proper plasma retention time (circulation half-life t1/2 is approximately 2 h) in the body of the administrated mice. It can be delivered into brain vessels and maintained there for hours, and is mostly cleared from the body within 48 h, as demonstrated by time-resolved MRI and Mn-biodistribution analysis. Those distinguishing features make it suitable to obtain contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance angiography. Moreover, through the process of passive targeting delivery, the T1 contrast agent clearly illuminates a brain tumor (glioma) with high contrast image and defined shape. This study demonstrates that PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles represent a promising biocompatible vascular contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into an active targeted tumor MRI contrast agent.

  4. Selective attention and control of action: comparative psychology of an artificial, evolved agent and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the selective attention abilities of a simple, artificial, evolved agent and considered implications of the agent's performance for theories of selective attention and action. The agent processed two targets in continuous time, catching one and then the other. This task required many cognitive operations, including prioritizing the first target (T1) over the second (T2); selectively focusing responses on T1, while preventing T2 from interfering with responses; creating a memory for the unselected T2 item, so that it could be efficiently processed later; and reallocating processing towards T2 after catching T1. The evolved agent demonstrated all these abilities. Analysis shows that the agent used reactive inhibition to selectively focus behavior. That is, the more salient T2, the more strongly responses towards T2 were inhibited and the slower the agent was to subsequently reallocate processing towards T2. Reactive inhibition was also suggested in two experiments with people, performing a virtually identical catch task. The presence of reactive inhibition in the simple agent and in people suggests that it is an important mechanism for selective processing.

  5. Cooperative mobile agents search using beehive partitioned structure and Tabu Random search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Saba; Jackson, Delvin L.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2013-05-01

    In search and surveillance operations, deploying a team of mobile agents provides a robust solution that has multiple advantages over using a single agent in efficiency and minimizing exploration time. This paper addresses the challenge of identifying a target in a given environment when using a team of mobile agents by proposing a novel method of mapping and movement of agent teams in a cooperative manner. The approach consists of two parts. First, the region is partitioned into a hexagonal beehive structure in order to provide equidistant movements in every direction and to allow for more natural and flexible environment mapping. Additionally, in search environments that are partitioned into hexagons, mobile agents have an efficient travel path while performing searches due to this partitioning approach. Second, we use a team of mobile agents that move in a cooperative manner and utilize the Tabu Random algorithm to search for the target. Due to the ever-increasing use of robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms, the field of cooperative multi-agent search has developed many applications recently that would benefit from the use of the approach presented in this work, including: search and rescue operations, surveillance, data collection, and border patrol. In this paper, the increased efficiency of the Tabu Random Search algorithm method in combination with hexagonal partitioning is simulated, analyzed, and advantages of this approach are presented and discussed.

  6. Polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available R Dinarvand1,2, N Sepehri1, S Manoochehri1, H Rouhani1, F Atyabi1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects.Keywords: nanotechnology, polymeric nanocarriers, targeting, anticancer agents, surface modification

  7. Epigenetic Modulating Agents as a New Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Ken; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Van Riet, Ivan; Vanderkerken, Karin; De Bruyne, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are under intense investigation in solid and hematological cancers. A clinical benefit of the use of these agents as single agents and in combination regimens has been suggested based on numerous studies in pre-clinical tumor models, including MM models. The mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood but appear to involve a combination of true epigenetic changes and cytotoxic actions. In addition, the interactions with the BM niche are also affected by epigenetic modulating agents that will further determine the in vivo efficacy and thus patient outcome. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the anti-tumor activity of the epigenetic drugs will lead to more rational drug combinations. This review focuses on the involvement of epigenetic changes in MM pathogenesis and how the use of DNMTi and HDACi affect the myeloma tumor itself and its interactions with the microenvironment

  8. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1979-03-01

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  9. Evaluation of respiration of mitochondria in cancer cells exposed to mitochondria-targeted agents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klučková, Katarína; Dong, L. F.; Bajziková, Martina; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1265, 07 Oct 2015 (2015), s. 181-194 ISSN 1940-6029 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Animals * Antineoplastic Agents * drug effects * *pharmacology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Comparison of single-agent chemotherapy and targeted therapy to first-line treatment in patients aged 80 years and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang QQ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Qianqian Zhang,1 Zhehai Wang,2 Jun Guo,2 Liyan Liu,2 Xiao Han,2 Minmin Li,1 Shu Fang,1 Xiang Bi,1 Ning Tang,1 Yang Liu1 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare single-agent chemotherapy with targeted therapy in initial treatment and to explore a better choice of treatment for patients aged 80 years and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for 136 patients aged 80 years and older who were cytopathologically diagnosed and staged as advanced (stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. The patient population was divided into two treatment groups: 78 patients were allocated to the chemotherapy group (group A, pemetrexed or gemcitabine or docetaxel as a single agent, and 60 patients were allocated to another group and received epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (group B, erlotinib or gefitinib as a single agent. The primary end points were overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, and the secondary end points were response rate, disease-control rate, safety, and quality of life.Results: In group A and group B, respectively, the median PFS was 2 versus 4 months (P=0.013, and the median OS was 8 versus 16 months (P=0.025. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of the two groups were 23.7% (group A, 18 of 76 versus 76.7% (group B, 46 of 60 and 13.2% (group A, ten of 76 versus 10% (group B, six of 60, respectively. The response rate and disease-control rate were 28.9% versus 36.7% (P=0.39 and 57.9% versus 76.7% (P=0.022 in group A and group B, respectively.Conclusion: Elders aged 80 years and over with advanced NSCLC in group B had longer PFS and OS compared with group A. It was well tolerated in group B because of the mild adverse effects. Targeted therapy can be

  11. Photoacoustic imaging of tumor targeting with biotin conjugated nanostructured phthalocyanine assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Li, Xingshu; Lee, Dayoung; Yoon, Juyoung; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Visualizing biological markers and delivering bioactive agents to living organisms are important to biological research. In recent decades, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been significantly improved in the area of molecular imaging, which provides high-resolution volume imaging with high optical absorption contrast. To demonstrate the ability of nanoprobes to target tumors using PAI, we synthesize convertible nanostructured agents with strong photothermal and photoacoustic properties and linked the nanoprobe with biotin to target tumors in small animal model. Interestingly, these nanoprobes allow partial to disassemble in the presence of targeted proteins that switchable photoactivity, thus the nanoprobes provides a fluorescent-cancer imaging with high signal-to-background ratios. The proposed nanoprobe produce a much stronger PA signal compared to the same concentration of methylene blue (MB), which is widely used in clinical study and contrast agent for PAI. The biotin conjugated nanoprobe has high selectivity for biotin receptor positive cancer cells such as A549 (human lung cancer). Then we subsequently examined the PA properties of the nanoprobe that are inherently suitable for in vivo PAI. After injecting of the nanoprobe via intravenous method, we observed the mice's whole body by PA imaging and acquired the PA signal near the cancer. The PA signal increased linearly with time after injection and the fluorescence signal near the cancer was confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The ability to target a specific cancer of the nanoprobe was well verified by PA imaging. This study provides valuable perspective on the advancement of clinical translations and in the design of tumor-targeting phototheranostic agents that could act as new nanomedicines.

  12. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Casanova, Isolda; Cedano, Juan; Corchero, José Luis; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing. Results Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusion Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. PMID:22923991

  13. Supramolecular approach for target transport of photodynamic anticancer agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Kaplánek, R.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 106-116 ISSN 1061-0278 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA ČR GA203/09/1311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * photosensitisers * targeted transport * combination therapy * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2012

  14. New Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicco, Elizabeth G; Maki, Robert G; Lev, Dina C.; Lazar, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. The pathogenesis of many of these is poorly understood, but others have begun to reveal the secrets of their inner workings. With considerable effort over recent years, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying molecular alterations. In turn, this has allowed the development and application of targeted agents in several specific, molecularly defined, sarcoma subtypes. This review will focus the rationale for targeted therapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the relevance of specific molecular factors and pathways in both translocation-associated sarcomas and in genetically complex tumors. In addition, we will address some of the early successes in sarcoma targeted therapy as well as a few challenges and disappointments in this field. Finally we will discuss several possible opportunities represented by poorly understood, but potentially promising new therapeutic targets, as well as several novel biologic agents currently in preclinical and early phase I/II trials. This will provide the reader with context for understanding the current state this field and a sense of where it may be headed in the coming years. PMID:22498582

  15. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  16. Targeted deletion of the ara operon of Salmonella typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and drives PBAD-promoted expression of anti-cancer toxins and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun; Lim, Daejin; Kim, Geun-Joong; Park, Seung-Hwan; Sik Kim, Hyeon; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-specific expression of antitumor drugs can be achieved using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harboring the PBAD promoter, which is induced by L-arabinose. However, L-arabinose does not accumulate because it is metabolized to D-xylulose-5-P by enzymes encoded by the ara operon in Salmonellae. To address this problem, we developed an engineered strain of S. typhimurium in which the ara operon is deleted. Linear DNA transformation was performed using λ red recombinase to exchange the ara operon with linear DNA carrying an antibiotic-resistance gene with homology to regions adjacent to the ara operon. The ara operon-deleted strain and its parental strain were transformed with a plasmid encoding Renilla luciferase variant 8 (RLuc8) or cytolysin A (clyA) under the control of the PBAD promoter. Luciferase assays demonstrated that RLuc8 expression was 49-fold higher in the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium than in the parental strain after the addition of L-arabinose. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that the tumor tissue targeted by the ara operon-deleted Salmonella had a stronger imaging signal (~30-fold) than that targeted by the parental strain. Mice with murine colon cancer (CT26) that had been injected with the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium expressing clyA showed significant tumor suppression. The present report demonstrates that deletion of the ara operon of S. typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and thereby drives PBAD-promoted expression of cytotoxic agents and imaging agents. This is a promising approach for tumor therapy and imaging.

  17. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  18. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  19. Oncogenic targets, magnitude of benefit, and market pricing of antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Eitan; Seruga, Bostjan; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Kwong, Ryan; Pandiella, Atanasio; Tannock, Ian F; Ocaña, Alberto

    2011-06-20

    The relationship between market pricing of new anticancer drugs and the magnitude of clinical benefit caused by them has not been reported. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated approved new agents for solid tumors by the U.S. Food and Drug administration since the year 2000 were assessed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were extracted for time-to-event end points described for each RCT. HRs were pooled for three groups: agents directed against a specific molecular target, for which the target population is selected by a biomarker (group A); less specific biologic targeted agents (group B); and chemotherapeutic agents (group C). Monthly market prices of these different drugs were compared. For overall survival (OS), the pooled HR was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.81) for group A (six drugs, six trials); it was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) for group B (seven drugs, 14 trials); and it was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90) for group C (eight drugs, 12 trials). For progression-free survival (PFS), the pooled HR was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.49) for group A (six drugs, seven trials); it was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.64) for group B (seven drugs, 14 trials); and it was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.85) for group C (six drugs, 10 trials). Tests for heterogeneity between subgroups were highly significant for PFS (P targets are clinically the most beneficial, but their monthly market prices are not significantly different from those of other anticancer agents.

  20. Screening of biocontrol agents for control of foliar diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    Candidate antagonists for the development of biocontrol agents have to fulfill many criteria. The criterion often investigated first in detail is the antagonistic potential of candidates against the target pathogen. However, candidates must also have high ecological competence, must be suitable for

  1. Development of a Combination Therapy for Prostate Cancer by Targeting Stat3 and HIF-1alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    inflammation-induced cancer, making it an attractive target (25-27). A3. Innovation 1. TEL03 is a novel anti-cancer agent from Chinese herbal medicine ...agents from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that targets HIF-1α /2α for prostate cancer therapy. Hypoxia orchestrated by HIF-1αis crucial for tumor...Stat3 for treatment of prostate and other cancers. TEL03, which is a novel anti-cancer agent derived from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM: Hypocrella

  2. Mechanisms of chemoresistance to alkylating agents in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkaria, Jann N; Kitange, Gaspar J; James, C David; Plummer, Ruth; Calvert, Hilary; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

    2008-05-15

    Intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance to alkylating agents is a major cause of treatment failure in patients with malignant brain tumors. Alkylating agents, the mainstay of treatment for brain tumors, damage the DNA and induce apoptosis, but the cytotoxic activity of these agents is dependent on DNA repair pathways. For example, O6-methylguanine DNA adducts can cause double-strand breaks, but this is dependent on a functional mismatch repair pathway. Thus, tumor cell lines deficient in mismatch repair are resistant to alkylating agents. Perhaps the most important mechanism of resistance to alkylating agents is the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, which can eliminate the cytotoxic O6-methylguanine DNA adduct before it causes harm. Another mechanism of resistance to alkylating agents is the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Consequently, efforts are ongoing to develop effective inhibitors of BER. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase plays a pivotal role in BER and is an important therapeutic target. Developing effective strategies to overcome chemoresistance requires the identification of reliable preclinical models that recapitulate human disease and which can be used to facilitate drug development. This article describes the diverse mechanisms of chemoresistance operating in malignant glioma and efforts to develop reliable preclinical models and novel pharmacologic approaches to overcome resistance to alkylating agents.

  3. Designing nanoconjugates to effectively target pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmad Khan

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in America. Monoclonal antibodies are a viable treatment option for inhibiting cancer growth. Tumor specific drug delivery could be achieved utilizing these monoclonal antibodies as targeting agents. This type of designer therapeutic is evolving and with the use of gold nanoparticles it is a promising approach to selectively deliver chemotherapeutics to malignant cells. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs are showing extreme promise in current medicinal research. GNPs have been shown to non-invasively kill tumor cells by hyperthermia using radiofrequency. They have also been implemented as early detection agents due to their unique X-ray contrast properties; success was revealed with clear delineation of blood capillaries in a preclinical model by CT (computer tomography. The fundamental parameters for intelligent design of nanoconjugates are on the forefront. The goal of this study is to define the necessary design parameters to successfully target pancreatic cancer cells.The nanoconjugates described in this study were characterized with various physico-chemical techniques. We demonstrate that the number of cetuximab molecules (targeting agent on a GNP, the hydrodynamic size of the nanoconjugates, available reactive surface area and the ability of the nanoconjugates to sequester EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, all play critical roles in effectively targeting tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.Our results suggest the specific targeting of tumor cells depends on a number of crucial components 1 targeting agent to nanoparticle ratio 2 availability of reactive surface area on the nanoparticle 3 ability of the nanoconjugate to bind the target and 4 hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoconjugate. We believe this study will help define the design parameters for formulating better strategies for specifically targeting tumors with nanoparticle

  4. Drug targeting systems for inflammatory disease: one for all, all for one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, B.J.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Schiffelers, R.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In various systemic disorders, structural changes in the microenvironment of diseased tissues enable both passive and active targeting of therapeutic agents to these tissues. This has led to a number of targeting approaches that enhance the accumulation of drugs in the target tissues,

  5. Targeting angiogenesis for radioimmunotherapy with a {sup 177}Lu-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlerding, Emily B.; Hernandez, Reinier [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Lacognata, Saige; Jiang, Dawei [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Ferreira, Carolina A. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Goel, Shreya [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Jeffery, Justin J. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Small Animal Imaging Facility, Madison, WI (United States); Theuer, Charles P. [TRACON Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Increased angiogenesis is a marker of aggressiveness in many cancers. Targeted radionuclide therapy of these cancers with angiogenesis-targeting agents may curtail this increased blood vessel formation and slow the growth of tumors, both primary and metastatic. CD105, or endoglin, has a primary role in angiogenesis in a number of cancers, making this a widely applicable target for targeted radioimmunotherapy. The anti-CD105 antibody, TRC105 (TRACON Pharmaceuticals), was conjugated with DTPA for radiolabeling with {sup 177}Lu (t{sub 1/2} 6.65 days). Balb/c mice were implanted with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, and five study groups were used: {sup 177}Lu only, TRC105 only, {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-IgG (a nonspecific antibody), {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105 low-dose, and {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105 high-dose. Toxicity of the agent was monitored by body weight measurements and analysis of blood markers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105 were also performed at 1 and 7 days after injection. Ex vivo histology studies of various tissues were conducted at 1, 7, and 30 days after injection of high-dose {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105. Biodistribution studies indicated steady uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105 in 4T1 tumors between 1 and 7 days after injection (14.3 ± 2.3%ID/g and 11.6 ± 6.1%ID/g, respectively; n = 3) and gradual clearance from other organs. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in the high-dose group, with a corresponding significant increase in survival (p < 0.001, all groups). In most study groups (all except the nonspecific IgG group), the body weights of the mice did not decrease by more than 10%, indicating the safety of the injected agents. Serum alanine transaminase levels remained nearly constant indicating no damage to the liver (a primary clearance organ of the agent), and this was confirmed by ex vivo histological analyses. {sup 177}Lu-DTPA-TRC105, when administered at a sufficient dose, is able to curtail tumor growth and provide a

  6. Design and Optimization of Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, G.A.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; University of Coimbra

    2007-01-01

    The role of Gd 3+ chelates as contrast agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is discussed. The theory describing the different contributions to paramagnetic relaxation relevant to the understanding of the molecular parameters determining the relativity of those Gd 3+ chelates, is presented. The experimental techniques used to obtain those parameters are also described. Then, the various approaches taken to optimize those parameters, leading to maximum relativity (efficiency) of the contrast agents, are also illustrated with relevant examples taken from the literature. The various types of Gd 3+ -based agents, besides non-specific and hepatobiliary agents, are also discussed, namely blood pool, targeting, responsive and paramagnetic chemical shift saturation transfer (PARACEST) agents. Finally, a perspective is presented of some of the challenges lying ahead in the optimization of MRI contrast agents to be useful in Molecular Imaging. (author)

  7. Deduction of initial strategy distributions of agents in mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports the effort of deducing the initial strategy distributions (ISDs) of agents in mix-game models that is used to predict a real financial time series generated from a target financial market. Using mix-games to predict Shanghai Index, we find that the time series of prediction accurate rates is sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 2 who play a minority game, but less sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 1 who play a majority game. And agents in group 2 tend to cluster in full strategy space (FSS) if the real financial time series has obvious tendency (upward or downward), otherwise they tend to scatter in FSS. We also find that the ISDs and the number of agents in group 1 influence the level of prediction accurate rates. Finally, this paper gives suggestion about further research.

  8. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.

  9. An MR Contrast Agent for Intra-Prostatic Imaging of Prostatic Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josephson, Lee

    2005-01-01

    An MR contrast agent targeted to the GRP receptor will be a novel pharmaceutical capable of non-invasively, and at high spatial resolution, characterizing healthy and patholological regions within the prostate...

  10. Quantitative Molecular Imaging with a Single Gd-Based Contrast Agent Reveals Specific Tumor Binding and Retention in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mette L; Gao, Ying; Hutnick, Melanie A; Craig, Sonya E L; Pokorski, Jonathan K; Flask, Chris A; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M

    2017-06-06

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially cancer. However, the poor sensitivity of MRI relative to other imaging modalities, such as PET, has hindered the development and clinical use of molecular MRI contrast agents that could provide vital diagnostic information by specifically locating a molecular target altered in the disease process. This work describes the specific and sustained in vivo binding and retention of a protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ)-targeted, molecular magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent with a single gadolinium (Gd) chelate using a quantitative MRI T 1 mapping technique in glioma xenografts. Quantitative T 1 mapping is an imaging method used to measure the longitudinal relaxation time, the T 1 relaxation time, of protons in a magnetic field after excitation by a radiofrequency pulse. T 1 relaxation times can in turn be used to calculate the concentration of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent in a region of interest, thereby allowing the retention or clearance of an agent to be quantified. In this context, retention is a measure of molecular contrast agent binding. Using conventional peptide chemistry, a PTPμ-targeted peptide was linked to a chelator that had been conjugated to a lysine residue. Following complexation with Gd, this PTPμ-targeted molecular contrast agent containing a single Gd ion showed significant tumor enhancement and a sustained increase in Gd concentration in both heterotopic and orthotopic tumors using dynamic quantitative MRI. This single Gd-containing PTPμ agent was more effective than our previous version with three Gd ions. Differences between nonspecific and specific agents, due to specific tumor binding, can be determined within the first 30 min after agent administration by examining clearance rates. This more facile chemistry, when combined with quantitative MR techniques, allows for widespread adoption by academic

  11. Antiadhesion agents against Gram-positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascioferro, Stella; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Schillaci, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step of Gram-positive pathogenesis is the bacterial adhesion to the host tissue involving interaction between bacterial surface molecules and host ligands. This review is focused on antivirulence compounds that target Gram-positive adhesins and on their potential development as therapeutic agents alternative or complementary to conventional antibiotics in the contrast of pathogens. In particular, compounds that target the sortase A, wall theicoic acid inhibitors, carbohydrates able to bind bacterial proteins and proteins capable of influencing the bacterial adhesion, were described. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy in the development of novel antimicrobials and the future perspective of this research field still at its first steps.

  12. In-silico Metabolome Target Analysis Towards PanC-based Antimycobacterial Agent Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Sardari, Soroush; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Khavari-Nejad, Ramezan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main cause of tuberculosis (TB), has still remained a global health crisis especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis treatment is a laborious and lengthy process with high risk of noncompliance, cytotoxicity adverse events and drug resistance in patient. Recently, there has been an alarming rise of drug resistant in TB. In this regard, it is an unmet need to develop novel antitubercular medicines that target new or more effective biochemical pathways to prevent drug resistant Mycobacterium. Integrated study of metabolic pathways through in-silico approach played a key role in antimycobacterial design process in this study. Our results suggest that pantothenate synthetase (PanC), anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (TrpD) and 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (LeuD) might be appropriate drug targets. In the next step, in-silico ligand analysis was used for more detailed study of chemical tractability of targets. This was helpful to identify pantothenate synthetase (PanC, Rv3602c) as the best target for antimycobacterial design procedure. Virtual library screening on the best ligand of PanC was then performed for inhibitory ligand design. At the end, five chemical intermediates showed significant inhibition of Mycobacterium bovis with good selectivity indices (SI) ≥10 according to Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition & Coordinating Facility of US criteria for antimycobacterial screening programs.

  13. Vascular Targeting in Pancreatic Cancer: The Novel Tubulin-Binding Agent ZD6126 Reveals Antitumor Activity in Primary and Metastatic Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kleespies

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ZD6126 is a novel vascular-targeting agent that acts by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton of an immature tumor endothelium, leading to an occlusion of tumor blood vessels and a subsequent tumor necrosis. We wanted to evaluate ZD6126 in primary and metastatic tumor models of human pancreatic cancer. Nude mice were injected orthotopically with L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells. In single and multiple dosing experiments, mice received ZD6126, gemcitabine, a combination of both agents, or no treatment. For the induction of metastatic disease, additional groups of mice were injected with L3.6pl cells into the spleen. Twenty-four hours after a single-dose treatment, ZD6126 therapy led to an extensive central tumor necrosis, which was not seen after gemcitabine treatment. Multiple dosing of ZD6126 resulted in a significant growth inhibition of primary tumors and a marked reduction of spontaneous liver and lymph node metastases. Experimental metastatic disease could be significantly controlled by a combination of ZD6126 and gemcitabine, as shown by a reduction of the number and size of established liver metastases. As shown by additional in vitro and in vivo experiments, possible mechanisms involve antivascular activities and subsequent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of ZD6126 on tumor cells, whereas direct activities against tumor cells seem unlikely. These data highlight the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of ZD6126 in human pancreatic cancer and reveal benefits of adding ZD6126 to standard gemcitabine therapy.

  14. The advantages and challenges of using FDG PET/CT for response assessment in melanoma in the era of targeted agents and immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Annie N.M.; McArthur, Grant A. [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Cancer Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S. [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [The University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Cancer Imaging, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    The treatment of melanoma has been revolutionised in recent years by advances in the understanding of the genomic landscape of this disease, which has led to the development of new targeted therapeutic agents, and the ability to therapeutically manipulate the immune system through inhibition of cancer cell-T-cell interactions that prevent an adaptive immune response. While these therapeutic interventions have dramatically improved the prospects of survival for patients with advanced melanoma, they bring significant complexity to the interpretation of therapeutic response because their mechanisms and temporal profile of response vary considerably. In this review, we discuss the mode of action of these emerging therapies and their toxicities to provide a framework for the use of FDG PET/CT in therapeutic response assessment. We propose that the greatest utility of PET in assessment of response to agents that abrogate signalling related to BRAF mutation is for early assessment of resistance, while in anti-CTLA4 therapy, immunological flare can compromise early assessment of response but can identify potentially life-threatening autoimmune reactions. For anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy, the role of FDG PET/CT is more akin to its use in other solid malignancies undergoing treatment with conventional chemotherapy. However, further research is required to optimise the timing of scans and response criteria in this disease. (orig.)

  15. The advantages and challenges of using FDG PET/CT for response assessment in melanoma in the era of targeted agents and immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Annie N.M.; McArthur, Grant A.; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of melanoma has been revolutionised in recent years by advances in the understanding of the genomic landscape of this disease, which has led to the development of new targeted therapeutic agents, and the ability to therapeutically manipulate the immune system through inhibition of cancer cell-T-cell interactions that prevent an adaptive immune response. While these therapeutic interventions have dramatically improved the prospects of survival for patients with advanced melanoma, they bring significant complexity to the interpretation of therapeutic response because their mechanisms and temporal profile of response vary considerably. In this review, we discuss the mode of action of these emerging therapies and their toxicities to provide a framework for the use of FDG PET/CT in therapeutic response assessment. We propose that the greatest utility of PET in assessment of response to agents that abrogate signalling related to BRAF mutation is for early assessment of resistance, while in anti-CTLA4 therapy, immunological flare can compromise early assessment of response but can identify potentially life-threatening autoimmune reactions. For anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy, the role of FDG PET/CT is more akin to its use in other solid malignancies undergoing treatment with conventional chemotherapy. However, further research is required to optimise the timing of scans and response criteria in this disease. (orig.)

  16. Decentralized Planning for Autonomous Agents Cooperating in Complex Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    is a " lawn mower " search path. The world is divided into N, rectangles, and each agent traverses its own rectangle by sweeping back and forth in a...mission. Furthermore, the random walk never found more than three targets for the 50 missions simulated, as seen in Figure 5-7. The lawn mower search...that both the random walk and the lawn mower search seem to find targets at a linear rate with respect to time, whereas the other four strategies are

  17. Identification of novel human damage response proteins targeted through yeast orthology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peter Svensson

    Full Text Available Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for cellular survival after treatment with DNA damaging agents. For this purpose, human homologs of S. cerevisiae proteins were identified and mapped onto the human protein-protein interaction network. The resulting human network was highly modular and a series of selection rules were implemented to identify 45 candidates for human toxicity-modulating proteins. The corresponding transcripts were targeted by RNA interference in human cells. The cell lines with depleted target expression were challenged with three DNA damaging agents: the alkylating agents MMS and 4-NQO, and the oxidizing agent t-BuOOH. A comparison of the survival revealed that the majority (74% of proteins conferred either sensitivity or resistance. The identified human toxicity-modulating proteins represent a variety of biological functions: autophagy, chromatin modifications, RNA and protein metabolism, and telomere maintenance. Further studies revealed that MMS-induced autophagy increase the survival of cells treated with DNA damaging agents. In summary, we show that damage recovery proteins in humans can be identified through homology to S. cerevisiae and that many of the same pathways are represented among the toxicity modulators.

  18. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  19. Tumor-targeting peptides from combinatorial libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiwu; Li, Xiaocen; Xiao, Wenwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major and leading causes of death worldwide. Two of the greatest challenges infighting cancer are early detection and effective treatments with no or minimum side effects. Widespread use of targeted therapies and molecular imaging in clinics requires high affinity, tumor-specific agents as effective targeting vehicles to deliver therapeutics and imaging probes to the primary or metastatic tumor sites. Combinatorial libraries such as phage-display and one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries are powerful approaches in discovering tumor-targeting peptides. This review gives an overview of different combinatorial library technologies that have been used for the discovery of tumor-targeting peptides. Examples of tumor-targeting peptides identified from each combinatorial library method will be discussed. Published tumor-targeting peptide ligands and their applications will also be summarized by the combinatorial library methods and their corresponding binding receptors. PMID:27210583

  20. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  1. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  2. Targeted Delivery of Hyaluronan-Immobilized Magnetic Ceramic Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Wang, Tzu-Wei; Hsieh, Shun-Yu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Kang, Pei-Leun

    2016-01-01

    Effective cancer therapy relies on delivering the therapeutic agent precisely to the target site to improve the treatment outcome and to minimize side effects. Although surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the standard methods commonly used in clinics, hyperthermia has been developed as a new and promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, magnetic bioceramic hydroxyapatite (mHAP) nanocrystals have been developed as heat mediator for intracellular hyperthermia. Hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mHAP nanocrystals are synthesized by a wet chemical precipitation process to achieve active targeting. The results demonstrate that the HA targeting moiety conjugated by a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer arm is successfully immobilized on the surface of mHAP. The HA-modified mHAP possesses relatively good biocompatibility, an adequate biodegradation rate and superparamagnetic properties. The HA-modified mHAP could be localized and internalized into HA receptor-overexpressed malignant cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231 cell) and used as the heat generating agent for intracellular hyperthermia. The results from this study indicate that biocompatible HA-modified mHAP shows promise as a novel heat mediator and a specific targeting nanoagent for intracellular hyperthermia cancer therapy.

  3. Nanoparticles as image enhancing agents for ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jun [Biomedical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, 270 Bevis Hall, 1080 Carmack Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Levine, Andrea L [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mattoon, John S [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Ohio State University, 1151 Veterinary Hospital, 601 Vernon Tharp St., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yamaguchi, Mamoru [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Robert J [Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, NCI Comprehensive Cancer Center, and NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, Ohio State University, 500 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan Xueliang [Department of Statistics, Ohio State University, 1958 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rosol, Thomas J [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2006-05-07

    Nanoparticles have drawn great attention as targeted imaging and/or therapeutic agents. The small size of the nanoparticles allows them to target cells that are beyond capillary vasculature, such as cancer cells. We investigated the effect of solid nanoparticles for enhancing ultrasonic grey scale images in tissue phantoms and mouse livers in vivo. Silica nanospheres (100 nm) were dispersed in agarose at 1-2.5% mass concentration and imaged by a high-resolution ultrasound imaging system (transducer centre frequency: 30 MHz). Polystyrene particles of different sizes (500-3000 nm) and concentrations (0.13-0.75% mass) were similarly dispersed in agarose and imaged. Mice were injected intravenously with nanoparticle suspensions in saline. B-mode images of the livers were acquired at different time points after particle injection. An automated computer program was used to quantify the grey scale changes. Ultrasonic reflections were observed from nanoparticle suspensions in agarose gels. The image brightness, i.e., mean grey scale level, increased with particle size and concentration. The mean grey scale of mouse livers also increased following particle administration. These results indicated that it is feasible to use solid nanoparticles as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasonic imagin000.

  4. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, Frederick O.; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In considering the challenges of approaches to clinical imaging, we are faced with choices that sometimes are impacted by rather dogmatic notions about what is a better or worse technology to achieve the most useful diagnostic image for the patient. For example, is PET or SPECT most useful in imaging any particular disease dissemination? The dictatorial approach would be to choose PET, all other matters being equal. But is such a totalitarian attitude toward imaging selection still valid? In the face of new receptor targeted SPECT agents one must consider the remarkable specificity and sensitivity of these agents. 99m Tc-Tilmanocept is one of the newest of these agents, now approved for guiding sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) in several solid tumors. Tilmanocept has a K d of 3 × 10 −11 M, and it specificity for the CD206 receptor is unlike any other agent to date. This coupled with a number of facts, that specific disease-associated macrophages express this receptor (100 to 150 thousand receptors), that the receptor has multiple binding sites for tilmanocept (> 2 sites per receptor) and that these receptors are recycled every 15 min to bind more tilmanocept (acting as intracellular “drug compilers” of tilmanocept into non-degraded vesicles), gives serious pause as to how we select our approaches to diagnostic imaging. Clinically, the size of SLNs varies greatly, some, anatomically, below the machine resolution of SPECT. Yet, with tilmanocept targeting, the SLNs are highly visible with macrophages stably accruing adequate 99m Tc-tilmanocept counting statistics, as high target-to-background ratios can compensate for spatial resolution blurring. Importantly, it may be targeted imaging agents per se, again such as tilmanocept, which may significantly shrink any perceived chasm between the imaging technologies and anchor the diagnostic considerations in the targeting and specificity of the agent rather than any lingering dogma about the hardware as the basis

  5. Investigating the impacts of recommendation agents on impulsive purchase behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, H.; Yang, Z.; Ou, Carol; Liu, H.W.; Davison, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The usage of recommendation agents (RAs) in the online marketplace can help consumers to locate their desired products. RAs can help consumers effectively obtain comprehensive product information and compare their candidate target products. As a result, RAs have affected consumers’ shopping

  6. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  7. Cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, E; Molina, A M; Carbonaro, M; Akhtar, N H; Giannakakou, P; Tagawa, S T; Nanus, D M

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease with regards to histology, progression, and response to treatment. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been extensively studied in metastatic RCC (mRCC). Responses in most studies are modest and the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood. Targeted therapies have significantly improved outcomes in mRCC; however, most patients eventually relapse and die of their disease. Early clinical data suggest that combinations of chemotherapy and targeted agents are clinically active and are well tolerated. We reviewed the available literature for published clinical trials incorporating traditional chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of mRCC. These papers were identified through a Medline search and were included if they employed at least one chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mRCC. The literature was also reviewed for information regarding mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance. The data regarding the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy in mRCC consist of small, non-randomized phase I and II studies. The major response proportions with single agent chemotherapies are low but combination regimens either with other cytotoxic agents, cytokines, or targeted agents have demonstrated moderate activity. Disparate trial designs and lack of head to head clinical trials make it difficult to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy with that of immunotherapy or targeted agents. Chemotherapy is particularly useful in patients with collecting duct histology and predominantly sarcomatoid differentiation. Chemotherapy resistance may be mediated by overexpression of p-glycoprotein efflux pumps and the dysregulation of the microtubule-hypoxia inducible factor signaling axis. The role of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment for clear cell RCC remains poorly defined. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered a standard of care in patients with mRCC with predominantly sarcomatoid differentiation and collecting duct RCC variants (Motzer et al

  8. An Energy-Efficient Target Tracking Framework in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study devises and evaluates an energy-efficient distributed collaborative signal and information processing framework for acoustic target tracking in wireless sensor networks. The distributed processing algorithm is based on mobile agent computing paradigm and sequential Bayesian estimation. At each time step, the short detection reports of cluster members will be collected by cluster head, and a sensor node with the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is chosen there as reference node for time difference of arrive (TDOA calculation. During the mobile agent migration, the target state belief is transmitted among nodes and updated using the TDOA measurement of these fusion nodes one by one. The computing and processing burden is evenly distributed in the sensor network. To decrease the wireless communications, we propose to represent the belief by parameterized methods such as Gaussian approximation or Gaussian mixture model approximation. Furthermore, we present an attraction force function to handle the mobile agent migration planning problem, which is a combination of the node residual energy, useful information, and communication cost. Simulation examples demonstrate the estimation effectiveness and energy efficiency of the proposed distributed collaborative target tracking framework.

  9. Nucleotide excision repair is a potential therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalat, R; Samur, M K; Fulciniti, M; Lopez, M; Nanjappa, P; Cleynen, A; Wen, K; Kumar, S; Perini, T; Calkins, A S; Reznichenko, E; Chauhan, D; Tai, Y-T; Shammas, M A; Anderson, K C; Fermand, J-P; Arnulf, B; Avet-Loiseau, H; Lazaro, J-B; Munshi, N C

    2018-01-01

    Despite the development of novel drugs, alkylating agents remain an important component of therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). DNA repair processes contribute towards sensitivity to alkylating agents and therefore we here evaluate the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is involved in the removal of bulky adducts and DNA crosslinks in MM. We first evaluated NER activity using a novel functional assay and observed a heterogeneous NER efficiency in MM cell lines and patient samples. Using next-generation sequencing data, we identified that expression of the canonical NER gene, excision repair cross-complementation group 3 (ERCC3), significantly impacted the outcome in newly diagnosed MM patients treated with alkylating agents. Next, using small RNA interference, stable knockdown and overexpression, and small-molecule inhibitors targeting xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group B (XPB), the DNA helicase encoded by ERCC3, we demonstrate that NER inhibition significantly increases sensitivity and overcomes resistance to alkylating agents in MM. Moreover, inhibiting XPB leads to the dual inhibition of NER and transcription and is particularly efficient in myeloma cells. Altogether, we show that NER impacts alkylating agents sensitivity in myeloma cells and identify ERCC3 as a potential therapeutic target in MM. PMID:28588253

  10. Microbubble embedded with upconversion nanoparticles as a bimodal contrast agent for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Birui; Lin, Min; You, Minli; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tianjian; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal imaging offers additional imaging signal thus finds wide spread application in clinical diagnostic imaging. Fluorescence/ultrasound bimodal imaging contrast agent using fluorescent dyes or quantum dots for fluorescence signal has emerged as a promising method, which however requires visible light or UV irradiation resulting in photobleaching, photoblinking, auto-fluorescence and limited tissue penetration depth. To surmount these problems, we developed a novel bimodal contrast agent using layer-by-layer assembly of upconversion nanoparticles onto the surface of microbubbles. The resulting microbubbles with average size of 2 μm provide enhanced ultrasound echo for ultrasound imaging and upconversion emission upon near infrared irradiation for fluorescence imaging. The developed bimodal contrast agent holds great potential to be applied in ultrasound target technique for targeted diseases diagnostics and therapy. (paper)

  11. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. Advanced Contrast Agents for Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Based on Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Daniel; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments. The contrast agent field is currently moving to improve the performance of these molecules by incorporating the advantages that modern nanotechnology offers. These include, mainly, the possibilities to combine imaging and therapeutic capabilities over the same theranostic platform or improve the targeting efficiency in vivo by molecular engineering of the nanostructures. In this review, we provide an introduction to multimodal imaging methods in biomedicine, the sub-nanometric imaging agents previously used and the development of advanced multimodal and theranostic imaging agents based in nanotechnology. We conclude providing some illustrative examples from our own laboratories, including recent progress in theranostic formulations of magnetoliposomes containing ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids to treat inflammatory diseases, or the use of stealth liposomes engineered with a pH-sensitive nanovalve to release their cargo specifically in the acidic extracellular pH microenvironment of tumors.

  13. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted imaging and therapy of prostate cancer using a PSMA inhibitor as a homing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Sumith A; Wang, Kevin; Santhapuram, Hari-Krishna R; Low, Philip S

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western society today. Current methods for detecting PCa are limited, leaving most early malignancies undiagnosed and sites of metastasis in advanced disease undetected. Major deficiencies also exist in the treatment of PCa, especially metastatic disease. In an effort to improve both detection and therapy of PCa, we have developed a PSMA-targeted ligand that delivers attached imaging and therapeutic agents selectively to PCa cells without targeting normal cells. The PSMA-targeted radioimaging agent (DUPA-(99m)Tc) was found to bind PSMA-positive human PCa cells (LNCaP cell line) with nanomolar affinity (K(D) = 14 nM). Imaging and biodistribution studies revealed that DUPA-(99m)Tc localizes primarily to LNCaP cell tumor xenografts in nu/nu mice (% injected dose/gram = 11.3 at 4 h postinjection; tumor-to-muscle ratio = 75:1). Two PSMA-targeted optical imaging agents (DUPA-FITC and DUPA-rhodamine B) were also shown to efficiently label PCa cells and to internalize and traffic to intracellular endosomes. A PSMA-targeted chemotherapeutic agent (DUPA-TubH) was demonstrated to kill PSMA-positive LNCaP cells in culture (IC(50) = 3 nM) and to eliminate established tumor xenografts in nu/nu mice with no detectable weight loss. Blockade of tumor targeting upon administration of excess PSMA inhibitor (PMPA) and the absence of targeting to PSMA-negative tumors confirmed the specificity of each of the above targeted reagents for PSMA. Tandem use of the imaging and therapeutic agents targeted to the same receptor could allow detection, staging, monitoring, and treatment of PCa with improved accuracy and efficacy.

  14. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of

  15. Training strategic community agents in health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Teresa C.S.B.; Silva, IIson P.M. da; Jannuzzi, Denise M.S.; Maurmo, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    The main motivation for the development of training was the need to train agents (opinion makers) with proximity and credibility among the population, to clarify the most frequently asked questions in relation to ionizing radiation, the operation of nuclear power plants, emergency plans and about the possibility of there effects of radiation on the health of inhabitants in regions close to the central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The project has a target audience of 420 agents, 60 of them have already been trained in a pilot project . The results indicate that the topics of training were adequate and the agents have expanded their knowledge. On the other hand, the information passed on to communities by agents, recognized by this population as ' the most reliable people', is of greater credibility and likelihood of success in communicating important issues for the population living in the vicinity of the CNAAA. (author)

  16. Increasing referral of at-risk travelers to travel health clinics: evaluation of a health promotion intervention targeted to travel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, L A; Gyorkos, T W; Leffondré, K; Abrahamowicz, M; Tessier, D; Ward, B J; MacLean, J D

    2001-01-01

    Increases in travel-related illness require new partnerships to ensure travelers are prepared for health risks abroad. The travel agent is one such partner and efforts to encourage travel agents to refer at-risk travelers to travel health clinics may help in reducing travel-attributable morbidity. A health promotion intervention encouraging travel agents to refer at-risk travelers to travel health clinics was evaluated. Information on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of travel agents before and after the intervention was compared using two self-administered questionnaires. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the mean difference in overall scores to evaluate the overall impact of the intervention and also subscores for each of the behavioral construct groupings (attitudes, barriers, intent, and subjective norms). Multiple regression techniques were used to evaluate which travel agent characteristics were independently associated with a stronger effect of the intervention. A small improvement in travel agents overall attitudes and beliefs (p =.03) was found, in particular their intention to refer (p =.01). Sixty-five percent of travel agents self-reported an increase in referral behavior; owners or managers of the agency were significantly more likely to do so than other travel agents (OR = 7.25; 95% CI: 1.64 32.06). Older travel agents, those that worked longer hours and those with some past referral experience, had significantly higher post-intervention scores. Travel agents can be willing partners in referral, and agencies should be encouraged to develop specific referral policies. Future research may be directed toward investigating the role of health education in certification curricula, the effectiveness of different types of health promotion interventions, including Internet-facilitated interventions, and the direct impact that such interventions would have on travelers attending travel health clinics.

  17. The Next Generation of Targeted Molecules for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Deepa; O'Brien, Susan

    2016-11-15

    With the recent approval of several new targeted therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there are now multiple options for its treatment. Inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (with ibrutinib being the first-in-class US Food and Drug Administration-approved agent) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (with idelalisib as the first-in-class approved agent) are promising because they are generally well tolerated and highly effective against this malignancy. These agents may be particularly important in the treatment of older patients who are less able to tolerate the myelosuppression (and subsequent infections) associated with chemoimmunotherapy. As a class of medications, B-cell receptor inhibitors have some unique side effects, including redistribution lymphocytosis. Toxicities associated specifically with ibrutinib include increased risk for bleeding and atrial fibrillation. Idelalisib also has some unique toxicities: transaminitis, colitis, and pneumonitis. Targeted therapies recently approved for use in CLL include the novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab, and the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax. This article describes the clinical data that led to approval of these B-cell receptor inhibitors for the treatment of CLL, and highlights newer agents in clinical development that target the same kinases as the currently available therapies.

  18. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to α-Particle Emitting 211At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting 211 At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[ 211 At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its 125 I analogue SGMIB, or with 131 I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [ 211 At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted α-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this 211 At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-09

    since last year, such as meat and so on. As cial differences will be signed by the two presidents? French companies begin working on certain projects...the petrochemical complex and Halal indebted to them. [passage omitted] Barim, 2,400 square meters of land behind Takhti Sta- dium, and 14,500 square...percent exemption on commercial profits for commercial goods imported through Kish [Text] Kerman, Sept. 4 (IRNA)-A Rls.[rials]25 billion Island have

  20. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  1. RNA as a small molecule druggable target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Smith, Graham F

    2017-12-01

    Small molecule drugs have readily been developed against many proteins in the human proteome, but RNA has remained an elusive target for drug discovery. Increasingly, we see that RNA, and to a lesser extent DNA elements, show a persistent tertiary structure responsible for many diverse and complex cellular functions. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances in screening approaches for RNA targets and outlined the discovery of novel, drug-like small molecules against RNA targets from various classes and therapeutic areas. The link of structure, function, and small-molecule Druggability validates now for the first time that RNA can be the targets of therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel targets for inflammatory bowel disease therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwenberg, Mark; D'Haens, Geert

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new agents have been evaluated for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper, we critically review recently published literature about these novel therapies, which have been the result of extensive research identifying molecular targets. Of the various

  3. Current progress and future perspectives in the development of anti-polo-like kinase 1 therapeutic agents [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although significant levels of side effects are often associated with their use, microtubule-directed agents that primarily target fast-growing mitotic cells have been considered to be some of the most effective anti-cancer therapeutics. With the hope of developing new-generation anti-mitotic agents with reduced side effects and enhanced tumor specificity, researchers have targeted various proteins whose functions are critically required for mitotic progression. As one of the highly attractive mitotic targets, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1 has been the subject of an extensive effort for anti-cancer drug discovery. To date, a variety of anti-Plk1 agents have been developed, and several of them are presently in clinical trials. Here, we will discuss the current status of generating anti-Plk1 agents as well as future strategies for designing and developing more efficacious anti-Plk1 therapeutics.

  4. Targeted search of hypoglycemic agents among N-substituted isoindoline-1,3-diones and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Martynenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that increasing of glucose level in the blood is an important factor at the risk of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus type 2 development. Taking this into account, short-acting priming regulators of glycemia (meglitinides are designed, such as tableted sugar-reducing drugs with short acting insulin secretion stimulation. They are characterized by a slight decrease of glycohemoglobin content, the risk of body weight gain and decrease of efficacy during long-term usage despite their effectiveness. The solution of this problem can be as following: the creation of more effective drugs, which would contain known antidiabetic “pharmacophore” fragments able to provide a long-term hypoglycemic effect and having a polyvectoral mechanism of activity and effect both on symptoms of the disease and on disease etiology. The aim of the work is targeted search of hypoglycemic isoindoline-1,3-dione derivatives and its hydrogenated analogues based on rational design, structural similarity to metglitinides, molecular docking and traditional pharmacological screening. Materials and methods: laboratory utensils and organic solvents, “Stuart Scientific SMP30” melting point apparatus, ELEMENTAR vario EL Cube elemental analyzer, Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer, Varian-Mercury 400 1H NMR spectrometer, Agilent 1100 Series liquid chromatograph, Marvin Sketch 17.21, AutoDockTools-1.5.6, Discovery Studio 4.0. Results. The targeted search of hypoglycemic agents among N-substituted isoindoline-1,3-diones and its analogues based on the structural similarity with existing active pharmaceutical ingredients, using molecular docking and traditional pharmacological screening was performed in the work. Mentioned compounds were synthesized by the refluxing of phthalic anhydride and its analogs with aminoalkyl-(alkaryl-,aryl-carboxylic acids in the medium of the acetic acid. It was shown, that refluxing of 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-epoxyisobenzofuran-1

  5. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Karamchand, Leshern; Kopelman, Raoul; Xie, Zhixing; Wang, Xueding

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well. (paper)

  6. Diagnostic agents containing albumin and methods for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saklad, E.L.; Layne, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification outlines a method for providing a diagnostic agent for use in radiological testing, comprising the production of an admixture of a source of radionuclide ion (sup(99m)Tc), a reducing agent (source of stannous ions at a pH below 7) and a stabilized, defatted human albumin being sufficiently purified for an aqueous solution not to become cloudy for at least an hour at a pH of 4 or below. Other aspects of the patent provide for a method of producing a radiodiagnostic kit of the above components, packaged in a sealed sterile non-pyrogenic container, and also a method of concentrating sup(99m)Tc in vivo in a target mammalian tissue, by intravenous administration of a mixture of sup(99m)Tc, a reducing agent, and delipidized serum albumin. (U.K.)

  7. Preparation of calcium-separated isotope targets using small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    Targets are routinely evaporated using a few milligram quantities of separated isotopes of calcium with reducing agents. The source to target distance is 3.0 cm with the substrate, if necessary, as thin as 15 μg/cm 2 carbon or 100 μg/cm 2 of gold. A tantalum closed boat, heat shield, and special collimator system are used

  8. Systemic approaches identify a garlic-derived chemical, Z-ajoene, as a glioblastoma multiforme cancer stem cell-specific targeting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchae; Park, Heejoo; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kim, Woo-Young

    2014-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common brain malignancies and has a very poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in GBM and the rare CSC subpopulation that is resistant to chemotherapy may be responsible for the treatment failure and unfavorable prognosis of GBM. A garlic-derived compound, Z-ajoene, has shown a range of biological activities, including anti-proliferative effects on several cancers. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Z-ajoene specifically inhibits the growth of the GBM CSC population. CSC sphere-forming inhibition was achieved at a concentration that did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect in regular cell culture conditions. The specificity of this inhibitory effect on the CSC population was confirmed by detecting CSC cell surface marker CD133 expression and biochemical marker ALDH activity. In addition, stem cell-related mRNA profiling and real-time PCR revealed the differential expression of CSC-specific genes, including Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, upon treatment with Z-ajoene. A proteomic approach, i.e., reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) and Western blot analysis, showed decreased SMAD4, p-AKT, 14.3.3 and FOXO3A expression. The protein interaction map (http://string-db.org/) of the identified molecules suggested that the AKT, ERK/p38 and TGFβ signaling pathways are key mediators of Z-ajoene's action, which affects the transcriptional network that includes FOXO3A. These biological and bioinformatic analyses collectively demonstrate that Z-ajoene is a potential candidate for the treatment of GBM by specifically targeting GBM CSCs. We also show how this systemic approach strengthens the identification of new therapeutic agents that target CSCs.

  9. Targeted Therapeutic Nanoparticles: An Immense Promise to Fight against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Tasnim Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In nanomedicine, targeted therapeutic nanoparticle (NP is a virtual outcome of nanotechnology taking the advantage of cancer propagation pattern. Tying up all elements such as therapeutic or imaging agent, targeting ligand, and cross-linking agent with the NPs is the key concept to deliver the payload selectively where it intends to reach. The microenvironment of tumor tissues in lymphatic vessels can also help targeted NPs to achieve their anticipated accumulation depending on the formulation objectives. This review accumulates the application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and polyethylene glycol (PEG based NP systems, with a specific perspective in cancer. Nowadays, PLGA, PEG, or their combinations are the mostly used polymers to serve the purpose of targeted therapeutic NPs. Their unique physicochemical properties along with their biological activities are also discussed. Depending on the biological effects from parameters associated with existing NPs, several advantages and limitations have been explored in teaming up all the essential facts to give birth to targeted therapeutic NPs. Therefore, the current article will provide a comprehensive review of various approaches to fabricate a targeted system to achieve appropriate physicochemical properties. Based on such findings, researchers can realize the benefits and challenges for the next generation of delivery systems.

  10. Targeted therapies and radiation for the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwi Eon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on novel radiation treatments for head and neck cancer. Despite the remarkable advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy techniques, the management of advanced head and neck cancer remains challenging. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an appealing target for novel therapies in head and neck cancer because not only EGFR activation stimulates many important signaling pathways associated with cancer development and progression, and importantly, resistance to radiation. Furthermore, EGFR overexpression is known to be portended for a worse outcome in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Two categories of compounds designed to abrogate EGFR signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies (Cetuximab) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ZD1839 and OSI-774) have been assessed and have been most extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials. Additional TKIs in clinical trials include a reversible agent, Cl-1033, which blocks activation of all erbB receptors. Encouraging preclinical data for head and neck cancers resulted in rapid translation into the clinic. Results from initial clinical trials show rather surprisingly that only minority of patients benefited from EGFR inhibition as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. In this review, we begin with a brief summary of erbB-mediated signal transduction. Subsequently, we present data on prognostic-predictive value of erbB receptor expression in HNC followed by preclinical and clinical data on the role of EGFR antagonists alone or in combination with radiation in the treatment of HNC. Finally, we discuss the emerging thoughts on resistance to EGFR blockade and efforts in the development of multiple-targeted therapy for combination with chemotherapy or radiation. Current challenges for investigators are to determine (1) who will benefit from targeted agents and which agents are most appropriate to combine with radiation and/or chemotherapy, (2

  11. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  12. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aliny P; Souza, Tayse D; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil.

  13. The science of direct-acting antiviral and host-targeted agent therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Direct-acting antiviral drugs targeting two major steps of the HCV life cycle, polyprotein processing and replication, and cyclophilin inhibitors, that target a host cell protein required to interact with the replication complex, have reached clinical development. In order to achieve a sustained virological response, that is, a cure of the HCV infection, it is necessary to shut down virus production, to maintain viral inhibition throughout treatment and to induce a significant, slower second-phase decline in HCV RNA levels that leads to definitive clearance of infected cells. Recent findings suggest that the interferon era is coming to an end in hepatitis C therapy and HCV infection can be cured by all-oral interferon-free treatment regimens within 12 to 24 weeks. Further results are awaited that will allow the establishment of an ideal first-line all-oral, interferon-free treatment regimen for patients with chronic HCV infection.

  14. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  15. The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

    2013-11-01

    In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality

  16. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Viola-Villegas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 'spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N, N′, N′, N′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  17. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Viola-Villegas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG ‘spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  18. Fluorescent ampicillin analogues as multifunctional disguising agents against opsonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Sakon, Joshua; Han, Haewook; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Cancer nanomedicines are opening new paradigms in cancer management and recent research points to how they can vastly improve imaging and therapy through multimodality and multifunctionality. However, challenges to achieving optimal efficacy are manifold starting from processing materials and evaluating their intended effectiveness on biological tissue, to developing new strategies aimed at improving transport of these materials through the biological milieu to the target tissue. Here, we report a fluorescent derivative of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin (termed iAmp) and its multifunctional physicobiochemical characteristics and potential as a biocompatible shielding agent and an effective dispersant. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were chosen to demonstrate the efficacy of iAmp. CNTs are known for their versatility and have been used extensively for cancer theranostics as photothermal and photoacoustic agents, but have limited solubility in water and biocompatibility. Traditional dispersants are associated with imaging artifacts and are not fully biocompatible. The chemical structure of iAmp is consistent with a deamination product of ampicillin. Although the four-membered lactam ring is intact, it does not retain the antibiotic properties. The iAmp is an effective dispersant and simultaneously serves as a fluorescent label for single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) with minimal photobleaching. The iAmp also enables bioconjugation of SWNTs to bio-ligands such as antibodies through functional carboxyl groups. Viability tests show that iAmp-coated SWNTs have minimal toxicity. Bio-stability tests under physiological conditions reveal that iAmp coating not only remains stable in a biologically relevant environment with high protein and salt concentrations, but also renders SWNTs transparent against nonspecific protein adsorption, also known as protein corona. Mammalian tissue culture studies with macrophages and opsonins validate that iAmp coating affords immunological resistance

  19. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  20. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  1. State and development of new clinical contrast agents for MR diagnosis of liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummeny, E.J.; Peters, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    MR contrast agents are developed for pharmaceutical manipulation of tissue signal intensities. Today it is widely recognized that MR contrast agents will play an increasingly important role in MR imaging of the liver. Contrast-enhanced MR-imaging allows to obtain simultaneously dynamic physiologic information and high anatomci detail. Up to now three major classes of MR contrast agents are available for clinical MR-imaging of the liver. These include paramagnetic perfusion agents, hepatobiliary agents, and superparamagnetic RES-specific iron oxide particles. A fourth class of contrast agents now in use for animal experiments includes ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles which can be targeted to extrareticuloendothelial structures such as asialoglycoprotein receptors of hepatocytes. In this article, we review recent advances in the development of MR contrast media and the clinical of contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the liver. (orig.) [de

  2. Targeting inflammatory pathways by dietary agents for prevention and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, radiation, environmental pollutants and high-calorie diet have been recognized as major risk factors for the most common types of cancer. All these risk factors are linked to cancer through inflammation. While acute inflammation that persists for short-term mediates host defense against infections, chronic inflammation that lasts for long-term can predispose the host to various chronic illnesses, including cancer. Linkage between cancer and inflammation is indicated by numerous lines of evidence; first, transcription factors NF-kB and STAT3, two major pathways for inflammation, are activated by most cancer risk factors; second, an inflammatory condition precedes most cancers; third, NFkB and STAT3 are constitutively active in most cancers; fourth, hypoxia and acidic conditions found in solid tumors activate NF-kB; fifth, chemotherapeutic agents and γ-irradiation activate NF-kB and lead to chemoresistance and radioresistance; sixth, most gene products linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis are regulated by NF-kB and STAT3; seventh, suppression of NF-kB and STAT3 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of tumors; and eighth, most chemopreventive agents mediate their effects through inhibition of NF-kB and STAT3 activation pathways. Thus, the suppression of these proinflammatory pathways may provide opportunities for both prevention and treatment of cancer. We will discuss the potential of nutraceuticals derived from spices and from traditional Indian medicine in suppression of inflammatory pathways and their role inprevention and therapy of cancer. (author)

  3. Novel Cs-Based Upconversion Nanoparticles as Dual-Modal CT and UCL Imaging Agents for Chemo-Photothermal Synergistic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Li, Luoyuan; Guo, Quanwei; Wang, Lu; Liu, Dongdong; Wei, Ziwei; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Lanthanide-based contrast agents have attracted increasing attention for their unique properties and potential applications in cancer theranostics. To date, many of these agents have been studied extensively in cells and small animal models. However, performance of these theranostic nanoparticles requires further improvement. In this study, a novel CsLu2F7:Yb,Er,Tm-based visual therapeutic platform was developed for imaging-guided synergistic cancer therapy. Due to the presence of the heavy alkali metal Cesium (Cs) in host lattice, the nanoplatform can provide a higher resolution X-ray CT imaging than many other reported lanthanide-based CT contrast agents. Furthermore, by using the targeted RGD motif, chemotherapy drug alpha-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), and photothermal coupling agent ICG, this nanoplatform simultaneously provides multifunctional imaging and targeted synergistic therapy. To demonstrate the theranostic performance of this novel nanoplatform in vivo, visual diagnosis in the small animal model was realized by UCL/CT imaging which was further integrated with targeted chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. These results provided evidence for the successful construction of a novel lanthanide-based nanoplatform coupled with multimodal imaging diagnosis and potential application in synergistic cancer theranostics.

  4. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of VEGFR-targeted macromolecular MRI contrast agent based on biotin?avidin-specific binding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yongjun; Wu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Xiaohe; Wang, Dan; Zhong, Ying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Tianqi; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    Yongjun Liu,1 Xiaoyun Wu,1 Xiaohe Sun,1 Dan Wang,1 Ying Zhong,1 Dandan Jiang,1 Tianqi Wang,1 Dexin Yu,2 Na Zhang1 1School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, 2Department of Radiology Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity and specificity was essential to increase MRI diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, the MRI contrast agent, vascular endotheli...

  5. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  6. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  7. Examining multi-component DNA-templated nanostructures as imaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading non-invasive tool for disease imaging and diagnosis. Although MRI exhibits high spatial resolution for anatomical features, the contrast resolution is low. Imaging agents serve as an aid to distinguish different types of tissues within images. Gadolinium chelates, which are considered first generation designs, can be toxic to health, while ultra-small, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have low tissue-targeting efficiency and rapid bio-distribution, resulting to an inadequate detection of the MRI signal and enhancement of image contrast. In order to improve the utility of MRI agents, the challenge in composition and structure needs to be addressed. One-dimensional (1D), superparamagnetic nanostructures have been reported to enhance magnetic and in vivo properties and therefore has a potential to improve contrast enhancement in MRI images. In this dissertation, the structure of 1D, multi-component NP chains, scaffolded on DNA, were pre-clinically examined as potential MRI agents. First, research was focused on characterizing and understanding the mechanism of proton relaxation for DNA-templated NP chains using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Proton relaxation and transverse relaxivity were higher in multi-component NP chains compared to disperse NPs, indicating the arrangement of NPs on a 1D structure improved proton relaxation sensitivity. Second, in vitro evaluation for potential issues in toxicity and contrast efficiency in tissue environments using a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner was performed. Cell uptake of DNA-templated NP chains was enhanced after encapsulating the nanostructure with layers of polyelectrolytes and targeting ligands. Compared to dispersed NPs, DNA-templated NP chains improved MRI contrast in both the epithelial basement membrane and colon cancer tumors scaffolds. The last part of the project was focused on developing a novel MRI agent that detects changes in DNA methylation

  8. Hybrid ligand-alkylating agents targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Filippo; Nadai, Matteo; Folini, Marco; Di Antonio, Marco; Germani, Luca; Percivalle, Claudia; Sissi, Claudia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Alcaro, Stefano; Artese, Anna; Richter, Sara N; Freccero, Mauro

    2012-04-14

    The synthesis, physico-chemical properties and biological effects of a new class of naphthalene diimides (NDIs) capable of reversibly binding telomeric DNA and alkylate it through an electrophilic quinone methide moiety (QM), are reported. FRET and circular dichroism assays showed a marked stabilization and selectivity towards telomeric G4 DNA folded in a hybrid topology. NDI-QMs' alkylating properties revealed a good reactivity on single nucleosides and selectivity towards telomeric G4. A selected NDI was able to significantly impair the growth of melanoma cells by causing telomere dysfunction and down-regulation of telomerase expression. These findings points to our hybrid ligand-alkylating NDIs as possible tools for the development of novel targeted anticancer therapies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Use of molecular hybridization to explore genetic relationships. Progress report, July 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on DNA distribution in pygmy chimpanzees, mountain gorillas, Catarrhine monkeys, baboons, spider monkeys, and marmosets; chromosome mapping of human 5S RNA using 3 H or 125 I labelled RNA; hybridization of 125 I-RNA to chromosomes in mice; mapping of low-multiplicity genes by hybridization in situ; technical improvements in iodination of RNA; formation of RNA aggregates; genetics of DNA and RNA in Drosophila; and x-radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila. (U.S.)

  10. An Agent-Based Intervention to Assist Drivers Under Stereotype Threat: Effects of In-Vehicle Agents' Attributional Error Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee-Won, Roselyn J

    2016-10-01

    For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype. Specifically, we investigated how in-vehicle voice agents offering error feedback based on responsibility attribution (internal vs. external) and outcome attribution (ability vs. effort) influence female drivers' performance under stereotype threat. In addressing this question, we conducted an experiment in a virtual driving simulation environment that provided moment-to-moment error feedback messages. Participants performed a challenging driving task and made mistakes preprogrammed to occur. Results showed that the agent's error feedback with outcome attribution moderated the stereotype threat effect on driving performance. Participants under stereotype threat had a smaller number of collisions when the errors were attributed to effort than to ability. In addition, outcome attribution feedback moderated the effect of responsibility attribution on driving performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Oxidative phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cancer cell apoptosis in response to anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Kumar, S; Marlowe, T; Chaudhary, A K; Kumar, R; Wang, J; O'Malley, J; Boland, P M; Jayanthi, S; Kumar, T K S; Yadava, N; Chandra, D

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells tend to develop resistance to various types of anticancer agents, whether they adopt similar or distinct mechanisms to evade cell death in response to a broad spectrum of cancer therapeutics is not fully defined. Current study concludes that DNA-damaging agents (etoposide and doxorubicin), ER stressor (thapsigargin), and histone deacetylase inhibitor (apicidin) target oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for apoptosis induction, whereas other anticancer agents including staurosporine, taxol, and sorafenib induce apoptosis in an OXPHOS-independent manner. DNA-damaging agents promoted mitochondrial biogenesis accompanied by increased accumulation of cellular and mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial protein-folding machinery, and mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis occurred in a caspase activation-independent mechanism but was reduced by autophagy inhibition and p53-deficiency. Abrogation of complex-I blocked DNA-damage-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, whereas inhibition of complex-II or a combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes I, III, IV, and V due to impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis did not modulate caspase activity. Mechanistic analysis revealed that inhibition of caspase activation in response to anticancer agents associates with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in complex-I-deficient cells compared with wild type (WT) cells. Gross OXPHOS deficiencies promoted increased release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria compared with WT or complex-I-deficient cells, suggesting that cells harboring defective OXPHOS trigger caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent apoptosis in response to anticancer agents. Interestingly, DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin showed strong binding to mitochondria, which was disrupted by complex-I-deficiency but not by complex-II-deficiency. Thapsigargin-induced caspase activation was reduced upon abrogation of complex-I or gross OXPHOS deficiency

  12. Application of gold nanoparticles as contrast agents in confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemelle, A; Veksler, B; Piletsky, S A; Meglinski, I [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kozhevnikov, I S; Akchurin, G G, E-mail: a.lemelle.s06@cranfield.ac.uk [Physics Faculty, Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern high-resolution optical technique providing detailed image of tissue structure with high (down to microns) spatial resolution. Aiming at a concurrent improvement of imaging depth and image quality the CLSM requires the use of contrast agents. Commonly employed fluorescent contrast agents, such as fluorescent dyes and proteins, suffer from toxicity, photo-bleaching and overlapping with the tissues autofluorescence. Gold nanoparticles are potentially highly attractive to be applied as a contrast agent since they are not subject to photo-bleaching and can target biochemical cells markers associated with the specific diseases. In current report we consider the applicability of gold nano-spheres as a contrast agent to enhance quality of CLSM images of skin tissues in vitro versus the application of optical clearing agent, such as glycerol. The enhancement of CLSM image contrast was observed with an application of gold nano-spheres diffused within the skin tissues. We show that optical clearing agents such as a glycerol provide better CLSM image contrast than gold nano-spheres.

  13. Application of gold nanoparticles as contrast agents in confocal laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemelle, A; Veksler, B; Piletsky, S A; Meglinski, I; Kozhevnikov, I S; Akchurin, G G

    2009-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern high-resolution optical technique providing detailed image of tissue structure with high (down to microns) spatial resolution. Aiming at a concurrent improvement of imaging depth and image quality the CLSM requires the use of contrast agents. Commonly employed fluorescent contrast agents, such as fluorescent dyes and proteins, suffer from toxicity, photo-bleaching and overlapping with the tissues autofluorescence. Gold nanoparticles are potentially highly attractive to be applied as a contrast agent since they are not subject to photo-bleaching and can target biochemical cells markers associated with the specific diseases. In current report we consider the applicability of gold nano-spheres as a contrast agent to enhance quality of CLSM images of skin tissues in vitro versus the application of optical clearing agent, such as glycerol. The enhancement of CLSM image contrast was observed with an application of gold nano-spheres diffused within the skin tissues. We show that optical clearing agents such as a glycerol provide better CLSM image contrast than gold nano-spheres

  14. Application of gold nanoparticles as contrast agents in confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelle, A.; Veksler, B.; Kozhevnikov, I. S.; Akchurin, G. G.; Piletsky, S. A.; Meglinski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern high-resolution optical technique providing detailed image of tissue structure with high (down to microns) spatial resolution. Aiming at a concurrent improvement of imaging depth and image quality the CLSM requires the use of contrast agents. Commonly employed fluorescent contrast agents, such as fluorescent dyes and proteins, suffer from toxicity, photo-bleaching and overlapping with the tissues autofluorescence. Gold nanoparticles are potentially highly attractive to be applied as a contrast agent since they are not subject to photo-bleaching and can target biochemical cells markers associated with the specific diseases. In current report we consider the applicability of gold nano-spheres as a contrast agent to enhance quality of CLSM images of skin tissues in vitro versus the application of optical clearing agent, such as glycerol. The enhancement of CLSM image contrast was observed with an application of gold nano-spheres diffused within the skin tissues. We show that optical clearing agents such as a glycerol provide better CLSM image contrast than gold nano-spheres.

  15. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  16. Targeting abnormal DNA double strand break repair in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rassool, Feyruz V.; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer treatment is the development of therapies that target cancer cells with little or no toxicity to normal tissues and cells. Alterations in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in cancer cells include both elevated and reduced levels of key repair proteins and changes in the relative contributions of the various DSB repair pathways. These differences can result in increased sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and increased genomic instability. The development of agent...

  17. Efeito de herbicidas sobre agentes fitopatogênicos = Effect of herbicides on phytopathogenic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dias Rosa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura moderna, diversas tecnologias auxiliam no aumento daprodutividade, sendo o herbicida uma delas, mas existem consequências atreladas ao seu uso, como os diversos efeitos sobre organismos não alvos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar esses efeitos sobre agentes fitopatogênicos, assim como avaliar o efeito do herbicida glyphosate sobre diversas doenças, em plantas de soja transgênicas.Verificou-se forte ação fungicida com o uso do herbicida glyphosate, assim como os outros avaliados “in vitro”, sobre os fungos testados, e os mesmos resultados foram observados nas plantas em condição de campo.In modern agriculture, several technologies have helped increase productivity, and herbicide is one of them. However, there are consequences linked to its use, such as the various effects on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to verify these effects on phytopathogenic agents, as well as assess the effect of glyphosate on diseases in transgenic soybean. There was a strong fungicide action using glyphosate herbicide as well as with the others evaluated in vitro regarding fungi tested. The same results were observed in plants in field conditions.

  18. Technetium SPECT agents for imaging heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    One major goal of radiopharmaceutical research has been the development of technetium-based perfusion tracers for SPECT imaging of the heart and brain. The recent clinical introduction of the technetium complexes HM-PAO, ECD and DMG-2MP for brain imaging, and of CDO-MEB and MIBI for heart imaging promises to revolutionize the field of nuclear medicine. All of these agents appear to localize in the target tissue in proportion to blood flow, but their mechanisms of localization and/or retention may differ quite widely. In this talk, a survey of the new technetium SPECT agents will be presented. The inorganic and biological chemistry of these complexes, mechanisms of uptake and retention, QSAR studies, and potential clinical applications are discussed

  19. Influence of companion diagnostics on efficacy and safety of targeted anti-cancer drugs: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, Alberto; Ethier, Josee-Lyne; Díez-González, Laura; Corrales-Sánchez, Verónica; Srikanthan, Amirrtha; Gascón-Escribano, María J; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Seruga, Bostjan; Niraula, Saroj; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan

    2015-11-24

    Companion diagnostics aim to identify patients that will respond to targeted therapies, therefore increasing the clinical efficacy of such drugs. Less is known about their influence on safety and tolerability of targeted anti-cancer agents. Randomized trials evaluating targeted agents for solid tumors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since year 2000 were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for treatment-related death, treatment-discontinuation related to toxicity and occurrence of any grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs). The 12 most commonly reported individual AEs were also explored. ORs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Analysis comprised 41 trials evaluating 28 targeted agents. Seventeen trials (41%) utilized companion diagnostics. Compared to control groups, targeted drugs in experimental arms were associated with increased odds of treatment discontinuation, grade 3/4 AEs, and toxic death irrespective of whether they utilized companion diagnostics or not. Compared to drugs without available companion diagnostics, agents with companion diagnostics had a lower magnitude of increased odds of treatment discontinuation (OR = 1.12 vs. 1.65, p diagnostics were greatest for diarrhea (OR = 1.29 vs. 2.43, p diagnostics are associated with improved safety, and tolerability. Differences were most marked for gastrointestinal, cutaneous and neurological toxicity.

  20. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  1. Targeted therapies for renal cell carcinoma: review of adverse event management strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisen, T.; Sternberg, C.N.; Robert, C.; Mulders, P.F.; Pyle, L.; Zbinden, S.; Izzedine, H.; Escudier, B.

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of targeted agents for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), overall survival has improved, and patients are being treated continuously for increasingly long periods of time. This has raised challenges in the management of adverse events (AEs) associated with the six targeted

  2. A review of targeted therapies evaluated by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program for osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSampson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, is a high grade primary bone sarcoma that occurs mostly in adolescence. Standard treatment consists of surgery in combination with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The development and approval of imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in children and the fully human monoclonal antibody, anti-GD2, as part of an immune therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients have established the precedent for use of targeted inhibitors along with standard chemotherapy backbones. However, few targeted agents tested have achieved traditional clinical end points for osteosarcoma. Many biological agents demonstrating anti-tumor responses in preclinical and early phase clinical testing have failed to reach response thresholds to justify randomized trials with large numbers of patients. The development of targeted therapies for pediatric cancer remains a significant challenge. To aid in the prioritization of new agents for clinical testing, the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP has developed reliable and robust preclinical pediatric cancer models to rapidly screen agents for activity in multiple childhood cancers and establish pharmacological parameters and effective drug concentrations for clinical trials. In this article, we examine a range of standard and novel agents that have been evaluated by the PPTP, and we discuss the preclinical and clinical development of these for the treatment of osteosarcoma. We further demonstrate that committed resources for hypothesis-driven drug discovery and development are needed to yield clinical successes in the search for new therapies for this pediatric disease.

  3. Novel agents in the management of castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer mortality in men and despite high cure rates with surgery and/or radiation, 30-40% of patients will eventually develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation is the first line therapy for standard of care for men with advanced disease. Eventually however all men will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Insight into the molecular mechanisms of androgen resistance has led to the development of alternative novel hormonal agents. Newer hormonal agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and TOK-001; and the first cancer vaccine, Sipuleucel T have been approved for use in men with CRPC. The recognition of the importance of bone health and morbidity associated with skeletal related events has led to the introduction of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B-ligand inhibitor denosumab. Other molecularly targeted therapies have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but this has not consistently translated into clinical efficacy. It is increasingly evident that CRPC is a heterogeneous disease and an individualized approach directed at identifying primary involvement of specific pathways could maximize the benefit from targeted therapies. This review focuses on targeted therapy for PCa with special emphasis on therapies that have been Food and Drug Administration approved for use in men with CRPC.

  4. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on the uptake of PSMA-targeted agents: Emerging opportunities challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Martin K.; Oh, So Won; Youn, Hye Won; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kwak, Cheol; Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgen-deprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer.

  5. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on the uptake of PSMA-targeted agents: Emerging opportunities challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, Martin K.; Oh, So Won; Youn, Hye Won; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kwak, Cheol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgen-deprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer

  6. Familial breast cancer - targeted therapy in secondary and tertiary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of an increasing number of individualized molecular targeted therapies into clinical routine mirrors their importance in modern cancer prevention and treatment. Well-known examples for targeted agents are the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. The identification of an unaltered gene in tumor tissue in colon cancer (KRAS) is a predictor for the patient's response to targeted therapy with a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab). Targeted therapy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has become a reality with the approval of olaparib for platin-sensitive late relapsed BRCA-associated ovarian cancer in December 2014. This manuscript reviews the status quo of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in the therapy of breast and ovarian cancer as well as the struggle for carboplatin as a potential standard of care for triple-negative and, in particular, BRCA-associated breast cancer. Details of the mechanism of action with information on tumor development are provided, and an outlook for further relevant research is given. The efficacy of agents against molecular targets together with the identification of an increasing number of cancer-associated genes will open the floodgates to a new era of treatment decision-making based on molecular tumor profiles. Current clinical trials involving patients with BRCA-associated cancer explore the efficacy of the molecular targeted therapeutics platinum and PARPi.

  7. Lessons from Principal-Agent Theory for Public Expenditure Management in Pacific Island Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific island economies Peer reviewed

  8. A view on EGFR-targeted therapies from the oncogene-addiction perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Rolando; Crombet, Tania; de Leon, Joel; Moreno, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cell growth and survival can often be impaired by inactivating a single oncogen- a phenomenon that has been called as "oncogene addiction." It is in such scenarios that molecular targeted therapies may succeed. among known oncogenes, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has become the target of different cancer therapies. So far, however, the clinical benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies has been rather limited. a critical review of the large amount of clinical data obtained with anti-EGFR agents, carried out from the perspective of the oncogene addiction concept, may help to understand the causes of the unsatisfactory results. In this article we intend to do such an exercise taking as basis for the analysis a few case studies of anti-EGFR agents that are currently in the clinic. There, the "EGFR addiction" phenomenon becomes apparent in high-responder patients. We further discuss how the concept of oncogene addiction needs to be interpreted on the light of emerging experimental evidences and ideas; in particular, that EGFR addiction may reflect the interconnection of several cellular pathways. In this regard we set forth several hypotheses; namely, that requirement of higher glucose uptake by hypoxic tumor cells may reinforce EGFR addiction; and that chronic use of EGFR-targeted antibodies in EGFR-addicted tumors would induce stable disease by reversing the malignant phenotype of cancer stem cells and also by sustaining an anti-tumor T cell response. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the failure of certain combinatorial therapies involving anti-EGFR agents, arguing that some of these agents might produce either a negative or a positive trans-modulation effect on other oncogenes. It becomes evident that we need operational definitions of EGFR addiction in order to determine which patient populations may benefit from treatment with anti-EGFR drugs, and to improve the design of these therapies.

  9. A view on EGFR-targeted therapies from the oncogene-addiction perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando ePerez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell growth and survival can often be impaired by inactivating a single oncogen – a phenomenon that has been called as 'oncogene addiction'. It is in such scenarios that molecular targeted therapies may succeed. Among known oncogenes, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has become the target of different cancer therapies. So far, however, the clinical benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies has been rather limited. A critical review of the large amount of clinical data obtained with anti-EGFR agents, carried out from the perspective of the oncogene addiction concept, may help to understand the causes of the unsatisfactory results. In this article we intend to do such an exercise taking as basis for the analysis a few case studies of anti-EGFR agents that are currently in the clinic. There, the 'EGFR addiction' phenomenon becomes apparent in high-responder patients. We further discuss how the concept of oncogene addiction needs to be interpreted on the light of emerging experimental evidences and ideas; in particular, that EGFR addiction may reflect the interconnection of several cellular pathways. In this regard we set forth several hypotheses; namely, that requirement of higher glucose uptake by hypoxic tumor cells may reinforce EGFR addiction; and that chronic use of EGFR-targeted antibodies in EGFR-addicted tumors would induce stable disease by reversing the malignant phenotype of cancer stem cells and also by sustaining an anti-tumor T cell response. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the failure of certain combinatorial therapies involving anti-EGFR agents, arguing that some of these agents might produce either a negative or a positive trans-modulation effect on other oncogenes. It becomes evident that we need operational definitions of EGFR addiction in order to determine which patient populations may benefit from treatment with anti-EGFR drugs, and to improve the design of these therapies.

  10. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  11. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  12. Improved identification of cranial nerves using paired-agent imaging: topical staining protocol optimization through experimentation and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Veronica C.; Wilson, Todd; Staneviciute, Austeja; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-03-01

    Skull base tumors are particularly difficult to visualize and access for surgeons because of the crowded environment and close proximity of vital structures, such as cranial nerves. As a result, accidental nerve damage is a significant concern and the likelihood of tumor recurrence is increased because of more conservative resections that attempt to avoid injuring these structures. In this study, a paired-agent imaging method with direct administration of fluorophores is applied to enhance cranial nerve identification. Here, a control imaging agent (ICG) accounts for non-specific uptake of the nerve-targeting agent (Oxazine 4), and ratiometric data analysis is employed to approximate binding potential (BP, a surrogate of targeted biomolecule concentration). For clinical relevance, animal experiments and simulations were conducted to identify parameters for an optimized stain and rinse protocol using the developed paired-agent method. Numerical methods were used to model the diffusive and kinetic behavior of the imaging agents in tissue, and simulation results revealed that there are various combinations of stain time and rinse number that provide improved contrast of cranial nerves, as suggested by optimal measures of BP and contrast-to-noise ratio.

  13. Chitosan-based multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics for targeted therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Marziyeh; Majidi, Sima; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Barar, Jaleh; Erfan-Niya, Hamid; Omidi, Yadollah

    2018-05-30

    Nanotechnology as an emerging field has established inevitable impacts on nano-biomedicine and treatment of formidable diseases, inflammations, and malignancies. In this regard, substantial advances in the design of systems for delivery of therapeutic agents have emerged magnificent and innovative pathways in biomedical applications. Chitosan (CS) is derived via deacetylation of chitin as the second most abundant polysaccharide. Owing to the unique properties of CS (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioactivity, mucoadhesion, cationic nature and functional groups), it is an excellent candidate for diverse biomedical and pharmaceutical applications such as drug/gene delivery, transplantation of encapsulated cells, tissue engineering, wound healing, antimicrobial purposes, etc. In this review, we will document, discuss, and provide some key insights toward design and application of miscellaneous nanoplatforms based on CS. The CS-based nanosystems (NSs) can be employed as advanced drug delivery systems (DDSs) in large part due to their remarkable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The abundant functional groups of CS allow the facile functionalization in order to engineer multifunctional NSs, which can simultaneously incorporate therapeutic agents, molecular targeting, and diagnostic/imaging capabilities in particular against malignancies. These multimodal NSs can be literally translated into clinical applications such as targeted diagnosis and therapy of cancer because they offer minimal systemic toxicity and maximal cytotoxicity against cancer cells and tumors. The recent developments in the CS-based NSs functionalized with targeting and imaging agents prove CS as a versatile polymer in targeted imaging and therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immunoliposomes for the targeted delivery of antitumor drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrobattista, E; Koning, GA; Storm, G

    1999-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the field of immunoliposome-mediated targeting of anticancer agents. First, problems that are encountered when immunoliposomes are used for systemic anticancer drug delivery and potential solutions are discussed. Second, an update is given of the in vivo results

  15. Sphingolipid metabolism enzymes as targets for anticancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Sietsma, H

    Treatment with anti-cancer agents in most cases ultimately results in apoptotic cell death of the target tumour cells. Unfortunately, tumour cells can develop multidrug resistance, e.g., by a reduced propensity to engage in apoptosis by which they become insensitive to multiple chemotherapeutics.

  16. The synthesis of a D-glucosamine contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-DG, and its application in cancer molecular imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Chen Yue; Guo Dajing; Huang Zhanwen; Cai Liang; He Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the synthesis of Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-deoxyglucosamine (Gd-DTPA-DG) which is a D-glucosamine metabolic MR imaging contrast agent. We will also discuss its use in a pilot MRI study using a xenograft mouse model of human adenocarcinoma. Methods: This novel contrast agent was specifically studied because of its ability to 'target' metabolically active tumor tissues. In this study Gd-DTPA-DG is used to investigate how tumor tissues would react to a dose of 0.2 mmol Gd/kg over a 120 min exposure in a xenograft mouse model. These experiments used athymic mice implanted with human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) as demonstrated by dynamic MRI. Alternately, another contrast agent that is not specific for targeting, Gd-DTPA, was used as the control at a similar dose of gadolinium. Efficacy of the targeted contrast agent was assessed by measuring relaxation rate in vitro and signal intensity (SI) in vivo. Statistical differences were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The synthesized Gd-DTPA-DG was shown to improve the contrast of tumor tissue in this model. Gd-DTPA-DG was also shown to have a similar pharmacokinetic rate but generated a higher relaxation rate in tumor tissues relative to the control contrast Gd-DTPA. In comparison to the pre-contrast imaging, the SI of tumor tissue in the experimental group was shown to be significantly increased at 15 min after injection of Gd-DTPA-DG (p < 0.001). The enhanced signal intensity spread from the edge of the tumor to the center and seemed to strengthen the idea that MRI performance would be useful in different tumor tissues. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows that this new chelated contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-DG, can be specifically targeted to accumulation in tumor tissue as compared to normal tissues. This targeted paramagnetic contrast agent has potential for specific cancer molecular imaging with MRI.

  17. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    1998-07-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  18. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  19. Evaluation of liquid-phase oxidation for the destruction of potential chemical terrorism agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Li, K.; Kuang, W.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Potaraju, S.; Velicogna, D.; Obenauf, A. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are designed to protect crops and livestock against insects, fungi or nuisance plants, the toxicity of these compounds is not limited to target species. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides all target the nervous systems of insects. This paper assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced oxidation process using peroxycarboxylic acids for the liquid-phase destruction of toxic industrial chemicals, considered to be potential agents of chemical terrorism. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and peroxypropionic acid (PPA) were tested as decontamination agents on organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The processes were reviewed in relation to the terms of percent agent destruction over time, with a target of 90 per cent destruction within 30 minutes. Effectiveness was also assessed on the accumulation of toxic by-products. A background of the pesticides was presented, as well as details of their various applications. The molecular structures of the compounds were also provided. Oxidation extraction procedures, materials and methods were also presented, as well as analytical techniques, method detection limits and issues concerning reproducibility. The pH profile of PAA and PPA as a function of the concentration in acid was studied in order to determine which was more likely to be corrosive. It was concluded that peroxycarboxylic acids are effective decontamination agents for organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides. PAA and PPA are equally effective in degrading the examined pesticides, however, greater amounts of toxic by-products are found with PPA than with PAA. Neither PAA nor PPA were able to degrade lindane, and more lindane was found in the treated samples than in the controls. It was noted that time profiles for lower concentrations of peroxycarboxylic acids and pH profiles are currently being developed. It was suggested that further research in this area included degradation experiments on various types of

  20. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  1. Targeting IL-17 with ixekizumab in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of psoriasis has evolved and identified IL-17 as a key pro-inflammatory mediator in psoriasis creating new medical avenues. Several agents targeting IL-17 or its receptor are in c......Psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of psoriasis has evolved and identified IL-17 as a key pro-inflammatory mediator in psoriasis creating new medical avenues. Several agents targeting IL-17 or its receptor...... are in clinical trials for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This review focuses on the biological rationale and the results of clinical trials with ixekizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody. The currently available Phase I to III data indicate that ixekizumab is a well-tolerated promising...

  2. Actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, is a potent deformylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D Z; Patel, D V; Hackbarth, C J; Wang, W; Dreyer, G; Young, D C; Margolis, P S; Wu, C; Ni, Z J; Trias, J; White, R J; Yuan, Z

    2000-02-15

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is essential in prokaryotes and absent in mammalian cells, thus making it an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. We have identified actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, as a potent PDF inhibitor. The dissociation constant for this compound was 0.3 x 10(-)(9) M against Ni-PDF from Escherichia coli; the PDF from Staphylococcus aureus gave a similar value. Microbiological evaluation revealed that actinonin is a bacteriostatic agent with activity against Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative microorganisms. The PDF gene, def, was placed under control of P(BAD) in E. coli tolC, permitting regulation of PDF expression levels in the cell by varying the external arabinose concentration. The susceptibility of this strain to actinonin increases with decreased levels of PDF expression, indicating that actinonin inhibits bacterial growth by targeting this enzyme. Actinonin provides an excellent starting point from which to derive a more potent PDF inhibitor that has a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity.

  3. Targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer: biology, rationale, and preclinical results from a radiation oncology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raben, David; Helfrich, Barb; Bunn, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This presents an opportune target for new treatment strategies designed to selectively interfere with the cancer cell growth cycle. Recent investigations into the biology of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways have reminded us of the complexity of cancer cell communications from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Multiple pathways are activated with stimulation of the autocrine and paracrine EGFR loop, from the ras-raf-MEK activation of ERK 1/2 to the P13K-Akt pathway, each playing an important role in cancer cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that molecules targeting the EGFR, either through extracellular blockade or intracellular interference with the EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase, reversibly or irreversibly, inhibit cancer cell growth. Potent antitumor effects have been observed in human tumor xenograft models. Preclinical studies have also demonstrated cooperative effects when anti-EGFR agents are combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Many of these agents have now entered into advanced human clinical trials with modest dose-related toxicity despite chronic administration. Encouraging response rates with single-agent targeted therapy have been reported in heavily pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In addition, agents targeting the angiogenic pathway, which plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis, may play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of anti-EGFR agents. This article will focus on the biology, rationale, and preclinical studies with targeted anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic therapies for the management of NSCLC

  4. Bisphosphonate-Linked TrkB Agonist: Cochlea-Targeted Delivery of a Neurotrophic Agent as a Strategy for the Treatment of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempfle, Judith S; Nguyen, Kim; Hamadani, Christine; Koen, Nicholas; Edge, Albert S; Kashemirov, Boris A; Jung, David H; McKenna, Charles E

    2018-04-18

    Hearing loss affects more than two-thirds of the elderly population, and more than 17% of all adults in the U.S. Sensorineural hearing loss related to noise exposure or aging is associated with loss of inner ear sensory hair cells (HCs), cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), and ribbon synapses between HCs and SGNs, stimulating intense interest in therapies to regenerate synaptic function. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) is a selective and potent agonist of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and protects the neuron from apoptosis. Despite evidence that TrkB agonists can promote survival of SGNs, local delivery of drugs such as DHF to the inner ear remains a challenge. We previously demonstrated in an animal model that a fluorescently labeled bisphosphonate, 6-FAM-Zol, administered to the round window membrane penetrated the membrane and diffused throughout the cochlea. Given their affinity for bone mineral, including cochlear bone, bisphosphonates offer an intriguing modality for targeted delivery of neurotrophic agents to the SGNs to promote survival, neurite outgrowth, and, potentially, regeneration of synapses between HCs and SGNs. The design and synthesis of a bisphosphonate conjugate of DHF (Ris-DHF) is presented, with a preliminary evaluation of its neurotrophic activity. Ris-DHF increases neurite outgrowth in vitro, maintains this ability after binding to hydroxyapatite, and regenerates synapses in kainic acid-damaged cochlear organ of Corti explants dissected in vitro with attached SGNs. The results suggest that bisphosphonate-TrkB agonist conjugates have promise as a novel approach to targeted delivery of drugs to treat sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Harnessing the fruits of nature for the development of multi-targeted cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Fazlul H; Li, Yiwei

    2009-11-01

    Cancer cells exhibit deregulation in multiple cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, treatments using specific agents that target only one pathway usually fail in cancer therapy. The combination treatments using chemotherapeutic agents with distinct molecular mechanisms are considered more promising for higher efficacy; however, using multiple agents contributes to added toxicity. Emerging evidence has shown that some "natural products" such as isoflavones, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its in vivo dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), and curcumin among many others, have growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects on human and animal cancer cells mediated by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways in vitro without causing unwanted toxicity in normal cells. Therefore, these non-toxic "natural products" from natural resources could be useful in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of human malignancies with lower toxicity and higher efficacy. In fact, recently increasing evidence from pre-clinical in vivo studies and clinical trials have shown some success in support of the use of rational design of multi-targeted therapies for the treatment of cancers using conventional chemotherapeutic agents in combination with "natural products". These studies have provided promising results and further opened-up newer avenues for cancer therapy. In this review article, we have succinctly summarized the known effects of "natural products" especially by focusing on isoflavones, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its in vivo dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), and curcumin, and provided a comprehensive view on the molecular mechanisms underlying the principle of cancer therapy using combination of "natural products" with conventional therapeutics.

  6. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  7. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  8. Clinical efficacy and management of monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38 and SLAMF7 in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Moreau, Philippe; Plesner, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in multiple myeloma (MM), with several monoclonal antibodies in advanced stages of clinical development. Of these agents, CD38-targeting antibodies have marked single agent activity in extensively pretreated MM...... of therapeutic antibodies with immunofixation and serum protein electrophoresis assays may lead to underestimation of complete response. Strategies to mitigate interference, based on shifting the therapeutic antibody band, are in development. Furthermore, daratumumab, and probably also other CD38-targeting...

  9. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  10. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily as Targets for Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanath; He, Guixin; Kakarla, Prathusha; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranjana, K C; Ranaweera, Indrika; Willmon, T Mark; Barr, Sharla R; Hernandez, Alberto J; Varela, Manuel F

    2016-01-01

    Causative agents of infectious disease that are multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens represent a serious public health concern due to the increasingly difficult nature of achieving efficacious clinical treatments. Of the various acquired and intrinsic antimicrobial agent resistance determinants, integral-membrane multidrug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily constitute a major mechanism of bacterial resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) encompasses thousands of known related secondary active and passive solute transporters, including multidrug efflux pumps, from bacteria to humans. This review article addresses recent developments involving the targeting by various modulators of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps from the major facilitator superfamily. It is currently of tremendous interest to modulate bacterial multidrug efflux pumps in order to eventually restore the clinical efficacy of therapeutic agents against recalcitrant bacterial infections. Such MFS multidrug efflux pumps are good targets for modulation.

  11. Toxicity assessment of molecularly targeted drugs incorporated into multiagent chemotherapy regimens for pediatric Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL): Review from an International Consensus Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Horton (Terzah); R. Sposto (Richard); P. Brown (Patrick); C.P. Reynolds (Patrick); S.P. Hunger (Stephen); N.J. Winick (Naomi); E.A. Raetz (Elizabeth); W.L. Carroll (William); R.J. Arceci (Robert); M.J. Borowitz (Michael); P.S. Gaynon (Paul); L. Gore (Lia); S. Jeha (Sima); B.J. Maurer (Barry); S.E. Siegel (Stuart); A. Biondi (Andrea); P. Kearns (Pamela); A. Narendran (Aru); L.B. Silverman (Lewis); M.A. Smith (Malcolm); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); J.A. Whitlock (James)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOne of the challenges of incorporating molecularly targeted drugs into multi-agent chemotherapy (backbone) regimens is defining dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the targeted agent against the background of toxicities of the backbone regimen. An international panel of 22 pediatric acute

  12. Paired-agent fluorescent imaging to detect micrometastases in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy: experiment design and protocol development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Xu, Xiaochun; Basheer, Yusairah; He, Yusheng; Sattar, Husain A.; Brankov, Jovan G.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer treatment and is essential to guide future adjuvant treatment. The estimation that 20-60% of micrometastases are missed by conventional pathology has created a demand for the development of more accurate approaches. Here, a paired-agent imaging approach is presented that employs a control imaging agent to allow rapid, quantitative mapping of microscopic populations of tumor cells in lymph nodes to guide pathology sectioning. To test the feasibility of this approach to identify micrometastases, healthy pig lymph nodes were stained with targeted and control imaging agent solution to evaluate the potential for the agents to diffuse into and out of intact nodes. Aby-029, an anti-EGFR affibody was labeled with IRDye 800CW (LICOR) as targeted agent and IRDye 700DX was hydrolyzed as a control agent. Lymph nodes were stained and rinsed by directly injecting the agents into the lymph nodes after immobilization in agarose gel. Subsequently, lymph nodes were frozen-sectioned and imaged under an 80-um resolution fluorescence imaging system (Pearl, LICOR) to confirm equivalence of spatial distribution of both agents in the entire node. The binding potentials were acquired by a pixel-by-pixel calculation and was found to be 0.02 +/- 0.06 along the lymph node in the absence of binding. The results demonstrate this approach's potential to enhance the sensitivity of lymph node pathology by detecting fewer than 1000 cell in a whole human lymph node.

  13. Recent advances in dendrimer-based nanovectors for tumor-targeted drug and gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of nanotechnology in medicine have given rise to multifunctional smart nanocarriers that can be engineered with tunable physicochemical characteristics to deliver one or more therapeutic agent(s) safely and selectively to cancer cells, including intracellular organelle-specific targeting. Dendrimers having properties resembling biomolecules, with well-defined 3D nanopolymeric architectures, are emerging as a highly attractive class of drug and gene delivery vector. The presence of numerous peripheral functional groups on hyperbranched dendrimers affords efficient conjugation of targeting ligands and biomarkers that can recognize and bind to receptors overexpressed on cancer cells for tumor-cell-specific delivery. The present review compiles the recent advances in dendrimer-mediated drug and gene delivery to tumors by passive and active targeting principles with illustrative examples. PMID:25555748

  14. Antitumor activity of sequence-specific alkylating agents: pyrolle-imidazole CBI conjugates with indole linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sasaki, Shunta; Sakakibara, Yogo; Minoshima, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    DNA-targeting agents, including cisplatin, bleomycin and mitomycin C, are used routinely in cancer treatments. However, these drugs are extremely toxic, attacking normal cells and causing severe side effects. One important question to consider in designing anticancer agents is whether the introduction of sequence selectivity to DNA-targeting agents can improve their efficacy as anticancer agents. In the present study, the growth inhibition activities of an indole-seco 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one (CBI) (1) and five conjugates with hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (2-6), which have different sequence specificities for DNA alkylation, were compared using 10 different cell lines. The average values of -log GI50 (50% growth inhibition concentration) for compounds 1-6 against the 10 cell lines were 8.33, 8.56, 8.29, 8.04, 8.23 and 8.83, showing that all of these compounds strongly inhibit cell growth. Interestingly, each alkylating agent caused significantly different growth inhibition patterns with each cell line. In particular, the correlation coefficients between the -log GI50 of compound 1 and its conjugates 2-6 showed extremely low values (Ralkylation lead to marked differences in biological activity. Comparison of the correlation coefficients between compounds 6 and 7, with the same sequence specificity as 6, and MS-247, with sequence specificity different from 6, when used against a panel of 37 human cancer cell lines further confirmed the above hypothesis.

  15. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  16. Paramedic Initiation of Neuroprotective Agent Infusions: Successful Achievement of Target Blood Levels and Attained Level Effect on Clinical Outcomes in the FAST-MAG Pivotal Trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirkova, Kristina; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel; Pratt, Frank; Conwit, Robin; Hamilton, Scott; Sharma, Latisha; Liebeskind, David; Restrepo, Lucas; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic use of fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing to initiate intravenous infusions in the field may allow rapid start of neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke. In a large, multicenter trial, we evaluated its efficacy in attaining target serum levels of candidate neuroprotective agent magnesium sulfate and the relation of achieved magnesium levels to outcome. The FAST-MAG phase 3 trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium) randomized 1700 patients within 2 hours of onset to paramedic-initiated, a 15-minute loading intravenous infusion of magnesium or placebo followed by a 24-hour maintenance dose. The drug delivery strategy included fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing for field drug administration, and a shrink-wrapped ambulance kit containing both the randomized field loading and hospital maintenance doses for seamless continuation. Among patient randomized to active treatment, magnesium levels in the first 72 hours were assessed 987 times in 572 patients. Mean patient age was 70 years (SD±14 years), and 45% were women. During the 24-hour period of active infusion, mean achieved serum level was 3.91 (±0.8), consistent with trial target. Mg levels were increased by older age, female sex, lower weight, height, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin, and higher hematocrit. Adjusted odds for clinical outcomes did not differ by achieved Mg level, including disability at 90 days, symptomatic hemorrhage, or death. Paramedic infusion initiation using gravity-controlled tubing permits rapid achievement of target serum levels of potential neuroprotective agents. The absence of association of clinical outcomes with achieved magnesium levels provides further evidence that magnesium is not biologically neuroprotective in acute stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Is DTPA a good competing chelating agent for Th(IV) in human serum and suitable in targeted alpha therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Du, Alicia; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Morgenstern, Alfred; Montavon, Gilles

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between thorium and human serum components was studied using difference ultraviolet spectroscopy (DUS), ultrafiltration and high-pressure-anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with external inductively conducted plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Experimental data are compared with modelling results based on the law of mass action. Human serum transferrin (HSTF) interacts strongly with Th(IV), forming a ternary complex including two synergistic carbonate anions. This complex governs Th(IV) speciation under blood serum conditions. Considering the generally used Langmuir-type model, values of 10(33.5) and 10(32.5) were obtained for strong and weak sites, respectively. We showed that trace amounts of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) cannot complex Th(IV) in the blood serum at equilibrium. Unexpectedly this effect is not related to the competition with HSTF but is due to the strong competition with major divalent metal ions for DTPA. However, Th-DTPA complex was shown to be stable for a few hours when it is formed before addition in the biological medium; this is related to the high kinetic stability of the complex. This makes DTPA a potential chelating agent for synthesis of (226)Th-labelled biomolecules for application in targeted alpha therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  19. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  20. Modern antiplatelet agents in coronary artery disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Rachel F

    2012-10-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is well recognized in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Despite clinical benefits of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy, a number of limitations curtail their efficacy: slow onset of action, variability in platelet inhibitory response and potential drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, the single platelet-activation pathway targeted by these agents allows continued platelet activation via other pathways, ensuring incomplete protection against ischemic events, thus, underscoring the need for alternate antiplatelet treatment strategies. A number of novel antiplatelet agents are currently in advance development and many have established superior effects on platelet inhibition, clinical outcomes and safety profile than clopidogrel in high-risk patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of P2Y12 receptor inhibition and PAR-1 antagonists in determining a future strategy for individualized antiplatelet therapy.

  1. Intelligent agents for adaptive security market surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Li, Xin; Xu, Baoxun; Yan, Jiaqi; Wang, Huaiqing

    2017-05-01

    Market surveillance systems have increasingly gained in usage for monitoring trading activities in stock markets to maintain market integrity. Existing systems primarily focus on the numerical analysis of market activity data and generally ignore textual information. To fulfil the requirements of information-based surveillance, a multi-agent-based architecture that uses agent intercommunication and incremental learning mechanisms is proposed to provide a flexible and adaptive inspection process. A prototype system is implemented using the techniques of text mining and rule-based reasoning, among others. Based on experiments in the scalping surveillance scenario, the system can identify target information evidence up to 87.50% of the time and automatically identify 70.59% of cases depending on the constraints on the available information sources. The results of this study indicate that the proposed information surveillance system is effective. This study thus contributes to the market surveillance literature and has significant practical implications.

  2. Targeted therapy for esophagogastric cancers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad A Khattak,1 Hilary L Martin,2 Christos S Karapetis1,31Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia; 2Calvary Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of esophagogastric cancers is increasing rapidly in the Western population. Despite better understanding of the biology and intense research in the treatment of these cancers, the long-term survival remains poor both in the locally advanced and metastatic settings. The addition of combined modality strategies has resulted in modest improvement in 5-year survival rates. A number of biologic agents targeting epidermal-derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial derived growth factor and its receptor, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR are being currently evaluated in Phase II and III clinical trials. Some of these, like trastuzumab, cetuximab, and bevacizumab, have shown promising results. This review provides a brief overview of the recent developments in biologic agents for the treatment of esophagogastric cancers.Keywords: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, VEGF, trastuzumab, Her2- positive EGC

  3. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yun; Chen Zhilong; Yang Xiaoxia; Huang Peng; Zhou Xinping; Du Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an increasingly recognized alternative to cancer treatment in clinic. However, PDT therapy agents, namely photosensitizer (PS), are limited in application as a result of prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity, poor water solubility and inadequate selectivity, which are encountered by numerous chemical therapies. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles provide excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water solubility without compromising their magnetic targeting. Nevertheless, no previous attempt has been reported to develop an in vivo magnetic drug delivery system with chitosan nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitored targeting photodynamic therapy. In this study, magnetic targeting chitosan nanoparticles (MTCNPs) were prepared and tailored as a drug delivery system and imaging agents for PS, designated as PHPP. Results showed that PHPP-MTCNPs could be used in MRI monitored targeting PDT with excellent targeting and imaging ability. Non-toxicity and high photodynamic efficacy on SW480 carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo were achieved with this method at the level of 0-100 μM. Notably, localization of nanoparticles in skin and hepatic tissue was significantly less than in tumor tissue, therefore photosensitivity and hepatotoxicity can be attenuated.

  4. Exploration of agent of change’s role in biodiesel energy transition process using agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatno, A.; Vicky, L. R.; Destyanto, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    As the world’s largest Crude Palm Oil (CPO) producer, Indonesia uses CPO as raw material for biodiesel. A number of policies have been designed by the Indonesian government to support adoption of biodiesel. However, the role of energy alternatives faced complex problems. Agent-based modeling can be applied to predict the impact of policies on the actors in the business process to acquire a rich discernment of the behavior and decision making by the biodiesel industries. This study evaluates government policy by attending at the adoption of the biodiesel industry in the tender run by a government with the intervention of two policy options biodiesel energy utilization by developing an agent-based model. The simulation result show that the policy of adding the biodiesel plant installed capacity has a good impact in increasing the production capacity and vendor adoption in the tender. Even so, the government should consider the cost to be incurred and the profits for vendors, so the biodiesel production targets can be successfully fulfilled.

  5. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  6. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to

  7. Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA, for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn. These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.

  8. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet: a greenhouse assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Knudsen, I. M. B.; Binnerup, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... introduced by seed and soil inoculation. Bulk and rhizosphere soils were sampled regularly during the growth of barley and sugar beet. The soils were assayed for the fate of MCAs and various features of the indigenous soil microbiota. At the end of the experiment (193 d), DR54 and IK726 had declined...... by a factor of 106 and 20, respectively, and DR54 showed a short-lasting growth increase in the sugar beet rhizosphere. In general, the non-target effects were small and transient. IK726 seemed to have general stimulating effects on soil enzyme activity and the soil microbiota, and resulted in a significant...

  9. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of bone-seeking superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents for imaging bone metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Doschak, Michael R

    2013-06-12

    In this article, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new class of nonionizing bone-targeting contrast agents based on bisphosphonate-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), for use in imaging of bone turnover with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similar to bone-targeting (99m)Technetium medronate, our novel contrast agent uses bisphosphonates to impart bone-seeking properties, but replaces the former radioisotope with nonionizing SPIONs which enables their subsequent detection using MRI. Our reported method is relatively simple, quick and cost-effective and results in BP-SPIONs with a final nanoparticle size of 17 nm under electron microscopy technique (i.e., TEM). In-vitro binding studies of our novel bone tracer have shown selective binding affinity (around 65%) for hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral of bone. Bone-targeting SPIONs offer the potential for use as nonionizing MRI contrast agents capable of imaging dynamic bone turnover, for use in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases and related bone pathology.

  10. Economic considerations in the use of inhaled anesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Julie

    2010-04-15

    To describe the components of and factors contributing to the costs of inhaled anesthesia, basis for quantifying and comparing these costs, and practical strategies for performing pharmacoeconomic analyses and reducing the costs of inhaled anesthetic agents. Inhaled anesthesia can be costly, and some of the variable costs, including fresh gas flow rates and vaporizer settings, are potential targets for cost savings. The use of a low fresh gas flow rate maximizes rebreathing of exhaled anesthetic gas and is less costly than a high flow rate, but it provides less control of the level of anesthesia. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) hour is a measure that can be used to compare the cost of inhaled anesthetic agents at various fresh gas flow rates. Anesthesia records provide a sense of patterns of inhaled anesthetic agent use, but the amount of detail can be limited. Cost savings have resulted from efforts to reduce the direct costs of inhaled anesthetic agents, but reductions in indirect costs through shortened times to patient recovery and discharge following the judicious use of these agents are more difficult to demonstrate. The patient case mix, fresh gas flow rates typically used during inhaled anesthesia, availability and location of vaporizers, and anesthesia care provider preferences and practices should be taken into consideration in pharmacoeconomic evaluations and recommendations for controlling the costs of inhaled anesthesia. Understanding factors that contribute to the costs of inhaled anesthesia and considering those factors in pharmacoeconomic analyses and recommendations for use of these agents can result in cost savings.

  11. Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC-MRF): A Platform for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian E; Donnola, Shannon B; Jiang, Yun; Batesole, Joshua; Darrah, Rebecca; Drumm, Mitchell L; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Yu, Xin; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A

    2017-08-16

    Injectable Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents have been widely used to provide critical assessments of disease for both clinical and basic science imaging research studies. The scope of available MRI contrast agents has expanded over the years with the emergence of molecular imaging contrast agents specifically targeted to biological markers. Unfortunately, synergistic application of more than a single molecular contrast agent has been limited by MRI's ability to only dynamically measure a single agent at a time. In this study, a new Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC - MRF) methodology is described that can detect and independently quantify the local concentration of multiple MRI contrast agents following simultaneous administration. This "multi-color" MRI methodology provides the opportunity to monitor multiple molecular species simultaneously and provides a practical, quantitative imaging framework for the eventual clinical translation of molecular imaging contrast agents.

  12. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  13. Nanopharmaceuticals to target antifilarials: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Afzal, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Currently emphasized conventional chemotherapies for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are imperfect due to unfocused targeting of poorly water-soluble antifilarial drugs. The profound location of drug targets (filarial parasites or wolbachia) within the complex anatomy of lymphatic tissues often necessitates prolonged treatment schedules with high doses leading to undesired side effects and poor patient compliance. Therefore, we need to reformulate antifilarial drugs taking the advantages of nanotechnology through a wide range of nanomedical carriers, which improve drug efficacy, increase bioavailability, and diminish toxicity. Connotations of drug delivery systems (DDSs) to target lymphatic filaroids or wolbachia and systemic microfilaria have been discussed. The potentials of liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles for the treatment of LF are highlighted. Various critical factors, viz optimal size range, surface properties, preferred pH, mechanism of reticuloendothelial avoidance, and control of the release of antifilarial agents for safe elimination of parasites, are enclosed to design a novel DDS for LF. The review of nanotechnological approaches to improve antifilarial chemotherapy will help to resolve existing technological gaps. Precincts in the antifilarial discovery programs can never be overcome by conventional methods. Nanomedicine encompasses wide-range solution for each single problem (i.e., from poor solubility to nonspecific targeting of antifilarial agents) for the cure of LF at low costs and may reduce the economic burden of LF diseases. Advances in nanotechnology loom will certainly come forward as silver bullets in the near future for quick diagnosis, control, and elimination of this tropically neglected disease.

  14. Targeting tumor highly-expressed LAT1 transporter with amino acid-modified nanoparticles: Toward a novel active targeting strategy in breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Di, Xingsheng; Wu, Mingrui; Sun, Zhisu; Zhong, Lu; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Kan, Qiming; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    Designing active targeting nanocarriers with increased cellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Herein, we report a novel active targeting strategy based on the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Glutamate was conjugated to polyoxyethylene stearate as a targeting ligand to achieve LAT1-targeting PLGA nanoparticles. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles was investigated in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Significant increase in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity was observed in LAT1-targeting nanoparticles compared to the unmodified ones. More interestingly, the internalized LAT1 together with targeting nanoparticles could recycle back to the cell membrane within 3 h, guaranteeing sufficient transporters on cell membrane for continuous cellular uptake. The LAT1 targeting nanoparticles exhibited better tumor accumulation and antitumor effects. These results suggested that the overexpressed LAT1 on cancer cells holds a great potential to be a high-efficiency target for the rational design of active-targeting nanosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted therapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: the role of bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2007-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, and treatment with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy agents have been shown to provide a modest improvement in survival, reduce disease-related symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, with standard chemotherapy treatments the prognosis is poor with the majority of patients dying in less than a year from diagnosis. Treatment with standard chemotherapy agents has reached a therapeutic plateau, and recent investigations have focused on therapies that target a specific pathway within the malignant cell or related to angiogenesis. The most promising of the targeted therapies are agents that target the process of angiogenesis. Bevacizuamab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and prevents binding of VEGF to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, thus inhibiting activation of the VEGF pathway and angiogenesis. A recent phase III trial of first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer revealed a statistically significant improvement in response, progression-free survival, and overall survival with the combination of bevacizumab and standard chemotherapy in comparison to standard chemotherapy alone. Bevacizumab is the only targeted therapy that has been shown to improve survival when combined with standard chemotherapy in the first-line setting.

  16. Delivery of Optical Contrast Agents using Triton-X100, Part 1: Reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular labeling

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Anne L; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Effective delivery of optical contrast agents into live cells remains a significant challenge. We sought to determine whether Triton-X100, a detergent commonly used for membrane isolation and protein purification, could be used to effectively and reversibly permeabilize live cells for delivery of targeted optical contrast agents. Although Triton-X100 is widely recognized as a good cell permeabilization agent, no systematic study has evaluated the efficiency, reproducibility, and reversibility...

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Fragments for Targeting Therapeutics to Growth Plate Cartilage | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have discovered monoclonal antibodies that bind to matrilin-3, a protein specifically expressed in cartilage tissue, that could be used for treating or inhibiting growth plate disorders, such as a skeletal dysplasia or short stature. The monoclonal antibodies can also be used to target therapeutic agents, such as anti-arthritis agents, to cartilage tissue. NICHD seeks statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize treatment of skeletal disorders using targeting antibodies.

  18. Reversal of target-specific oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, D.M.; Cuker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide safe and effective anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings by interfering with the activity of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). Although TSOACs have practical advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), there are currently no antidotes to reverse their anticoagulant effect. Herein we summarize the available evidence for TSOAC reversal using nonspecific and specific reversal agents. We discuss important limitations of existing evidence, which is derived from studies in human volunteers, animal models and in vitro experiments. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of reversal agents on clinical outcomes such as bleeding and mortality in patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding are needed. PMID:24880102

  19. A natural anticancer agent thaspine targets human topoisomerase IB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Silvia; Katkar, Prafulla; Vassallo, Oscar; Falconi, Mattia; Linder, Stig; Desideri, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The different steps of the topoisomerase I catalytic cycle have been analyzed in the presence of the plant alkaloid thaspine (1- (2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3,8-dimethoxychromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione), known to induce apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. The experiments indicate that thaspine inhibits both the cleavage and the religation steps of the enzyme reaction. The inhibition is reversible and the effect is enhanced upon pre-incubation. Molecular docking simulations of thaspine over topoisomerase I, in the presence or absence of the DNA substrate, show that thaspine, when interacting with the enzyme alone in the closed or in the open state, can bind in proximity of the active residues preventing the cleavage reaction, whilst when docked with the enzyme-DNA cleavable complex intercalates between the DNA bases in a way similar to that found for camptothecin, explaining its religation inhibition. These results unequivocally demonstrate that thaspine targets human topoisomerase I .

  20. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  1. Evaluating Water Demand Using Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    based on its own condition and the condition of the world around it. For example, residential agents can make decisions to convert to or from xeriscaping and/or low-flow appliances based on policy implementation, economic status, weather, and climatic conditions. Agricultural agents may vary their usage by making decisions on crop distribution and irrigation design. Preliminary results show that water usage can be highly irrational under certain conditions. Results also identify sub-sectors within each group that have the highest influence on ensemble group behavior, providing a means for policy makers to target their efforts. Finally, the model is able to predict the impact of low-probability, high-impact events such as catastrophic denial of service due to natural and/or man-made events.

  2. The Application of Fuzzy Logic Controller to Compute a Trust Level for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, S.; Suryana, N.; Shahib, S.; Abu, N.A.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Gómez Chova, L.; Martí Belenguer, D.; Candel Torres, I.

    Agents that travel through many hosts may cause a threat on the security of the visited hosts. Assets, system resources, and the reputation of the host are few possible targets for such an attack. The possibility for multi-hop agents to be malicious is higher compared to the one-hop or two-hop

  3. Measuring the Acoustic Release of a Chemotherapeutic Agent from Folate-Targeted Polymeric Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusara, Ayah; Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun; Husseini, Ghaleb

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we compare the use of Bayesian filters for the estimation of release and re-encapsulation rates of a chemotherapeutic agent (namely Doxorubicin) from nanocarriers in an acoustically activated drug release system. The study is implemented using an advanced kinetic model that takes into account cavitation events causing the antineoplastic agent's release from polymeric micelles upon exposure to ultrasound. This model is an improvement over the previous representations of acoustic release that used simple zero-, first- and second-order release and re-encapsulation kinetics to study acoustically triggered drug release from polymeric micelles. The new model incorporates drug release and micellar reassembly events caused by cavitation allowing for the controlled release of chemotherapeutics specially and temporally. Different Bayesian estimators are tested for this purpose including Kalman filters (KF), Extended Kalman filters (EKF), Particle filters (PF), and multi-model KF and EKF. Simulated and experimental results are used to verify the performance of the above-mentioned estimators. The proposed methods demonstrate the utility and high-accuracy of using estimation methods in modeling this drug delivery technique. The results show that, in both cases (linear and non-linear dynamics), the modeling errors are expensive but can be minimized using a multi-model approach. In addition, particle filters are more flexible filters that perform reasonably well compared to the other two filters. The study improved the accuracy of the kinetic models used to capture acoustically activated drug release from polymeric micelles, which may in turn help in designing hardware and software capable of precisely controlling the delivered amount of chemotherapeutics to cancerous tissue.

  4. A Multi-task Principal Agent Model for Knowledge Contribution of Enterprise Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi LE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the different behavior characteristics of knowledge contribution of enterprise employees, a multi-task principal-agent relationship of knowledge contribution between enterprise and employees is established based on principal-agent theory, analyzing staff’s knowledge contribution behavior of knowledge creation and knowledge participation. Based on this, a multi-task principal agent model for knowledge contribution of enterprise staff is developed to formulate the asymmetry of information in knowledge contribution Then, a set of incentive measures are derived from the theoretic model, aiming to prompt the knowledge contribution in enterprise. The result shows that staff’s knowledge creation behavior and positive participation behavior can influence and further promote each other Enterprise should set up respective target levels of both knowledge creation contribution and knowledge participation contribution and make them irreplaceable to each other. This work contributes primarily to the development of the literature on knowledge management and principal-agent theory. In addition, the applicability of the findings will be improved by further empirical analysis.

  5. Nerve Agents: What They Are, How They Work, How to Counter Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Stefano; Machado, John-Hanson; Mitchell, Moriah

    2018-05-16

    Nerve agents are organophosphorus chemical warfare agents that exert their action through the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with a consequent overstimulation of cholinergic transmission followed by its shutdown. Beyond warfare, they have notoriously been employed in acts of terrorism as well as high profile assassinations. After a brief historical introduction on the development and deployment of nerve agents, this review provides a survey of their chemistry, the way they affect cholinergic transmission, the available treatment options, and the current directions for their improvement. As the review illustrates, despite their merits, the currently available treatment options present several shortcomings. Current research directions involve the search for improved antidotes, antagonists of the nicotinic receptors, small-molecule pretreatment options, as well as bioscavengers as macromolecular pretreatment options. These efforts are making good progress in many different directions and, hopefully, will lead to a lower target susceptibility, thus reducing the appeal of nerve agents as chemical weapons.

  6. MRI contrast agent for molecular imaging of the HER2/neu receptor using targeted magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasaneh, Samira; Rajabi, Hossein, E-mail: hrajabi@modares.ac.ir [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Medical Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Mohammad Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Department of Radioisotope (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhlaghpoor, Shahram [Sina Hospital, Tehran Medical University, Noor Medical Imaging Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    In this study, Trastuzumab modified Magnetic Nanoparticles (TMNs) were prepared as a new contrast agent for detecting HER2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) expression tumors by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TMNs were prepared based on iron oxide nanoparticles core and Trastuzumab modified dextran coating. The TMNs core and hydrodynamic size were determined by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. TMNs stability and cytotoxicity were investigated. The ability of TMNs for HER2 detection were evaluated in breast carcinoma cell lines (SKBr3 and MCF7 cells) and tumor-bearing mice by MRI and iron uptake determination. The particles core and hydrodynamic size were 9 {+-} 2.5 and 41 {+-} 15 nm (size range: 15-87 nm), respectively. The molar antibody/nanoparticle ratio was 3.1-3.5. TMNs were non-toxic to the cells below the 30 {mu}g (Fe)/mL concentration and good stable up to 8 weeks in PBS buffer. TMNs could detect HER2 oncogenes in the cells surface with imagable contrast by MRI. The invivo study in mice bearing tumors indicated that TMNs possessed a good diagnostic ability as HER2 specific contrast agent by MRI. TMNs were demonstrated to be able to selectively accumulate in the tumor cells, with a proper signal enhancement in MRI T2 images. So, the complex may be considered for further investigations as an MRI contrast agent for detection of HER2 expression tumors in human.

  7. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  8. The benefits of paired-agent imaging in molecular-guided surgery: an update on methods and applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2016-03-01

    One of the major complications with conventional imaging-agent-based molecular imaging, particularly for cancer imaging, is variability in agent delivery and nonspecific retention in biological tissue. Such factors can account to "swamp" the signal arising from specifically bound imaging agent, which is presumably indicative of the concentration of targeted biomolecule. In the 1950s, Pressman et al. proposed a method of accounting for these delivery and retention effects by normalizing targeted antibody retention to the retention of a co-administered "untargeted"/control imaging agent [1]. Our group resurrected the approach within the last 5 years, finding ways to utilize this so-called "paired-agent" imaging approach to directly quantify biomolecule concentration in tissue (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) [2]. These novel paired-agent imaging approaches capable of quantifying biomolecule concentration provide enormous potential for being adapted to and optimizing molecular-guided surgery, which has a principle goal of identifying distinct biological tissues (tumor, nerves, etc…) based on their distinct molecular environment. This presentation will cover the principles and nuances of paired-agent imaging, as well as the current status of the field and future applications. [1] D. Pressman, E. D. Day, and M. Blau, "The use of paired labeling in the determination of tumor-localizing antibodies," Cancer Res, 17(9), 845-50 (1957). [2] K. M. Tichauer, Y. Wang, B. W. Pogue et al., "Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging," Phys Med Biol, 60(14), R239-69 (2015).

  9. Small molecules and targeted therapies in distant metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersey, P; Bastholt, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V

    2009-01-01

    with chemotherapy. Agents targeting mutant B-Raf (RAF265 and PLX4032), MEK (PD0325901, AZD6244), heat-shock protein 90 (tanespimycin), mTOR (everolimus, deforolimus, temsirolimus) and VEGFR (axitinib) showed some promise in earlier stages of clinical development. Receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (imatinib...

  10. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  11. Development of organic MRI contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Karasawa, Satoru; Koga, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    Described are trends of the development in the title since those agents with target properties are awaited for specific organ and regional MRI. The contrast agents alter the relaxation time of water proton to yield the enhanced contrast between organs and tissues with different water volumes. Nowadays Gd-complexes and nano-particle of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe(III)) are widely used for enhancing in clinic. Among organic compounds with paramagnetic spin, those possessing nitroxide radical like TEMPO- and PROXYL-radicals have been subject to development by their derivatization. High spin molecules conceivably affect the relaxivity, which, however, is found smaller per spin of synthesized triplet complexes than doublet ones. This has lead to basic approach for molecules restricting water movement due to their hydrogen bond like DNA as a model, for introducing many radicals in high molecular weight compounds, and their polymer, as one of which authors have developed a derivative of hyperbranched polymer (HPS)-TEMPO having the similar relaxivity to gadolinium-diethylenetiamine pentaacetid acid (Gd-DTPA) (R.T.)

  12. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Sethi, Gautam; Reddanna, Pallu; Kalle, Arunasree M; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Dowluru, Kaladhar S V G K; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Duddukuri, Govinda Rao

    2016-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA 2 s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antimycin A as a Potential Antilung Cancer Stem Cell Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tai Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance and tumor recurrence are major obstacles in treating lung cancer patients. Accumulating evidence considers lung cancer stem cells (CSCs as the major contributor to these clinical challenges. Agents that can target lung CSCs could potentially provide a more effective treatment than traditional chemotherapy. Here, we utilized the side-population (SP method to isolate lung CSCs from A549 and PC-9 cell lines. Subsequently, a high throughput platform, connectivity maps (CMAPs, was used to identify potential anti-CSC agents. An antibiotic, antimycin A (AMA, was identified as a top candidate. SP A549 cells exhibited an elevated stemness profile, including Nanog, β-catenin, Sox2, and CD133, and increased self-renewal ability. AMA treatment was found to suppress β-catenin signaling components and tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, AMA treatment decreased the proliferation of gefitinib-resistant PC-9/GR cells and percentage of SP population. AMA demonstrated synergistic suppression of PC-9/GR cell viability when combined with gefitinib. Finally, AMA treatment suppressed tumorigenesis in mice inoculated with A549 SP cells. Collectively, we have identified AMA using CMAP as a novel antilung CSC agent, which acts to downregulate β-catenin signaling. The combination of AMA and targeted therapeutic agents could be considered for overcoming drug resistance and relapse in lung cancer patients.

  14. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj; Divya eKhaitan

    2013-01-01

    Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). Studies in our laboratory have identifi...

  15. Characterization of d-boroAla as a Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent Targeting d-Ala-d-Ala Ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Putty, Sandeep; Rai, Aman; Jamindar, Darshan; Pagano, Paul; Quinn, Cheryl L.; Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Gutheil, William G.

    2011-01-01

    d-boroAla was previously characterized as an inhibitor of bacterial alanine racemase and d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzymes [Duncan, K., et al Biochemistry 1989, 28:3541–9]. In the present study, d-boroAla was identified and characterized as an antibacterial agent. d-boroAla has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, with MICs down to 8 µg/mL. A structure-function study on the alkyl side chain (NH2-CHR-B(OR’)2) revealed that d-boroAla is the most effective agent in a series ...

  16. On the Motion of Agents across Terrain with Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to finding the time optimal route of an agent travelling across a region from a given source point to a given target point. At each point of this region, a maximum allowed speed is specified. This speed limit may vary in time. The continuous statement of this problem and the case when the agent travels on a grid with square cells are considered. In the latter case, the time is also discrete, and the number of admissible directions of motion at each point in time is eight. The existence of an optimal solution of this problem is proved, and estimates of the approximate solution obtained on the grid are obtained. It is found that decreasing the size of cells below a certain limit does not further improve the approximation. These results can be used to estimate the quasi-optimal trajectory of the agent motion across the rugged terrain produced by an algorithm based on a cellular automaton that was earlier developed by the author.

  17. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  18. Multifunctional nanoparticle-EpCAM aptamer bioconjugates: a paradigm for targeted drug delivery and imaging in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manasi; Duan, Wei; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2015-02-01

    The promising proposition of multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics has inspired the development of theranostic approach for improved cancer therapy. Moreover, active targeting of drug carrier to specific target site is crucial for providing efficient delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. In this regard, the present study investigates the theranostic capabilities of nutlin-3a loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, functionalized with a targeting ligand (EpCAM aptamer) and an imaging agent (quantum dots) for cancer therapy and bioimaging. A wide spectrum of in vitro analysis (cellular uptake study, cytotoxicity assay, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, apoptosis associated proteins study) revealed superior therapeutic potentiality of targeted NPs over other formulations in EpCAM expressing cells. Moreover, our nanotheranostic system served as a superlative bio-imaging modality both in 2D monolayer culture and tumor spheroid model. Our result suggests that, these aptamer-guided multifunctional NPs may act as indispensable nanotheranostic approach toward cancer therapy. This study investigated the theranostic capabilities of nutlin-3a loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles functionalized with a targeting ligand (EpCAM aptamer) and an imaging agent (quantum dots) for cancer therapy and bioimaging. It was concluded that the studied multifunctional targeted nanoparticle may become a viable and efficient approach in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contrast ultrasound targeted treatment of gliomas in mice via drug-bearing nanoparticle delivery and microvascular ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Caitlin W; Price, Richard J

    2010-12-15

    We are developing minimally-invasive contrast agent microbubble based therapeutic approaches in which the permeabilization and/or ablation of the microvasculature are controlled by varying ultrasound pulsing parameters. Specifically, we are testing whether such approaches may be used to treat malignant brain tumors through drug delivery and microvascular ablation. Preliminary studies have been performed to determine whether targeted drug-bearing nanoparticle delivery can be facilitated by the ultrasound mediated destruction of "composite" delivery agents comprised of 100nm poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) nanoparticles that are adhered to albumin shelled microbubbles. We denote these agents as microbubble-nanoparticle composite agents (MNCAs). When targeted to subcutaneous C6 gliomas with ultrasound, we observed an immediate 4.6-fold increase in nanoparticle delivery in MNCA treated tumors over tumors treated with microbubbles co-administered with nanoparticles and a 8.5 fold increase over non-treated tumors. Furthermore, in many cancer applications, we believe it may be desirable to perform targeted drug delivery in conjunction with ablation of the tumor microcirculation, which will lead to tumor hypoxia and apoptosis. To this end, we have tested the efficacy of non-theramal cavitation-induced microvascular ablation, showing that this approach elicits tumor perfusion reduction, apoptosis, significant growth inhibition, and necrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that our ultrasound-targeted approach has the potential to increase therapeutic efficiency by creating tumor necrosis through microvascular ablation and/or simultaneously enhancing the drug payload in gliomas.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for molecular imaging in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    For over twenty years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a number of medical applications ranging from bioseparations, magnetic drug targeting, hyperthermia and imaging. Recent studies have shown that they can be functionalized for in vivo biological targeting, potentially enabling nanoagents for molecular imaging and site-localized drug delivery. Here we review several imaging technologies developed using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as targeted molecular agents. Several imaging modalities have exploited the large induced magnetic moment of SPIONs to create local mechanical force. Magnetic force microscopy can probe nanoparticle uptake in single cells. For in vivo applications, magnetomotive modulation of primary images in ultrasound (US), photoacoustics (PA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help identify very small concentrations of nanoagents while simultaneously suppressing intrinsic background signals from tissue.

  1. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  2. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  3. IL-1 as a target in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Kaneko, Naoe; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Morikawa, Shinnosuke; Kaneko, Kentaro; Masumoto, Junya

    2015-03-16

    Inflammation is a protective response to eliminate cytotoxic agents and pathogens. Various factors are thought to be involved in the pathological changes in tissues caused by inflammation. Interleukin 1, an inflammatory cytokine, is thought to have diverse physiological functions and to play an important role in inflammatory disease. In this review, we discuss interleukin-1 as a target of inflammatory disease.

  4. Dynamic fluorescence imaging with molecular agents for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk

    Non-invasive dynamic optical imaging of small animals requires the development of a novel fluorescence imaging modality. Herein, fluorescence imaging is demonstrated with sub-second camera integration times using agents specifically targeted to disease markers, enabling rapid detection of cancerous regions. The continuous-wave fluorescence imaging acquires data with an intensified or an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device. The work presented in this dissertation (i) assessed dose-dependent uptake using dynamic fluorescence imaging and pharmacokinetic (PK) models, (ii) evaluated disease marker availability in two different xenograft tumors, (iii) compared the impact of autofluorescence in fluorescence imaging of near-infrared (NIR) vs. red light excitable fluorescent contrast agents, (iv) demonstrated dual-wavelength fluorescence imaging of angiogenic vessels and lymphatics associated with a xenograft tumor model, and (v) examined dynamic multi-wavelength, whole-body fluorescence imaging with two different fluorescent contrast agents. PK analysis showed that the uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) in xenograft tumor regions linearly increased with doses of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) up to 1.5 nmol/mouse. Above 1.5 nmol/mouse, the uptake did not increase with doses, suggesting receptor saturation. Target to background ratio (TBR) and PK analysis for two different tumor cell lines showed that while Kaposi's sarcoma (KS1767) exhibited early and rapid uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf), human melanoma tumors (M21) had non-significant TBR differences and early uptake rates similar to the contralateral normal tissue regions. The differences may be due to different compartment location of the target. A comparison of fluorescence imaging with NIR vs. red light excitable fluorescent dyes demonstrates that NIR dyes are associated with less background signal, enabling rapid tumor detection. In contrast, animals injected with red light excitable fluorescent dyes showed high autofluorescence. Dual

  5. Nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging: from simple to dual contrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelrich J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan Estelrich,1,2 María Jesús Sánchez-Martín,1 Maria Antònia Busquets1,2 1Departament de Fisicoquímica, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Nanociència I Nanotecnologia (IN2UB, Barcelona, Catalonia, SpainAbstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become one of the most widely used and powerful tools for noninvasive clinical diagnosis owing to its high degree of soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and depth of penetration. MRI signal intensity is related to the relaxation times (T1, spin–lattice relaxation and T2, spin–spin relaxation of in vivo water protons. To increase contrast, various inorganic nanoparticles and complexes (the so-called contrast agents are administered prior to the scanning. Shortening T1 and T2 increases the corresponding relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2, producing hyperintense and hypointense signals respectively in shorter times. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved with the acquisition of a large number of measurements. The contrast agents used are generally based on either iron oxide nanoparticles or ferrites, providing negative contrast in T2-weighted images; or complexes of lanthanide metals (mostly containing gadolinium ions, providing positive contrast in T1-weighted images. Recently, lanthanide complexes have been immobilized in nanostructured materials in order to develop a new class of contrast agents with functions including blood-pool and organ (or tumor targeting. Meanwhile, to overcome the limitations of individual imaging modalities, multimodal imaging techniques have been developed. An important challenge is to design all-in-one contrast agents that can be detected by multimodal techniques. Magnetoliposomes are efficient multimodal contrast agents. They can simultaneously bear both kinds of contrast and can, furthermore, incorporate targeting ligands and chains of polyethylene glycol to enhance the accumulation of

  6. Iron-EHPG as an hepatobiliary MR contrast agent: initial imaging and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, R.B.; Greif, W.L.; Stark, D.D.; Vincent, A.C.; Saini, S.; Wedeen, V.J.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    A paramagnetic relaxation agent targeted to functioning hepatocytes of the liver and excreted into the bile would be useful in the enhancement of normal liver and biliary anatomy in MR imaging. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using the prototype hepatobiliary MR contrast agent, iron(III) ethylenebis-(2-hydroxyphenylglycine) (Fe(EHPG) - ). The biodistribution, relaxation enhancement, and imaging characteristics of Fe(EHPG) - were compared to those of the non-specific iron chelate iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe(DTPA) 2- ), which has a comparable effect on water proton relaxation times. (author)

  7. Targeted therapy of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and the second most common hematologic cancer. MM is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow, and presents clinically with a broad range of symptoms, including hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. MM is a heterogeneous disease associated with genomic instability, where patients may express multiple genetic abnormalities that affect several oncogenic pathways. Commonly detected genetic aberrations are translocations involving immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions (chromosome 14q32) and oncogenes such as c-maf [t(14:16)], cyclin D1 [t(11:14)], and FGFR3/MMSET [t(4:14)]. Advances in the basic understanding of MM and the development of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide and lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, have increased therapeutic response rates and prolonged patient survival. Despite these advances MM remains incurable in the majority of patients, and it is therefore critical to identify additional therapeutic strategies and targets for its treatment. In this chapter, we review the underlying genetic components of MM and discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted agents in the management of MM. In addition, we discuss experimental therapies that are currently in clinical development along with their molecular rationale in the treatment of MM.

  8. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  9. Targeting the Thioredoxin System for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmin; Li, Xinming; Han, Xiao; Liu, Ruijuan; Fang, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) are essential components of the Trx system which plays pivotal roles in regulating multiple cellular redox signaling pathways. In recent years TrxR/Trx have been increasingly recognized as an important modulator of tumor development, and hence targeting TrxR/Trx is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this review we first discuss the structural details of TrxR, the functions of the Trx system, and the rational of targeting TrxR/Trx for cancer treatment. We also highlight small-molecule TrxR/Trx inhibitors that have potential anticancer activity and review their mechanisms of action. Finally, we examine the challenges of developing TrxR/Trx inhibitors as anticancer agents and perspectives for selectively targeting TrxR/Trx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Targeted Therapies are Necessary for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Petri, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continues to have important morbidity and accelerated mortality despite therapeutic advances. Targeted therapies offer the possibility of improved efficacy with fewer side-effects. Current management strategies rely heavily on non-specific immunosuppressive agents. Prednisone, in particular, is responsible for a considerable burden of later organ damage. There are a multitude of diverse mechanisms of disease activity, immunogenic abnormalities and clinical manifestations to take into consideration in SLE. Many targeted agents with robust mechanistic pre-clinical data and promising early phase studies have ultimately been disappointing in phase III randomized controlled studies. Recent efforts have focused on B cell therapies, in particular given the success of belimumab in clinical trials, with limited success. We remain optimistic regarding other specific therapies being evaluated including interferon alpha blockade. It is likely that in SLE, given the heterogeneity of the population involved, precision medicine is needed, rather than expecting that any single biologic will be universally effective. PMID:27497251

  11. Cutaneous Adverse Events of Targeted Therapies for Hematolymphoid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Julia D; Kwong, Bernice Y

    2017-12-01

    The identification of oncogenic drivers of liquid tumors has led to the rapid development of targeted agents with distinct cutaneous adverse event (AE) profiles. The diagnosis and management of these skin toxicities has motivated a novel partnership between dermatologists and oncologists in developing supportive oncodermatology clinics. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of clinical presentation, mechanisms, and management of the most common and significant cutaneous AEs observed during treatment with targeted therapies for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. We systematically review according to drug-targeting pathway the cutaneous AE profiles of these drugs, and offer insight when possible into whether pharmacologic target versus immunologic modulation primarily underlie presentation. We include discussion of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, ponatinib), blinatumomab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, anti-B cell antibodies (rituximab, ibritumomab, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, tositumomab), immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), alemtuzumab, brentuximab, and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, ixazomib). We highlight skin reactions seen with antiliquid but not solid tumor agents, draw attention to serious cutaneous AEs that might require therapy modification or cessation, and offer management strategies to permit treatment tolerability. We emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to minimize disruptions to care, optimize prognosis and quality of life, and promptly address life-threatening skin or infectious events. This evolving partnership between oncologists and dermatologists in the iterative characterization and management of skin toxicities will contribute to a better understanding of these drugs' cutaneous targets and improved patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeted drugs in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.; Hennequin, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2004-01-01

    New drugs aiming at the development of targeted therapies have been assayed in combination with ionizing radiation over the past few years. The rationale of this concept comes from the fact that the cytotoxic potential of targeted drugs is limited, thus requiring concomitant association with a cytotoxic agent for the eradication of tumor cells. Conversely a low level of cumulative toxicity is expected from targeted drugs. Most targeted drugs act through inhibition of post-translational modifications of proteins, such as dimerization of growth factor receptors, prenylation reactions, or phosphorylation of tyrosine or serine-threonine residues. Many systems involving the proteasome, neo-angiogenesis promoters, TGF-β, cyclooxygenase or the transcription factor NF-κB, are currently under investigation in hopes they will allow a control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. A few drugs have demonstrated an antitumor potential in particular phenotypes. In most instances, however, radiation-drug interactions proved to be strictly additive in terms of cell growth inhibition or induced cell death. Strong potentiation of the response to radiotherapy is expected to require interaction with DNA repair mechanisms. (authors)

  13. Pathogenic inflammation and its therapeutic targeting in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Andrew Gottschalk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, lupus is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues including skin, kidneys and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B and T lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as Belimumab which targets the B cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immuno-suppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and

  14. Pathogenic Inflammation and Its Therapeutic Targeting in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Timothy A.; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Hibbs, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues, including skin, kidneys, and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B- and T-lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as belimumab which targets the B-cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B-cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and review the known

  15. Prostate specific membrane antigen- a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L; Capala, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to represent a major health problem, and yet there is no effective treatment available for advanced metastatic disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment modalities that could improve the outcome. Because prostate specific...... membrane antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein, is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and its expression is further increased in poorly differentiated, metastatic, and hormone-refractory carcinomas, it is a very attractive target. Molecules targeting PSMA can be labelled with radionuclides...... to become both diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. The use of PSMA binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes, opens up the potential for a new era of personalized management of metastatic prostate cancer....

  16. Imaging of Non-Prostate Cancers Using PSMA-Targeted Radiotracers: Rationale, Current State of the Field, and a Call to Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Fragomeni, Roberto A; Amir, Tali; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Harvey, Susan C; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Solnes, Lilja; Kiess, Ana; Allaf, Mohamad E; Pomper, Martin; Gorin, Michael A; Rowe, Steven P

    2018-03-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly overexpressed on prostate cancer epithelial cells and for which there is a growing body of literature examining the role of small molecule and antibody radiotracers targeted against this protein for prostate cancer detection and therapy. Despite its name, PSMA is also expressed, to varying degrees, in the neovasculature of a wide variety of non-prostate cancers; indeed, the pathology literature is replete with promising immunohistochemistry findings. A number of groups have begun to correlate those pathology-level results with in vivo imaging and therapy in non-prostate cancers using the same PSMA-targeted agents that have been so successful in prostate cancer. The potential to