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Sample records for iris recognition algorithms

  1. An iris recognition algorithm based on DCT and GLCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Wu, Ye-qing

    2008-04-01

    With the enlargement of mankind's activity range, the significance for person's status identity is becoming more and more important. So many different techniques for person's status identity were proposed for this practical usage. Conventional person's status identity methods like password and identification card are not always reliable. A wide variety of biometrics has been developed for this challenge. Among those biologic characteristics, iris pattern gains increasing attention for its stability, reliability, uniqueness, noninvasiveness and difficult to counterfeit. The distinct merits of the iris lead to its high reliability for personal identification. So the iris identification technique had become hot research point in the past several years. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for iris recognition using gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) and Discrete Cosine transform(DCT). To obtain more representative iris features, features from space and DCT transformation domain are extracted. Both GLCM and DCT are applied on the iris image to form the feature sequence in this paper. The combination of GLCM and DCT makes the iris feature more distinct. Upon GLCM and DCT the eigenvector of iris extracted, which reflects features of spatial transformation and frequency transformation. Experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and feasible with iris recognition.

  2. Iris unwrapping using the Bresenham circle algorithm for real-time iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Matthew T.; Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.

    2015-02-01

    An efficient parallel architecture design for the iris unwrapping process in a real-time iris recognition system using the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is presented in this paper. Based on the characteristics of the model parameters this algorithm was chosen over the widely used polar conversion technique as the iris unwrapping model. The architecture design is parallelized to increase the throughput of the system and is suitable for processing an inputted image size of 320 × 240 pixels in real-time using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Quartus software is used to implement, verify, and analyze the design's performance using the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The system's predicted processing time is faster than the modern iris unwrapping technique used today∗.

  3. An Improved Iris Recognition Algorithm Based on Hybrid Feature and ELM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The iris image is easily polluted by noise and uneven light. This paper proposed an improved extreme learning machine (ELM) based iris recognition algorithm with hybrid feature. 2D-Gabor filters and GLCM is employed to generate a multi-granularity hybrid feature vector. 2D-Gabor filter and GLCM feature work for capturing low-intermediate frequency and high frequency texture information, respectively. Finally, we utilize extreme learning machine for iris recognition. Experimental results reveal our proposed ELM based multi-granularity iris recognition algorithm (ELM-MGIR) has higher accuracy of 99.86%, and lower EER of 0.12% under the premise of real-time performance. The proposed ELM-MGIR algorithm outperforms other mainstream iris recognition algorithms.

  4. Iris recognition using image moments and k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yaser Daanial; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a biometric technique for identification of a person using the iris image. The iris is first segmented from the acquired image of an eye using an edge detection algorithm. The disk shaped area of the iris is transformed into a rectangular form. Described moments are extracted from the grayscale image which yields a feature vector containing scale, rotation, and translation invariant moments. Images are clustered using the k-means algorithm and centroids for each cluster are computed. An arbitrary image is assumed to belong to the cluster whose centroid is the nearest to the feature vector in terms of Euclidean distance computed. The described model exhibits an accuracy of 98.5%.

  5. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  6. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  7. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  8. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  9. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.

    2017-11-07

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  10. Iris recognition based on key image feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Tian, Q; Zhang, J; Wu, S; Zeng, Y

    2008-01-01

    In iris recognition, feature extraction can be influenced by factors such as illumination and contrast, and thus the features extracted may be unreliable, which can cause a high rate of false results in iris pattern recognition. In order to obtain stable features, an algorithm was proposed in this paper to extract key features of a pattern from multiple images. The proposed algorithm built an iris feature template by extracting key features and performed iris identity enrolment. Simulation results showed that the selected key features have high recognition accuracy on the CASIA Iris Set, where both contrast and illumination variance exist.

  11. A novel iris localization algorithm using correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, Mausumi; Sharma, Jitu

    2015-06-01

    Fast and efficient segmentation of iris from the eye images is a primary requirement for robust database independent iris recognition. In this paper we have presented a new algorithm for computing the inner and outer boundaries of the iris and locating the pupil centre. Pupil-iris boundary computation is based on correlation filtering approach, whereas iris-sclera boundary is determined through one dimensional intensity mapping. The proposed approach is computationally less extensive when compared with the existing algorithms like Hough transform.

  12. Ordinal measures for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2009-12-01

    Images of a human iris contain rich texture information useful for identity authentication. A key and still open issue in iris recognition is how best to represent such textural information using a compact set of features (iris features). In this paper, we propose using ordinal measures for iris feature representation with the objective of characterizing qualitative relationships between iris regions rather than precise measurements of iris image structures. Such a representation may lose some image-specific information, but it achieves a good trade-off between distinctiveness and robustness. We show that ordinal measures are intrinsic features of iris patterns and largely invariant to illumination changes. Moreover, compactness and low computational complexity of ordinal measures enable highly efficient iris recognition. Ordinal measures are a general concept useful for image analysis and many variants can be derived for ordinal feature extraction. In this paper, we develop multilobe differential filters to compute ordinal measures with flexible intralobe and interlobe parameters such as location, scale, orientation, and distance. Experimental results on three public iris image databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ordinal feature models.

  13. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  14. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  15. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  16. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  17. On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckers, Stephanie A C; Schmid, Natalia A; Abhyankar, Aditya; Dorairaj, Vivekanand; Boyce, Christopher K; Hornak, Lawrence A

    2007-10-01

    The popularity of the iris biometric has grown considerably over the past two to three years. Most research has been focused on the development of new iris processing and recognition algorithms for frontal view iris images. However, a few challenging directions in iris research have been identified, including processing of a nonideal iris and iris at a distance. In this paper, we describe two nonideal iris recognition systems and analyze their performance. The word "nonideal" is used in the sense of compensating for off-angle occluded iris images. The system is designed to process nonideal iris images in two steps: 1) compensation for off-angle gaze direction and 2) processing and encoding of the rotated iris image. Two approaches are presented to account for angular variations in the iris images. In the first approach, we use Daugman's integrodifferential operator as an objective function to estimate the gaze direction. After the angle is estimated, the off-angle iris image undergoes geometric transformations involving the estimated angle and is further processed as if it were a frontal view image. The encoding technique developed for a frontal image is based on the application of the global independent component analysis. The second approach uses an angular deformation calibration model. The angular deformations are modeled, and calibration parameters are calculated. The proposed method consists of a closed-form solution, followed by an iterative optimization procedure. The images are projected on the plane closest to the base calibrated plane. Biorthogonal wavelets are used for encoding to perform iris recognition. We use a special dataset of the off-angle iris images to quantify the performance of the designed systems. A series of receiver operating characteristics demonstrate various effects on the performance of the nonideal-iris-based recognition system.

  18. Iris double recognition based on modified evolutionary neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yuan-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Huo, Guang; Liu, Wen-Tao; Feng, Jia-Kai

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at multicategory iris recognition under illumination and noise interference, this paper proposes a method of iris double recognition based on a modified evolutionary neural network. An equalization histogram and Laplace of Gaussian operator are used to process the iris to suppress illumination and noise interference and Haar wavelet to convert the iris feature to binary feature encoding. Calculate the Hamming distance for the test iris and template iris , and compare with classification threshold, determine the type of iris. If the iris cannot be identified as a different type, there needs to be a secondary recognition. The connection weights in back-propagation (BP) neural network use modified evolutionary neural network to adaptively train. The modified neural network is composed of particle swarm optimization with mutation operator and BP neural network. According to different iris libraries in different circumstances of experimental results, under illumination and noise interference, the correct recognition rate of this algorithm is higher, the ROC curve is closer to the coordinate axis, the training and recognition time is shorter, and the stability and the robustness are better.

  19. Iris image enhancement for feature recognition and extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza, GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available the employment of other algorithms and commands so as to better present and demonstrate the obtained results. Edge detection and enhancing images for use in an iris recognition system allow for efficient recognition and extraction of iris patterns. REFERENCES... Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 2002. Digital Image Processing 2nd Edition, Instructor?s manual .Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, pp 17-36. Proen?a, H. and Alexandre, L.A. 2007. Toward Noncooperative Iris Recognition: A classification approach using...

  20. DCT-based iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.

  1. Iris Recognition for Partially Occluded Images: Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaberi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate iris detection is a crucial part of an iris recognition system. One of the main issues in iris segmentation is coping with occlusion that happens due to eyelids and eyelashes. In the literature, some various methods have been suggested to solve the occlusion problem. In this paper, two different segmentations of iris are presented. In the first algorithm, a circle is located around the pupil with an appropriate diameter. The iris area encircled by the circular boundary is used for recognition purposes then. In the second method, again a circle is located around the pupil with a larger diameter. This time, however, only the lower part of the encircled iris area is utilized for individual recognition. Wavelet-based texture features are used in the process. Hamming and harmonic mean distance classifiers are exploited as a mixed classifier in suggested algorithm. It is observed that relying on a smaller but more reliable part of the iris, though reducing the net amount of information, improves the overall performance. Experimental results on CASIA database show that our method has a promising performance with an accuracy of 99.31%. The sensitivity of the proposed method is analyzed versus contrast, illumination, and noise as well, where lower sensitivity to all factors is observed when the lower half of the iris is used for recognition.

  2. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  3. Frontal view reconstruction for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bolme, David S; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-02-17

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by correcting input images with an off-angle gaze. A variety of techniques, from limbus modeling, corneal refraction modeling, optical flows, and genetic algorithms can be used. A variety of techniques, including aspherical eye modeling, corneal refraction modeling, ray tracing, and the like can be employed. Precomputed transforms can enhance performance for use in commercial applications. With application of the technologies, images with significantly unfavorable gaze angles can be successfully recognized.

  4. An effective approach for iris recognition using phase-based image matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Ito, Koichi; Aoki, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for iris recognition using phase-based image matching--an image matching technique using phase components in 2D Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs) of given images. Experimental evaluation using CASIA iris image databases (versions 1.0 and 2.0) and Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2005 database clearly demonstrates that the use of phase components of iris images makes possible to achieve highly accurate iris recognition with a simple matching algorithm. This paper also discusses major implementation issues of our algorithm. In order to reduce the size of iris data and to prevent the visibility of iris images, we introduce the idea of 2D Fourier Phase Code (FPC) for representing iris information. The 2D FPC is particularly useful for implementing compact iris recognition devices using state-of-the-art Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology.

  5. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  6. Improved iris localization by using wide and narrow field of view cameras for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics is a method of identifying individuals by their physiological or behavioral characteristics. Among other biometric identifiers, iris recognition has been widely used for various applications that require a high level of security. When a conventional iris recognition camera is used, the size and position of the iris region in a captured image vary according to the X, Y positions of a user's eye and the Z distance between a user and the camera. Therefore, the searching area of the iris detection algorithm is increased, which can inevitably decrease both the detection speed and accuracy. To solve these problems, we propose a new method of iris localization that uses wide field of view (WFOV) and narrow field of view (NFOV) cameras. Our study is new as compared to previous studies in the following four ways. First, the device used in our research acquires three images, one each of the face and both irises, using one WFOV and two NFOV cameras simultaneously. The relation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is determined by simple geometric transformation without complex calibration. Second, the Z distance (between a user's eye and the iris camera) is estimated based on the iris size in the WFOV image and anthropometric data of the size of the human iris. Third, the accuracy of the geometric transformation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is enhanced by using multiple matrices of the transformation according to the Z distance. Fourth, the searching region for iris localization in the NFOV image is significantly reduced based on the detected iris region in the WFOV image and the matrix of geometric transformation corresponding to the estimated Z distance. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed iris localization method is better than that of conventional methods in terms of accuracy and processing time.

  7. Towards online iris and periocular recognition under relaxed imaging constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun-Wei; Kumar, Ajay

    2013-10-01

    Online iris recognition using distantly acquired images in a less imaging constrained environment requires the development of a efficient iris segmentation approach and recognition strategy that can exploit multiple features available for the potential identification. This paper presents an effective solution toward addressing such a problem. The developed iris segmentation approach exploits a random walker algorithm to efficiently estimate coarsely segmented iris images. These coarsely segmented iris images are postprocessed using a sequence of operations that can effectively improve the segmentation accuracy. The robustness of the proposed iris segmentation approach is ascertained by providing comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms using publicly available UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, and CASIA.v4-distance databases. Our experimental results achieve improvement of 9.5%, 4.3%, and 25.7% in the average segmentation accuracy, respectively, for the UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, and CASIA.v4-distance databases, as compared with most competing approaches. We also exploit the simultaneously extracted periocular features to achieve significant performance improvement. The joint segmentation and combination strategy suggest promising results and achieve average improvement of 132.3%, 7.45%, and 17.5% in the recognition performance, respectively, from the UBIRIS.v2, FRGC, and CASIA.v4-distance databases, as compared with the related competing approaches.

  8. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  9. Efficient iris recognition by characterizing key local variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Tan, Tieniu; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Dexin

    2004-06-01

    Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints and face, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. This leads to its high reliability for personal identification, and at the same time, the difficulty in effectively representing such details in an image. This paper describes an efficient algorithm for iris recognition by characterizing key local variations. The basic idea is that local sharp variation points, denoting the appearing or vanishing of an important image structure, are utilized to represent the characteristics of the iris. The whole procedure of feature extraction includes two steps: 1) a set of one-dimensional intensity signals is constructed to effectively characterize the most important information of the original two-dimensional image; 2) using a particular class of wavelets, a position sequence of local sharp variation points in such signals is recorded as features. We also present a fast matching scheme based on exclusive OR operation to compute the similarity between a pair of position sequences. Experimental results on 2255 iris images show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and comparable to the best iris recognition algorithm found in the current literature.

  10. Improving iris recognition performance using segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for iris segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing to improve both the accuracy and the speed of iris recognition. A curve evolution approach is proposed to effectively segment a nonideal iris image using the modified Mumford-Shah functional. Different enhancement algorithms are concurrently applied on the segmented iris image to produce multiple enhanced versions of the iris image. A support-vector-machine-based learning algorithm selects locally enhanced regions from each globally enhanced image and combines these good-quality regions to create a single high-quality iris image. Two distinct features are extracted from the high-quality iris image. The global textural feature is extracted using the 1-D log polar Gabor transform, and the local topological feature is extracted using Euler numbers. An intelligent fusion algorithm combines the textural and topological matching scores to further improve the iris recognition performance and reduce the false rejection rate, whereas an indexing algorithm enables fast and accurate iris identification. The verification and identification performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and compared with other algorithms using the CASIA Version 3, ICE 2005, and UBIRIS iris databases.

  11. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  12. Robust iris segmentation through parameterization of the Chan-Vese algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an iris recognition system relies on automated processes from the segmentation stage to the matching stage. Each stage has traditional algorithms used successfully over the years. The drawback is that these algorithms assume...

  13. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  14. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system.

  15. Enhanced iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of biometric person identification, iris recognition uses the unique characteristics of the patterns of the iris; that is, the eye region between the pupil and the sclera. When obtaining an iris image, the iris's image is frequently rotated because of the user's head roll toward the left or right shoulder. As the rotation of the iris image leads to circular shifting of the iris features, the accuracy of iris recognition is degraded. To solve this problem, conventional iris recognition methods use shifting of the iris feature codes to perform the matching. However, this increases the computational complexity and level of false acceptance error. To solve these problems, we propose a novel iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images. Our method is novel in the following five ways compared with previous methods. First, to detect both eyes, we use Adaboost and a rapid eye detector (RED) based on the iris shape feature and integral imaging. Both eyes are detected using RED in the approximate candidate region that consists of the binocular region, which is determined by the Adaboost detector. Second, we classify the detected eyes into the left and right eyes, because the iris patterns in the left and right eyes in the same person are different, and they are therefore considered as different classes. We can improve the accuracy of iris recognition using this pre-classification of the left and right eyes. Third, by measuring the angle of head roll using the two center positions of the left and right pupils, detected by two circular edge detectors, we obtain the information of the iris rotation angle. Fourth, in order to reduce the error and processing time of iris recognition, adaptive bit-shifting based on the measured iris rotation angle is used in feature matching. Fifth, the recognition accuracy is enhanced by the score fusion of the left and right irises. Experimental results on the iris open database of low-resolution images showed that the

  16. Toward noncooperative iris recognition: a classification approach using multiple signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Alexandre, Luís A

    2007-04-01

    This paper focuses on noncooperative iris recognition, i.e., the capture of iris images at large distances, under less controlled lighting conditions, and without active participation of the subjects. This increases the probability of capturing very heterogeneous images (regarding focus, contrast, or brightness) and with several noise factors (iris obstructions and reflections). Current iris recognition systems are unable to deal with noisy data and substantially increase their error rates, especially the false rejections, in these conditions. We propose an iris classification method that divides the segmented and normalized iris image into six regions, makes an independent feature extraction and comparison for each region, and combines each of the dissimilarity values through a classification rule. Experiments show a substantial decrease, higher than 40 percent, of the false rejection rates in the recognition of noisy iris images.

  17. Secondary iris recognition method based on local energy-orientation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a secondary iris recognition based on local features. The application of the energy-orientation feature (EOF) by two-dimensional Gabor filter to the extraction of the iris goes before the first recognition by the threshold of similarity, which sets the whole iris database into two categories-a correctly recognized class and a class to be recognized. Therefore, the former are accepted and the latter are transformed by histogram to achieve an energy-orientation histogram feature (EOHF), which is followed by a second recognition with the chi-square distance. The experiment has proved that the proposed method, because of its higher correct recognition rate, could be designated as the most efficient and effective among its companion studies in iris recognition algorithms.

  18. Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Tan, Shi Zhuan; Dhillon, Baljean

    2009-05-06

    Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort of 54 patients with anterior segment eye disease who were seen at the acute referral unit of the Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh. Iris camera images were obtained from patients before treatment was commenced and again at follow-up appointments after treatment had been given. The principal outcome measure was that of mathematical difference in the iris recognition templates obtained from patients' eyes before and after treatment of the eye disease. Results showed that the performance of iris recognition was remarkably resilient to most ophthalmic disease states, including corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. Problems were, however, encountered in some patients with acute inflammation of the iris (iritis/anterior uveitis). The effects of a subject developing anterior uveitis may cause current recognition systems to fail. Those developing and deploying iris recognition should be aware of the potential problems that this could cause to this key biometric technology.

  19. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shengnan; Zhao, Lindu; Yang, Shicai

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  20. Iris Recognition Using Feature Extraction of Box Counting Fractal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.

  1. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  2. Iris Location Algorithm Based on the CANNY Operator and Gradient Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L. H.; Meng, K.; Wang, Y.; Dai, Z. Q.; Li, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the iris recognition system, the accuracy of the localization of the inner and outer edges of the iris directly affects the performance of the recognition system, so iris localization has important research meaning. Our iris data contain eyelid, eyelashes, light spot and other noise, even the gray transformation of the images is not obvious, so the general methods of iris location are unable to realize the iris location. The method of the iris location based on Canny operator and gradient Hough transform is proposed. Firstly, the images are pre-processed; then, calculating the gradient information of images, the inner and outer edges of iris are coarse positioned using Canny operator; finally, according to the gradient Hough transform to realize precise localization of the inner and outer edge of iris. The experimental results show that our algorithm can achieve the localization of the inner and outer edges of the iris well, and the algorithm has strong anti-interference ability, can greatly reduce the location time and has higher accuracy and stability.

  3. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  4. Optimal wavelength band clustering for multispectral iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yazhuo; Zhang, David; Shi, Pengfei; Yan, Jingqi

    2012-07-01

    This work explores the possibility of clustering spectral wavelengths based on the maximum dissimilarity of iris textures. The eventual goal is to determine how many bands of spectral wavelengths will be enough for iris multispectral fusion and to find these bands that will provide higher performance of iris multispectral recognition. A multispectral acquisition system was first designed for imaging the iris at narrow spectral bands in the range of 420 to 940 nm. Next, a set of 60 human iris images that correspond to the right and left eyes of 30 different subjects were acquired for an analysis. Finally, we determined that 3 clusters were enough to represent the 10 feature bands of spectral wavelengths using the agglomerative clustering based on two-dimensional principal component analysis. The experimental results suggest (1) the number, center, and composition of clusters of spectral wavelengths and (2) the higher performance of iris multispectral recognition based on a three wavelengths-bands fusion.

  5. Deep Learning-Based Iris Segmentation for Iris Recognition in Visible Light Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing iris recognition systems are heavily dependent on specific conditions, such as the distance of image acquisition and the stop-and-stare environment, which require significant user cooperation. In environments where user cooperation is not guaranteed, prevailing segmentation schemes of the iris region are confronted with many problems, such as heavy occlusion of eyelashes, invalid off-axis rotations, motion blurs, and non-regular reflections in the eye area. In addition, iris recognition based on visible light environment has been investigated to avoid the use of additional near-infrared (NIR light camera and NIR illuminator, which increased the difficulty of segmenting the iris region accurately owing to the environmental noise of visible light. To address these issues; this study proposes a two-stage iris segmentation scheme based on convolutional neural network (CNN; which is capable of accurate iris segmentation in severely noisy environments of iris recognition by visible light camera sensor. In the experiment; the noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II training database (selected from the UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE dataset were used. Experimental results showed that our method outperformed the existing segmentation methods.

  6. LDPC and SHA based iris recognition for image authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel way to authenticate an image using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA based iris recognition method with reversible watermarking scheme, which is based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT and threshold embedding technique. The parity checks and parity matrix of LDPC encoding and cancellable biometrics i.e., hash string of unique iris code from SHA-512 are embedded into an image for authentication purpose using reversible watermarking scheme based on IWT and threshold embedding technique. Simply by reversing the embedding process, the original image, parity checks, parity matrix and SHA-512 hash are extracted back from watermarked-image. For authentication, the new hash string produced by employing SHA-512 on error corrected iris code from live person is compared with hash string extracted from watermarked-image. The LDPC code reduces the hamming distance for genuine comparisons by a larger amount than for the impostor comparisons. This results in better separation between genuine and impostor users which improves the authentication performance. Security of this scheme is very high due to the security complexity of SHA-512, which is 2256 under birthday attack. Experimental results show that this approach can assure more accurate authentication with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate and outperforms the prior arts in terms of PSNR.

  7. Enhancement of Iris Recognition System Based on Phase Only Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriza Pramita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition system is one of biometric based recognition/identification systems. Numerous techniques have been implemented to achieve a good recognition rate, including the ones based on Phase Only Correlation (POC. Significant and higher correlation peaks suggest that the system recognizes iris images of the same subject (person, while lower and unsignificant peaks correspond to recognition of those of difference subjects. Current POC methods have not investigated minimum iris point that can be used to achieve higher correlation peaks. This paper proposed a method that used only one-fourth of full normalized iris size to achieve higher (or at least the same recognition rate. Simulation on CASIA version 1.0 iris image database showed that averaged recognition rate of the proposed method achieved 67%, higher than that of using one-half (56% and full (53% iris point. Furthermore, all (100% POC peak values of the proposed method was higher than that of the method with full iris points.

  8. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  9. An enhanced iris recognition and authentication system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iris recognition and authentication has a major issue in its code generation and verification accuracy, in order to enhance the authentication process, a binary bit sequence of iris is generated, which contain several vital information that is used to calculate the Mean Energy and Maximum Energy that goes into the eye with an ...

  10. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  11. Iris recognition based on robust principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pradeep; He, Xiao Hai; Yang, Shuai; Wu, Xiao Hong

    2014-11-01

    Iris images acquired under different conditions often suffer from blur, occlusion due to eyelids and eyelashes, specular reflection, and other artifacts. Existing iris recognition systems do not perform well on these types of images. To overcome these problems, we propose an iris recognition method based on robust principal component analysis. The proposed method decomposes all training images into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix, where the low-rank matrix is used for feature extraction. The sparsity concentration index approach is then applied to validate the recognition result. Experimental results using CASIA V4 and IIT Delhi V1iris image databases showed that the proposed method achieved competitive performances in both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  12. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens

    2004-01-28

    Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  13. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  14. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  15. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  16. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  17. An Accurate and Efficient User Authentication Mechanism on Smart Glasses Based on Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, mobile devices (such as smart phones and wearable devices have become indispensable to almost everyone, and people store personal data in devices. Therefore, how to implement user authentication mechanism for private data protection on mobile devices is a very important issue. In this paper, an intelligent iris recognition mechanism is designed to solve the problem of user authentication in wearable smart glasses. Our contributions include hardware and software. On the hardware side, we design a set of internal infrared camera modules, including well-designed infrared light source and lens module, which is able to take clear iris images within 2~5 cm. On the software side, we propose an innovative iris segmentation algorithm which is both efficient and accurate to be used on smart glasses device. Another improvement to the traditional iris recognition is that we propose an intelligent Hamming distance (HD threshold adaptation method which dynamically fine-tunes the HD threshold used for verification according to empirical data collected. Our final system can perform iris recognition with 66 frames per second on a smart glasses platform with 100% accuracy. As far as we know, this system is the world’s first application of iris recognition on smart glasses.

  18. Unconstrained Iris Acquisition and Recognition Using COTS PTZ Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Shreyas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniqueness of iris patterns among individuals has resulted in the ubiquity of iris recognition systems in virtual and physical spaces, at high security facilities around the globe. Traditional methods of acquiring iris patterns in commercial systems scan the iris when an individual is at a predetermined location in front of the scanner. Most state-of-the-art techniques for unconstrained iris acquisition in literature use expensive custom equipment and are composed of a multicamera setup, which is bulky, expensive, and requires calibration. This paper investigates a method of unconstrained iris acquisition and recognition using a single commercial off-the-shelf (COTS pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ camera, that is compact and that reduces the cost of the final system, compared to other proposed hierarchical multicomponent systems. We employ state-of-the-art techniques for face detection and a robust eye detection scheme using active shape models for accurate landmark localization. Additionally, our system alleviates the need for any calibration stage prior to its use. We present results using a database of iris images captured using our system, while operating in an unconstrained acquisition mode at 1.5 m standoff, yielding an iris diameter in the 150–200 pixels range.

  19. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  20. Cross-sensor iris recognition through kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Puertas, Maria; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of iris biometrics, new sensors are being developed for acquiring iris images and existing ones are being continuously upgraded. Re-enrolling users every time a new sensor is deployed is expensive and time-consuming, especially in applications with a large number of enrolled users. However, recent studies show that cross-sensor matching, where the test samples are verified using data enrolled with a different sensor, often lead to reduced performance. In this paper, we propose a machine learning technique to mitigate the cross-sensor performance degradation by adapting the iris samples from one sensor to another. We first present a novel optimization framework for learning transformations on iris biometrics. We then utilize this framework for sensor adaptation, by reducing the distance between samples of the same class, and increasing it between samples of different classes, irrespective of the sensors acquiring them. Extensive evaluations on iris data from multiple sensors demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improvement in cross-sensor recognition accuracy. Furthermore, since the proposed technique requires minimal changes to the iris recognition pipeline, it can easily be incorporated into existing iris recognition systems.

  1. A multi-approach feature extractions for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpachai, H.; Settapong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Biometrics is a promising technique that is used to identify individual traits and characteristics. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric methods. As iris texture and color is fully developed within a year of birth, it remains unchanged throughout a person's life. Contrary to fingerprint, which can be altered due to several aspects including accidental damage, dry or oily skin and dust. Although iris recognition has been studied for more than a decade, there are limited commercial products available due to its arduous requirement such as camera resolution, hardware size, expensive equipment and computational complexity. However, at the present time, technology has overcome these obstacles. Iris recognition can be done through several sequential steps which include pre-processing, features extractions, post-processing, and matching stage. In this paper, we adopted the directional high-low pass filter for feature extraction. A box-counting fractal dimension and Iris code have been proposed as feature representations. Our approach has been tested on CASIA Iris Image database and the results are considered successful.

  2. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST's measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform.

  3. Iris recognition using the JAVAVis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Martin García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project has been created to develop a biometric identification system through a man’s iris using a computer to perform the processing of the pictures. To develop this application, and to differentiate the project from others who have already implemented, we have used the image processing library JAVAVis and JAVA as a programming language.

  4. Iris recognition using possibilistic fuzzy matching on local features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Chih; Lin, Heng-Yi; Taur, Jinshiuh; Tao, Chin-Wang

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel possibilistic fuzzy matching strategy with invariant properties, which can provide a robust and effective matching scheme for two sets of iris feature points. In addition, the nonlinear normalization model is adopted to provide more accurate position before matching. Moreover, an effective iris segmentation method is proposed to refine the detected inner and outer boundaries to smooth curves. For feature extraction, the Gabor filters are adopted to detect the local feature points from the segmented iris image in the Cartesian coordinate system and to generate a rotation-invariant descriptor for each detected point. After that, the proposed matching algorithm is used to compute a similarity score for two sets of feature points from a pair of iris images. The experimental results show that the performance of our system is better than those of the systems based on the local features and is comparable to those of the typical systems.

  5. Multiple local feature representations and their fusion based on an SVR model for iris recognition using optimized Gabor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Dong, Hongxing

    2014-12-01

    Gabor descriptors have been widely used in iris texture representations. However, fixed basic Gabor functions cannot match the changing nature of diverse iris datasets. Furthermore, a single form of iris feature cannot overcome difficulties in iris recognition, such as illumination variations, environmental conditions, and device variations. This paper provides multiple local feature representations and their fusion scheme based on a support vector regression (SVR) model for iris recognition using optimized Gabor filters. In our iris system, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)- and a Boolean particle swarm optimization (BPSO)-based algorithm is proposed to provide suitable Gabor filters for each involved test dataset without predefinition or manual modulation. Several comparative experiments on JLUBR-IRIS, CASIA-I, and CASIA-V4-Interval iris datasets are conducted, and the results show that our work can generate improved local Gabor features by using optimized Gabor filters for each dataset. In addition, our SVR fusion strategy may make full use of their discriminative ability to improve accuracy and reliability. Other comparative experiments show that our approach may outperform other popular iris systems.

  6. Increasing the information acquisition volume in iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, D Shane

    2008-09-10

    A significant hurdle for the widespread adoption of iris recognition in security applications is that the typically small imaging volume for eye placement results in systems that are not user friendly. Separable cubic phase plates at the lens pupil have been shown to ameliorate this disadvantage by increasing the depth of field. However, these phase masks have limitations on how efficiently they can capture the information-bearing spatial frequencies in iris images. The performance gains in information acquisition that can be achieved by more general, nonseparable phase masks is demonstrated. A detailed design method is presented, and simulations using representative designs allow for performance comparisons.

  7. Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rahulkar, Amol D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc.  that will...

  8. Iris recognition in less constrained environments: a video-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeo, Nitin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on iris biometrics. Although the iris is the most accurate biometric, its adoption has been relatively slow. Conventional iris recognition systems utilize still eye images captured in ideal environments and require highly constrained subject presentation. A drop in recognition performance is observed when these constraints are removed as the quality of the data acquired is affected by heterogeneous factors. For iris recognition to be widely adopted, it can therefore ...

  9. A Study on Iris Localization and Recognition on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Sik Jeong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new iris recognition method for mobile phones based on corneal specular reflections (SRs is discussed. We present the following three novelties over previous research. First, in case of user with glasses, many noncorneal SRs may happen on the surface of glasses and it is very difficult to detect genuine SR on the cornea. To overcome such problems, we propose a successive on/off dual illuminator scheme to detect genuine SRs on the corneas of users with glasses. Second, to detect SRs robustly, we estimated the size, shape, and brightness of the SRs based on eye, camera, and illuminator models. Third, the detected eye (iris region was verified again using the AdaBoost eye detector. Experimental results with 400 face images captured from 100 persons with a mobile phone camera showed that the rate of correct iris detection was 99.5% (for images without glasses and 98.9% (for images with glasses or contact lenses. The consequent accuracy of iris authentication was 0.05% of the EER (equal error rate based on detected iris images.

  10. Point spread function engineering for iris recognition system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Undersampling in the detector array degrades the performance of iris-recognition imaging systems. We find that an undersampling of 8 x 8 reduces the iris-recognition performance by nearly a factor of 4 (on CASIA iris database), as measured by the false rejection ratio (FRR) metric. We employ optical point spread function (PSF) engineering via a Zernike phase mask in conjunction with multiple subpixel shifted image measurements (frames) to mitigate the effect of undersampling. A task-specific optimization framework is used to engineer the optical PSF and optimize the postprocessing parameters to minimize the FRR. The optimized Zernike phase enhanced lens (ZPEL) imager design with one frame yields an improvement of nearly 33% relative to a thin observation module by bounded optics (TOMBO) imager with one frame. With four frames the optimized ZPEL imager achieves a FRR equal to that of the conventional imager without undersampling. Further, the ZPEL imager design using 16 frames yields a FRR that is actually 15% lower than that obtained with the conventional imager without undersampling.

  11. Trade off between variable and fixed size normalization in orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER.

  12. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies. PMID:29695113

  13. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  14. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-04-24

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  15. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunyeol Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  16. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunyeol; Song, Minkyu; Kim, Soo Youn

    2018-02-24

    This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm² with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  17. Use of iris recognition camera technology for the quantification of corneal opacification in mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Shakir, Savana; Wong, James; Au, Leon; Ashworth, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can cause corneal opacification that is currently difficult to objectively quantify. With newer treatments for MPS comes an increased need for a more objective, valid and reliable index of disease severity for clinical and research use. Clinical evaluation by slit lamp is very subjective and techniques based on colour photography are difficult to standardise. In this article the authors present evidence for the utility of dedicated image analysis algorithms applied to images obtained by a highly sophisticated iris recognition camera that is small, manoeuvrable and adapted to achieve rapid, reliable and standardised objective imaging in a wide variety of patients while minimising artefactual interference in image quality.

  18. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  19. Human Iris Recognition System using Wavelet Transform and LVQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Yong; Lim, Shin Young [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea); Cho, Seong Won [Hongik University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The popular methods to check the identity of individuals include passwords and ID cards. These conventional methods for user identification and authentication are not altogether reliable because they can be stolen and forgotten. As an alternative of the existing methods, biometric technology has been paid much attention for the last few decades. In this paper, we propose an efficient system for recognizing the identity of a living person by analyzing iris patterns which have a high level of stability and distinctiveness than other biometric measurements. The proposed system is based on wavelet transform and a competitive neural network with the improved mechanisms. After preprocessing the iris data acquired through a CCD camera, feature vectors are extracted by using Haar wavelet transform. LVQ(Learning Vector Quantization) is exploited to classify these feature vectors. We improve the overall performance of the proposed system by optimizing the size of feature vectors and by introducing an efficient initialization of the weight vectors and a new method for determining the winner in order to increase the recognition accuracy of LVQ. From the experiments, we confirmed that the proposed system has a great potential of being applied to real applications in an efficient and effective way. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. A novel iris patterns matching algorithm of weighted polar frequency correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.

  1. Comparison and evaluation of datasets for off-angle iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtuncu, Osman M.; Cerme, Gamze N.; Karakaya, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigated the publicly available iris recognition datasets and their data capture procedures in order to determine if they are suitable for the stand-off iris recognition research. Majority of the iris recognition datasets include only frontal iris images. Even if a few datasets include off-angle iris images, the frontal and off-angle iris images are not captured at the same time. The comparison of the frontal and off-angle iris images shows not only differences in the gaze angle but also change in pupil dilation and accommodation as well. In order to isolate the effect of the gaze angle from other challenging issues including dilation and accommodation, the frontal and off-angle iris images are supposed to be captured at the same time by using two different cameras. Therefore, we developed an iris image acquisition platform by using two cameras in this work where one camera captures frontal iris image and the other one captures iris images from off-angle. Based on the comparison of Hamming distance between frontal and off-angle iris images captured with the two-camera- setup and one-camera-setup, we observed that Hamming distance in two-camera-setup is less than one-camera-setup ranging from 0.05 to 0.001. These results show that in order to have accurate results in the off-angle iris recognition research, two-camera-setup is necessary in order to distinguish the challenging issues from each other.

  2. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  3. Predictive factor analysis for successful performance of iris recognition-assisted dynamic rotational eye tracking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Sarvanan, Yoga; Agarwal, Athiya

    2010-02-01

    To analyze the predictive factors associated with success of iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking on a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) platform with active assessment and correction of intraoperative cyclotorsion. Interventional case series. Two hundred seventy-five eyes of 142 consecutive candidates underwent LASIK with attempted iris recognition and dynamic rotational tracking on the Technolas 217z100 platform (Techolas Perfect Vision, St Louis, Missouri, USA) at a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital. The main outcome measures were age, gender, flap creation method (femtosecond, microkeratome, epi-LASIK), success of static rotational tracking, ablation algorithm, pulses, and depth; preablation and intraablation rotational activity were analyzed and evaluated using regression models. Preablation static iris recognition was successful in 247 eyes, without difference in flap creation methods (P = .6). Age (partial correlation, -0.16; P = .014), amount of pulses (partial correlation, 0.39; P = 1.6 x 10(-8)), and gender (P = .02) were significant predictive factors for the amount of intraoperative cyclodeviation. Tracking difficulties leading to linking the ablation with a new intraoperatively acquired iris image were more with femtosecond-assisted flaps (P = 2.8 x 10(-7)) and the amount of intraoperative cyclotorsion (P = .02). However, the number of cases having nonresolvable failure of intraoperative rotational tracking was similar in the 3 flap creation methods (P = .22). Intraoperative cyclotorsional activity depends on the age, gender, and duration of ablation (pulses delivered). Femtosecond flaps do not seem to have a disadvantage over microkeratome flaps as far as iris recognition and success of intraoperative dynamic rotational tracking is concerned. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  5. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  6. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  7. Evaluation of iris recognition system for wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis for myopic astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Couper, Terry A; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Jhanji, Vishal; Taylor, Hugh R; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using an iris recognition system for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Melbourne Excimer Laser Research Group, and Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A comparative analysis of wavefront-guided LASIK was performed with an iris recognition system (iris recognition group) and without iris recognition (control group). The main parameters were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, amount of residual cylinder, manifest spherical equivalent (SE), and the index of success using the Alpins method of astigmatism analysis 1 and 3 months postoperatively. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Preoperatively, the mean SE was -4.32 diopters (D) +/- 1.59 (SD) in the iris recognition group (100 eyes) and -4.55 +/- 1.87 D in the control group (98 eyes) (P = .84). At 3 months, the mean SE was -0.05 +/- 0.21 D and -0.20 +/- 0.40 D, respectively (P = .001), and an SE within +/-0.50 D of emmetropia was achieved in 92.0% and 85.7% of eyes, respectively (P = .07). At 3 months, the UCVA was 20/20 or better in 90.0% and 76.5% of eyes, respectively. A statistically significant difference in the amount of astigmatic correction was seen between the 2 groups (P = .00 and P = .01 at 1 and 3 months, respectively). The index of success was 98.0% in the iris recognition group and 81.6% in the control group (P = .03). Iris recognition software may achieve better visual and refractive outcomes in wavefront-guided LASIK for myopic astigmatism.

  8. IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfaro, W.; Zygmont, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses development of ISOLATION RESET INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS), an expert system to aid nuclear plant operators during plant transients known as automatic containment isolations. IRIS is implemented using the Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell, taking advantage of the dBase III Plus interface. The design of IRIS is discussed as well as the system's current state of development. The use of expert systems for training operators is discussed. The importance of gaining regulatory acceptance of expert systems is presented. This issue will ultimately determine the extent of expert system use in nuclear applications

  9. Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K

    2011-09-01

    Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.

  10. an enhanced iris recognition and authentication system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biu et al.

    1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna – Nigeria. (E-mail: ..... localization, the iris is in a circulation fashion then lastly, the image is saved into .... Conference on Computer Engineering Systems. Cleve, K.

  11. Reliability of automatic biometric iris recognition after phacoemulsification or drug-induced pupil dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyeddain, Orang; Kraker, Hannes; Redlberger, Andreas; Dexl, Alois K; Grabner, Günther; Emesz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a biometric iris recognition system for personal authentication after cataract surgery or iatrogenic pupil dilation. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, single-center, cohort study for evaluating the performance of an iris recognition system 2-24 hours after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (group 1) and before and after iatrogenic pupil dilation (group 2). Of the 173 eyes that could be enrolled before cataract surgery, 164 (94.8%) were easily recognized postoperatively, whereas in 9 (5.2%) this was not possible. However, these 9 eyes could be reenrolled and afterwards recognized successfully. In group 2, of a total of 184 eyes that were enrolled in miosis, a total of 22 (11.9%) could not be recognized in mydriasis and therefore needed reenrollment. No single case of false-positive acceptance occurred in either group. The results of this trial indicate that standard cataract surgery seems not to be a limiting factor for iris recognition in the large majority of cases. Some patients (5.2% in this study) might need "reenrollment" after cataract surgery. Iris recognition was primarily successful in eyes with medically dilated pupils in nearly 9 out of 10 eyes. No single case of false-positive acceptance occurred in either group in this trial. It seems therefore that iris recognition is a valid biometric method in the majority of cases after cataract surgery or after pupil dilation.

  12. Feature and Score Fusion Based Multiple Classifier Selection for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  13. The fast iris image clarity evaluation based on Tenengrad and ROI selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuqin; Han, Min; Cheng, Xu

    2018-04-01

    In iris recognition system, the clarity of iris image is an important factor that influences recognition effect. In the process of recognition, the blurred image may possibly be rejected by the automatic iris recognition system, which will lead to the failure of identification. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the iris image definition before recognition. Considered the existing evaluation methods on iris image definition, we proposed a fast algorithm to evaluate the definition of iris image in this paper. In our algorithm, firstly ROI (Region of Interest) is extracted based on the reference point which is determined by using the feature of the light spots within the pupil, then Tenengrad operator is used to evaluate the iris image's definition. Experiment results show that, the iris image definition algorithm proposed in this paper could accurately distinguish the iris images of different clarity, and the algorithm has the merit of low computational complexity and more effectiveness.

  14. Deep learning architecture for iris recognition based on optimal Gabor filters and deep belief network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Wang, Han; Ji, Jinchao; Liu, Yuanning; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Gabor filters are widely utilized to detect iris texture information in several state-of-the-art iris recognition systems. However, the proper Gabor kernels and the generative pattern of iris Gabor features need to be predetermined in application. The traditional empirical Gabor filters and shallow iris encoding ways are incapable of dealing with such complex variations in iris imaging including illumination, aging, deformation, and device variations. Thereby, an adaptive Gabor filter selection strategy and deep learning architecture are presented. We first employ particle swarm optimization approach and its binary version to define a set of data-driven Gabor kernels for fitting the most informative filtering bands, and then capture complex pattern from the optimal Gabor filtered coefficients by a trained deep belief network. A succession of comparative experiments validate that our optimal Gabor filters may produce more distinctive Gabor coefficients and our iris deep representations be more robust and stable than traditional iris Gabor codes. Furthermore, the depth and scales of the deep learning architecture are also discussed.

  15. Iris recognition: on the segmentation of degraded images acquired in the visible wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Iris recognition imaging constraints are receiving increasing attention. There are several proposals to develop systems that operate in the visible wavelength and in less constrained environments. These imaging conditions engender acquired noisy artifacts that lead to severely degraded images, making iris segmentation a major issue. Having observed that existing iris segmentation methods tend to fail in these challenging conditions, we present a segmentation method that can handle degraded images acquired in less constrained conditions. We offer the following contributions: 1) to consider the sclera the most easily distinguishable part of the eye in degraded images, 2) to propose a new type of feature that measures the proportion of sclera in each direction and is fundamental in segmenting the iris, and 3) to run the entire procedure in deterministically linear time in respect to the size of the image, making the procedure suitable for real-time applications.

  16. Extending the Capture Volume of an Iris Recognition System Using Wavefront Coding and Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Iris recognition has gained increasing popularity over the last few decades; however, the stand-off distance in a conventional iris recognition system is too short, which limits its application. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-software hybrid method to increase the stand-off distance in an iris recognition system. When designing the system hardware, we use an optimized wavefront coding technique to extend the depth of field. To compensate for the blurring of the image caused by wavefront coding, on the software side, the proposed system uses a local patch-based super-resolution method to restore the blurred image to its clear version. The collaborative effect of the new hardware design and software post-processing showed great potential in our experiment. The experimental results showed that such improvement cannot be achieved by using a hardware-or software-only design. The proposed system can increase the capture volume of a conventional iris recognition system by three times and maintain the system's high recognition rate.

  17. Effect of cataract surgery and pupil dilation on iris pattern recognition for personal authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, L; Habib, N E; Monro, D M; Rakshit, S

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cataract surgery and pupil dilation on iris pattern recognition for personal authentication. Prospective non-comparative cohort study. Images of 15 subjects were captured before (enrolment), and 5, 10, and 15 min after instillation of mydriatics before routine cataract surgery. After cataract surgery, images were captured 2 weeks thereafter. Enrolled and test images (after pupillary dilation and after cataract surgery) were segmented to extract the iris. This was then unwrapped onto a rectangular format for normalization and a novel method using the Discrete Cosine Transform was applied to encode the image into binary bits. The numerical difference between two iris codes (Hamming distance, HD) was calculated. The HD between identification and enrolment codes was used as a score and was compared with a confidence threshold for specific equipment, giving a match or non-match result. The Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and Equal Error Rates (EERs) were calculated to analyse overall system performance. After cataract surgery, perfect identification and verification was achieved, with zero false acceptance rate, zero false rejection rate, and zero EER. After pupillary dilation, non-elastic deformation occurs and a CRR of 86.67% and EER of 9.33% were obtained. Conventional circle-based localization methods are inadequate. Matching reliability decreases considerably with increase in pupillary dilation. Cataract surgery has no effect on iris pattern recognition, whereas pupil dilation may be used to defeat an iris-based authentication system.

  18. A field study of the accuracy and reliability of a biometric iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latman, Neal S; Herb, Emily

    2013-06-01

    The iris of the eye appears to satisfy the criteria for a good anatomical characteristic for use in a biometric system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a biometric iris recognition system: Mobile-Eyes™. The enrollment, verification, and identification applications were evaluated in a field study for accuracy and reliability using both irises of 277 subjects. Independent variables included a wide range of subject demographics, ambient light, and ambient temperature. A sub-set of 35 subjects had alcohol-induced nystagmus. There were 2710 identification and verification attempts, which resulted in 1,501,340 and 5540 iris comparisons respectively. In this study, the system successfully enrolled all subjects on the first attempt. All 277 subjects were successfully verified and identified on the first day of enrollment. None of the current or prior eye conditions prevented enrollment, verification, or identification. All 35 subjects with alcohol-induced nystagmus were successfully verified and identified. There were no false verifications or false identifications. Two conditions were identified that potentially could circumvent the use of iris recognitions systems in general. The Mobile-Eyes™ iris recognition system exhibited accurate and reliable enrollment, verification, and identification applications in this study. It may have special applications in subjects with nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic Programming Algorithms in Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a system of speech recognition containing words, the recognition requires the comparison between the entry signal of the word and the various words of the dictionary. The problem can be solved efficiently by a dynamic comparison algorithm whose goal is to put in optimal correspondence the temporal scales of the two words. An algorithm of this type is Dynamic Time Warping. This paper presents two alternatives for implementation of the algorithm designed for recognition of the isolated words.

  20. Iris recognition and what is next? Iris diagnosis: a new challenging topic for machine vision from image acquisition to image interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Petra

    2017-03-01

    Molecular image-based techniques are widely used in medicine to detect specific diseases. Look diagnosis is an important issue but also the analysis of the eye plays an important role in order to detect specific diseases. These topics are important topics in medicine and the standardization of these topics by an automatic system can be a new challenging field for machine vision. Compared to iris recognition has the iris diagnosis much more higher demands for the image acquisition and interpretation of the iris. One understands by iris diagnosis (Iridology) the investigation and analysis of the colored part of the eye, the iris, to discover factors, which play an important role for the prevention and treatment of illnesses, but also for the preservation of an optimum health. An automatic system would pave the way for a much wider use of the iris diagnosis for the diagnosis of illnesses and for the purpose of individual health protection. With this paper, we describe our work towards an automatic iris diagnosis system. We describe the image acquisition and the problems with it. Different ways are explained for image acquisition and image preprocessing. We describe the image analysis method for the detection of the iris. The meta-model for image interpretation is given. Based on this model we show the many tasks for image analysis that range from different image-object feature analysis, spatial image analysis to color image analysis. Our first results for the recognition of the iris are given. We describe how detecting the pupil and not wanted lamp spots. We explain how to recognize orange blue spots in the iris and match them against the topological map of the iris. Finally, we give an outlook for further work.

  1. Contralateral comparison of wavefront-guided LASIK surgery with iris recognition versus without iris recognition using the MEL80 Excimer laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Yang, Yabo; Dougherty, Paul J

    2009-05-01

    To compare outcomes in wavefront-guided LASIK performed with iris recognition software versus without iris recognition software in different eyes of the same patient. A randomised, prospective study of 104 myopic eyes of 52 patients undergoing LASIK surgery with the MEL80 excimer laser system was performed. Iris recognition software was used in one eye of each patient (study group) and not used in the other eye (control group). Higher order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, uncorrected vision (UCV), visual acuity (VA) and corneal topography were measured and recorded pre-operatively and at one month and three months post-operatively for each eye. The mean post-operative sphere and cylinder between groups was similar, however the post-operative angles of error (AE) by refraction were significantly smaller in the study group compared to the control group both in arithmetic and absolute means (p = 0.03, p = 0.01). The mean logMAR UCV was significantly better in the study group than in the control group at one month (p = 0.01). The mean logMAR VA was significantly better in the study group than in control group at both one and three months (p = 0.01, p = 0.03). In addition, mean trefoil, total third-order aberration, total fourth-order aberration and the total scotopic root-mean-square (RMS) HOAs were significantly less in the study group than those in the control group at the third (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, p = 0.04, p = 0.02). By three months, the contrast sensitivity had recovered in both groups but the study group performed better at 2.6, 4.2 and 6.6 cpd (cycles per degree) than the control group (p = 0.01, p iris recognition results in better VA, lower mean higher-order aberrations, lower refractive post-operative angles of error and better contrast sensitivity at three months post-operatively than LASIK performed without iris recognition.

  2. Parallel-Bit Stream for Securing Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed Mostafa; Maher Mansour; Heba Saad

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication schemes have usability advantages over traditional password-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns, it has disadvantages comparing to traditional password in which it is not secured and non revocable. In this paper, we propose a fast method for securing revocable iris template using parallel-bit stream watermarking to overcome these problems. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has low computation time ...

  3. [Cyclorotation of the eye in wavefront-guided LASIK using a static eyetracker with iris recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, T; Kühne, C; Cichocki, M; Strenger, A

    2007-01-01

    Centration of the ablation zone decisively influences the result of wavefront-guided LASIK. Cyclorotation of the eye occurs as the patient changes from the sitting position during aberrometry to the supine position during laser surgery and may lead to induction of lower and higher order aberrations. Twenty patients (40 eyes) underwent wavefront-guided LASIK (B&L 217z 100 excimer laser) with a static eyetracker driven by iris recognition (mean preoperative SE: -4.72+/-1.45 D; range: -1.63 to -7.00 D). The iris patterns of the patients' eyes were memorized during aberrometry and after flap creation. The mean absolute value of the measured cyclorotation was -1.5+/-4.2 degrees (range: -11.0 to 6.9 degrees ). The mean cyclorotation was 3.5+/-2.7 masculine (range: 0.1 to 11.0 degrees ). In 65% of all eyes cyclorotation was >2 masculine. A static eyetracker driven by iris recognition demonstrated that cyclorotation of up to 11 degrees may occur in myopic and myopic astigmatic eyes when changing from a sitting to a supine position. Use of static eyetrackers with iris recognition may provide a more precise positioning of the ablation profile as they detect and compensate cyclorotation.

  4. Surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking-based tissue saving treatment with the Technolas 217z excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya; Maity, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and expected benefits of Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking. This prospective, interventional case series comprised 122 eyes (70 patients). Pre- and postoperative assessment included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, and higher order aberrations. All patients underwent Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking using the Technolas 217z 100-Hz excimer platform (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH). Follow-up was performed up to 6 months postoperatively. Theoretical benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the algorithm's outcomes compared to others. Preoperative spherocylindrical power was sphere -3.62 ± 1.60 diopters (D) (range: 0 to -6.75 D), cylinder -1.15 ± 1.00 D (range: 0 to -3.50 D), and spherical equivalent -4.19 ± 1.60 D (range: -7.75 to -2.00 D). At 6 months, 91% (111/122) of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of attempted correction. Postoperative UDVA was comparable to preoperative CDVA at 1 month (P=.47) and progressively improved at 6 months (P=.004). Two eyes lost one line of CDVA at 6 months. Theoretical benefit analysis revealed that of 101 eyes with astigmatism, 29 would have had cyclotorsion-induced astigmatism of ≥ 10% if iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking were not used. Furthermore, the mean percentage decrease in maximum depth of ablation by using the Tissue Saving Treatment was 11.8 ± 2.9% over Aspheric, 17.8 ± 6.2% over Personalized, and 18.2 ± 2.8% over Planoscan algorithms. Tissue saving surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking was safe and effective in this series of eyes. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Comparative analysis of classification based algorithms for diabetes diagnosis using iris images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Piyush; Agarwal, Ravinder

    2018-01-01

    Photo-diagnosis is always an intriguing area for the researchers, with the advancement of image processing and computer machine vision techniques it have become more reliable and popular in recent years. The objective of this paper is to study the change in the features of iris, particularly irregularities in the pigmentation of certain areas of the iris with respect to diabetic health of an individual. Apart from the point that iris recognition concentrates on the overall structure of the iris, diagnostic techniques emphasises the local variations in the particular area of iris. Pre-image processing techniques have been applied to extract iris and thereafter, region of interest from the extracted iris have been cropped out. In order to observe the changes in the tissue pigmentation of region of interest, statistical, texture textural and wavelet features have been extracted. At the end, a comparison of accuracies of five different classifiers has been presented to classify two subject groups of diabetic and non-diabetic. Best classification accuracy has been calculated as 89.66% by the random forest classifier. Results have been shown the effectiveness and diagnostic significance of the proposed methodology. Presented piece of work offers a novel systemic perspective of non-invasive and automatic diabetic diagnosis.

  6. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  7. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaofeng; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan; Qiu, Xianchao

    2009-09-01

    Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction. Traditional iris segmentation methods often involve an exhaustive search of a large parameter space, which is time consuming and sensitive to noise. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel algorithm for accurate and fast iris segmentation. After efficient reflection removal, an Adaboost-cascade iris detector is first built to extract a rough position of the iris center. Edge points of iris boundaries are then detected, and an elastic model named pulling and pushing is established. Under this model, the center and radius of the circular iris boundaries are iteratively refined in a way driven by the restoring forces of Hooke's law. Furthermore, a smoothing spline-based edge fitting scheme is presented to deal with noncircular iris boundaries. After that, eyelids are localized via edge detection followed by curve fitting. The novelty here is the adoption of a rank filter for noise elimination and a histogram filter for tackling the shape irregularity of eyelids. Finally, eyelashes and shadows are detected via a learned prediction model. This model provides an adaptive threshold for eyelash and shadow detection by analyzing the intensity distributions of different iris regions. Experimental results on three challenging iris image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.

  8. Chinese handwriting recognition an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Tonghua

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an algorithmic perspective on the recent development of Chinese handwriting recognition. Two technically sound strategies, the segmentation-free and integrated segmentation-recognition strategy, are investigated and algorithms that have worked well in practice are primarily focused on. Baseline systems are initially presented for these strategies and are subsequently expanded on and incrementally improved. The sophisticated algorithms covered include: 1) string sample expansion algorithms which synthesize string samples from isolated characters or distort realistic string samples; 2) enhanced feature representation algorithms, e.g. enhanced four-plane features and Delta features; 3) novel learning algorithms, such as Perceptron learning with dynamic margin, MPE training and distributed training; and lastly 4) ensemble algorithms, that is, combining the two strategies using both parallel structure and serial structure. All the while, the book moves from basic to advanced algorithms, helping ...

  9. Recognition algorithms in knot theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynnikov, I A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the problem of constructing algorithms for comparing knots and links is discussed. A survey of existing approaches and basic results in this area is given. In particular, diverse combinatorial methods for representing links are discussed, the Haken algorithm for recognizing a trivial knot (the unknot) and a scheme for constructing a general algorithm (using Haken's ideas) for comparing links are presented, an approach based on representing links by closed braids is described, the known algorithms for solving the word problem and the conjugacy problem for braid groups are described, and the complexity of the algorithms under consideration is discussed. A new method of combinatorial description of knots is given together with a new algorithm (based on this description) for recognizing the unknot by using a procedure for monotone simplification. In the conclusion of the paper several problems are formulated whose solution could help to advance towards the 'algorithmization' of knot theory

  10. A statistical investigation into the stability of iris recognition in diverse population sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John J.; Etter, Delores M.

    2014-05-01

    Iris recognition is increasingly being deployed on population wide scales for important applications such as border security, social service administration, criminal identification and general population management. The error rates for this incredibly accurate form of biometric identification are established using well known, laboratory quality datasets. However, it is has long been acknowledged in biometric theory that not all individuals have the same likelihood of being correctly serviced by a biometric system. Typically, techniques for identifying clients that are likely to experience a false non-match or a false match error are carried out on a per-subject basis. This research makes the novel hypothesis that certain ethnical denominations are more or less likely to experience a biometric error. Through established statistical techniques, we demonstrate this hypothesis to be true and document the notable effect that the ethnicity of the client has on iris similarity scores. Understanding the expected impact of ethnical diversity on iris recognition accuracy is crucial to the future success of this technology as it is deployed in areas where the target population consists of clientele from a range of geographic backgrounds, such as border crossings and immigration check points.

  11. Comparative study of multimodal biometric recognition by fusion of iris and fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  12. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Benaliouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  13. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results. PMID:24605065

  14. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity. PMID:24683317

  15. Efficient Iris Recognition Based on Optimal Subfeature Selection and Weighted Subregion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region’s weights and then weighted different subregions’ matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, andMMU-V1, demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.

  16. Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; He, Fei; Wang, Hongye; Deng, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.

  17. An automatic iris occlusion estimation method based on high-dimensional density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Savvides, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Iris masks play an important role in iris recognition. They indicate which part of the iris texture map is useful and which part is occluded or contaminated by noisy image artifacts such as eyelashes, eyelids, eyeglasses frames, and specular reflections. The accuracy of the iris mask is extremely important. The performance of the iris recognition system will decrease dramatically when the iris mask is inaccurate, even when the best recognition algorithm is used. Traditionally, people used the rule-based algorithms to estimate iris masks from iris images. However, the accuracy of the iris masks generated this way is questionable. In this work, we propose to use Figueiredo and Jain's Gaussian Mixture Models (FJ-GMMs) to model the underlying probabilistic distributions of both valid and invalid regions on iris images. We also explored possible features and found that Gabor Filter Bank (GFB) provides the most discriminative information for our goal. Finally, we applied Simulated Annealing (SA) technique to optimize the parameters of GFB in order to achieve the best recognition rate. Experimental results show that the masks generated by the proposed algorithm increase the iris recognition rate on both ICE2 and UBIRIS dataset, verifying the effectiveness and importance of our proposed method for iris occlusion estimation.

  18. Scheimpflug with computational imaging to extend the depth of field of iris recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Indranil

    Despite the enormous success of iris recognition in close-range and well-regulated spaces for biometric authentication, it has hitherto failed to gain wide-scale adoption in less controlled, public environments. The problem arises from a limitation in imaging called the depth of field (DOF): the limited range of distances beyond which subjects appear blurry in the image. The loss of spatial details in the iris image outside the small DOF limits the iris image capture to a small volume-the capture volume. Existing techniques to extend the capture volume are usually expensive, computationally intensive, or afflicted by noise. Is there a way to combine the classical Scheimpflug principle with the modern computational imaging techniques to extend the capture volume? The solution we found is, surprisingly, simple; yet, it provides several key advantages over existing approaches. Our method, called Angular Focus Stacking (AFS), consists of capturing a set of images while rotating the lens, followed by registration, and blending of the in-focus regions from the images in the stack. The theoretical underpinnings of AFS arose from a pair of new and general imaging models we developed for Scheimpflug imaging that directly incorporates the pupil parameters. The model revealed that we could register the images in the stack analytically if we pivot the lens at the center of its entrance pupil, rendering the registration process exact. Additionally, we found that a specific lens design further reduces the complexity of image registration making AFS suitable for real-time performance. We have demonstrated up to an order of magnitude improvement in the axial capture volume over conventional image capture without sacrificing optical resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The total time required for capturing the set of images for AFS is less than the time needed for a single-exposure, conventional image for the same DOF and brightness level. The net reduction in capture time can

  19. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Wang, Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL) pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR) was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme. PMID:29509692

  20. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Wang, Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2018-03-06

    In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL) pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR) was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme.

  1. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Hsieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme.

  2. Efficient Iris Localization via Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris localization is one of the most important processes in iris recognition. Because of different kinds of noises in iris image, the localization result may be wrong. Besides this, localization process is time-consuming. To solve these problems, this paper develops an efficient iris localization algorithm via optimization model. Firstly, the localization problem is modeled by an optimization model. Then SIFT feature is selected to represent the characteristic information of iris outer boundary and eyelid for localization. And SDM (Supervised Descent Method algorithm is employed to solve the final points of outer boundary and eyelids. Finally, IRLS (Iterative Reweighted Least-Square is used to obtain the parameters of outer boundary and upper and lower eyelids. Experimental result indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.

  3. Algorithms for adaptive nonlinear pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Hayden, Eric; Key, Gary

    2011-09-01

    In Bayesian pattern recognition research, static classifiers have featured prominently in the literature. A static classifier is essentially based on a static model of input statistics, thereby assuming input ergodicity that is not realistic in practice. Classical Bayesian approaches attempt to circumvent the limitations of static classifiers, which can include brittleness and narrow coverage, by training extensively on a data set that is assumed to cover more than the subtense of expected input. Such assumptions are not realistic for more complex pattern classification tasks, for example, object detection using pattern classification applied to the output of computer vision filters. In contrast, we have developed a two step process, that can render the majority of static classifiers adaptive, such that the tracking of input nonergodicities is supported. Firstly, we developed operations that dynamically insert (or resp. delete) training patterns into (resp. from) the classifier's pattern database, without requiring that the classifier's internal representation of its training database be completely recomputed. Secondly, we developed and applied a pattern replacement algorithm that uses the aforementioned pattern insertion/deletion operations. This algorithm is designed to optimize the pattern database for a given set of performance measures, thereby supporting closed-loop, performance-directed optimization. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of adaptive linear and nonlinear pattern recognition operators that use our pattern insertion/deletion technology - in particular, tabular nearest-neighbor encoding (TNE) and lattice associative memories (LAMs). Of particular interest is the classification of nonergodic datastreams that have noise corruption with time-varying statistics. The TNE and LAM based classifiers discussed herein have been successfully applied to the computation of object classification in hyperspectral

  4. Shape adaptive, robust iris feature extraction from noisy iris images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah

    2013-10-01

    In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate.

  5. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits.

  6. Progressive-Search Algorithms for Large-Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murveit, Hy; Butzberger, John; Digalakis, Vassilios; Weintraub, Mitch

    1993-01-01

    .... An algorithm, the "Forward-Backward Word-Life Algorithm," is described. It can generate a word lattice in a progressive search that would be used as a language model embedded in a succeeding recognition pass to reduce computation requirements...

  7. Apply lightweight recognition algorithms in optical music recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Viet-Khoi; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Nguyen-Khac, Tung-Anh; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2015-02-01

    The problems of digitalization and transformation of musical scores into machine-readable format are necessary to be solved since they help people to enjoy music, to learn music, to conserve music sheets, and even to assist music composers. However, the results of existing methods still require improvements for higher accuracy. Therefore, the authors propose lightweight algorithms for Optical Music Recognition to help people to recognize and automatically play musical scores. In our proposal, after removing staff lines and extracting symbols, each music symbol is represented as a grid of identical M ∗ N cells, and the features are extracted and classified with multiple lightweight SVM classifiers. Through experiments, the authors find that the size of 10 ∗ 12 cells yields the highest precision value. Experimental results on the dataset consisting of 4929 music symbols taken from 18 modern music sheets in the Synthetic Score Database show that our proposed method is able to classify printed musical scores with accuracy up to 99.56%.

  8. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  9. [Comparative clinical study of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis with versus without iris recognition for myopia or myopic astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-qun; Zhang, Jin-song; Zhao, Xiao-jin

    2011-10-01

    To explore the postoperative visual acuity results of wavefront-guided LASIK with iris recognition for myopia or myopic astigmatism and the changes of higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity function (CSF). Series of prospective case studies, 158 eyes (85 cases) of myopia or myopic astigmatism were divided into two groups: one group underwent wavefront-guided LASIK with iris recognition (iris recognition group); another group underwent wavefront-guided LASIK treatment without iris recognition through the limbus maring point (non-iris recognition group). To comparative analyze the postoperative visual acuity, residual refraction, the RMS of higher-order aberrations and CSF of two groups. There was no statistical significance difference between two groups of the average uncorrected visual acuity (t = 0.039, 0.058, 0.898; P = 0.844, 0.810, 0.343), best corrected visual acuity (t = 0.320, 0.440, 1.515; P = 0.572, 0.507, 0.218), and residual refraction [spherical equivalent (t = 0.027, 0.215, 0.238; P = 0.869, 0.643, 0.626), spherical (t = 0.145, 0.117, 0.038; P = 0.704, 0.732, 0.845) and cylinder (t = 1.676, 1.936, 0.334; P = 0.195, 0.164, 0.563)] at postoperative 10 days, 1 month and 3 month. The security index of iris recognition group at postoperative 3 month was 1.06 and non-iris recognition group was 1.03; the efficacy index of iris recognition group is 1.01 and non-iris recognition group was 1.00. Postoperative 3 month iris recognition group 93.83% eyes and non-iris recognition group of 90.91% eyes spherical equivalent within ± 0.50 D (χ(2) = 0.479, P = 0.489), iris recognition group of 98.77% eyes and non-iris recognition group of 97.40% eyes spherical equivalent within ± 1.00 D (Fisher test, P = 0.613). There was no significance difference between the two groups of security, efficacy and predictability. Non-iris recognition group postoperative 1 month and postoperative 3 months 3-order order aberrations root mean square value (RMS) higher than the

  10. Fusion of phase congruency and harris algorithm for extraction of iris corner points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available iris identification systems. Low cost devices used under uncontrolled environments acquire poor iris images with inconsistent illumination and specular reflections. These factors inflict challenges towards the accurate identification and extraction...

  11. [Clinical analysis of real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for myopic astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Li-ming; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lin

    2013-08-01

    To assess the safety, efficacy, stability and changes in cylindrical degree and axis after real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Retrospective case series. This observational case study comprised 136 patients (249 eyes) with myopic astigmatism in a 6-month trial. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the pre-operative cylindrical degree: Group 1, -0.75 to -1.25 D, 106 eyes;Group 2, -1.50 to -2.25 D, 89 eyes and Group 3, -2.50 to -5.00 D, 54 eyes. They were also grouped by pre-operative astigmatism axis:Group A, with the rule astigmatism (WTRA), 156 eyes; Group B, against the rule astigmatism (ATRA), 64 eyes;Group C, oblique axis astigmatism, 29 eyes. After femtosecond laser flap created, real-time iris recognized excimer ablation was performed. The naked visual acuity, the best-corrected visual acuity, the degree and axis of astigmatism were analyzed and compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Static iris recognition detected that eye cyclotorsional misalignment was 2.37° ± 2.16°, dynamic iris recognition detected that the intraoperative cyclotorsional misalignment range was 0-4.3°. Six months after operation, the naked visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 100% cases. No eye lost ≥ 1 line of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Six months after operation, the naked vision of 227 eyes surpassed the BSCVA, and 87 eyes gained 1 line of BSCVA. The degree of astigmatism decreased from (-1.72 ± 0.77) D (pre-operation) to (-0.29 ± 0.25) D (post-operation). Six months after operation, WTRA from 157 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 43 eyes (post-operation), ATRA from 63 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 28 eyes (post-operation), oblique astigmatism increased from 29 eyes to 34 eyes and 144 eyes became non-astigmatism. The real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation can compensate deviation from eye cyclotorsion, decrease

  12. Star pattern recognition algorithm aided by inertial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Wang, Ke-dong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-08-01

    Star pattern recognition is one of the key problems of the celestial navigation. The traditional star pattern recognition approaches, such as the triangle algorithm and the star angular distance algorithm, are a kind of all-sky matching method whose recognition speed is slow and recognition success rate is not high. Therefore, the real time and reliability of CNS (Celestial Navigation System) is reduced to some extent, especially for the maneuvering spacecraft. However, if the direction of the camera optical axis can be estimated by other navigation systems such as INS (Inertial Navigation System), the star pattern recognition can be fulfilled in the vicinity of the estimated direction of the optical axis. The benefits of the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm include at least the improved matching speed and the improved success rate. In this paper, the direction of the camera optical axis, the local matching sky, and the projection of stars on the image plane are estimated by the aiding of INS firstly. Then, the local star catalog for the star pattern recognition is established in real time dynamically. The star images extracted in the camera plane are matched in the local sky. Compared to the traditional all-sky star pattern recognition algorithms, the memory of storing the star catalog is reduced significantly. Finally, the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm is validated by simulations. The results of simulations show that the algorithm's computation time is reduced sharply and its matching success rate is improved greatly.

  13. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  14. Evaluation of Activity Recognition Algorithms for Employee Performance Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mehreen Mumtaz; Hafiz Adnan Habib

    2012-01-01

    Successful Human Resource Management plays a key role in success of any organization. Traditionally, human resource managers rely on various information technology solutions such as Payroll and Work Time Systems incorporating RFID and biometric technologies. This research evaluates activity recognition algorithms for employee performance monitoring. An activity recognition algorithm has been implemented that categorized the activity of employee into following in to classes: job activities and...

  15. Iris and periocular biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeb, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.

  16. The Improvement of Behavior Recognition Accuracy of Micro Inertial Accelerometer by Secondary Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Behaviors of “still”, “walking”, “running”, “jumping”, “upstairs” and “downstairs” can be recognized by micro inertial accelerometer of low cost. By using the features as inputs to the well-trained BP artificial neural network which is selected as classifier, those behaviors can be recognized. But the experimental results show that the recognition accuracy is not satisfactory. This paper presents secondary recognition algorithm and combine it with BP artificial neural network to improving the recognition accuracy. The Algorithm is verified by the Android mobile platform, and the recognition accuracy can be improved more than 8 %. Through extensive testing statistic analysis, the recognition accuracy can reach 95 % through BP artificial neural network and the secondary recognition, which is a reasonable good result from practical point of view.

  17. Modeling IrisCode and its variants as convex polyhedral cones and its security implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Adams Wai-Kin

    2013-03-01

    IrisCode, developed by Daugman, in 1993, is the most influential iris recognition algorithm. A thorough understanding of IrisCode is essential, because over 100 million persons have been enrolled by this algorithm and many biometric personal identification and template protection methods have been developed based on IrisCode. This paper indicates that a template produced by IrisCode or its variants is a convex polyhedral cone in a hyperspace. Its central ray, being a rough representation of the original biometric signal, can be computed by a simple algorithm, which can often be implemented in one Matlab command line. The central ray is an expected ray and also an optimal ray of an objective function on a group of distributions. This algorithm is derived from geometric properties of a convex polyhedral cone but does not rely on any prior knowledge (e.g., iris images). The experimental results show that biometric templates, including iris and palmprint templates, produced by different recognition methods can be matched through the central rays in their convex polyhedral cones and that templates protected by a method extended from IrisCode can be broken into. These experimental results indicate that, without a thorough security analysis, convex polyhedral cone templates cannot be assumed secure. Additionally, the simplicity of the algorithm implies that even junior hackers without knowledge of advanced image processing and biometric databases can still break into protected templates and reveal relationships among templates produced by different recognition methods.

  18. Face recognition algorithm using extended vector quantization histogram features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Lee, Feifei; Wu, Xueqian; Chen, Qiu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm based on a combination of vector quantization (VQ) and Markov stationary features (MSF). The VQ algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for generating features; it extracts a codevector histogram as a facial feature representation for face recognition. Still, the VQ histogram features are unable to convey spatial structural information, which to some extent limits their usefulness in discrimination. To alleviate this limitation of VQ histograms, we utilize Markov stationary features (MSF) to extend the VQ histogram-based features so as to add spatial structural information. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm by achieving recognition results superior to those of several state-of-the-art methods on publicly available face databases.

  19. Implementation of perceptual aspects in a face recognition algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenna, F; Bovio, L; Rossi, G B; Zappa, E; Testa, R; Gasparetto, M

    2013-01-01

    Automatic face recognition is a biometric technique particularly appreciated in security applications. In fact face recognition presents the opportunity to operate at a low invasive level without the collaboration of the subjects under tests, with face images gathered either from surveillance systems or from specific cameras located in strategic points. The automatic recognition algorithms perform a measurement, on the face images, of a set of specific characteristics of the subject and provide a recognition decision based on the measurement results. Unfortunately several quantities may influence the measurement of the face geometry such as its orientation, the lighting conditions, the expression and so on, affecting the recognition rate. On the other hand human recognition of face is a very robust process far less influenced by the surrounding conditions. For this reason it may be interesting to insert perceptual aspects in an automatic facial-based recognition algorithm to improve its robustness. This paper presents a first study in this direction investigating the correlation between the results of a perception experiment and the facial geometry, estimated by means of the position of a set of repere points

  20. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B K; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  1. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  2. Automatic identification of otological drilling faults: an intelligent recognition algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tianyang; Li, Xisheng; Gao, Zhiqiang; Feng, Guodong; Shen, Peng

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an intelligent recognition algorithm that can recognize milling states of the otological drill by fusing multi-sensor information. An otological drill was modified by the addition of sensors. The algorithm was designed according to features of the milling process and is composed of a characteristic curve, an adaptive filter and a rule base. The characteristic curve can weaken the impact of the unstable normal milling process and reserve the features of drilling faults. The adaptive filter is capable of suppressing interference in the characteristic curve by fusing multi-sensor information. The rule base can identify drilling faults through the filtering result data. The experiments were repeated on fresh porcine scapulas, including normal milling and two drilling faults. The algorithm has high rates of identification. This study shows that the intelligent recognition algorithm can identify drilling faults under interference conditions. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  4. AUTOMATION PROGRAM FOR RECOGNITION OF ALGORITHM SOLUTION OF MATHEMATIC TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis N. Butorin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are been describing technology for manage of testing task in computer program. It was found for recognition of algorithm solution of mathematic task. There are been justifi ed the using hierarchical structure for a special set of testing questions. Also, there has been presented the release of the described tasks in the computer program openSEE. 

  5. AUTOMATION PROGRAM FOR RECOGNITION OF ALGORITHM SOLUTION OF MATHEMATIC TASK

    OpenAIRE

    Denis N. Butorin

    2014-01-01

    In the article are been describing technology for manage of testing task in computer program. It was found for recognition of algorithm solution of mathematic task. There are been justifi ed the using hierarchical structure for a special set of testing questions. Also, there has been presented the release of the described tasks in the computer program openSEE. 

  6. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  7. A face recognition algorithm based on multiple individual discriminative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper, a novel algorithm for facial recognition is proposed. The technique combines the color texture and geometrical configuration provided by face images. Landmarks and pixel intensities are used by Principal Component Analysis and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to associate...

  8. FPGA-Based Implementation of Lithuanian Isolated Word Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomyslav Sledevič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the FPGA-based implementation of Lithuanian isolated word recognition algorithm. FPGA is selected for parallel process implementation using VHDL to ensure fast signal processing at low rate clock signal. Cepstrum analysis was applied to features extraction in voice. The dynamic time warping algorithm was used to compare the vectors of cepstrum coefficients. A library of 100 words features was created and stored in the internal FPGA BRAM memory. Experimental testing with speaker dependent records demonstrated the recognition rate of 94%. The recognition rate of 58% was achieved for speaker-independent records. Calculation of cepstrum coefficients lasted for 8.52 ms at 50 MHz clock, while 100 DTWs took 66.56 ms at 25 MHz clock.Article in Lithuanian

  9. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Kim, Dong Seop; Nguyen, Phong Ha; Owais, Muhammad; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-05-10

    The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR) light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN) has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet), which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database) and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I) datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA) v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  10. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet, which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  11. Indonesian Sign Language Number Recognition using SIFT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudi, Isa; Sarosa, Moechammad; Andrie Asmara, Rosa; Azrino Gustalika, M.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesian sign language (ISL) is generally used for deaf individuals and poor people communication in communicating. They use sign language as their primary language which consists of 2 types of action: sign and finger spelling. However, not all people understand their sign language so that this becomes a problem for them to communicate with normal people. this problem also becomes a factor they are isolated feel from the social life. It needs a solution that can help them to be able to interacting with normal people. Many research that offers a variety of methods in solving the problem of sign language recognition based on image processing. SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm is one of the methods that can be used to identify an object. SIFT is claimed very resistant to scaling, rotation, illumination and noise. Using SIFT algorithm for Indonesian sign language recognition number result rate recognition to 82% with the use of a total of 100 samples image dataset consisting 50 sample for training data and 50 sample images for testing data. Change threshold value get affect the result of the recognition. The best value threshold is 0.45 with rate recognition of 94%.

  12. IS (Iris Security)

    OpenAIRE

    Iovane, G.; Tortoriello, F. S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety system based on iridology. The results suggest a new scenario where the security problem in supervised and unsupervised areas can be treat with the present system and the iris image recognition.

  13. Excimer Laser Surgery: Biometrical Iris Eye Recognition with Cyclorotational Control Eye Tracker System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Bojan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Mijatovic, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Mueller, Joerg

    2017-05-25

    A prospective comparative study assessing the importance of the intra-operative dynamic rotational tracking-especially in the treatment of astigmatisms in corneal refractive Excimer laser correction-concerning clinical outcomes is presented. The cyclotorsion from upright to supine position was measured using iris image comparison. The Group 1 of patients was additionally treated with cyclorotational control and Group 2 only with X-Y control. Significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mean postoperative cylinder refraction ( p < 0.05). The mean cyclotorsion can be calculated to 3.75° with a standard deviation of 3.1°. The total range of torsion was from -14.9° to +12.6°. Re-treatment rate was 2.2% in Group 1 and 8.2% in Group 2, which is highly significant ( p < 0.01). The investigation confirms that the dynamic rotational tracking system used for LASIK results in highly predictable refraction quality with significantly less postoperative re-treatments.

  14. Facial Affect Recognition Using Regularized Discriminant Analysis-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and effective method for facial expression recognition including happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, surprise, and neutral state. The proposed method utilizes a regularized discriminant analysis-based boosting algorithm (RDAB with effective Gabor features to recognize the facial expressions. Entropy criterion is applied to select the effective Gabor feature which is a subset of informative and nonredundant Gabor features. The proposed RDAB algorithm uses RDA as a learner in the boosting algorithm. The RDA combines strengths of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA. It solves the small sample size and ill-posed problems suffered from QDA and LDA through a regularization technique. Additionally, this study uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to estimate optimal parameters in RDA. Experiment results demonstrate that our approach can accurately and robustly recognize facial expressions.

  15. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  16. RESEARCH ON FOREST FLAME RECOGNITION ALGORITHM BASED ON IMAGE FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fire recognition based on image features has become a hotspot in fire monitoring. However, due to the complexity of forest environment, the accuracy of forest fireworks recognition based on image features is low. Based on this, this paper proposes a feature extraction algorithm based on YCrCb color space and K-means clustering. Firstly, the paper prepares and analyzes the color characteristics of a large number of forest fire image samples. Using the K-means clustering algorithm, the forest flame model is obtained by comparing the two commonly used color spaces, and the suspected flame area is discriminated and extracted. The experimental results show that the extraction accuracy of flame area based on YCrCb color model is higher than that of HSI color model, which can be applied in different scene forest fire identification, and it is feasible in practice.

  17. Component Pin Recognition Using Algorithms Based on Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Hu, Hong; Liu, Ze; Xu, Jiangchang

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of machine vision for a plug-in machine is to improve the machine’s stability and accuracy, and recognition of the component pin is an important part of the vision. This paper focuses on component pin recognition using three different techniques. The first technique involves traditional image processing using the core algorithm for binary large object (BLOB) analysis. The second technique uses the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), to experimentally compare the effect of the support vector machine (SVM) and the adaptive boosting machine (AdaBoost) learning meta-algorithm classifiers. The third technique is the use of an in-depth learning method known as convolution neural network (CNN), which involves identifying the pin by comparing a sample to its training. The main purpose of the research presented in this paper is to increase the knowledge of learning methods used in the plug-in machine industry in order to achieve better results.

  18. IDENTIFIKASI IRIS MATA MENGGUNAKAN TAPIS GABOR WAVELET DAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN LEARNING VECTOR QUANTIZATION (LVQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiyono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric represents the human identification method development using natural characteristic of humanbeing as its bases. Every iris has the detail and unique texture, even differ between right and left eye.Theeye iris identification process in this research are data acquisition, early processing, feature exctractionand classification. Algorithm used for classification of texture slice the eye is Gabor wavelet filtering, andclassification process of slice the eye texture will be used by a Artificial Neural Network LVQ. Recognitionthe value of feature vektor in each iris obtained from to the number of right recognition value or thepercentage of right one. The best recognition percentage is 87,5 %.

  19. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Modified 1$ and Background Subtraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computers and computerized machines have tremendously penetrated all aspects of our lives. This raises the importance of Human-Computer Interface (HCI. The common HCI techniques still rely on simple devices such as keyboard, mice, and joysticks, which are not enough to convoy the latest technology. Hand gesture has become one of the most important attractive alternatives to existing traditional HCI techniques. This paper proposes a new hand gesture detection system for Human-Computer Interaction using real-time video streaming. This is achieved by removing the background using average background algorithm and the 1$ algorithm for hand’s template matching. Then every hand gesture is translated to commands that can be used to control robot movements. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve high detection rate and small recognition time under different light changes, scales, rotation, and background.

  20. An Efficiency Analysis of Augmented Reality Marker Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpytė Dovilė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the investigation of augmented reality system which is designed for identification and augmentation of 100 different square markers. Marker recognition efficiency was investigated by rotating markers along x and y axis directions in range from −90° to 90°. Virtual simulations of four environments were developed: a an intense source of light, b an intense source of light falling from the left side, c the non-intensive light source falling from the left side, d equally falling shadows. The graphics were created using the OpenGL graphics computer hardware interface; image processing was programmed in C++ language using OpenCV, while augmented reality was developed in Java programming language using NyARToolKit. The obtained results demonstrate that augmented reality marker recognition algorithm is accurate and reliable in the case of changing lighting conditions and rotational angles - only 4 % markers were unidentified. Assessment of marker recognition efficiency let to propose marker classification strategy in order to use it for grouping various markers into distinct markers’ groups possessing similar recognition properties.

  1. Research and implementation of finger-vein recognition algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zengyao; Yang, Jie; Chen, Yilei; Liu, Yin

    2017-06-01

    In finger vein image preprocessing, finger angle correction and ROI extraction are important parts of the system. In this paper, we propose an angle correction algorithm based on the centroid of the vein image, and extract the ROI region according to the bidirectional gray projection method. Inspired by the fact that features in those vein areas have similar appearance as valleys, a novel method was proposed to extract center and width of palm vein based on multi-directional gradients, which is easy-computing, quick and stable. On this basis, an encoding method was designed to determine the gray value distribution of texture image. This algorithm could effectively overcome the edge of the texture extraction error. Finally, the system was equipped with higher robustness and recognition accuracy by utilizing fuzzy threshold determination and global gray value matching algorithm. Experimental results on pairs of matched palm images show that, the proposed method has a EER with 3.21% extracts features at the speed of 27ms per image. It can be concluded that the proposed algorithm has obvious advantages in grain extraction efficiency, matching accuracy and algorithm efficiency.

  2. Adaboost-based algorithm for human action recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2017-11-28

    This paper presents a computer vision-based methodology for human action recognition. First, the shape based pose features are constructed based on area ratios to identify the human silhouette in images. The proposed features are invariance to translation and scaling. Once the human body features are extracted from videos, different human actions are learned individually on the training frames of each class. Then, we apply the Adaboost algorithm for the classification process. We assessed the proposed approach using the UR Fall Detection dataset. In this study six classes of activities are considered namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  3. Adaboost-based algorithm for human action recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a computer vision-based methodology for human action recognition. First, the shape based pose features are constructed based on area ratios to identify the human silhouette in images. The proposed features are invariance to translation and scaling. Once the human body features are extracted from videos, different human actions are learned individually on the training frames of each class. Then, we apply the Adaboost algorithm for the classification process. We assessed the proposed approach using the UR Fall Detection dataset. In this study six classes of activities are considered namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  4. Quality assessment for online iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...

  5. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alva

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica

  6. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Alicia; Cangalaya, Carla; Quiliano, Miguel; Krebs, Casey; Gilman, Robert H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica with a high

  7. Reliability of iris recognition as a means of identity verification and future impact on transportation worker identification credential

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is deploying the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) to U.S. ports to help ensure only authorized individuals having undergone background checks have access to secure areas. Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric. This thesis also argues th...

  8. A New Fuzzy Cognitive Map Learning Algorithm for Speech Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xueying; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate recognition method is crucial in speech emotion recognition applications. However, the current methods do not consider the relationship between emotions. Thus, in this study, a speech emotion recognition system based on the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) approach is constructed. Moreover, a new FCM learning algorithm for speech emotion recognition is proposed. This algorithm includes the use of the pleasure-arousal-dominance emotion scale to calculate the weights between e...

  9. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  10. SINGLE FRAME SUPER RESOLUTION OF NONCOOPERATIVE IRIS IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Image super-resolution, a process to enhance image resolution, has important applications in biometrics, satellite imaging, high definition television, medical imaging, etc. The long range captured iris identification systems often suffer from low resolution and meager focus of the captured iris images. These degrade the iris recognition performance. This paper proposes enhanced iterated back projection (EIBP method to super resolute the long range captured iris polar images. The performance of proposed method is tested and analyzed on CASIA long range iris database by comparing peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity index (SSIM with state-of-the-art super resolution (SR algorithms. It is further analyzed by increasing the up-sampling factor. Performance analysis shows that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms, the peak signal-to-noise ratio improved about 0.1-1.5 dB. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is well suited to super resolve the iris polar images captured at a long distance

  11. Practical considerations in privacy preserving biometric face recognition algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papatsimpa, Ch.; de Groot, J.; Linnartz, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of authentication via fingerprints, iris, face or other biometric features is growing. Hence there is an increasing need to allow a wide variety of verifying parties to have access to biometric template (or reference) data. In this paper, we discuss solutions to ensure that in a

  12. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  13. A new objective criterion for IRIS localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, A.

    2010-01-01

    Iris localization is the most important step in iris recognition systems. For commonly used databases, exact data is not given which describe the true results of localization. To cope with this problem a new objective criterion for iris localization is proposed in this paper based on our visual system. A specific number of points are selected on pupil boundary, iris boundary, upper eyelid and lower eyelid using the original image and then distance from these points to the result of complete iris localization has been calculated. If the determined distance is below a certain threshold then iris localization is considered correct. Experimental results show that proposed criterion is very effective. (author)

  14. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  15. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  16. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: franciscogiacometto@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  17. Human activity recognition based on feature selection in smart home using back-propagation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongqing; He, Lei; Si, Hao; Liu, Peng; Xie, Xiaolei

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, Back-propagation(BP) algorithm has been used to train the feed forward neural network for human activity recognition in smart home environments, and inter-class distance method for feature selection of observed motion sensor events is discussed and tested. And then, the human activity recognition performances of neural network using BP algorithm have been evaluated and compared with other probabilistic algorithms: Naïve Bayes(NB) classifier and Hidden Markov Model(HMM). The results show that different feature datasets yield different activity recognition accuracy. The selection of unsuitable feature datasets increases the computational complexity and degrades the activity recognition accuracy. Furthermore, neural network using BP algorithm has relatively better human activity recognition performances than NB classifier and HMM. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FL 32407-7001 TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR-2017-004 MODULAR ...31-01-2017 Technical Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition DR...flexible platform to facilitate the development and testing of ATR algorithms. To that end, NSWC PCD has created the Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite

  19. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Shrivastav; Prof. Ravindra Kumar Gupta; Dr. Shailendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Character Recognition (CR) has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for larg...

  20. High-speed cell recognition algorithm for ultrafast flow cytometer imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanyue; Wang, Chao; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang

    2018-04-01

    An optical time-stretch flow imaging system enables high-throughput examination of cells/particles with unprecedented high speed and resolution. A significant amount of raw image data is produced. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm is, therefore, highly demanded to analyze large amounts of data efficiently. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm consisting of two-stage cascaded detection and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classification is proposed. The first stage of detection extracts cell regions. The second stage integrates distance transform and the watershed algorithm to separate clustered cells. Finally, the cells detected are classified by GMM. We compared the performance of our algorithm with support vector machine. Results show that our algorithm increases the running speed by over 150% without sacrificing the recognition accuracy. This algorithm provides a promising solution for high-throughput and automated cell imaging and classification in the ultrafast flow cytometer imaging platform.

  1. Chinese License Plates Recognition Method Based on A Robust and Efficient Feature Extraction and BPNN Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-01

    The prosperity of license plate recognition technology has made great contribution to the development of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). In this paper, a robust and efficient license plate recognition method is proposed which is based on a combined feature extraction model and BPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network) algorithm. Firstly, the candidate region of the license plate detection and segmentation method is developed. Secondly, a new feature extraction model is designed considering three sets of features combination. Thirdly, the license plates classification and recognition method using the combined feature model and BPNN algorithm is presented. Finally, the experimental results indicate that the license plate segmentation and recognition both can be achieved effectively by the proposed algorithm. Compared with three traditional methods, the recognition accuracy of the proposed method has increased to 95.7% and the consuming time has decreased to 51.4ms.

  2. A GPU-paralleled implementation of an enhanced face recognition algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Xiyang; Shao, Shuai; Zan, Jiguo

    2013-03-01

    Face recognition algorithm based on compressed sensing and sparse representation is hotly argued in these years. The scheme of this algorithm increases recognition rate as well as anti-noise capability. However, the computational cost is expensive and has become a main restricting factor for real world applications. In this paper, we introduce a GPU-accelerated hybrid variant of face recognition algorithm named parallel face recognition algorithm (pFRA). We describe here how to carry out parallel optimization design to take full advantage of many-core structure of a GPU. The pFRA is tested and compared with several other implementations under different data sample size. Finally, Our pFRA, implemented with NVIDIA GPU and Computer Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model, achieves a significant speedup over the traditional CPU implementations.

  3. Currency recognition using a smartphone: Comparison between color SIFT and gray scale SIFT algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Iyad Abu Doush; Sahar AL-Btoush

    2017-01-01

    Banknote recognition means classifying the currency (coin and paper) to the correct class. In this paper, we developed a dataset for Jordanian currency. After that we applied automatic mobile recognition system using a smartphone on the dataset using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm. This is the first attempt, to the best of the authors knowledge, to recognize both coins and paper banknotes on a smartphone using SIFT algorithm. SIFT has been developed to be the most robust a...

  4. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  5. Does Iris Change Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008–2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs. PMID:24244305

  6. Does iris change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  7. Does iris change over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Mehrotra

    Full Text Available Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  8. An MPCA/LDA Based Dimensionality Reduction Algorithm for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a face recognition algorithm based on both the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Compared with current traditional existing face recognition methods, our approach treats face images as multidimensional tensor in order to find the optimal tensor subspace for accomplishing dimension reduction. The LDA is used to project samples to a new discriminant feature space, while the K nearest neighbor (KNN is adopted for sample set classification. The results of our study and the developed algorithm are validated with face databases ORL, FERET, and YALE and compared with PCA, MPCA, and PCA + LDA methods, which demonstrates an improvement in face recognition accuracy.

  9. Iris Image Classification Based on Hierarchical Visual Codebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenan Sun; Hui Zhang; Tieniu Tan; Jianyu Wang

    2014-06-01

    Iris recognition as a reliable method for personal identification has been well-studied with the objective to assign the class label of each iris image to a unique subject. In contrast, iris image classification aims to classify an iris image to an application specific category, e.g., iris liveness detection (classification of genuine and fake iris images), race classification (e.g., classification of iris images of Asian and non-Asian subjects), coarse-to-fine iris identification (classification of all iris images in the central database into multiple categories). This paper proposes a general framework for iris image classification based on texture analysis. A novel texture pattern representation method called Hierarchical Visual Codebook (HVC) is proposed to encode the texture primitives of iris images. The proposed HVC method is an integration of two existing Bag-of-Words models, namely Vocabulary Tree (VT), and Locality-constrained Linear Coding (LLC). The HVC adopts a coarse-to-fine visual coding strategy and takes advantages of both VT and LLC for accurate and sparse representation of iris texture. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed iris image classification method achieves state-of-the-art performance for iris liveness detection, race classification, and coarse-to-fine iris identification. A comprehensive fake iris image database simulating four types of iris spoof attacks is developed as the benchmark for research of iris liveness detection.

  10. Target recognition of ladar range images using slice image: comparison of four improved algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Cao, Jingya; Wang, Liang; Zhai, Yu; Cheng, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Compared with traditional 3-D shape data, ladar range images possess properties of strong noise, shape degeneracy, and sparsity, which make feature extraction and representation difficult. The slice image is an effective feature descriptor to resolve this problem. We propose four improved algorithms on target recognition of ladar range images using slice image. In order to improve resolution invariance of the slice image, mean value detection instead of maximum value detection is applied in these four improved algorithms. In order to improve rotation invariance of the slice image, three new improved feature descriptors-which are feature slice image, slice-Zernike moments, and slice-Fourier moments-are applied to the last three improved algorithms, respectively. Backpropagation neural networks are used as feature classifiers in the last two improved algorithms. The performance of these four improved recognition systems is analyzed comprehensively in the aspects of the three invariances, recognition rate, and execution time. The final experiment results show that the improvements for these four algorithms reach the desired effect, the three invariances of feature descriptors are not directly related to the final recognition performance of recognition systems, and these four improved recognition systems have different performances under different conditions.

  11. Some algorithms of the events recognition in the Tagged Neutrino Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Some algorithms of the events recognition in Tagged Neutrino Facility are described: the event localization in Bars neutrino detector, the off-line trigger, the reconstruction of events vertex, events reconstruction in Tagging Station. The programming package for realization of clusterization methods that have been used for mentioned algorithms realization is presented. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Gaussian mixture models-based ship target recognition algorithm in remote sensing infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shoukui; Qin, Xiaojuan

    2018-02-01

    Since the resolution of remote sensing infrared images is low, the features of ship targets become unstable. The issue of how to recognize ships with fuzzy features is an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ship target recognition algorithm based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). In the proposed algorithm, there are mainly two steps. At the first step, the Hu moments of these ship target images are calculated, and the GMMs are trained on the moment features of ships. At the second step, the moment feature of each ship image is assigned to the trained GMMs for recognition. Because of the scale, rotation, translation invariance property of Hu moments and the power feature-space description ability of GMMs, the GMMs-based ship target recognition algorithm can recognize ship reliably. Experimental results of a large simulating image set show that our approach is effective in distinguishing different ship types, and obtains a satisfactory ship recognition performance.

  13. Development of pattern recognition algorithms for the central drift chamber of the Belle II detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusov, Viktor

    2016-11-04

    In this thesis, the development of one of the pattern recognition algorithms for the Belle II experiment based on conformal and Legendre transformations is presented. In order to optimize the performance of the algorithm (CPU time and efficiency) specialized processing steps have been introduced. To show achieved results, Monte-Carlo based efficiency measurements of the tracking algorithms in the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) has been done.

  14. RECOGNITION AND VERIFICATION OF TOUCHING HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Kryzak, A.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of financial document processing, recognition of touching handwritten numerals has been limited by lack of good benchmarking databases and low reliability of algorithms. This paper addresses the efforts toward solving the two problems. Two databases IRIS-Bell\\\\\\'98 and TNIST are

  15. Feature Fusion Algorithm for Multimodal Emotion Recognition from Speech and Facial Expression Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of single mode emotion recognition. This paper describes a novel multimodal emotion recognition algorithm, and takes speech signal and facial expression signal as the research subjects. First, fuse the speech signal feature and facial expression signal feature, get sample sets by putting back sampling, and then get classifiers by BP neural network (BPNN. Second, measure the difference between two classifiers by double error difference selection strategy. Finally, get the final recognition result by the majority voting rule. Experiments show the method improves the accuracy of emotion recognition by giving full play to the advantages of decision level fusion and feature level fusion, and makes the whole fusion process close to human emotion recognition more, with a recognition rate 90.4%.

  16. A New Fuzzy Cognitive Map Learning Algorithm for Speech Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting an appropriate recognition method is crucial in speech emotion recognition applications. However, the current methods do not consider the relationship between emotions. Thus, in this study, a speech emotion recognition system based on the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM approach is constructed. Moreover, a new FCM learning algorithm for speech emotion recognition is proposed. This algorithm includes the use of the pleasure-arousal-dominance emotion scale to calculate the weights between emotions and certain mathematical derivations to determine the network structure. The proposed algorithm can handle a large number of concepts, whereas a typical FCM can handle only relatively simple networks (maps. Different acoustic features, including fundamental speech features and a new spectral feature, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Three experiments are conducted in this paper, namely, single feature experiment, feature combination experiment, and comparison between the proposed algorithm and typical networks. All experiments are performed on TYUT2.0 and EMO-DB databases. Results of the feature combination experiments show that the recognition rates of the combination features are 10%–20% better than those of single features. The proposed FCM learning algorithm generates 5%–20% performance improvement compared with traditional classification networks.

  17. Iris Cryptography for Security Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Srighakollapu; Balaji Ganesh Kumar, M.; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world, the security became the major issue to every human being. A major issue is hacking as hackers are everywhere, as the technology was developed still there are many issues where the technology fails to meet the security. Engineers, scientists were discovering the new products for security purpose as biometrics sensors like face recognition, pattern recognition, gesture recognition, voice authentication etcetera. But these devices fail to reach the expected results. In this work, we are going to present an approach to generate a unique secure key using the iris template. Here the iris templates are processed using the well-defined processing techniques. Using the encryption and decryption process they are stored, traversed and utilized. As of the work, we can conclude that the iris cryptography gives us the expected results for securing the data from eavesdroppers.

  18. A Novel Generic Ball Recognition Algorithm Based on Omnidirectional Vision for Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is significant for the final goal of RoboCup to realize the recognition of generic balls for soccer robots. In this paper, a novel generic ball recognition algorithm based on omnidirectional vision is proposed by combining the modified Haar-like features and AdaBoost learning algorithm. The algorithm is divided into offline training and online recognition. During the phase of offline training, numerous sub-images are acquired from various panoramic images, including generic balls, and then the modified Haar-like features are extracted from them and used as the input of the AdaBoost learning algorithm to obtain a classifier. During the phase of online recognition, and according to the imaging characteristics of our omnidirectional vision system, rectangular windows are defined to search for the generic ball along the rotary and radial directions in the panoramic image, and the learned classifier is used to judge whether a ball is included in the window. After the ball has been recognized globally, ball tracking is realized by integrating a ball velocity estimation algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The experimental results show that good performance can be achieved using our algorithm, and that the generic ball can be recognized and tracked effectively.

  19. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  20. Clustering algorithms for Stokes space modulation format recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boada, Ricard; Borkowski, Robert; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    influences the performance of the detection process, particularly at low signal-to-noise ratios. This paper reports on an extensive study of six different clustering algorithms: k-means, expectation maximization, density-based DBSCAN and OPTICS, spectral clustering and maximum likelihood clustering, used...

  1. Hand based visual intent recognition algorithm for wheelchair motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luhandjula, T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for a visual human-machine interface that infers a person’s intention from the motion of the hand. Work in progress shows a proof of concept tested on static images. The context for which this solution is intended...

  2. Fuzzy Context- Free Languages. Part 2: Recognition and Parsing Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper \\cite{Asv:FCF1} we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for fuzzy context-free languages. In particular, this approach enables us to distinguish between small errors

  3. A Biometric Face Recognition System Using an Algorithm Based on the Principal Component Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gîlcă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a recognition system using an algorithm based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique. The recognition system consists only of a PC and an integrated video camera. The algorithm is developed in MATLAB language and calculates the eigenfaces considered as features of the face. The PCA technique is based on the matching between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors. The mathcing score between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors is calculated between their coefficient vectors. If the matching is high, we have the best recognition. The results of the algorithm based on the PCA technique are very good, even if the person looks from one side at the video camera.

  4. Sparse representation, modeling and learning in visual recognition theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This unique text/reference presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in sparse representations, modeling and learning. The book examines both the theoretical foundations and details of algorithm implementation, highlighting the practical application of compressed sensing research in visual recognition and computer vision. Topics and features: provides a thorough introduction to the fundamentals of sparse representation, modeling and learning, and the application of these techniques in visual recognition; describes sparse recovery approaches, robust and efficient sparse represen

  5. HWDA: A coherence recognition and resolution algorithm for hybrid web data aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuhang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Tong

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the object confliction recognition and resolution problem for hybrid distributed data stream aggregation, a distributed data stream object coherence solution technology is proposed. Firstly, the framework was defined for the object coherence conflict recognition and resolution, named HWDA. Secondly, an object coherence recognition technology was proposed based on formal language description logic and hierarchical dependency relationship between logic rules. Thirdly, a conflict traversal recognition algorithm was proposed based on the defined dependency graph. Next, the conflict resolution technology was prompted based on resolution pattern matching including the definition of the three types of conflict, conflict resolution matching pattern and arbitration resolution method. At last, the experiment use two kinds of web test data sets to validate the effect of application utilizing the conflict recognition and resolution technology of HWDA.

  6. Study on recognition algorithm for paper currency numbers based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Yuanyao; Zhang, Zhongchuan; Deng, Shichao

    2008-12-01

    Based on the unique characteristic, the paper currency numbers can be put into record and the automatic identification equipment for paper currency numbers is supplied to currency circulation market in order to provide convenience for financial sectors to trace the fiduciary circulation socially and provide effective supervision on paper currency. Simultaneously it is favorable for identifying forged notes, blacklisting the forged notes numbers and solving the major social problems, such as armor cash carrier robbery, money laundering. For the purpose of recognizing the paper currency numbers, a recognition algorithm based on neural network is presented in the paper. Number lines in original paper currency images can be draw out through image processing, such as image de-noising, skew correction, segmentation, and image normalization. According to the different characteristics between digits and letters in serial number, two kinds of classifiers are designed. With the characteristics of associative memory, optimization-compute and rapid convergence, the Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) is utilized to recognize the letters; with the characteristics of simple structure, quick learning and global optimum, the Radial-Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) is adopted to identify the digits. Then the final recognition results are obtained by combining the two kinds of recognition results in regular sequence. Through the simulation tests, it is confirmed by simulation results that the recognition algorithm of combination of two kinds of recognition methods has such advantages as high recognition rate and faster recognition simultaneously, which is worthy of broad application prospect.

  7. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  8. SU-F-T-20: Novel Catheter Lumen Recognition Algorithm for Rapid Digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dise, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Manual catheter recognition remains a time-consuming aspect of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning. In this work, a novel catheter lumen recognition algorithm was created for accurate and rapid digitization. Methods: MatLab v8.5 was used to create the catheter recognition algorithm. Initially, the algorithm searches the patient CT dataset using an intensity based k-means filter designed to locate catheters. Once the catheters have been located, seed points are manually selected to initialize digitization of each catheter. From each seed point, the algorithm searches locally in order to automatically digitize the remaining catheter. This digitization is accomplished by finding pixels with similar image curvature and divergence parameters compared to the seed pixel. Newly digitized pixels are treated as new seed positions, and hessian image analysis is used to direct the algorithm toward neighboring catheter pixels, and to make the algorithm insensitive to adjacent catheters that are unresolvable on CT, air pockets, and high Z artifacts. The algorithm was tested using 11 HDR treatment plans, including the Syed template, tandem and ovoid applicator, and multi-catheter lung brachytherapy. Digitization error was calculated by comparing manually determined catheter positions to those determined by the algorithm. Results: he digitization error was 0.23 mm ± 0.14 mm axially and 0.62 mm ± 0.13 mm longitudinally at the tip. The time of digitization, following initial seed placement was less than 1 second per catheter. The maximum total time required to digitize all tested applicators was 4 minutes (Syed template with 15 needles). Conclusion: This algorithm successfully digitizes HDR catheters for a variety of applicators with or without CT markers. The minimal axial error demonstrates the accuracy of the algorithm, and its insensitivity to image artifacts and challenging catheter positioning. Future work to automatically place initial seed

  9. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  10. A genetic algorithm approach to recognition and data mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punch, W.F.; Goodman, E.D.; Min, Pei [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We review here our use of genetic algorithm (GA) and genetic programming (GP) techniques to perform {open_quotes}data mining,{close_quotes} the discovery of particular/important data within large datasets, by finding optimal data classifications using known examples. Our first experiments concentrated on the use of a K-nearest neighbor algorithm in combination with a GA. The GA selected weights for each feature so as to optimize knn classification based on a linear combination of features. This combined GA-knn approach was successfully applied to both generated and real-world data. We later extended this work by substituting a GP for the GA. The GP-knn could not only optimize data classification via linear combinations of features but also determine functional relationships among the features. This allowed for improved performance and new information on important relationships among features. We review the effectiveness of the overall approach on examples from biology and compare the effectiveness of the GA and GP.

  11. Face recognition: database acquisition, hybrid algorithms, and human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Srinivas; Huang, Jeffrey R.; Singh, Dig; Wechsler, Harry

    1997-02-01

    One of the most important technologies absent in traditional and emerging frontiers of computing is the management of visual information. Faces are accessible `windows' into the mechanisms that govern our emotional and social lives. The corresponding face recognition tasks considered herein include: (1) Surveillance, (2) CBIR, and (3) CBIR subject to correct ID (`match') displaying specific facial landmarks such as wearing glasses. We developed robust matching (`classification') and retrieval schemes based on hybrid classifiers and showed their feasibility using the FERET database. The hybrid classifier architecture consist of an ensemble of connectionist networks--radial basis functions-- and decision trees. The specific characteristics of our hybrid architecture include (a) query by consensus as provided by ensembles of networks for coping with the inherent variability of the image formation and data acquisition process, and (b) flexible and adaptive thresholds as opposed to ad hoc and hard thresholds. Experimental results, proving the feasibility of our approach, yield (i) 96% accuracy, using cross validation (CV), for surveillance on a data base consisting of 904 images (ii) 97% accuracy for CBIR tasks, on a database of 1084 images, and (iii) 93% accuracy, using CV, for CBIR subject to correct ID match tasks on a data base of 200 images.

  12. A new simulation tool for testing smart home recognition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, K.; Ajroud, A.; Bouchard, B.; Bouzouane, A. [Chicoutimi Univ. du Quebec, Saguenay, PQ (Canada)

    2010-08-13

    Smart home technologies are being actively researched. However, many scientists studying this topic of research do not own smart home infrastructure, and therefore, are unable to conduct proper experiments in a concrete environment with real data. In order to address this problem and to help researchers working in the field of activity recognition, this paper presented a novel and flexible three-dimensional smart home infrastructure simulator called SIMACT developed in Java. The paper discussed the proposed simulator including the software architecture, implementation, and scripting. It also discussed the actual initiative to gather real data that would be incorporated in the simulator as real case pre-recorded scenarios. An overview of related work and future developments were also presented. It was concluded that SIMACT is a user-friendly three-dimensional animated simulator that offers a simple interface that could be easily adapted to individual needs and could become a very useful tool for the community with its XML scripting language, many options, customizable three-dimensional frame and its set of pre-defined real case scenarios. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Braking distance algorithm for autonomous cars using road surface recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Desai, Rohan; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    India is yet to accept semi/fully - autonomous cars and one of the reasons, was loss of control on bad roads. For a better handling on these roads we require advanced braking and that can be done by adapting electronics into the conventional type of braking. In Recent years, the automation in braking system led us to various benefits like traction control system, anti-lock braking system etc. This research work describes and experiments the method for recognizing road surface profile and calculating braking distance. An ultra-sonic surface recognition sensor, mounted underneath the car will send a high frequency wave on to the road surface, which is received by a receiver with in the sensor, it calculates the time taken for the wave to rebound and thus calculates the distance from the point where sensor is mounted. A displacement graph will be plotted based on the output of the sensor. A relationship can be derived between the displacement plot and roughness index through which the friction coefficient can be derived in Matlab for continuous calculation throughout the distance travelled. Since it is a non-contact type of profiling, it is non-destructive. The friction coefficient values received in real-time is used to calculate optimum braking distance. This system, when installed on normal cars can also be used to create a database of road surfaces, especially in cities, which can be shared with other cars. This will help in navigation as well as making the cars more efficient.

  14. Optimizing Fuzzy Rule Base for Illumination Compensation in Face Recognition using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bima Sena Bayu Dewantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy rule optimization is a challenging step in the development of a fuzzy model. A simple two inputs fuzzy model may have thousands of combination of fuzzy rules when it deals with large number of input variations. Intuitively and trial‐error determination of fuzzy rule is very difficult. This paper addresses the problem of optimizing Fuzzy rule using Genetic Algorithm to compensate illumination effect in face recognition. Since uneven illumination contributes negative effects to the performance of face recognition, those effects must be compensated. We have developed a novel algorithmbased on a reflectance model to compensate the effect of illumination for human face recognition. We build a pair of model from a single image and reason those modelsusing Fuzzy.Fuzzy rule, then, is optimized using Genetic Algorithm. This approachspendsless computation cost by still keepinga high performance. Based on the experimental result, we can show that our algorithm is feasiblefor recognizing desired person under variable lighting conditions with faster computation time. Keywords: Face recognition, harsh illumination, reflectance model, fuzzy, genetic algorithm

  15. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Neural Networks in Recognition of Maize Leaf Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neural networks have significance on recognition of crops disease diagnosis? but it has disadvantage of slow convergent speed and shortcoming of local optimum. In order to identify the maize leaf diseases by using machine vision more accurately, we propose an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for neural networks. With the algorithm, the neural network property is improved. It reasonably confirms threshold and connection weight of neural network, and improves capability of solving problems in the image recognition. At last, an example of the emulation shows that neural network model based on recognizes significantly better than without optimization. Model accuracy has been improved to a certain extent to meet the actual needs of maize leaf diseases recognition.

  16. FINGER KNUCKLE PRINT RECOGNITION WITH SIFT AND K-MEANS ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. Biometrics is a powerful and unique tool based on the anatomical and behavioral characteristics of the human beings in order to prove their authentication. This paper proposes a novel recognition methodology of biometrics named as Finger Knuckle print (FKP. Hence this paper has focused on the extraction of features of Finger knuckle print using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, and the key points are derived from FKP are clustered using K-Means Algorithm. The centroid of K-Means is stored in the database which is compared with the query FKP K-Means centroid value to prove the recognition and authentication. The comparison is based on the XOR operation. Hence this paper provides a novel recognition method to provide authentication. Results are performed on the PolyU FKP database to check the proposed FKP recognition method.

  17. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyi Qin

    Full Text Available A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What's more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously.

  18. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What's more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously.

  19. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Fierrez, J.; Li, S.Z.; Ross, A.; Veldhuis, R.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Bigun, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  20. A heart disease recognition embedded system with fuzzy cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helton Hugo; Moreno, Robson Luiz; Pimenta, Tales Cleber; Crepaldi, Paulo C; Cintra, Evaldo

    2013-06-01

    This article presents the viability analysis and the development of heart disease identification embedded system. It offers a time reduction on electrocardiogram - ECG signal processing by reducing the amount of data samples, without any significant loss. The goal of the developed system is the analysis of heart signals. The ECG signals are applied into the system that performs an initial filtering, and then uses a Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering algorithm for the signal classification and correlation. The classification indicated common heart diseases such as angina, myocardial infarction and coronary artery diseases. The system uses the European electrocardiogram ST-T Database (EDB) as a reference for tests and evaluation. The results prove the system can perform the heart disease detection on a data set reduced from 213 to just 20 samples, thus providing a reduction to just 9.4% of the original set, while maintaining the same effectiveness. This system is validated in a Xilinx Spartan(®)-3A FPGA. The field programmable gate array (FPGA) implemented a Xilinx Microblaze(®) Soft-Core Processor running at a 50MHz clock rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wheezing recognition algorithm using recordings of respiratory sounds at the mouth in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Plamen; Mahut, Bruno; Flaud, Patrice; Delclaux, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory diseases in children are a common reason for physician visits. A diagnostic difficulty arises when parents hear wheezing that is no longer present during the medical consultation. Thus, an outpatient objective tool for recognition of wheezing is of clinical value. We developed a wheezing recognition algorithm from recorded respiratory sounds with a Smartphone placed near the mouth. A total of 186 recordings were obtained in a pediatric emergency department, mostly in toddlers (mean age 20 months). After exclusion of recordings with artefacts and those with a single clinical operator auscultation, 95 recordings with the agreement of two operators on auscultation diagnosis (27 with wheezing and 68 without) were subjected to a two phase algorithm (signal analysis and pattern classifier using machine learning algorithms) to classify records. The best performance (71.4% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity) was observed with a Support Vector Machine-based algorithm. We further tested the algorithm over a set of 39 recordings having a single operator and found a fair agreement (kappa=0.28, CI95% [0.12, 0.45]) between the algorithm and the operator. The main advantage of such an algorithm is its use in contact-free sound recording, thus valuable in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  3. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  4. Locating An IRIS From Image Using Canny And Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition a relatively new biometric technology has great advantages such as variability stability and security thus it is the most promising for high security environments. The proposed system here is a simple system design and implemented to find the iris from the image using Hough Transform Algorithm. Canny Edge detector has been used to get edge image to use it as an input to the Hough Transform. To get the general idea of Hough Transform the Hough Transform for circle is also implemented. RGB value of 3-D accumulator array of peaks of inner circle and outer circle has been performed. And at the end some suggestions are made to improve the system and performance gets discussed.

  5. Face recognition accuracy of forensic examiners, superrecognizers, and face recognition algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P Jonathon; Yates, Amy N; Hu, Ying; Hahn, Carina A; Noyes, Eilidh; Jackson, Kelsey; Cavazos, Jacqueline G; Jeckeln, Géraldine; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sankaranarayanan, Swami; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Castillo, Carlos D; Chellappa, Rama; White, David; O'Toole, Alice J

    2018-05-29

    Achieving the upper limits of face identification accuracy in forensic applications can minimize errors that have profound social and personal consequences. Although forensic examiners identify faces in these applications, systematic tests of their accuracy are rare. How can we achieve the most accurate face identification: using people and/or machines working alone or in collaboration? In a comprehensive comparison of face identification by humans and computers, we found that forensic facial examiners, facial reviewers, and superrecognizers were more accurate than fingerprint examiners and students on a challenging face identification test. Individual performance on the test varied widely. On the same test, four deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), developed between 2015 and 2017, identified faces within the range of human accuracy. Accuracy of the algorithms increased steadily over time, with the most recent DCNN scoring above the median of the forensic facial examiners. Using crowd-sourcing methods, we fused the judgments of multiple forensic facial examiners by averaging their rating-based identity judgments. Accuracy was substantially better for fused judgments than for individuals working alone. Fusion also served to stabilize performance, boosting the scores of lower-performing individuals and decreasing variability. Single forensic facial examiners fused with the best algorithm were more accurate than the combination of two examiners. Therefore, collaboration among humans and between humans and machines offers tangible benefits to face identification accuracy in important applications. These results offer an evidence-based roadmap for achieving the most accurate face identification possible. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Iris melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Anica Bobić; Krnjaja, Bojana Dacić; Jaksić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Iris melanocytoma (IM) is a rare benign tumor, but unavoidable in differential diagnosis of pigmented iris lesions. According to the best knowledge of the authors it is for the first time in Serbia that a well-documented case of IM is presented and that the problem of this tumor is discussed. In the left eye of a 47-year-old white female at the iris in a six o'clock position, a highly pigmented, dome shaped lesion with a crater-like cavity in the center and with feathery margins was noticed. There were no signs of infiltration of surrounding tissue or intrinsic vessels and the lens was clear. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were normal. An ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) revealed a well-defined lesion with high internal reflectivity, with a base diameter of 1.25 mm and a thickness of 0.80 mm in the periphery, and 0.53 mm in the central part.The diagnosis of IM of the left eye was established and regular checkups were performed for ten years. No changes in clinical or UBM presentation were established. Awareness of clinical presentation of IM is most important for correct diagnosis. Ultrasound biomicroscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure in the following up of IM.

  7. Comparison of the effects of cylindrical correction with and without iris recognition technology in wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Lin, Yu-Huang; Chang, David C-K; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Wang, I-Jong

    2012-04-01

      To analyse the magnitude of cylindrical corrections over which cyclotorsion compensation with iris recognition (IR) technology is beneficial during wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.   A retrospectively comparative case series.   Fifty-four eyes that underwent wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis without IR (non-IR group) and 53 eyes that underwent wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis with IR (IR group) were recruited.   Subgroup analysis based on baseline astigmatism were: a low degree of astigmatism (≥1.00 D to <2.00 D), a moderate degree of astigmatism (≥2.00 D to <3.00 D) and a high degree of astigmatism (≥3.00 D).   Vector and non-vector analyses were used for comparison.   The mean cylinder was -1.89 ± 0.76 D in the non-IR group and -2.00 ± 0.77 D in the IR group. Postoperatively, 38 eyes (74.50%) in the IR group and 31 eyes (57.50%) in the non-IR group were within ± 0.50 D of the target induced astigmatism vector (P = 0.063). The difference vector was 0.49 ± 0.28 in the IR group and 0.63 ± 0.40 in the non-IR group (P = 0.031). In the analysis of subgroups, the magnitude of error was significantly lower in the moderate IR subgroup than that of the moderate non-IR subgroup (P = 0.034). Furthermore, the moderate IR subgroup had a lower mean difference vector (P = 0.0078) and a greater surgically induced astigmatism (P = 0.036) than those of the moderate non-IR group.   Wavefront laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis for the treatment of astigmatism using IR technology was effective and accurate for the treatment of myopic astigmatism. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Pattern recognition algorithms for data mining scalability, knowledge discovery and soft granular computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sankar K

    2004-01-01

    Pattern Recognition Algorithms for Data Mining addresses different pattern recognition (PR) tasks in a unified framework with both theoretical and experimental results. Tasks covered include data condensation, feature selection, case generation, clustering/classification, and rule generation and evaluation. This volume presents various theories, methodologies, and algorithms, using both classical approaches and hybrid paradigms. The authors emphasize large datasets with overlapping, intractable, or nonlinear boundary classes, and datasets that demonstrate granular computing in soft frameworks.Organized into eight chapters, the book begins with an introduction to PR, data mining, and knowledge discovery concepts. The authors analyze the tasks of multi-scale data condensation and dimensionality reduction, then explore the problem of learning with support vector machine (SVM). They conclude by highlighting the significance of granular computing for different mining tasks in a soft paradigm.

  9. Currency recognition using a smartphone: Comparison between color SIFT and gray scale SIFT algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Abu Doush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Banknote recognition means classifying the currency (coin and paper to the correct class. In this paper, we developed a dataset for Jordanian currency. After that we applied automatic mobile recognition system using a smartphone on the dataset using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT algorithm. This is the first attempt, to the best of the authors knowledge, to recognize both coins and paper banknotes on a smartphone using SIFT algorithm. SIFT has been developed to be the most robust and efficient local invariant feature descriptor. Color provides significant information and important values in the object description process and matching tasks. Many objects cannot be classified correctly without their color features. We compared between two approaches colored local invariant feature descriptor (color SIFT approach and gray image local invariant feature descriptor (gray SIFT approach. The evaluation results show that the color SIFT approach outperforms the gray SIFT approach in terms of processing time and accuracy.

  10. Target Matching Recognition for Satellite Images Based on the Improved FREAK Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing image target matching recognition exhibits poor robustness and accuracy because of the unfit feature extractor and large data quantity. To address this problem, we propose a new feature extraction algorithm for fast target matching recognition that comprises an improved feature from accelerated segment test (FAST feature detector and a binary fast retina key point (FREAK feature descriptor. To improve robustness, we extend the FAST feature detector by applying scale space theory and then transform the feature vector acquired by the FREAK descriptor from decimal into binary. We reduce the quantity of data in the computer and improve matching accuracy by using the binary space. Simulation test results show that our algorithm outperforms other relevant methods in terms of robustness and accuracy.

  11. Feature Set Fusion for Spoof Iris Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. L. Suvarchala

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is considered as one of the most promising noninvasive biometric systems providing automated human identification. Numerous programs, like unique ID program in India - Aadhar, include iris biometric to provide distinctive identity identification to citizens. The active area is usually captured under non ideal imaging conditions. It usually suffers from poor brightness, low contrast, blur due to camera or subject's relative movement and eyelid eyelash occlusions. Besides the technical challenges, iris recognition started facing sophisticated threats like spoof attacks. Therefore it is vital that the integrity of such large scale iris deployments must be preserved. This paper presents the development of a new spoof resistant approach which exploits the statistical dependencies of both general eye and localized iris regions in textural domain using spatial gray level dependence matrix (SGLDM, gray level run length matrix (GLRLM and contourlets in transform domain. We did experiments on publicly available fake and lens iris image databases. Correct classification rate obtained with ATVS-FIr iris database is 100% while it is 95.63% and 88.83% with IITD spoof iris databases respectively.

  12. [A wavelet neural network algorithm of EEG signals data compression and spikes recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, A; Yu, K

    1999-06-01

    A novel method of EEG signals compression representation and epileptiform spikes recognition based on wavelet neural network and its algorithm is presented. The wavelet network not only can compress data effectively but also can recover original signal. In addition, the characters of the spikes and the spike-slow rhythm are auto-detected from the time-frequency isoline of EEG signal. This method is well worth using in the field of the electrophysiological signal processing and time-frequency analyzing.

  13. 2D-3D Face Recognition Method Basedon a Modified CCA-PCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kamencay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed methodology for face recognition based on an information theory approach to coding and decoding face images. In this paper, we propose a 2D-3D face-matching method based on a principal component analysis (PCA algorithm using canonical correlation analysis (CCA to learn the mapping between a 2D face image and 3D face data. This method makes it possible to match a 2D face image with enrolled 3D face data. Our proposed fusion algorithm is based on the PCA method, which is applied to extract base features. PCA feature-level fusion requires the extraction of different features from the source data before features are merged together. Experimental results on the TEXAS face image database have shown that the classification and recognition results based on the modified CCA-PCA method are superior to those based on the CCA method. Testing the 2D-3D face match results gave a recognition rate for the CCA method of a quite poor 55% while the modified CCA method based on PCA-level fusion achieved a very good recognition score of 85%.

  14. A Robust and Efficient Algorithm for Tool Recognition and Localization for Space Station Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a robust target recognition and localization method for a maintenance robot in a space station, and its main goal is to solve the target affine transformation caused by microgravity and the strong reflection and refraction of sunlight and lamplight in the cabin, as well as the occlusion of other objects. In this method, an Affine Scale Invariant Feature Transform (Affine-SIFT algorithm is proposed to extract enough local feature points with a fully affine invariant, and the stable matching point is obtained from the above point for target recognition by the selected Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm. Then, in order to localize the target, the effective and appropriate 3D grasping scope of the target is defined, and we determine and evaluate the grasping precision with the estimated affine transformation parameters presented in this paper. Finally, the threshold of RANSAC is optimized to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of target recognition and localization, and the scopes of illumination, vision distance and viewpoint angle for robot are evaluated to obtain effective image data by Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE. An experimental system to simulate the illumination environment in a space station is established. Enough experiments have been carried out, and the experimental results show both the validity of the proposed definition of the grasping scope and the feasibility of the proposed recognition and localization method.

  15. Eyelid Localization for Iris Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.

  16. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  17. Computational Recognition of RNA Splice Sites by Exact Algorithms for the Quadratic Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fischer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental problem of bioinformatics is the computational recognition of DNA and RNA binding sites. Given a set of short DNA or RNA sequences of equal length such as transcription factor binding sites or RNA splice sites, the task is to learn a pattern from this set that allows the recognition of similar sites in another set of DNA or RNA sequences. Permuted Markov (PM models and permuted variable length Markov (PVLM models are two powerful models for this task, but the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model is NP-hard. While the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order one is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem (TSP, the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order two is equivalent to the quadratic TSP (QTSP. Several exact algorithms exist for solving the QTSP, but it is unclear if these algorithms are capable of solving QTSP instances resulting from RNA splice sites of at least 150 base pairs in a reasonable time frame. Here, we investigate the performance of three exact algorithms for solving the QTSP for ten datasets of splice acceptor sites and splice donor sites of five different species and find that one of these algorithms is capable of solving QTSP instances of up to 200 base pairs with a running time of less than two days.

  18. Application of image recognition algorithms for statistical description of nano- and microstructured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chiţescu, I. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, 14 Academiei Street, Bucharest (Romania); Barna, V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B., E-mail: mitub@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.

  19. Application of image recognition algorithms for statistical description of nano- and microstructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G.; Chiţescu, I.; Barna, V.; Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.

  20. Perancangan Program Aplikasi Deteksi Iris Mata untuk Absensi Karyawan Menggunakan Metode Gabor Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To take the employees’ absences in a company, a variety of invented tools or technologies are and already used, for example, attendance cards, fingerprints attendance tool, and attendance tool that uses facial recognition. Attendance tool with a facial recognition uses iris recognition of those employees. Iris code has many properties that hard to forge. Thus, the detection and iris recognition is one of the most secure and accurate for identification. 

  1. Sub-OBB based object recognition and localization algorithm using range images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Dinh-Cuong; Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Thanh-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to recognize and estimate pose of the 3D objects in cluttered range images. The key technical breakthrough of the developed approach can enable robust object recognition and localization under undesirable condition such as environmental illumination variation as well as optical occlusion to viewing the object partially. First, the acquired point clouds are segmented into individual object point clouds based on the developed 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects. Second, an efficient shape-matching algorithm called Sub-OBB based object recognition by using the proposed oriented bounding box (OBB) regional area-based descriptor is performed to reliably recognize the object. Then, the 3D position and orientation of the object can be roughly estimated by aligning the OBB of segmented object point cloud with OBB of matched point cloud in a database generated from CAD model and 3D virtual camera. To detect accurate pose of the object, the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is used to match the object model with the segmented point clouds. From the feasibility test of several scenarios, the developed approach is verified to be feasible for object pose recognition and localization. (paper)

  2. Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam

    2011-07-01

    Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.

  3. A novel deep learning algorithm for incomplete face recognition: Low-rank-recovery network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Lv, Yongbiao; Zhou, Zhenghua; Cao, Feilong

    2017-10-01

    There have been a lot of methods to address the recognition of complete face images. However, in real applications, the images to be recognized are usually incomplete, and it is more difficult to realize such a recognition. In this paper, a novel convolution neural network frame, named a low-rank-recovery network (LRRNet), is proposed to conquer the difficulty effectively inspired by matrix completion and deep learning techniques. The proposed LRRNet first recovers the incomplete face images via an approach of matrix completion with the truncated nuclear norm regularization solution, and then extracts some low-rank parts of the recovered images as the filters. With these filters, some important features are obtained by means of the binaryzation and histogram algorithms. Finally, these features are classified with the classical support vector machines (SVMs). The proposed LRRNet method has high face recognition rate for the heavily corrupted images, especially for the images in the large databases. The proposed LRRNet performs well and efficiently for the images with heavily corrupted, especially in the case of large databases. Extensive experiments on several benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed LRRNet performs better than some other excellent robust face recognition methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-05-21

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  5. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Thomas Mickala Bourobou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  7. Behavioral features recognition and oestrus detection based on fast approximate clustering algorithm in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuyang; Cao, Dong; Dong, Xiaoning; Zhao, Xinqiang; Li, Fade; Wang, Zhonghua

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral features recognition was an important effect to detect oestrus and sickness in dairy herds and there is a need for heat detection aid. The detection method was based on the measure of the individual behavioural activity, standing time, and temperature of dairy using vibrational sensor and temperature sensor in this paper. The data of behavioural activity index, standing time, lying time and walking time were sent to computer by lower power consumption wireless communication system. The fast approximate K-means algorithm (FAKM) was proposed to deal the data of the sensor for behavioral features recognition. As a result of technical progress in monitoring cows using computers, automatic oestrus detection has become possible.

  8. Improving Pattern Recognition and Neural Network Algorithms with Applications to Solar Panel Energy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora Ramos, Ernesto

    Artificial Intelligence is a big part of automation and with today's technological advances, artificial intelligence has taken great strides towards positioning itself as the technology of the future to control, enhance and perfect automation. Computer vision includes pattern recognition and classification and machine learning. Computer vision is at the core of decision making and it is a vast and fruitful branch of artificial intelligence. In this work, we expose novel algorithms and techniques built upon existing technologies to improve pattern recognition and neural network training, initially motivated by a multidisciplinary effort to build a robot that helps maintain and optimize solar panel energy production. Our contributions detail an improved non-linear pre-processing technique to enhance poorly illuminated images based on modifications to the standard histogram equalization for an image. While the original motivation was to improve nocturnal navigation, the results have applications in surveillance, search and rescue, medical imaging enhancing, and many others. We created a vision system for precise camera distance positioning motivated to correctly locate the robot for capture of solar panel images for classification. The classification algorithm marks solar panels as clean or dirty for later processing. Our algorithm extends past image classification and, based on historical and experimental data, it identifies the optimal moment in which to perform maintenance on marked solar panels as to minimize the energy and profit loss. In order to improve upon the classification algorithm, we delved into feedforward neural networks because of their recent advancements, proven universal approximation and classification capabilities, and excellent recognition rates. We explore state-of-the-art neural network training techniques offering pointers and insights, culminating on the implementation of a complete library with support for modern deep learning architectures

  9. A novel feature ranking algorithm for biometric recognition with PPG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reşit Kavsaoğlu, A; Polat, Kemal; Recep Bozkurt, M

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended for describing the application of the Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal and the time domain features acquired from its first and second derivatives for biometric identification. For this purpose, a sum of 40 features has been extracted and a feature-ranking algorithm is proposed. This proposed algorithm calculates the contribution of each feature to biometric recognition and collocates the features, the contribution of which is from great to small. While identifying the contribution of the features, the Euclidean distance and absolute distance formulas are used. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by the results of the k-NN (k-nearest neighbor) classifier applications of the features. During application, each 15-period-PPG signal belonging to two different durations from each of the thirty healthy subjects were used with a PPG data acquisition card. The first PPG signals recorded from the subjects were evaluated as the 1st configuration; the PPG signals recorded later at a different time as the 2nd configuration and the combination of both were evaluated as the 3rd configuration. When the results were evaluated for the k-NN classifier model created along with the proposed algorithm, an identification of 90.44% for the 1st configuration, 94.44% for the 2nd configuration, and 87.22% for the 3rd configuration has successfully been attained. The obtained results showed that both the proposed algorithm and the biometric identification model based on this developed PPG signal are very promising for contactless recognizing the people with the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A unified classifier for robust face recognition based on combining multiple subspace algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz Bajwa, Usama; Ahmad Taj, Imtiaz; Waqas Anwar, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    Face recognition being the fastest growing biometric technology has expanded manifold in the last few years. Various new algorithms and commercial systems have been proposed and developed. However, none of the proposed or developed algorithm is a complete solution because it may work very well on one set of images with say illumination changes but may not work properly on another set of image variations like expression variations. This study is motivated by the fact that any single classifier cannot claim to show generally better performance against all facial image variations. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve generality, combining several classifiers using various strategies has been studied extensively also incorporating the question of suitability of any classifier for this task. The study is based on the outcome of a comprehensive comparative analysis conducted on a combination of six subspace extraction algorithms and four distance metrics on three facial databases. The analysis leads to the selection of the most suitable classifiers which performs better on one task or the other. These classifiers are then combined together onto an ensemble classifier by two different strategies of weighted sum and re-ranking. The results of the ensemble classifier show that these strategies can be effectively used to construct a single classifier that can successfully handle varying facial image conditions of illumination, aging and facial expressions.

  11. Algorithm of Syntactic Idioms Recognition in the Text: Attempt of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytar Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention of national and foreign researchers was focused so far on structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms. Automatic analysis of these peculiar units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology still was not carried out in the scientific literature. This issue requires a theoretical understanding and practical implementation. Purpose: To create an algorithm of recognition of syntactic idioms with one- or two-term core component in the corpus of texts. Results: Based on the results of previous theoretical studies we highlighted a number of formal and statistical criteria that enable to distinguish syntactic idioms from other language units in the corpus of Ukrainian-language texts. The author developed a block diagram of syntactic idioms recognition, incorporating two branches constructed accordingly for the sentences with one-term and sentences with two-term core component. The first branch is based on the presence of word repeats (full words concurrence or presence of other word forms of the word and the list of core components determined on previous stages of the study (є, це, то, не, так; як; з/із/зі, між, над, серед; а, але, зате, однак, проте. The second branch was created for another type of syntactic idioms – one with a two-term core component. It takes into account the following properties of the analyzed units: the presence of combinations of service parts of speech, service parts of speech with pronoun or adverb, pronoun and adverb; compliance of words combinations with the register of the syntactic idioms core components currently comprising 92 structures; association measure of mutual information ≥9, etc. Discussion: Offered algorithm enables automatic identification of syntactic idioms in the corpus of texts and removal of contexts of their use, it can be used to improve the procedure of automatic text processing and creation of automated translation

  12. Theoretical Aspects of the Patterns Recognition Statistical Theory Used for Developing the Diagnosis Algorithms for Complicated Technical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozov, A. A.; Serpik, I. N.; Mihalchenko, G. S.; Fedyaeva, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the problem of application of the pattern recognition (a relatively young area of engineering cybernetics) for analysis of complicated technical systems is examined. It is shown that the application of a statistical approach for hard distinguishable situations could be the most effective. The different recognition algorithms are based on Bayes approach, which estimates posteriori probabilities of a certain event and an assumed error. Application of the statistical approach to pattern recognition is possible for solving the problem of technical diagnosis complicated systems and particularly big powered marine diesel engines.

  13. Fuel spill identification by gas chromatography -- genetic algorithms/pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, B.K.; Moores, A.J.; Faruque, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gas chromatography and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of 256 gas chromatograms of neat jet fuels. 31 fuels that have undergone weathering in a subsurface environment were correctly identified by type using discriminants developed from the gas chromatograms of the neat jet fuels. Coalescing poorly resolved peaks, which occurred during preprocessing, diminished the resolution and hence information content of the GC profiles. Nevertheless a genetic algorithm was able to extract enough information from these profiles to correctly classify the chromatograms of weathered fuels. This suggests that cheaper and simpler GC instruments ca be used to type jet fuels

  14. An Investigation of a New Social Networks Contact Suggestion Based on Face Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated comparison of faces in the photographs is a well established discipline. The main aim of this paper is to describe an approach whereby face recognition can be used in suggestion of a new contacts. The new contact suggestion is a common technique used across all main social networks. Our approach uses a freely available face comparison called "Betaface" together with our automated processig of the user´s Facebook profile. The research´s main point of interest is the comparison of friend´s facial images in a social network itself, how to process such a great amount of photos and what additional sources of data should be used. In this approach we used our automated processing algorithm Betaface in the social network Facebook and for the additional data, the Flickr social network was used. The results and their quality are discussed at the end.

  15. The IRIS user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Howells, W.; Telling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The principles of operation of the IRIS instrument based on inelastic neutron scattering and diffraction are described. The procedure of an experiment performance on IRIS consists of selecting sample cans, loading the sample into the neutron beam. Instructions for using the beam line shutter interlock system, IRIS computing procedure, suitable instrument settings and chopper control are included

  16. A True-Color Sensor and Suitable Evaluation Algorithm for Plant Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittmann, Oliver; Schulze Lammers, Peter

    2017-08-08

    Plant-specific herbicide application requires sensor systems for plant recognition and differentiation. A literature review reveals a lack of sensor systems capable of recognizing small weeds in early stages of development (in the two- or four-leaf stage) and crop plants, of making spraying decisions in real time and, in addition, are that are inexpensive and ready for practical use in sprayers. The system described in this work is based on free cascadable and programmable true-color sensors for real-time recognition and identification of individual weed and crop plants. The application of this type of sensor is suitable for municipal areas and farmland with and without crops to perform the site-specific application of herbicides. Initially, databases with reflection properties of plants, natural and artificial backgrounds were created. Crop and weed plants should be recognized by the use of mathematical algorithms and decision models based on these data. They include the characteristic color spectrum, as well as the reflectance characteristics of unvegetated areas and areas with organic material. The CIE-Lab color-space was chosen for color matching because it contains information not only about coloration (a- and b-channel), but also about luminance (L-channel), thus increasing accuracy. Four different decision making algorithms based on different parameters are explained: (i) color similarity (ΔE); (ii) color similarity split in ΔL, Δa and Δb; (iii) a virtual channel 'd' and (iv) statistical distribution of the differences of reflection backgrounds and plants. Afterwards, the detection success of the recognition system is described. Furthermore, the minimum weed/plant coverage of the measuring spot was calculated by a mathematical model. Plants with a size of 1-5% of the spot can be recognized, and weeds in the two-leaf stage can be identified with a measuring spot size of 5 cm. By choosing a decision model previously, the detection quality can be increased

  17. Iris Segmentation using Gradient Magnitude and Fourier Descriptor for Multimodal Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defiana Sulaeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.

  18. Application of affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance for transformer PD pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B. G.; Huo, K. X.; Yao, Z. F.; Lou, J.; Li, X. Y.

    2018-03-01

    It is one of the difficult problems encountered in the research of condition maintenance technology of transformers to recognize partial discharge (PD) pattern. According to the main physical characteristics of PD, three models of oil-paper insulation defects were set up in laboratory to study the PD of transformers, and phase resolved partial discharge (PRPD) was constructed. By using least square method, the grey-scale images of PRPD were constructed and features of each grey-scale image were 28 box dimensions and 28 information dimensions. Affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance (AP-MD) for transformers PD pattern recognition was established, and the data of box dimension and information dimension were clustered based on AP-MD. Study shows that clustering result of AP-MD is better than the results of affinity propagation (AP), k-means and fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). By choosing different k values of k-nearest neighbor, we find clustering accuracy of AP-MD falls when k value is larger or smaller, and the optimal k value depends on sample size.

  19. Development of pattern recognition algorithms for particles detection from atmospheric images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatchadourian, S.

    2010-01-01

    The HESS experiment consists of a system of telescopes destined to observe cosmic rays. Since the project has achieved a high level of performances, a second phase of the project has been initiated. This implies the addition of a new telescope which is more sensitive than its predecessors and which is capable of collecting a huge amount of images. In this context, all data collected by the telescope can not be retained because of storage limitations. Therefore, a new real-time system trigger must be designed in order to select interesting events on the fly. The purpose of this thesis was to propose a trigger solution to efficiently discriminate events (images) which are captured by the telescope. The first part of this thesis was to develop pattern recognition algorithms to be implemented within the trigger. A processing chain based on neural networks and Zernike moments has been validated. The second part of the thesis has focused on the implementation of the proposed algorithms onto an FPGA target, taking into account the application constraints in terms of resources and execution time. (author)

  20. Iris-based medical analysis by geometric deformation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Zhang, D; Li, Naimin; Cai, Yan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanguan

    2013-01-01

    Iris analysis studies the relationship between human health and changes in the anatomy of the iris. Apart from the fact that iris recognition focuses on modeling the overall structure of the iris, iris diagnosis emphasizes the detecting and analyzing of local variations in the characteristics of irises. This paper focuses on studying the geometrical structure changes in irises that are caused by gastrointestinal diseases, and on measuring the observable deformations in the geometrical structures of irises that are related to roundness, diameter and other geometric forms of the pupil and the collarette. Pupil and collarette based features are defined and extracted. A series of experiments are implemented on our experimental pathological iris database, including manual clustering of both normal and pathological iris images, manual classification by non-specialists, manual classification by individuals with a medical background, classification ability verification for the proposed features, and disease recognition by applying the proposed features. The results prove the effectiveness and clinical diagnostic significance of the proposed features and a reliable recognition performance for automatic disease diagnosis. Our research results offer a novel systematic perspective for iridology studies and promote the progress of both theoretical and practical work in iris diagnosis.

  1. HyspIRI Low Latency Concept and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Topics include HyspIRI low latency data ops concept, HyspIRI data flow, ongoing efforts, experiment with Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) approach to injecting new algorithms into SensorWeb, low fidelity HyspIRI IPM testbed, compute cloud testbed, open cloud testbed environment, Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF) and OCC collaboration with Starlight, delay tolerant network (DTN) protocol benchmarking, and EO-1 configuration for preliminary DTN prototype.

  2. Implementation of a Tour Guide Robot System Using RFID Technology and Viterbi Algorithm-Based HMM for Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng-Sheng Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied speech recognition and RFID technologies to develop an omni-directional mobile robot into a robot with voice control and guide introduction functions. For speech recognition, the speech signals were captured by short-time processing. The speaker first recorded the isolated words for the robot to create speech database of specific speakers. After the speech pre-processing of this speech database, the feature parameters of cepstrum and delta-cepstrum were obtained using linear predictive coefficient (LPC. Then, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM was used for model training of the speech database, and the Viterbi algorithm was used to find an optimal state sequence as the reference sample for speech recognition. The trained reference model was put into the industrial computer on the robot platform, and the user entered the isolated words to be tested. After processing by the same reference model and comparing with previous reference model, the path of the maximum total probability in various models found using the Viterbi algorithm in the recognition was the recognition result. Finally, the speech recognition and RFID systems were achieved in an actual environment to prove its feasibility and stability, and implemented into the omni-directional mobile robot.

  3. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  4. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  5. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  6. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  7. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  8. Fast parallel ring recognition algorithm in the RICH detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM)experiment at the future FAIR facility at Darmstadt will measure dileptons emitted from the hot and dense phase in heavy ion collisions. In case of an electron measurement, a high purity of identified electrons is required in order to suppress the background. Electron identification in CBM will be performed by a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector and Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). Very fast data reconstruction is extremely important for CBM because of the huge amount of data which has to be handled. In this contribution, a parallelized ring recognition algorithm is presented. Modern CPUs have two features, which enable parallel programming. First, the SSE technology allows using the SIMD execution model. Second, multicore CPUs enable the use of multithreading. Both features have been implemented in the ring reconstruction of the RICH detector. A considerable speedup factor from 357 to 2.5 ms/event has been achieved including preceding code optimization for Intel Xeon X5550 processors at 2.67 GHz

  9. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  10. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will

  11. THE COMPARISON OF ALGORITHMS OF RECOGNITION OF IMAGES HOPFILD’S NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Illarionovna Pavlova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of artificial neural networks (ANN in recognition of the cottages, is in their functioning like a human brain. The paper deals with image recognition neuron Hopfield’s networks, a comparative analysis of the recognition images by a projection’s method and the Hebb’s rule. For these purposes, was developed program with C# in Microsoft Visual Studio 2012. In this article to recognition for images with different levels of distortion were used. The analysis of results of recognition of images has shown that the method of projections allows to restore strongly distorted images (level of distortions up to 25–30 percent

  12. IRIS Licensing Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Charles L.; Carelli, Mario D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant is well into the pre-application review process with the US NRC and has accomplished its first near term goal of obtaining US NRC feedback on the long term testing program. To date, the IRIS team has submitted to the US NRC a number of documents patterned after the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) outlined in Regulatory Guide 1,203. They have covered a detailed description of IRIS, initial safety analysis results, PIRT development for limiting transients, scaling analysis and a description of the test program. The IRIS Safety-by-Desing TM intrinsically eliminates and/or significantly reduces the consequences of traditional LWR accidents. In addition, the fewer passive safety systems are similar in principle to those of the US NRC approved AP1000 design. For these reasons, the IRIS testing program only needs to include those features unique to the IRIS design. NRC feedback was that the planned test program appeared to be complete and could generate sufficient information to support a Design Certification (DC) submittal. The US NRC has also stated that a DC application must include complete information regarding the test program. On this basis the IRIS team has initiated an aggressive program to conduct IRIS testing to support a DC submittal by the end of 2008. Subsequent US NRC review should be expeditious because of the AP1000 precedent, allowing IRIS to obtain its Final Design Approval (FDA) in 2012; thereby, maintaining its goal of deployment in the 2015-2017 time frame. The next steps in the pre-application review process will be to provide the US NRC with a road map of the anticipated IRIS licensing process, a review of current licensing requirements showing that IRIS meets or exceeds all current criteria and information to support the long term goal of redefining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ)

  13. Automated Detection of Selective Logging in Amazon Forests Using Airborne Lidar Data and Pattern Recognition Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.; d'Oliveira, M. N.; Takemura, C. M.; Vitoria, D.; Araujo, L. S.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Selective logging, the removal of several valuable timber trees per hectare, is an important land use in the Brazilian Amazon and may degrade forests through long term changes in structure, loss of forest carbon and species diversity. Similar to deforestation, the annual area affected by selected logging has declined significantly in the past decade. Nonetheless, this land use affects several thousand km2 per year in Brazil. We studied a 1000 ha area of the Antimary State Forest (FEA) in the State of Acre, Brazil (9.304 ○S, 68.281 ○W) that has a basal area of 22.5 m2 ha-1 and an above-ground biomass of 231 Mg ha-1. Logging intensity was low, approximately 10 to 15 m3 ha-1. We collected small-footprint airborne lidar data using an Optech ALTM 3100EA over the study area once each in 2010 and 2011. The study area contained both recent and older logging that used both conventional and technologically advanced logging techniques. Lidar return density averaged over 20 m-2 for both collection periods with estimated horizontal and vertical precision of 0.30 and 0.15 m. A relative density model comparing returns from 0 to 1 m elevation to returns in 1-5 m elevation range revealed the pattern of roads and skid trails. These patterns were confirmed by ground-based GPS survey. A GIS model of the road and skid network was built using lidar and ground data. We tested and compared two pattern recognition approaches used to automate logging detection. Both segmentation using commercial eCognition segmentation and a Frangi filter algorithm identified the road and skid trail network compared to the GIS model. We report on the effectiveness of these two techniques.

  14. Using of FPGA coprocessor for improving the execution speed of the pattern recognition algorithm for ATLAS - high energy physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkelbein, C; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Miiller, M

    2004-01-01

    Pattern recognition algorithms are used in experimental High Energy physics for getting parameters (features) of particles tracks in detectors. It is particularly important to have fast algorithms in trigger system. This paper investigates the suitability of using FPGA coprocessor for speedup of the TRT-LUT algorithm - one of the feature extraction algorithms for second level trigger for ATLAS experiment (CERN). Two realization of the same algorithm have been compared: C++ realization tested on a computer equipped with dual Xeon 2.4 GHz CPU, 64-bit, 66MHz PCI bus, 1024Mb DDR RAM main memories with Red Hat Linux 7.1 and hybrid C++ - VHDL realisation tested on same PC equipped in addition by MPRACE board (FPGA-Coprocessor board based on Xilinx Virtex-II FPGA and made as 64-bit, 66 MHz PCI card developed at the University of Mannheim). Usage of the FPGA coprocessor can give some reasonable speedup in contrast to general purpose processor only for those algorithms (or parts of algorithms), for which there is a po...

  15. New baseline correction algorithm for text-line recognition with bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillot, Olivier; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence; Grosicki, Emmanuèle

    2013-04-01

    Many preprocessing techniques have been proposed for isolated word recognition. However, recently, recognition systems have dealt with text blocks and their compound text lines. In this paper, we propose a new preprocessing approach to efficiently correct baseline skew and fluctuations. Our approach is based on a sliding window within which the vertical position of the baseline is estimated. Segmentation of text lines into subparts is, thus, avoided. Experiments conducted on a large publicly available database (Rimes), with a BLSTM (bidirectional long short-term memory) recurrent neural network recognition system, show that our baseline correction approach highly improves performance.

  16. ICRPfinder: a fast pattern design algorithm for coding sequences and its application in finding potential restriction enzyme recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Phillip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction enzymes can produce easily definable segments from DNA sequences by using a variety of cut patterns. There are, however, no software tools that can aid in gene building -- that is, modifying wild-type DNA sequences to express the same wild-type amino acid sequences but with enhanced codons, specific cut sites, unique post-translational modifications, and other engineered-in components for recombinant applications. A fast DNA pattern design algorithm, ICRPfinder, is provided in this paper and applied to find or create potential recognition sites in target coding sequences. Results ICRPfinder is applied to find or create restriction enzyme recognition sites by introducing silent mutations. The algorithm is shown capable of mapping existing cut-sites but importantly it also can generate specified new unique cut-sites within a specified region that are guaranteed not to be present elsewhere in the DNA sequence. Conclusion ICRPfinder is a powerful tool for finding or creating specific DNA patterns in a given target coding sequence. ICRPfinder finds or creates patterns, which can include restriction enzyme recognition sites, without changing the translated protein sequence. ICRPfinder is a browser-based JavaScript application and it can run on any platform, in on-line or off-line mode.

  17. Unsupervised detection of non-iris occlusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2015), s. 60-65 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Iris recognition * Color * Markov random field * Texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0444723.pdf

  18. [Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Z

    2007-04-01

    In the year 2005, Chang and Cambell described unusual reaction of the iris during the cataract surgery in patients treated with tamsulosine. This was named as IFIS, an acronym for the Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome. In its advanced stage, the syndrome is characterized by insufficient mydfiasis before the surgery, narrowing of the pupil during the surgery, its impossible dilatation during the surgery by means of stretching, unusual elasticity of the pupilar margin, surging and fluttering iris with tendency to prolapse. The same manifestations we observed in our patients and we confirm the direct connection with tamsulosine hydrochloride treatment. Tamsulosine is the antagonist of alpha 1A adrenergic receptors whose are present, except in the smooth musculature of the prostate gland and the urinary bladder, in the iris dilator as well. At the same time we observed this syndrome rarely in some patients not using tamsulosine. In most cases, these patients were treated with antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Noisy Ocular Recognition Based on Three Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Beom Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the iris recognition system has been gaining increasing acceptance for applications such as access control and smartphone security. When the images of the iris are obtained under unconstrained conditions, an issue of undermined quality is caused by optical and motion blur, off-angle view (the user’s eyes looking somewhere else, not into the front of the camera, specular reflection (SR and other factors. Such noisy iris images increase intra-individual variations and, as a result, reduce the accuracy of iris recognition. A typical iris recognition system requires a near-infrared (NIR illuminator along with an NIR camera, which are larger and more expensive than fingerprint recognition equipment. Hence, many studies have proposed methods of using iris images captured by a visible light camera without the need for an additional illuminator. In this research, we propose a new recognition method for noisy iris and ocular images by using one iris and two periocular regions, based on three convolutional neural networks (CNNs. Experiments were conducted by using the noisy iris challenge evaluation-part II (NICE.II training dataset (selected from the university of Beira iris (UBIRIS.v2 database, mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE database, and institute of automation of Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA-Iris-Distance database. As a result, the method proposed by this study outperformed previous methods.

  20. Noisy Ocular Recognition Based on Three Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Beom; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-12-17

    In recent years, the iris recognition system has been gaining increasing acceptance for applications such as access control and smartphone security. When the images of the iris are obtained under unconstrained conditions, an issue of undermined quality is caused by optical and motion blur, off-angle view (the user's eyes looking somewhere else, not into the front of the camera), specular reflection (SR) and other factors. Such noisy iris images increase intra-individual variations and, as a result, reduce the accuracy of iris recognition. A typical iris recognition system requires a near-infrared (NIR) illuminator along with an NIR camera, which are larger and more expensive than fingerprint recognition equipment. Hence, many studies have proposed methods of using iris images captured by a visible light camera without the need for an additional illuminator. In this research, we propose a new recognition method for noisy iris and ocular images by using one iris and two periocular regions, based on three convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Experiments were conducted by using the noisy iris challenge evaluation-part II (NICE.II) training dataset (selected from the university of Beira iris (UBIRIS).v2 database), mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE) database, and institute of automation of Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA)-Iris-Distance database. As a result, the method proposed by this study outperformed previous methods.

  1. Automated Field-of-View, Illumination, and Recognition Algorithm Design of a Vision System for Pick-and-Place Considering Colour Information in Illumination and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibing; Ogata, Taiki; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Toshiyuki; Ota, Jun

    2018-05-22

    Machine vision is playing an increasingly important role in industrial applications, and the automated design of image recognition systems has been a subject of intense research. This study has proposed a system for automatically designing the field-of-view (FOV) of a camera, the illumination strength and the parameters in a recognition algorithm. We formulated the design problem as an optimisation problem and used an experiment based on a hierarchical algorithm to solve it. The evaluation experiments using translucent plastics objects showed that the use of the proposed system resulted in an effective solution with a wide FOV, recognition of all objects and 0.32 mm and 0.4° maximal positional and angular errors when all the RGB (red, green and blue) for illumination and R channel image for recognition were used. Though all the RGB illumination and grey scale images also provided recognition of all the objects, only a narrow FOV was selected. Moreover, full recognition was not achieved by using only G illumination and a grey-scale image. The results showed that the proposed method can automatically design the FOV, illumination and parameters in the recognition algorithm and that tuning all the RGB illumination is desirable even when single-channel or grey-scale images are used for recognition.

  2. A Proposed Algorithm for Improved Recognition and Treatment of the Depression/Anxiety Spectrum in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C.; Davidson, Jonathan R. T.; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety has held 7 meetings over the last 3 years that focused on depression and specific anxiety disorders. During the course of the meeting series, a number of common themes have developed. At the last meeting of the Consensus Group, we reviewed these areas of commonality across the spectrum of depression and anxiety disorders. With the aim of improving the recognition and management of depression and anxiety in the primary care setting, we developed an algorithm that is presented in this article. We attempted to balance currently available scientific knowledge about the treatment of these disorders and to reformat it to provide an acceptable algorithm that meets the practical aspects of recognizing and treating these disorders in primary care. PMID:15014615

  3. Heterogeneous iris image hallucination using sparse representation on a learned heterogeneous patch dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.

  4. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Greenlee, H.; James, C.; Jostlein, H.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A.; Moore, C.D.; Palamara, O.; Pavlovic, Z.; Raaf, J.L.; Schukraft, A.; Snider, E.L.; Spentzouris, P.; Strauss, T.; Toups, M.; Wolbers, S.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Adams, C. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); An, R.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A. [Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, IL (United States); Anthony, J.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; De Vries, J.J.; Marshall, J.; Smith, A.; Thomson, M. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Asaadi, J. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Sinclair, J.; Weber, M. [Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Balasubramanian, S.; Fleming, B.T.; Gramellini, E.; Hackenburg, A.; Luo, X.; Russell, B.; Tufanli, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Barnes, C.; Mousseau, J.; Spitz, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Del Tutto, M.; Laube, A.; Soleti, S.R.; De Pontseele, W.V. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bay, F. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, Ankara (Turkey); Bishai, M.; Chen, H.; Joshi, J.; Kirby, B.; Li, Y.; Mooney, M.; Qian, X.; Viren, B.; Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blake, A.; Devitt, D.; Lister, A.; Nowak, J. [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Meddage, V.; Rafique, A. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Fadeeva, A.A.; Genty, V.; Kaleko, D.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M.H. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Church, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cianci, D.; Karagiorgi, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Cohen, E.; Piasetzky, E. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Hen, O.; Hourlier, A.; Moon, J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yates, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M.; Eberly, B.; Rochester, L.; Tsai, Y.T.; Usher, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dytman, S.; Graf, N.; Jiang, L.; Naples, D.; Paolone, V.; Wickremasinghe, D.A. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Esquivel, J.; Hamilton, P.; Pulliam, G.; Soderberg, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Foreman, W.; Ho, J.; Schmitz, D.W.; Zennamo, J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States); Furmanski, A.P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Murrells, R.; Porzio, D.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Szelc, A.M. [The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garvey, G.T.; Huang, E.C.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; De Water, R.G.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gollapinni, S. [Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, KS (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); and others

    2018-01-15

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies. (orig.)

  5. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    The development and operation of liquid-argon time-projection chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the current pattern-recognition performance are presented for simulated MicroBooNE events, using a selection of final-state event topologies.

  6. A Novel Algorithm for Feature Level Fusion Using SVM Classifier for Multibiometrics-Based Person Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwalla Gawande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent times witnessed many advancements in the field of biometric and ultimodal biometric fields. This is typically observed in the area, of security, privacy, and forensics. Even for the best of unimodal biometric systems, it is often not possible to achieve a higher recognition rate. Multimodal biometric systems overcome various limitations of unimodal biometric systems, such as nonuniversality, lower false acceptance, and higher genuine acceptance rates. More reliable recognition performance is achievable as multiple pieces of evidence of the same identity are available. The work presented in this paper is focused on multimodal biometric system using fingerprint and iris. Distinct textual features of the iris and fingerprint are extracted using the Haar wavelet-based technique. A novel feature level fusion algorithm is developed to combine these unimodal features using the Mahalanobis distance technique. A support-vector-machine-based learning algorithm is used to train the system using the feature extracted. The performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and compared with other algorithms using the CASIA iris database and real fingerprint database. From the simulation results, it is evident that our algorithm has higher recognition rate and very less false rejection rate compared to existing approaches.

  7. On the Use of Evolutionary Algorithms to Improve the Robustness of Continuous Speech Recognition Systems in Adverse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid-Ahmed Selouani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Limiting the decrease in performance due to acoustic environment changes remains a major challenge for continuous speech recognition (CSR systems. We propose a novel approach which combines the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT in the mel-frequency domain with a genetic algorithm (GA to enhance the data representing corrupted speech. The idea consists of projecting noisy speech parameters onto the space generated by the genetically optimized principal axis issued from the KLT. The enhanced parameters increase the recognition rate for highly interfering noise environments. The proposed hybrid technique, when included in the front-end of an HTK-based CSR system, outperforms that of the conventional recognition process in severe interfering car noise environments for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs varying from 16 dB to −4 dB. We also showed the effectiveness of the KLT-GA method in recognizing speech subject to telephone channel degradations.

  8. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  9. Primary iris leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaney, Gabrielle A; Platt, Sean; Singh, Arun D

    Intraocular leiomyomas are uncommon and usually occur in the ciliary body. Primary leiomyoma of the iris is both rare and a difficult diagnosis to make, given melanocytic tumors are more common and may be amelanotic. The somewhat controversial diagnosis of iris leiomyoma requires further confirmation by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Herein, we describe a 58-year-old man with a 2-mm round translucent pink lesion of the iris. The tumor was excised by sector iridectomy. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for both smooth muscle actin and desmin and negativity for S-100, HMB45, SOX10, MelanA, CD31, CD34, and h-caldesmon. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor was excluded by chromogenic in situ hybridization-Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic myofilaments with focal fusiform densities and micropinocytotic vesicles. Our review of previous literature confirmed the unusual nature of this tumor. Primary iris leiomyoma should be considered in the differential of an amelanotic S-100-immunonegative iris tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Iris - nimi marmortahvlilt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Briti kirjanikust Iris Murdochist pajatava inglise-ameerika mängufilmist "Iris" eesti videolevisse jõudmise puhul. Võrreldakse inglise teatrilavastaja Richard Eyre filmidebüüti Elmo Nüganeni debüütfilmiga "Nimed marmortahvlil"

  11. Vehicle recognition and tracking using a generic multi-sensor and multi-algorithm fusion approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nashashibi , Fawzi; Khammari , Ayoub; Laurgeau , Claude

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper tackles the problem of improving the robustness of vehicle detection for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) applications. Our approach is based on a multisensor and a multialgorithms data fusion for vehicle detection and recognition. Our architecture combines two sensors: a frontal camera and a laser scanner. The improvement of the robustness stems from two aspects. First, we addressed the vision-based detection by developing an original approach based on fine gr...

  12. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atul Bansal

    1 Department of Electronics and Communication, G.L.A. University, 17-km stone, NH#2, Delhi-Mathura Road, .... Based upon these range of values, a decision is taken about the ...... triplet half-band filter bank and flexible k-out-of-n: A post.

  13. Iris reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, D.V.; Carelli, M.D.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Todreas, N.E.; Greenspan, E.; Yamamoto, K.; Nagano, A.; Ninokata, H.; Robertson, J.; Oriolo, F.

    2001-01-01

    The development progress of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear power system is presented. IRIS is currently being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. It is aimed at achieving the four major objectives of the Generation IV nuclear systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness and reduced waste. The project first year activities, which are summarized here, were focused on core neutronics, in-vessel configuration, steam generator and containment design, safety approach and economic performance. Details of these studies are provided in parallel papers in these proceedings. (author)

  14. The Pandora multi-algorithm approach to automated pattern recognition of cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; An, R.; Anthony, J.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, C.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Castillo Fernandez, R.; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cohen, E.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero Sanchez, L.; Esquivel, J.; Fadeeva, A. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Hourlier, A.; Huang, E.-C.; James, C.; Jan de Vries, J.; Jen, C.-M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Piasetzky, E.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; Rudolf von Rohr, C.; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van De Pontseele, W.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Yates, L.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The development and operation of Liquid-Argon Time-Projection Chambers for neutrino physics has created a need for new approaches to pattern recognition in order to fully exploit the imaging capabilities offered by this technology. Whereas the human brain can excel at identifying features in the recorded events, it is a significant challenge to develop an automated, algorithmic solution. The Pandora Software Development Kit provides functionality to aid the design and implementation of pattern-recognition algorithms. It promotes the use of a multi-algorithm approach to pattern recognition, in which individual algorithms each address a specific task in a particular topology. Many tens of algorithms then carefully build up a picture of the event and, together, provide a robust automated pattern-recognition solution. This paper describes details of the chain of over one hundred Pandora algorithms and tools used to reconstruct cosmic-ray muon and neutrino events in the MicroBooNE detector. Metrics that assess the...

  15. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.

  16. Similarity-First Search : A New Algorithm With Application to Robinsonian Matrix Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Monique; Seminaroti, Matteo

    We present a new ecient combinatorial algorithm for recognizing if a given symmetric matrix is Robinsonian, i.e., if its rows and columns can be simultane- ously reordered so that entries are monotone nondecreasing in rows and columns when moving toward the diagonal. As main ingredient we introduce

  17. Similarity-First Search: a new algorithm with application to Robinsonian matrix recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); M. Seminaroti (Matteo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present a new efficient combinatorial algorithm for recognizing if a given symmetric matrix is Robinsonian, i.e., if its rows and columns can be simultaneously reordered so that entries are monotone nondecreasing in rows and columns when moving toward the diagonal. As main ingredient

  18. Similarity-first search : A new algorithm with application to Robinsonian matrix recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Monique; Seminaroti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We present a new efficient combinatorial algorithm for recognizing if a given symmetric matrix is Robinsonian, i.e., if its rows and columns can be simultaneously reordered so that entries are monotone nondecreasing in rows and columns when moving toward the diagonal. As the main ingredient we

  19. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 2: Recognition and parsing algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a companion paper [P.R.J. Asveld, Fuzzy context-free languages---Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars, Theoret. Comp. Sci. (2005)] we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for

  20. Multi-source feature extraction and target recognition in wireless sensor networks based on adaptive distributed wavelet compression algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    Proposed distributed wavelet-based algorithms are a means to compress sensor data received at the nodes forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) by exchanging information between neighboring sensor nodes. Local collaboration among nodes compacts the measurements, yielding a reduced fused set with equivalent information at far fewer nodes. Nodes may be equipped with multiple sensor types, each capable of sensing distinct phenomena: thermal, humidity, chemical, voltage, or image signals with low or no frequency content as well as audio, seismic or video signals within defined frequency ranges. Compression of the multi-source data through wavelet-based methods, distributed at active nodes, reduces downstream processing and storage requirements along the paths to sink nodes; it also enables noise suppression and more energy-efficient query routing within the WSN. Targets are first detected by the multiple sensors; then wavelet compression and data fusion are applied to the target returns, followed by feature extraction from the reduced data; feature data are input to target recognition/classification routines; targets are tracked during their sojourns through the area monitored by the WSN. Algorithms to perform these tasks are implemented in a distributed manner, based on a partition of the WSN into clusters of nodes. In this work, a scheme of collaborative processing is applied for hierarchical data aggregation and decorrelation, based on the sensor data itself and any redundant information, enabled by a distributed, in-cluster wavelet transform with lifting that allows multiple levels of resolution. The wavelet-based compression algorithm significantly decreases RF bandwidth and other resource use in target processing tasks. Following wavelet compression, features are extracted. The objective of feature extraction is to maximize the probabilities of correct target classification based on multi-source sensor measurements, while minimizing the resource expenditures at

  1. Development and Comparative Study of Effects of Training Algorithms on Performance of Artificial Neural Network Based Analog and Digital Automatic Modulation Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Julius Popoola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two new classifiers that automatically recognise twelve combined analog and digital modulated signals without any a priori knowledge of the modulation schemes and the modulation parameters. The classifiers are developed using pattern recognition approach. Feature keys extracted from the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous phase and the spectrum symmetry of the simulated signals are used as inputs to the artificial neural network employed in developing the classifiers. The two developed classifiers are trained using scaled conjugate gradient (SCG and conjugate gradient (CONJGRAD training algorithms. Sample results of the two classifiers show good success recognition performance with an average overall recognition rate above 99.50% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR value from 0 dB and above with the two training algorithms employed and an average overall recognition rate slightly above 99.00% and 96.40% respectively at - 5 dB SNR value for SCG and CONJGRAD training algorithms. The comparative performance evaluation of the two developed classifiers using the two training algorithms shows that the two training algorithms have different effects on both the response rate and efficiency of the two developed artificial neural networks classifiers. In addition, the result of the performance evaluation carried out on the overall success recognition rates between the two developed classifiers in this study using pattern recognition approach with the two training algorithms and one reported classifier in surveyed literature using decision-theoretic approach shows that the classifiers developed in this study perform favourably with regard to accuracy and performance probability as compared to classifier presented in previous study.

  2. IRIS Simplified LERF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Kumagai, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is its safety-by-designTM philosophy and within this framework the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. The most ambitious risk-related goal for IRIS is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. As a first step, a model has been developed to provide a first order approximation of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) as a surrogate predictor of the off-site doses. A key-aspect of the LERF model development is the characterization of the possible paths of release. Four main categories have been historically pointed out: (1) Core Damage (CD ) sequences with containment bypass, (2) CD sequences with containment isolation failure, (3) CD sequences with containment failure at low pressure and (4) CD sequences with containment failure at high pressure. They have been reevaluated to account for the IRIS design features

  3. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  4. New perspectives in face correlation: discrimination enhancement in face recognition based on iterative algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report a brief review on the recent developments of correlation algorithms. Several implementation schemes and specific applications proposed in recent years are also given to illustrate powerful applications of these methods. Following a discussion and comparison of the implementation of these schemes, we believe that all-numerical implementation is the most practical choice for application of the correlation method because the advantages of optical processing cannot compensate the technical and/or financial cost needed for an optical implementation platform. We also present a simple iterative algorithm to optimize the training images of composite correlation filters. By making use of three or four iterations, the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) value of correlation plane can be significantly enhanced. A simulation test using the Pointing Head Pose Image Database (PHPID) illustrates the effectiveness of this statement. Our method can be applied in many composite filters based on linear composition of training images as an optimization means.

  5. International Roughness Index (IRI) measurement using Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Wang, Ming L.

    2018-03-01

    International Roughness Index (IRI) is an important metric to measure condition of roadways. This index is usually used to justify the maintenance priority and scheduling for roadways. Various inspection methods and algorithms are used to assess this index through the use of road profiles. This study proposes to calculate IRI values using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) algorithm. In particular, road profile data is provided using surface radar attached to a vehicle driving at highway speed. Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is used in this study because of its superior properties for nonstationary and nonlinear data. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) processes the raw data into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), representing various dominating frequencies. These various frequencies represent noises from the body of the vehicle, sensor location, and the excitation induced by nature frequency of the vehicle, etc. IRI calculation can be achieved by eliminating noises that are not associated with the road profile including vehicle inertia effect. The resulting IRI values are compared favorably to the field IRI values, where the filtered IMFs captures the most characteristics of road profile while eliminating noises from the vehicle and the vehicle inertia effect. Therefore, HHT is an effect method for road profile analysis and for IRI measurement. Furthermore, the application of HHT method has the potential to eliminate the use of accelerometers attached to the vehicle as part of the displacement measurement used to offset the inertia effect.

  6. An Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithm for Environment Recognition and Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that require clear and easily recognizable images in the field of underwater robotics and marine science, such as underwater target detection and identification of robot navigation and obstacle avoidance. However, water turbidity makes the underwater image quality too low to recognize. This paper proposes the use of the dark channel prior model for underwater environment recognition, in which underwater reflection models are used to obtain enhanced images. The proposed approach achieves very good performance and multi-scene robustness by combining the dark channel prior model with the underwater diffuse model. The experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the dark channel prior model in underwater scenarios.

  7. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-03-01

    To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support.

  8. A Generalized Dynamic Composition Algorithm of Weighted Finite State Transducers for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Octavian; Dines, John; Magimai.-Doss, Mathew

    2006-01-01

    We propose a generalized dynamic composition algorithm of weighted finite state transducers (WFST), which avoids the creation of non-coaccessible paths, performs weight look-ahead and does not impose any constraints to the topology of the WFSTs. Experimental results on Wall Street Journal (WSJ1) 20k-word trigram task show that at 17\\% WER (moderately-wide beam width), the decoding time of the proposed approach is about 48\\% and 65\\% of the other two dynamic composition approaches. In comparis...

  9. Cosmetic Detection Framework for Face and Iris Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.

  10. Efficient iris texture analysis method based on Gabor ordinal measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2017-07-01

    With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.

  11. Study of the vocal signal in the amplitude-time representation. Speech segmentation and recognition algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Marc

    1978-01-01

    This dissertation exposes an acoustical and phonetical study of vocal signal. The complex pattern of the signal is segmented into simple sub-patterns and each one of these sub-patterns may be segmented again into another more simplest patterns with lower level. Application of pattern recognition techniques facilitates on one hand this segmentation and on the other hand the definition of the structural relations between the sub-patterns. Particularly, we have developed syntactic techniques in which the rewriting rules, context-sensitive, are controlled by predicates using parameters evaluated on the sub-patterns themselves. This allow to generalize a pure syntactic analysis by adding a semantic information. The system we expose, realizes pre-classification and a partial identification of the phonemes as also the accurate detection of each pitch period. The voice signal is analysed directly using the amplitude-time representation. This system has been implemented on a mini-computer and it works in the real time. (author) [fr

  12. Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2012-12-01

    Unique features and the underlining hypotheses of how these features may relate to the tumor physiology in coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced. The images were first compressed with wavelet transform. The mean Radon transform of photoacoustic images was then computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of a suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process. Twenty-four features were extracted from a training set by several methods, including Fourier transform, image statistics, and different composite filters. The features were chosen from more than 400 training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train three classifiers, including generalized linear model, neural network, and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM achieved the best training performance and was able to exclusively separate cancerous from non-cancerous cases with 100% sensitivity and specificity. At the end, the classifiers were used to test 95 new images obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved 76.92% sensitivity and 95.12% specificity. Furthermore, if we assume that recognizing one image as a cancer is sufficient to consider an ovary as malignant, the SVM classifier achieves 100% sensitivity and 87.88% specificity.

  13. Gesture Recognition from Data Streams of Human Motion Sensor Using Accelerated PSO Swarm Search Feature Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human motion sensing technology gains tremendous popularity nowadays with practical applications such as video surveillance for security, hand signing, and smart-home and gaming. These applications capture human motions in real-time from video sensors, the data patterns are nonstationary and ever changing. While the hardware technology of such motion sensing devices as well as their data collection process become relatively mature, the computational challenge lies in the real-time analysis of these live feeds. In this paper we argue that traditional data mining methods run short of accurately analyzing the human activity patterns from the sensor data stream. The shortcoming is due to the algorithmic design which is not adaptive to the dynamic changes in the dynamic gesture motions. The successor of these algorithms which is known as data stream mining is evaluated versus traditional data mining, through a case of gesture recognition over motion data by using Microsoft Kinect sensors. Three different subjects were asked to read three comic strips and to tell the stories in front of the sensor. The data stream contains coordinates of articulation points and various positions of the parts of the human body corresponding to the actions that the user performs. In particular, a novel technique of feature selection using swarm search and accelerated PSO is proposed for enabling fast preprocessing for inducing an improved classification model in real-time. Superior result is shown in the experiment that runs on this empirical data stream. The contribution of this paper is on a comparative study between using traditional and data stream mining algorithms and incorporation of the novel improved feature selection technique with a scenario where different gesture patterns are to be recognized from streaming sensor data.

  14. Iris reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E.; Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E.; Cinotti, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  15. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  16. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  17. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  18. Investigation on the applicability of Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm to boiling detection by neutron-noise at a swimming-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Spiekerman, G.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1984-11-01

    The neutron noise signal of an initiation-of-boiling experiment performed at the SAPHIR reactor has been analyzed by the PSD-pattern recognition algorithm of Piety (1977); the results indicate that the onset of boiling can be detected by this method. Improved confidence statements for the statistical decision discriminants are given. (Auth.)

  19. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...

  20. IRiS: construction of ARG networks at genomic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Melé, Marta; Utro, Filippo; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Calafell, Francesc; Parida, Laxmi

    2011-09-01

    Given a set of extant haplotypes IRiS first detects high confidence recombination events in their shared genealogy. Next using the local sequence topology defined by each detected event, it integrates these recombinations into an ancestral recombination graph. While the current system has been calibrated for human population data, it is easily extendible to other species as well. IRiS (Identification of Recombinations in Sequences) binary files are available for non-commercial use in both Linux and Microsoft Windows, 32 and 64 bit environments from https://researcher.ibm.com/researcher/view_project.php?id = 2303 parida@us.ibm.com.

  1. A Comparison Study of Classifier Algorithms for Cross-Person Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Saez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is widely known to be one of the key elements of a healthy life. The many benefits of physical activity described in the medical literature include weight loss and reductions in the risk factors for chronic diseases. With the recent advances in wearable devices, such as smartwatches or physical activity wristbands, motion tracking sensors are becoming pervasive, which has led to an impressive growth in the amount of physical activity data available and an increasing interest in recognizing which specific activity a user is performing. Moreover, big data and machine learning are now cross-fertilizing each other in an approach called “deep learning”, which consists of massive artificial neural networks able to detect complicated patterns from enormous amounts of input data to learn classification models. This work compares various state-of-the-art classification techniques for automatic cross-person activity recognition under different scenarios that vary widely in how much information is available for analysis. We have incorporated deep learning by using Google’s TensorFlow framework. The data used in this study were acquired from PAMAP2 (Physical Activity Monitoring in the Ageing Population, a publicly available dataset containing physical activity data. To perform cross-person prediction, we used the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO cross-validation technique. When working with large training sets, the best classifiers obtain very high average accuracies (e.g., 96% using extra randomized trees. However, when the data volume is drastically reduced (where available data are only 0.001% of the continuous data, deep neural networks performed the best, achieving 60% in overall prediction accuracy. We found that even when working with only approximately 22.67% of the full dataset, we can statistically obtain the same results as when working with the full dataset. This finding enables the design of more energy-efficient devices and

  2. A Comparison Study of Classifier Algorithms for Cross-Person Physical Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Yago; Baldominos, Alejandro; Isasi, Pedro

    2016-12-30

    Physical activity is widely known to be one of the key elements of a healthy life. The many benefits of physical activity described in the medical literature include weight loss and reductions in the risk factors for chronic diseases. With the recent advances in wearable devices, such as smartwatches or physical activity wristbands, motion tracking sensors are becoming pervasive, which has led to an impressive growth in the amount of physical activity data available and an increasing interest in recognizing which specific activity a user is performing. Moreover, big data and machine learning are now cross-fertilizing each other in an approach called "deep learning", which consists of massive artificial neural networks able to detect complicated patterns from enormous amounts of input data to learn classification models. This work compares various state-of-the-art classification techniques for automatic cross-person activity recognition under different scenarios that vary widely in how much information is available for analysis. We have incorporated deep learning by using Google's TensorFlow framework. The data used in this study were acquired from PAMAP2 (Physical Activity Monitoring in the Ageing Population), a publicly available dataset containing physical activity data. To perform cross-person prediction, we used the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) cross-validation technique. When working with large training sets, the best classifiers obtain very high average accuracies (e.g., 96% using extra randomized trees). However, when the data volume is drastically reduced (where available data are only 0.001% of the continuous data), deep neural networks performed the best, achieving 60% in overall prediction accuracy. We found that even when working with only approximately 22.67% of the full dataset, we can statistically obtain the same results as when working with the full dataset. This finding enables the design of more energy-efficient devices and facilitates cold

  3. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  4. IRIS-economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It

  5. Implementation and preliminary evaluation of 'C-tone': A novel algorithm to improve lexical tone recognition in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Wang, Ningyuan; Tang, Guofang; Lu, Thomas; Yin, Li; Tu, Wenhe; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system. Subjects were given 2 weeks of experience with C-tone. Recognition of Chinese tones, monosyllables, and disyllables in quiet was measured with and without the C-tone algorithm. Subjective quality ratings were also obtained for C-tone. After 2 weeks of experience with C-tone, there were small but significant improvements in recognition of lexical tones, monosyllables, and disyllables (P C-tone were greater for disyllables than for monosyllables. Subjective quality ratings showed no strong preference for or against C-tone, except for perception of own voice, where C-tone was preferred. The real-time C-tone algorithm provided small but significant improvements for speech performance in quiet with no change in sound quality. Pre-processing algorithms to reduce noise and better real-time F0 extraction would improve the benefits of C-tone in complex listening environments. Chinese CI users' speech recognition in quiet can be significantly improved by modifying the amplitude contour to better resemble the F0 contour.

  6. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  7. The IRIS user-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the first version of the IRIS User-Guide. IRIS is continually evolving and improving and so some of the information contained within this manual will become out of date quite quickly. The basics behind the operation of IRIS, however, should remain essentially constant for the foreseeable future. Updated manuals will be produced when appropriate although it should always be remembered that the most up-to-date sources of information concerning IRIS are the instrument scientist and the local contacts for the experiments. It would be appreciated, however, if this user-guide were to be the first point of call. (author)

  8. MEL-IRIS: An Online Tool for Audio Analysis and Music Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Margounakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chroma is an important attribute of music and sound, although it has not yet been adequately defined in literature. As such, it can be used for further analysis of sound, resulting in interesting colorful representations that can be used in many tasks: indexing, classification, and retrieval. Especially in Music Information Retrieval (MIR, the visualization of the chromatic analysis can be used for comparison, pattern recognition, melodic sequence prediction, and color-based searching. MEL-IRIS is the tool which has been developed in order to analyze audio files and characterize music based on chroma. The tool implements specially designed algorithms and a unique way of visualization of the results. The tool is network-oriented and can be installed in audio servers, in order to manipulate large music collections. Several samples from world music have been tested and processed, in order to demonstrate the possible uses of such an analysis.

  9. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.

  10. Design of a Code-Maker Translator Assistive Input Device with a Contest Fuzzy Recognition Algorithm for the Severely Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an assistive system for the severe physical disabilities, named “code-maker translator assistive input device” which utilizes a contest fuzzy recognition algorithm and Morse codes encoding to provide the keyboard and mouse functions for users to access a standard personal computer, smartphone, and tablet PC. This assistive input device has seven features that are small size, easy installing, modular design, simple maintenance, functionality, very flexible input interface selection, and scalability of system functions, when this device combined with the computer applications software or APP programs. The users with severe physical disabilities can use this device to operate the various functions of computer, smartphone, and tablet PCs, such as sending e-mail, Internet browsing, playing games, and controlling home appliances. A patient with a brain artery malformation participated in this study. The analysis result showed that the subject could make himself familiar with operating of the long/short tone of Morse code in one month. In the future, we hope this system can help more people in need.

  11. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  12. The Economics of IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.; Paramonov, D.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals a single module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as and when the circumstances are right

  13. Iterative Redeployment of Illumination and Sensing (IRIS): Application to STW-SAR Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marble, Jay; Raich, Raviv; Hero, Alfred O

    2006-01-01

    .... The IRIS algorithm has the following features: (1) use of a sparse Bayesian image model that captures the free-space dominated propagation characteristics of interiors of man-made structures such as caves and residences; (2...

  14. Measuring Biometric Sample Quality in terms of Biometric Feature Information in Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Youmaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.

  15. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  16. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...

  17. Constructing New Biorthogonal Wavelet Type which Matched for Extracting the Iris Image Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnanto, R Rizal; Suhardjo; Susanto, Adhi

    2013-01-01

    Some former research have been made for obtaining a new type of wavelet. In case of iris recognition using orthogonal or biorthogonal wavelets, it had been obtained that Haar filter is most suitable to recognize the iris image. However, designing the new wavelet should be done to find a most matched wavelet to extract the iris image features, for which we can easily apply it for identification, recognition, or authentication purposes. In this research, a new biorthogonal wavelet was designed based on Haar filter properties and Haar's orthogonality conditions. As result, it can be obtained a new biorthogonal 5/7 filter type wavelet which has a better than other types of wavelets, including Haar, to extract the iris image features based on its mean-squared error (MSE) and Euclidean distance parameters.

  18. The UBIRIS.v2: a database of visible wavelength iris images captured on-the-move and at-a-distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Filipe, Sílvio; Santos, Ricardo; Oliveira, João; Alexandre, Luís A

    2010-08-01

    The iris is regarded as one of the most useful traits for biometric recognition and the dissemination of nationwide iris-based recognition systems is imminent. However, currently deployed systems rely on heavy imaging constraints to capture near infrared images with enough quality. Also, all of the publicly available iris image databases contain data correspondent to such imaging constraints and therefore are exclusively suitable to evaluate methods thought to operate on these type of environments. The main purpose of this paper is to announce the availability of the UBIRIS.v2 database, a multisession iris images database which singularly contains data captured in the visible wavelength, at-a-distance (between four and eight meters) and on on-the-move. This database is freely available for researchers concerned about visible wavelength iris recognition and will be useful in accessing the feasibility and specifying the constraints of this type of biometric recognition.

  19. A User-Adaptive Algorithm for Activity Recognition Based on K-Means Clustering, Local Outlier Factor, and Multivariate Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile activity recognition is significant to the development of human-centric pervasive applications including elderly care, personalized recommendations, etc. Nevertheless, the distribution of inertial sensor data can be influenced to a great extent by varying users. This means that the performance of an activity recognition classifier trained by one user’s dataset will degenerate when transferred to others. In this study, we focus on building a personalized classifier to detect four categories of human activities: light intensity activity, moderate intensity activity, vigorous intensity activity, and fall. In order to solve the problem caused by different distributions of inertial sensor signals, a user-adaptive algorithm based on K-Means clustering, local outlier factor (LOF, and multivariate Gaussian distribution (MGD is proposed. To automatically cluster and annotate a specific user’s activity data, an improved K-Means algorithm with a novel initialization method is designed. By quantifying the samples’ informative degree in a labeled individual dataset, the most profitable samples can be selected for activity recognition model adaption. Through experiments, we conclude that our proposed models can adapt to new users with good recognition performance.

  20. A Novel Edge-Map Creation Approach for Highly Accurate Pupil Localization in Unconstrained Infrared Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris segmentation in the iris recognition systems is a challenging task under noncooperative environments. The iris segmentation is a process of detecting the pupil, iris’s outer boundary, and eyelids in the iris image. In this paper, we propose a pupil localization method for locating the pupils in the non-close-up and frontal-view iris images that are captured under near-infrared (NIR illuminations and contain the noise, such as specular and lighting reflection spots, eyeglasses, nonuniform illumination, low contrast, and occlusions by the eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrow hair. In the proposed method, first, a novel edge-map is created from the iris image, which is based on combining the conventional thresholding and edge detection based segmentation techniques, and then, the general circular Hough transform (CHT is used to find the pupil circle parameters in the edge-map. Our main contribution in this research is a novel edge-map creation technique, which reduces the false edges drastically in the edge-map of the iris image and makes the pupil localization in the noisy NIR images more accurate, fast, robust, and simple. The proposed method was tested with three iris databases: CASIA-Iris-Thousand (version 4.0, CASIA-Iris-Lamp (version 3.0, and MMU (version 2.0. The average accuracy of the proposed method is 99.72% and average time cost per image is 0.727 sec.

  1. Micropropagation of Iris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevremović, Slađana; Jeknić, Zoran; Subotić, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    Irises are perennial plants widely used as ornamental garden plants or cut flowers. Some species accumulate secondary metabolites, making them highly valuable to the pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Micropropagation of irises has successfully been accomplished by culturing zygotic embryos, different flower parts, and leaf base tissues as starting explants. Plantlets are regenerated via somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, or both processes at the same time depending on media composition and plant species. A large number of uniform plants are produced by somatic embryogenesis, however, some species have decreased morphogenetic potential overtime. Shoot cultures obtained by organogenesis can be multiplied for many years. Somatic embryogenic tissue can be reestablished from leaf bases of in vitro-grown shoots. The highest number of plants can be obtained by cell suspension cultures. This chapter describes effective in vitro plant regeneration protocols for Iris species from different types of explants by somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis suitable for the mass propagation of ornamental and pharmaceutical irises.

  2. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  3. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  4. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  5. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).

  6. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...

  7. Evaluation of Speech Recognition of Cochlear Implant Recipients Using Adaptive, Digital Remote Microphone Technology and a Speech Enhancement Sound Processing Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Morais, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Agrawal, Smita; Koch, Dawn

    2015-05-01

    Cochlear implant recipients often experience difficulty with understanding speech in the presence of noise. Cochlear implant manufacturers have developed sound processing algorithms designed to improve speech recognition in noise, and research has shown these technologies to be effective. Remote microphone technology utilizing adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission has also been shown to provide significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. There are no studies examining the potential improvement in speech recognition in noise when these two technologies are used simultaneously. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with the simultaneous use of a sound processing algorithm designed to improve performance in noise (Advanced Bionics ClearVoice) and a remote microphone system that incorporates adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission (Phonak Roger). A two-by-two way repeated measures design was used to examine performance differences obtained without these technologies compared to the use of each technology separately as well as the simultaneous use of both technologies. Eleven Advanced Bionics (AB) cochlear implant recipients, ages 11 to 68 yr. AzBio sentence recognition was measured in quiet and in the presence of classroom noise ranging in level from 50 to 80 dBA in 5-dB steps. Performance was evaluated in four conditions: (1) No ClearVoice and no Roger, (2) ClearVoice enabled without the use of Roger, (3) ClearVoice disabled with Roger enabled, and (4) simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. Speech recognition in quiet was better than speech recognition in noise for all conditions. Use of ClearVoice and Roger each provided significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. The best performance in noise was obtained with the simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. ClearVoice and Roger technology each improves speech recognition in noise, particularly when used at the same time

  8. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  9. Iris Murdoch armastusest / Udo uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Kingstoni ülikool omandas 50 000 naesterlingi eest 164 Iris Murdochi kirja prantsuse kirjanikule, keeleeksperimentaatorile Raymond Quenaule, millest selgub Murdochi ühepoolne ning vastamata jäänud tunne Quenau suhtes.

  10. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  11. Iris Data Classification Using Quantum Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, Vishal; Patvardhan, C.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum computing is a novel paradigm that promises to be the future of computing. The performance of quantum algorithms has proved to be stunning. ANN within the context of classical computation has been used for approximation and classification tasks with some success. This paper presents an idea of quantum neural networks along with the training algorithm and its convergence property. It synergizes the unique properties of quantum bits or qubits with the various techniques in vogue in neural networks. An example application of Fisher's Iris data set, a benchmark classification problem has also been presented. The results obtained amply demonstrate the classification capabilities of the quantum neuron and give an idea of their promising capabilities

  12. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  14. [Multi-Target Recognition of Internal and External Defects of Potato by Semi-Transmission Hyperspectral Imaging and Manifold Learning Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-yu; Jin, Rui; Ku, Jing; Xu, Sen-miao; Xu, Meng-ling; Wu, Zhen-zhong; Kong, De-guo

    2015-04-01

    The present paper put forward a non-destructive detection method which combines semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) to recognize internal and external defects in potatoes simultaneously. Three hundred fifteen potatoes were bought in farmers market as research object, and semi-transmission hyperspectral image acquisition system was constructed to acquire the hyperspectral images of normal external defects (bud and green rind) and internal defect (hollow heart) potatoes. In order to conform to the actual production, defect part is randomly put right, side and back to the acquisition probe when the hyperspectral images of external defects potatoes are acquired. The average spectrums (390-1,040 nm) were extracted from the region of interests for spectral preprocessing. Then three kinds of manifold learning algorithm were respectively utilized to reduce the dimension of spectrum data, including supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE), locally linear embedding (LLE) and isometric mapping (ISOMAP), the low-dimensional data gotten by manifold learning algorithms is used as model input, Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) and LSSVM were combined to develop the multi-target classification model. By comparing and analyzing results of the three models, we concluded that SLLE is the optimal manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm, and the SLLE-LSSVM model is determined to get the best recognition rate for recognizing internal and external defects potatoes. For test set data, the single recognition rate of normal, bud, green rind and hollow heart potato reached 96.83%, 86.96%, 86.96% and 95% respectively, and he hybrid recognition rate was 93.02%. The results indicate that combining the semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with SLLE-LSSVM is a feasible qualitative analytical method which can simultaneously recognize the internal and

  15. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: I. Overview of the project and presentation of the SAGEM DS competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, D.; Lonnoy, J.; Guillerm, Q.; Jurie, F.; Herbin, S.; D'Angelo, E.

    2008-04-01

    The last five years have seen a renewal of Automatic Target Recognition applications, mainly because of the latest advances in machine learning techniques. In this context, large collections of image datasets are essential for training algorithms as well as for their evaluation. Indeed, the recent proliferation of recognition algorithms, generally applied to slightly different problems, make their comparisons through clean evaluation campaigns necessary. The ROBIN project tries to fulfil these two needs by putting unclassified datasets, ground truths, competitions and metrics for the evaluation of ATR algorithms at the disposition of the scientific community. The scope of this project includes single and multi-class generic target detection and generic target recognition, in military and security contexts. From our knowledge, it is the first time that a database of this importance (several hundred thousands of visible and infrared hand annotated images) has been publicly released. Funded by the French Ministry of Defence (DGA) and by the French Ministry of Research, ROBIN is one of the ten Techno-vision projects. Techno-vision is a large and ambitious government initiative for building evaluation means for computer vision technologies, for various application contexts. ROBIN's consortium includes major companies and research centres involved in Computer Vision R&D in the field of defence: Bertin Technologies, CNES, ECA, DGA, EADS, INRIA, ONERA, MBDA, SAGEM, THALES. This paper, which first gives an overview of the whole project, is focused on one of ROBIN's key competitions, the SAGEM Defence Security database. This dataset contains more than eight hundred ground and aerial infrared images of six different vehicles in cluttered scenes including distracters. Two different sets of data are available for each target. The first set includes different views of each vehicle at close range in a "simple" background, and can be used to train algorithms. The second set

  16. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  17. IRIS pre-application licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Kling, Charles L.; Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to pre-application licensing by the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), and advanced, integral reactor design with a thermal power of 1000 MW. The rationale for the pre-application licensing is discussed. Since IRIS technology is based on proven LWR experience, the project will rely on AP600/AP1000 precedent and will focus during the pre-application on long lead and novel items. A discussion of the evolution of the project to significantly reduce licensing issues is provided, followed by a summary of the IRIS safety-by-design which provides a formidable first step in the Defense in Depth approach. The effects of the safety-by-design, as well as of passive systems, on the IRIS safety will be investigated in a proposed testing program that will be reviewed by NRC during the pre-application. Documentation to be provided to NRC is discussed. Early design analyses indicate that the benefits of the IRIS safety-by-design approach are so significant that the basic premise of current emergency planning regulations (i.e., likelihood of core damage) will be reduced to the extent that special emergency response planning beyond the exclusion area boundary may not be needed. How this very significant outcome can be effected through a highly risk-informed licensing is discussed. (author)

  18. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  19. 77 FR 31869 - Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-FF03E00000] Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment AGENCY: Fish and... Service (Service) announces availability for public review of the draft recovery plan for the Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris), a species that is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroform (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Chloroform: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Chloroform and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  2. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  3. IRIS and the National Research Council (NRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 2011 National Academies’ National Research Council (NRC) review of the IRIS Program's assessment of Formaldehyde, EPA and NRC have had an ongoing relationship into the improvements of developing the IRIS Assessments.

  4. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...... information and colour information. For each iris an explanatory histogram is build, containing information about the weighted occurrence of each visual word. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering of the entire set of photos is performed using the distance between the explanatory histograms. The approach...

  5. Ekspert i undervisning - IRIS Connect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wullum, Annemette Heine; Eriksen, Frits Hedegaard

    Ekspert i undervisning – IRIS Connect Credoet bag de seneste års mange læreruddannelsesreformer har været, at flere og dybere kundskaber vil styrke de studerendes forudsætninger for at løse opgaverne i pædagogisk praksis. Et forhold, som bliver overset i forbindelse med uddannelsesreformerne, er...... praksis, og hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er. Hovedantagelserne bag projektet er, at de studerendes personbundne kundskaber kan synliggøres, at deres lægmandsopfattelser af, hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er, kan udfordres gennem analyser og drøftelser, og at brugen af IRIS Connects dataindsamlings- og...

  6. Report printer (COBOL IRIS 50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Daniele

    1973-10-01

    The research thesis reports a detailed study of the Report Writer of the COBOL language in order to integrate it into the IRIS 50 COBOL compiler. In order to use existing compiler processing, the author developed a simulation of the Report Writer by using Cobol statements generated in the declarative part of the Division procedure. After a brief presentation of the IRIS 50 computer, the author presents the general plan of the compiler with modifications and adjunctions exclusively due to the Report Writer. The next part addresses the practical implementation and the problems met and solved during this implementation

  7. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  8. Detection of boiling by Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm applied to neutron noise signals in the SAPHIR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiekerman, G.

    1988-09-01

    A partial blockage of the cooling channels of a fuel element in a swimming pool reactor could lead to vapour generation and to burn-out. To detect such anomalies, a pattern recognition algorithm based on power spectra density (PSD) proposed by Piety was further developed and implemented on a PDP 11/23 for on-line applications. This algorithm identifies anomalies by measuring the PSD on the process signal and comparing them with a standard baseline previously formed. Up to 8 decision discriminants help to recognize spectral changes due to anomalies. In our application, to detect boiling as quickly as possible with sufficient sensitivity, Piety's algorithm was modified using overlapped Fast-Fourier-Transform-Processing and the averaging of the PSDs over a large sample of preceding instantaneous PSDs. This processing allows high sensitivity in detecting weak disturbances without reducing response time. The algorithm was tested with simulation-of-boiling experiments where nitrogen in a cooling channel of a mock-up of a fuel element was injected. Void fractions higher than 30 % in the channel can be detected. In the case of boiling, it is believed that this limit is lower because collapsing bubbles could give rise to stronger fluctuations. The algorithm was also tested with a boiling experiment where the reactor coolant flow was actually reduced. The results showed that the discriminant D5 of Piety's algorithm based on neutron noise obtained from the existing neutron chambers of the reactor control system could sensitively recognize boiling. The detection time amounts to 7-30 s depending on the strength of the disturbances. Other events, which arise during a normal reactor run like scrams, removal of isotope elements without scramming or control rod movements and which could lead to false alarms, can be distinguished from boiling. 49 refs., 104 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Degradation monitoring in IRIS steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpay, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Lee, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a degradation monitoring technique based on unscented Kalman filtering (UKF), which uses a nonlinear system model without linearization to estimate the status of the component/state variables. To test the applicability of the methodology, the fouling of tubes is chosen among various degradation mechanisms for the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) steam generators (SGs). The degradation monitoring algorithm diagnoses the tube fouling and estimates the thickness of the crud deposited on the secondary side of the SG along with the increase in the pressure drop triggered by fouling. A stand-alone SG model developed with the RELAP5 code was used to simulate the transient behavior of the SG and drive an UKF state estimate. By using the secondary side outlet temperature as the measurement and the nodal pressures along the secondary side as states, UKF generated accurate estimates of the crud layer thicknesses for different crud formations. (authors)

  10. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  11. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yuan

    Full Text Available Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI. In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  12. A method for the evaluation of image quality according to the recognition effectiveness of objects in the optical remote sensing image using machine learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Zheng, Xinqi; Hu, Xuan; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective and effective image quality assessment (IQA) is directly related to the application of optical remote sensing images (ORSI). In this study, a new IQA method of standardizing the target object recognition rate (ORR) is presented to reflect quality. First, several quality degradation treatments with high-resolution ORSIs are implemented to model the ORSIs obtained in different imaging conditions; then, a machine learning algorithm is adopted for recognition experiments on a chosen target object to obtain ORRs; finally, a comparison with commonly used IQA indicators was performed to reveal their applicability and limitations. The results showed that the ORR of the original ORSI was calculated to be up to 81.95%, whereas the ORR ratios of the quality-degraded images to the original images were 65.52%, 64.58%, 71.21%, and 73.11%. The results show that these data can more accurately reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different images in object identification and information extraction when compared with conventional digital image assessment indexes. By recognizing the difference in image quality from the application effect perspective, using a machine learning algorithm to extract regional gray scale features of typical objects in the image for analysis, and quantitatively assessing quality of ORSI according to the difference, this method provides a new approach for objective ORSI assessment.

  13. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R.; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than −20 dB could not be predicted. PMID:29692200

  14. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than -20 dB could not be predicted.

  15. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9’oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  16. IRIS Nuclear Power Plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.; Cobian, J.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS(International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a novel light water reactor with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept, initially developed in response to the first NERI solicitation, is now being pursued by an international consortium of 20 participants from seven countries. IRIS is designed to satisfy the four key requirements for Generation IV systems: enhanced safety, improved economics, proliferation resistance and waste minimization. Its main features are: small-to-medium power (100-335 MWe/module); long life core 5 to 10 years) without shuffling or refueling; optimized maintenance with repair shutdown intervals of a least four years; simplified compact design with the primary vessel housing steam generators, pressurizer and pumps; safety by design where accidents are positively eliminated by design rather than engineering to cope with their consequences; loss of coolant accidents of any size and loss of low accidents are eliminated as major safety concerns; estimated power generation total cost is projected to be competitive with other power options. IRIS is one of four new reactor designs currently under NRC review. Projected schedule calls for design certification by 2008 and being ready for deployment by 2001 or later. This rather short schedule is made possible by the fact that IRIS is based on proven light water technology and new technology development is not required. (Author)

  17. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  18. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage.

  19. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  20. Wavelet Types Comparison for Extracting Iris Feature Based on Energy Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Isnanto, R.

    2015-06-01

    Human iris has a very unique pattern which is possible to be used as a biometric recognition. To identify texture in an image, texture analysis method can be used. One of method is wavelet that extract the image feature based on energy. Wavelet transforms used are Haar, Daubechies, Coiflets, Symlets, and Biorthogonal. In the research, iris recognition based on five mentioned wavelets was done and then comparison analysis was conducted for which some conclusions taken. Some steps have to be done in the research. First, the iris image is segmented from eye image then enhanced with histogram equalization. The features obtained is energy value. The next step is recognition using normalized Euclidean distance. Comparison analysis is done based on recognition rate percentage with two samples stored in database for reference images. After finding the recognition rate, some tests are conducted using Energy Compaction for all five types of wavelets above. As the result, the highest recognition rate is achieved using Haar, whereas for coefficients cutting for C(i) < 0.1, Haar wavelet has a highest percentage, therefore the retention rate or significan coefficient retained for Haaris lower than other wavelet types (db5, coif3, sym4, and bior2.4)

  1. Iris reconstruction using artificial iris prosthesis for management of aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yehia S; Osman, Amr A; Hassanein, Dina H; Zeid, Ashraf M; Sherif, Ahmed M

    2018-01-01

    To discuss the limitations and benefits of the BrightOcular prosthetic artificial iris device in management of aniridia associated with aphakia or cataract. This is a retrospective study including 5 eyes of 4 patients who underwent implantation of the BrightOcular iris prosthesis (Stellar Devices) for total or partial aniridia. The cases included 2 eyes of 1 patient with congenital aniridia associated with congenital cataract and 3 eyes with traumatic aniridia: 1 with subluxated cataractous lens and 2 with aphakia. In all cases, the iris prosthesis was implanted after a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens was implanted. We evaluated the clinical course with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, the intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the cosmetic satisfaction of patients. All patients had improved uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity. All patients had a transient corneal edema that resolved within the first postoperative week. Only the patient with congenital aniridia had a permanent increase in intraocular pressure and developed a band keratopathy throughout a 2-year follow-up period. The prosthesis was well-centered in all eyes except for one case that required scleral suture fixation after 3 months. All patients had a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. BrightOcular iris prosthesis is a safe and useful tool to correct aniridia associated with pseudophakia or aphakia. Being foldable, it is easy to be implanted through a small incision and placed in the ciliary sulcus without sutures when properly sized. Cosmetic results are satisfactory. Sizing methods should be improved.

  2. An Analysis of Audio Features to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Model Using Genetic Algorithms, Random Forests, and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a human activity recognition (HAR model based on audio features. The use of sound as an information source for HAR models represents a challenge because sound wave analyses generate very large amounts of data. However, feature selection techniques may reduce the amount of data required to represent an audio signal sample. Some of the audio features that were analyzed include Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Although MFCC are commonly used in voice and instrument recognition, their utility within HAR models is yet to be confirmed, and this work validates their usefulness. Additionally, statistical features were extracted from the audio samples to generate the proposed HAR model. The size of the information is necessary to conform a HAR model impact directly on the accuracy of the model. This problem also was tackled in the present work; our results indicate that we are capable of recognizing a human activity with an accuracy of 85% using the HAR model proposed. This means that minimum computational costs are needed, thus allowing portable devices to identify human activities using audio as an information source.

  3. Recognition of Wheat Spike from Field Based Phenotype Platform Using Multi-Sensor Fusion and Improved Maximum Entropy Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To obtain an accurate count of wheat spikes, which is crucial for estimating yield, this paper proposes a new algorithm that uses computer vision to achieve this goal from an image. First, a home-built semi-autonomous multi-sensor field-based phenotype platform (FPP is used to obtain orthographic images of wheat plots at the filling stage. The data acquisition system of the FPP provides high-definition RGB images and multispectral images of the corresponding quadrats. Then, the high-definition panchromatic images are obtained by fusion of three channels of RGB. The Gram–Schmidt fusion algorithm is then used to fuse these multispectral and panchromatic images, thereby improving the color identification degree of the targets. Next, the maximum entropy segmentation method is used to do the coarse-segmentation. The threshold of this method is determined by a firefly algorithm based on chaos theory (FACT, and then a morphological filter is used to de-noise the coarse-segmentation results. Finally, morphological reconstruction theory is applied to segment the adhesive part of the de-noised image and realize the fine-segmentation of the image. The computer-generated counting results for the wheat plots, using independent regional statistical function in Matlab R2017b software, are then compared with field measurements which indicate that the proposed method provides a more accurate count of wheat spikes when compared with other traditional fusion and segmentation methods mentioned in this paper.

  4. Fault detection in IRIS reactor secondary loop using inferential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    The development of fault detection algorithms is well-suited for remote deployment of small and medium reactors, such as the IRIS, and the development of new small modular reactors (SMR). However, an extensive number of tests are still to be performed for new engineering aspects and components that are not yet proven technology in the current PWRs, and present some technological challenges for its deployment since many of its features cannot be proven until a prototype plant is built. In this work, an IRIS plant simulation platform was developed using a Simulink® model. The dynamic simulation was utilized in obtaining inferential models that were used to detect faults artificially added to the secondary system simulations. The implementation of data-driven models and the results are discussed. (author)

  5. ATMS software: Fuzzy Hough Transform in a hybrid algorithm for counting the overlapped etched tracks and orientation recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, O.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Durrani, S.A.; Pouyan, Ali A.; Kim, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    A computer program named ATMS written in MATLAB and running with a friendly interface has been developed for recognition and parametric measurements of etched tracks in images captured from the surface of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The program, using image analysis tools, counts the number of etched tracks and depending on the current working mode classifies them according to their radii (small object removal) or their axis (non-perpendicular or non-circular etched tracks), their mean intensity value and their orientation through the minor and major axes. Images of the detectors' surfaces are input to the code, which generates text and figure files as output, including the number of counted etched tracks with the associated track parameters, histograms and a figure showing edge and center of detected etched tracks. ATMS code is running hierarchically as calibration, testing and measurement modes to demonstrate the reliability, repeatability and adaptability. Fuzzy Hough Transform is used for the estimation of the number of etched tracks and their parameters, providing results even in cases that overlapping and orientation occur. ATMS code is finally converted to a standalone file which makes it able to run out of MATLAB environment. - Highlights: ► Presenting a novel code named ATMS for nuclear track measurements. ► Execution in three modes for generality, adaptability and reliability. ► Using Fuzzy Hough Transform for overlapping detection and orientation recognition. ► Using DFT as a filter for noise removal process in track images. ► Processing the noisy track images and demonstration of the presented code

  6. Lentes plegables suturadas a iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Cruz Izquierdo

    Full Text Available Para la corrección quirúrgica de la afaquia existen en la actualidad varias técnicas quirúrgicas que permiten fijar los lentes intraoculares plegables o rígidos en cámara posterior suturados al iris o al sulcus ciliar. En estas circunstancias el cirujano determinará cuándo, dónde y el tipo de lente mejor a implantar. Se presenta un paciente con una afaquia traumática del ojo izquierdo, con agudeza visual sin corrección de movimiento de mano a 1 m. Se le realizó implante secundario de lente intraocular plegable de cámara posterior suturada al iris. En el examen biomicroscópico en lámpara de hendidura del ojo izquierdo se observó midriasis media paralítica, refracción dinámica de +11,00 (0,6 y tensión ocular normal. Se le realizó examen por bimicroscopía indirecta sin alteración. Al mes de operado la agudeza visual mejor corregida alcanzó la unidad de visión. Las complicaciones presentadas fueron ovalización de la pupila y depósitos de pigmentos de iris en el lente intraocular.

  7. PLATEAU IRIS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109

  8. PLATEAU IRIS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  9. Genetic Background of Iris Melanomas and Iris Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppelen, Natasha M; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Sisley, Karen; Rennie, Ian G; Rundle, Paul; Brands, Tom; van den Bosch, Quincy C C; Mensink, Hanneke W; de Klein, Annelies; Kiliç, Emine; Verdijk, Robert M

    2018-01-19

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Iris melanoma comprises 4% to 10% of all UMs and has a lower mortality rate. The genetic changes in iris melanoma are not as well characterized as ciliary body or choroidal melanoma. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the genetic background of iris melanoma and iris nevi. Multicenter, retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with iris melanoma or iris nevi who underwent surgical intervention as primary or secondary treatment. Next-generation sequencing of GNAQ, GNA11, EIF1AX, SF3B1, BAP1, NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-Kit, TP53, and TERT was performed on 30 iris melanomas and 7 iris nevi. Copy number status was detected using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, SNP array, or fluorescent in situ hybridization. BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed on all samples. Mutation and copy number status were analyzed. Results of BAP1 immunohistochemistry were used for survival analysis. In 26 of the 30 iris melanoma and all iris nevi, at least 1 mutation was identified. Multiple mutations were detected in 23 iris melanoma and 5 nevi, as well as mutations in GNAQ and GNA11. Furthermore, 13 of 30 BAP1, 5 of 30 EIF1AX, and 2 of 30 SF3B1 mutations were identified in iris melanoma. No correlation between BAP1 status and disease-free survival was found. The iris nevi showed 1 EIF1AX and 3 BAP1 mutations. Two of the nevi, with a BAP1 mutation, were histologically borderline malignant. Mutations in NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-KIT, and TP53 were detected in 6 iris melanomas and 4 iris nevi. Mutations that are often found in uveal and cutaneous melanoma were identified in this cohort of iris melanomas and iris nevi. Therefore, iris melanomas harbor a molecular profile comparable to both choroidal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. These findings may offer adjuvant targeted therapies for iris melanoma. There was no prognostic significance of

  10. Pattern recognition, neural networks, genetic algorithms and high performance computing in nuclear reactor diagnostics. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzwinel, W.; Pepyolyshev, N.

    1996-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is the presentation of our experience in development of the diagnostic system for the IBR-2 (Russia - Dubna) nuclear reactor. The authors show the principal results of the system modifications to make it work more reliable and much faster. The former needs the adaptation of new techniques of data processing, the latter, implementation of the newest computational facilities. The results of application of the clustering techniques and a method of visualization of the multi-dimensional information directly on the operator display are presented. The experiences with neural nets, used for prediction of the reactor operation, are discussed. The genetic algorithms were also tested, to reduce the quantity of data nd extracting the most informative components of the analyzed spectra. (authors)

  11. Sistem Kontrol Akses Berbasis Real Time Face Recognition dan Gender Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Nurmala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition and gender information is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person's face from a camera to capture a person's face. It is usually used in access control systemsand it can be compared to other biometrics such as finger print identification system or iris. Many of face recognition algorithms have been developed in recent years. Face recognition system and gender information inthis system based on the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA. Computational method has a simple and fast compared with the use of the method requires a lot of learning, such as artificial neural network. In thisaccess control system, relay used and Arduino controller. In this essay focuses on face recognition and gender - based information in real time using the method of Principal Component Analysis ( PCA . The result achievedfrom the application design is the identification of a person’s face with gender using PCA. The results achieved by the application is face recognition system using PCA can obtain good results the 85 % success rate in face recognition with face images that have been tested by a few people and a fairly high degree of accuracy.

  12. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J.; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. Methods The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Results Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Conclusions Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage. PMID:27116547

  13. Coastal and Inland Aquatic Data Products for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, Andrei; Babin, Marcel; Bachmann, Charles; Bell, Thomas; Brando, Vittorio; Byrd, Kristin; Dekker , Arnold; Devred, Emmanuel; Forget, Marie-Helene; Goodman, James; hide

    2015-01-01

    The HyspIRI Aquatic Studies Group (HASG) has developed a conceptual list of data products for the HyspIRI mission to support aquatic remote sensing of coastal and inland waters. These data products were based on mission capabilities, characteristics, and expected performance. The topic of coastal and inland water remote sensing is very broad. Thus, this report focuses on aquatic data products to keep the scope of this document manageable. The HyspIRI mission requirements already include the global production of surface reflectance and temperature. Atmospheric correction and surface temperature algorithms, which are critical to aquatic remote sensing, are covered in other mission documents. Hence, these algorithms and their products were not evaluated in this report. In addition, terrestrial products (e.g., land use land cover, dune vegetation, and beach replenishment) were not considered. It is recognized that coastal studies are inherently interdisciplinary across aquatic and terrestrial disciplines. However, products supporting the latter are expected to already be evaluated by other components of the mission. The coastal and inland water data products that were identified by the HASG, covered six major environmental and ecological areas for scientific research and applications: wetlands, shoreline processes, the water surface, the water column, bathymetry and benthic cover types. Accordingly, each candidate product was evaluated for feasibility based on the HyspIRI mission characteristics and whether it was unique and relevant to the HyspIRI science objectives.

  14. [Surgical treatment with an artificial iris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C S; Hoffmann, A E

    2015-10-01

    Iris defects with their disturbed pupillary function, visual impairment and glare constitute a therapeutic challenge in surgical reconstruction. A new therapeutic option for distinctive defects consists in the implantation of a custom-made silicone iris. This new and challenging therapy provides the opportunity to achieve an individual, aesthetically appealing and good functional result for the patient.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for tetrahydrofuran. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  16. IRIS-50. A 50 MWe advanced PWR design for smaller, regional grids and specialized applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Carelli, Mario; Conway, Larry; Hundal, Rolv; Barbaso, Enrico; Gamba, Federica; Centofante, Mario

    2009-01-01

    IRIS is an advanced, medium-power (1000 MWt or ∼335 MWe) advanced PWR design of integral configuration, that has gained wide recognition due to its innovative 'safety-by-design' safety approach. In spite of its smaller size compared to large monolithic nuclear power plants, it is economically competitive due to its simplicity and advantages of modular deployment. However, the optimum power level for a class of specific applications (e.g., power generation in small regional isolated grids; water desalination and biodiesel production at remote locations; autonomous power source for special applications, etc.) may be even lower, of the order of tens rather than hundreds of MWe. The simple and robust IRIS 335 MWe design provides a solid basis for establishing a 20-100 MWe design, utilizing the same safety and economics principles, so that it will retain economic attractiveness compared to other alternatives of the same power level. A conceptual 50 MWe design, IRIS-50, was initially developed and then assessed in a 2001 report to the US Congress on small and medium reactors, as a design mature enough to have deployment potential within a decade. In the meantime, while the main efforts have focused on the 335 MWe design completion and licensing, parallel efforts have progressed toward the preliminary design of IRIS-50. This paper summarizes the main IRIS-50 features and presents an update on its design status. (author)

  17. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  18. Face Recognition and Tracking in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Vitthal Tathe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in computer vision technology and availability of video capturing devices such as surveillance cameras has evoked new video processing applications. The research in video face recognition is mostly biased towards law enforcement applications. Applications involves human recognition based on face and iris, human computer interaction, behavior analysis, video surveillance etc. This paper presents face tracking framework that is capable of face detection using Haar features, recognition using Gabor feature extraction, matching using correlation score and tracking using Kalman filter. The method has good recognition rate for real-life videos and robust performance to changes due to illumination, environmental factors, scale, pose and orientations.

  19. Electric powertrain modeling of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle and development of a power distribution algorithm based on driving mode recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Junghwan; Park, Yeongseop; Sunwoo, Myoungho [Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel fuzzy controller based on an adaptive membership function for optimum power management of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV). In the first phase, an electric powertrain model of the FCHEV is derived and a fuzzy controller is proposed. Then, the fuzzy controller is optimized using a genetic algorithm. The optimization process is accomplished through simulation for a given driving cycle. Since, however, the optimized result may vary according to the applied driving cycle for optimization, it is impossible for one optimized result to cover various driving cycles. In the second phase, an adaptive membership function based on a stochastic approach is proposed to guarantee optimum performance from the presented fuzzy controller, even though the driving cycle changes. This controller is referred to as the 'Stochastic fuzzy controller' (SFC) in this study. The SFC employs a stochastic approach where membership functions can be transformed statistically using a probability evaluated from driving pattern recognition. Then, driving cycle analysis is performed through off-line simulation and hardware in a loop simulation (HILS) test for four driving cycles. Finally, the SFC shows the best performance in terms of minimum fuel consumption and state-of-charge (SoC) maintenance. (author)

  20. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  1. IRIS economics. A sensitivity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith

    2003-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals an optimum power rating for a single module of 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years or less and a minimum plant life of 60 years. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  3. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.

  4. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. LOCA analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2003-01-01

    The IRIS reactor (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is an integral, light water cooled, medium power reactor. IRIS has been selected as an International Near Term Deployable (INTD) reactor, within the Generation IV International Forum activities. The IRIS concept addresses the key-requirements defined by the US DOE for next generation reactors, i.e. enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. It features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). An innovative safety approach has been developed to mitigate the IRIS response to small-to-medium Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This strategy is based on the interaction of IRIS compact containment with the reactor vessel to limit initial blowdown, and on depressurization through the use of a passive Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS). A small Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) provides supplementary depressurization capability. A pressure suppression system is provided to limit the pressure peak following the initial blowdown to well below the containment design limit. The ultimate result is that during a small-to-medium LOCA, the core remains covered for an extended period of time, without credit for emergency water injection or external core makeup. The IRIS LOCA response is based on 'maintaining water inventory' rather than on the principle of safety injection. This novel safety approach poses significant issues for computational and analysis methods since the IRIS vessel and containment are strongly coupled, and the system response is based on the interaction between the two. The small break LOCA was calculated using RELAP5/mod3.3 and GOTHIC codes. Break of the largest line connected to the IRIS Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) was analyzed. The results of the calculations confirmed good performance of the IRIS system during LOCA. (author)

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  7. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  8. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Oct 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meeting was held to obtain input from the scientific community and the public on studies and data that will be used in the assessments of Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP) and Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) that are under IRIS development.

  9. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Apr 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments for Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

  10. A Grey Wolf Optimizer for Modular Granular Neural Networks for Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grey wolf optimizer for modular neural network (MNN with a granular approach is proposed. The proposed method performs optimal granulation of data and design of modular neural networks architectures to perform human recognition, and to prove its effectiveness benchmark databases of ear, iris, and face biometric measures are used to perform tests and comparisons against other works. The design of a modular granular neural network (MGNN consists in finding optimal parameters of its architecture; these parameters are the number of subgranules, percentage of data for the training phase, learning algorithm, goal error, number of hidden layers, and their number of neurons. Nowadays, there is a great variety of approaches and new techniques within the evolutionary computing area, and these approaches and techniques have emerged to help find optimal solutions to problems or models and bioinspired algorithms are part of this area. In this work a grey wolf optimizer is proposed for the design of modular granular neural networks, and the results are compared against a genetic algorithm and a firefly algorithm in order to know which of these techniques provides better results when applied to human recognition.

  11. Face-iris multimodal biometric scheme based on feature level fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing; He, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Unlike score level fusion, feature level fusion demands all the features extracted from unimodal traits with high distinguishability, as well as homogeneity and compatibility, which is difficult to achieve. Therefore, most multimodal biometric research focuses on score level fusion, whereas few investigate feature level fusion. We propose a face-iris recognition method based on feature level fusion. We build a special two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank to extract local texture features from face and iris images, and then transform them by histogram statistics into an energy-orientation variance histogram feature with lower dimensions and higher distinguishability. Finally, through a fusion-recognition strategy based on principal components analysis and support vector machine (FRSPS), feature level fusion and one-to-n identification are accomplished. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can not only effectively extract face and iris features but also provide higher recognition accuracy. Compared with some state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed method has a significant performance advantage.

  12. Transient analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Oriani, L.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    An international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse, is developing a modular, integral, light water cooled, small to medium power reactor, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). IRIS features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the large number of organizations involved in the IRIS design, the RELAP5/MOD 3.3 code has been selected as the main system code. A nodalization of the reference IRIS design has been developed with a basic set of protective functions and controls. Engineered Safety Features of the concept are being also implemented, and in particular the Emergency Heat Removal System that is used for safety grade decay heat removal and in the small break LOCA response of IRIS (Large break LOCAs are eliminated in IRIS by the adoption of the Integral layout) This paper discusses developed model and transient behavior of the system for representative transient sequences.(author)

  13. Iris autofluorescence in Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Jia, Yading; Zhang, Suhua; Xie, Juan; Chang, Xin; Hou, Jia; Li, Gaiyun; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    To explore the characteristic autofluorescence patterns of iris depigmentation in eyes diagnosed with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Near-infrared autofluorescence images and colour images of iris were taken in 21 eyes of 21 patients with FHU, 30 eyes of 15 normal subjects, 30 eyes of 15 normal age-related iris atrophy and 33 eyes of 20 patients with uveitis other than FHU. The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, HRA2) was used for melanin-related autofluorescence imaging. The indocyanine green angiography mode of HRA2 was applied for near-infrared laser imaging, and the wavelength of the excitation laser was 795 nm. Iris colour images were also taken with the slit lamp. In normal iris, moderately intense autofluorescence was noted for the pigment ruff at the pupillary border, the crests in the pupillary zone and the collarette; and there was mild autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. In eyes with age-related iris atrophy and uveitis, much less autofluorescence was seen than the healthy normal irides. In eyes with FHU, there was moderate but discontinuous autofluorescence in the pigment ruff, a petaloid pattern of autofluorescence in the pupillary zone, moderate autofluorescence in the collarette and reticular pattern of autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. Characteristic autofluorescence patterns appeared in eyes diagnosed with FHU. Near-infrared autofluorescence is a promising objective technique to document the iris changes in FHU. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. 75 FR 25239 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice; Announcement of availability of literature searches for IRIS... the availability of literature searches for four IRIS assessments and requesting scientific...

  15. Assessment of hearing aid algorithms using a master hearing aid: the influence of hearing aid experience on the relationship between speech recognition and cognitive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rählmann, Sebastian; Meis, Markus; Schulte, Michael; Kießling, Jürgen; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    2017-04-27

    Model-based hearing aid development considers the assessment of speech recognition using a master hearing aid (MHA). It is known that aided speech recognition in noise is related to cognitive factors such as working memory capacity (WMC). This relationship might be mediated by hearing aid experience (HAE). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of WMC and speech recognition with a MHA for listeners with different HAE. Using the MHA, unaided and aided 80% speech recognition thresholds in noise were determined. Individual WMC capacity was assed using the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the Reading Span Test (RST). Forty-nine hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss divided into three groups differing in HAE. Whereas unaided speech recognition did not show a significant relationship with WMC, a significant correlation could be observed between WMC and aided speech recognition. However, this only applied to listeners with HAE of up to approximately three years, and a consistent weakening of the correlation could be observed with more experience. Speech recognition scores obtained in acute experiments with an MHA are less influenced by individual cognitive capacity when experienced HA users are taken into account.

  16. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor is described in the first part of the presentation. IRIS is a light water cooled reactor with an integral configuration, where steam generators, pumps and pressurizer are inside the reactor vessel. Partially funded by the DOE NERI program, IRIS is being developed by an international consortium of 16 organizations from seven countries. A key IRIS characteristic is its 'safety by design' approach which strives to eliminate, by design, as many accidents as possible rather than coping with their consequences. Initial returns are very positive; out of the eight Class IV accidents considered in the AP600 only one remains as a Class IV in IRIS, and at much reduced probability. Small-to-medium LOCAs have minimal consequences as the core remains safely under water for days, without the need for safety injection or water makeup. In spite of its novelty IRIS is firmly grounded on proven LWR technology and therefore a prototype is not needed to assure design certification. Rather, very extensive scaled tests will be performed to investigate the performance of in-vessel components such as steam generators and pumps, both individually and as interactive systems. Accident sequences will also be simulated and tested to prove IRIS safety by design claims. The first core fuel is less than 5% enriched and the fuel assembly is very similar to existing PWR assemblies, so there is no licensing challenge regarding the fuel. Because of the safety by design approach, yielding simplifications In design and accident management (e.g., IRIS does not have an emergency core cooling system), some accident scenarios are eliminated and others have lesser consequences. Thus, simplification and streamlining of the regulatory process might be possible. Risk informed regulation will be coupled with safety by design to show lower accident and damage probabilities. This could lead to a relaxation of siting regulatory requirements. It is

  17. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Sheen, Martin A.; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  18. Safety design features of the IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (335 MW(e)), that features an integral reactor vessel containing all the reactor primary system components, including steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and heaters, and control rod drive mechanisms; in addition to the typical core, internals, control rods and neutron reflector. This integral configuration allows for the use of a small, high design pressure, spherical steel containment which results in a significant reduction in the size of the nuclear island. Other IRIS innovations include a simplified passive safety system concept and equipment features that derive from the 'safety-by-design' philosophy. This design approach allows for elimination of certain accident initiators at the design stage, or when outright elimination is not possible, decreases accident consequences and/or their probability of occurrence. Major design characteristics of the IRIS are given. As part of the IRIS pre-application licensing review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the IRIS design team has developed a test plan that will provide the necessary data for safety analysis computer model verification, as well as for verifying the manufacturing feasibility, operability, and durability of new component designs

  19. Balloon cell nevus of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Mohib W; Odashiro, Alexandre; Bazin, Richard; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; O'Meara, Aisling; Burnier, Miguel N

    2014-12-01

    Balloon cell nevus is a rare histopathological lesion characterized by a predominance of large, vesicular and clear cells, called balloon cells. There is only 1 case of balloon cell nevus of the iris reported in the literature. A 55 year-old man presented a pigmented elevated lesion in the right iris since the age of 12 years old. The lesion had been growing for the past 2 years and excision was performed. Histopathological examination showed a balloon cell nevus composed of clear and vacuolated cells without atypia. A typical spindle cell nevus of the iris was also observed. The differential diagnosis included xanthomatous lesions, brown adipocyte or other adipocytic lesions, clear cell hidradenoma, metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and clear cell sarcoma. The tumor was positive for Melan A, S100 protein and HMB45. Balloon cell nevus of the iris is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions of the iris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Face recognition : implementation of face recognition on AMIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, M.J.A.J.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Elfring, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this (traineeship)report two possible methods of face recognition were presented. The first method describes how to detect and recognize faces by using the SURF algorithm. This algorithm finally was not used for recognizing faces, with the reason that the Eigenface algorithm was an already tested

  1. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  2. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the Fisher linear discriminant and the iris region of interest is extracted. Four texture description methods are compared for segmenting iris texture using a region based pattern classification approach: Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Discrete...

  3. Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the iris/process.htm">IRIS Assessment Development Proc...

  5. IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Oral Reference Dose) (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials). An IRIS Assessment Plan (IAP) communicates to the public the plan for assessing each individual chemical and includes summary informatio...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  7. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  8. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs......) and the 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively...

  9. Bilateral acute iris transillumination: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Degirmenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a recently defined disease characterized with bilateral acute, severe pigment dispersion of iris and pupil sphincter paralysis. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown, but antibiotics such as moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, viral infections, and fumigation therapies were considered as probable etiologic factors. A 33-year-old female was referred to our clinic for acute iridocyclitis refractory to azathioprine, colchicum and corticosteroid treatments. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion, significant iris transillumination, heavy pigment deposition in iridocorneal angle, and elevated intraocular pressure. Upon systemic evaluation she was found to have bacterial urinary tract infection. BAIT is an important cause of pigment dispersion and clinicians must be vigilant for this condition to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and treatment.

  10. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... and intends to find, extract, collect and index HTML documents with standardised META tags that are widely spread across web servers on the Internet. This paper presents the structure of IRIS, the software tools, and gives one example of how to categorise and prepare web-sites with product information...

  11. Image compression with Iris-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gains, David

    2009-05-01

    Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.

  12. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  13. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  15. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) conducted a review of the scientific basis supporting the human health cancer hazard and dose-response assessment of inorganic arsenic that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA revised the assessment and is now returning the assessment to the SAB and releasing the document to the public for a focused review of EPA's responses to the SAB recommendations. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result from chronic exposure to this chemical.

  17. A patient with multiple iris | Asselman | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS is shown in Table I. The most common forms of IRIS described occur in association with mycobacterial and ...

  18. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Industrial companies, research, scientific groups and electric power producers of different countries (USA, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Croatia) take part in the realization of IRIS. Basic parameters of the reactor, construction characteristics, arrangement are presented [ru

  19. IRIS: Supporting & Managing the Research Life-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Andrea; Mennielli, Michele; Mornati, Susanna; Palmer, David T.

    2016-01-01

    IRIS is a new Current Research Information System (CRIS) developed by Cineca to upgrade and replace two previous solutions that have been used by Italian universities in the last 10 years. At the end of 2015, sixty-three Italian institutions are using IRIS. One of the main components of IRIS is DSpace-CRIS, an open source solution that can also be…

  20. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in iris biometrics has been focused on utilizing iris features as a means of identity verification and authentication. However, not enough research work has been done to explore iris textures to determine soft biometrics such as gender...

  1. Nonintrusive iris image acquisition system based on a pan-tilt-zoom camera and light stripe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2009-03-01

    Although iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies, it has not yet been widely used in practical applications. This is mainly due to user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase. Specifically, users try to adjust their eye position within small capture volume at a close distance from the system. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel iris image acquisition system that provides users with unconstrained environments: a large operating range, enabling movement from standing posture, and capturing good-quality iris images in an acceptable time. The proposed system has the following three contributions compared with previous works: (1) the capture volume is significantly increased by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera guided by a light stripe projection, (2) the iris location in the large capture volume is found fast due to 1-D vertical face searching from the user's horizontal position obtained by the light stripe projection, and (3) zooming and focusing on the user's irises at a distance are accurate and fast using the estimated 3-D position of a face by the light stripe projection and the PTZ camera. Experimental results show that the proposed system can capture good-quality iris images in 2.479 s on average at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m, while allowing a limited amount of movement by the user.

  2. Distribution and multiplication of iris severe mosaic potyvirus in bulbous Iris in relation to metabolic activity : implications for ISMV detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der C.I.M.

    1994-01-01

    During cultivation of iris, several viruses may cause severe damage like yield reduction and discoloration of the plant. In commercial stocks in the Netherlands virtually all plants are infected with iris mild mosaic virus (IMMV) while iris severe mosaic virus (ISMV) and narcissus latent

  3. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Jun 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 25-27, 2014, EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar, to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) and Inorganic Arsenic (iAs).

  4. IRIS Public Science Meeting (June 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This June 2016 public meeting is made available to solicit comments on the public comment draft of the IRIS Assessment of tert-Butanol. The draft document was re-opened in the docket for a 60-day public comment period closing on July 16, 2016.

  5. Iris Murdoch, Liberal Education and Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2009-01-01

    Articulating the good of liberal education--what we should teach and why we should teach it--is necessary to resist the subversion of liberal education to economic or political ends and the mania for measurable skills. I argue that Iris Murdoch's philosophical writings enrich the work of contemporary Aristotelians, such as Joseph Dunne and…

  6. IRI profile parameters at equatorial latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin; Conway, J.

    2002-01-01

    The IRI bottom-side electron density profile is specified as a function of three parameters B0, B1, and D1 describing the F2 layer thickness and shape, and the shape of the F1 layer, respectively. Together with the URSI or CCIR coefficients for the F2 layer peak density and height, they completely specify the profiles as function of time, season and solar activity. In support of the international effort of determining the best set of parameters we have analyzed the diurnal variations of B0, B1, and D1 for Jicamarca for high solar activity during 1999 and 2000 for different seasons and magnetic activity. The B0 values vary from a minimum of ∼95 km at 0300 LT to ∼250 km at local noon (1700 UT). The diurnal variation is similar to the IRI2000 prediction. B1 varies from ∼1.9 at daytime to ∼2.2 at night. The value of D1 is ∼0.5. The parameters show little Kp dependence. Standard deviations are shown. We calculated the ionospheric total electron contents for March and April 1998 from the ionogram profiles at Jicamarca and compared them with IRI predictions using the IRI 2000 parameters. While there is fair agreement, a significant time shift of 1 to 2 hours occurs in the transition from night to daytime values. (author)

  7. IRIS PRA preliminary results and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Kling, C.L.; Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) on behalf of the IRIS Consortium. One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is the concept of safety-by-design. The PRA (Probabilistic Risk Analysis) is being used as an integral part of the design process. As part of this effort, a PRA of the initial design was generated to address 2 key areas. First, the IRIS PRA supported the evaluation of IRIS design issues by providing a solid risk basis for design and analyses required for the pre-licensing evaluation of the IRIS design. The PRA provides the tool for quantifying the benefit of the safety-by-design approach. Second, the current PRA task is beginning the preparation of the more complete PRA analyses and documentation eventually required for Design Certification. One of the key risk-related goals for IRIS is to reduce the EPZ (Emergency Protection Zone) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. The results of the preliminary PRA indicated a core damage frequency of 1.2 E-08 for internal initiators. This is a very good result but much work is needed to meet the ambitious goal of no emergency response. The next phase of the PRA analyses will involve a two-fold expansion of the PRA. First, as the design and analyses approach a greater level of detail, the assumptions used for the initial PRA will be reviewed and the models will be revised as needed to reflect the improved knowledge of the system design and performance. Furthermore, as the full plant design advances, the PRA will be expanded to incorporate risk associated with external challenges such as seismic and fire, and to address low power and shutdowns modes of operation. As with the initial work, the PRA will serve as a tool to

  8. Checking the new IRI model: The bottomside B parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Buresova, D.; Miro, G.; Lazo, B.; Ezquer, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000. (author)

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Interagency ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2017, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  10. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  11. IRIS: Proceeding Towards the Preliminary Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Todreas, N.; Greenspan, E.; Ninokata, H.; Lopez, F.; Cinotti, L.; Collado, J.; Oriolo, F.; Alonso, G.; Morales, M.; Boroughs, R.; Barroso, A.; Ingersoll, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2002-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) project has completed the conceptual design phase and is moving towards completion of the preliminary design, scheduled for the end of 2002. Several other papers presented in this conference provide details on major aspects of the IRIS design. The three most innovative features which uniquely characterize IRIS are, in descending order of impact: 1. Safety-by-design, which takes maximum advantage of the integral configuration to eliminate from consideration some accidents, greatly lessen the consequence of other accident scenarios and decrease their probability of occurring; 2. Optimized maintenance, where the interval between maintenance shutdowns is extended to 48 months; and 3. Long core life, of at least four years without shuffling or partial refueling. Regarding feature 1, design and analyses will be supplemented by an extensive testing campaign to verify and demonstrate the performance of the integral components, individually as well as interactive systems. Test planning is being initiated. Test results will be factored into PRA analyses under an overall risk informed regulation approach, which is planned to be used in the IRIS licensing. Pre-application activities with NRC are also scheduled to start in mid 2002. Regarding feature 2, effort is being focused on advanced online diagnostics for the integral components, first of all the steam generators, which are the most critical component; several techniques are being investigated. Finally, a four year long life core design is well underway and some of the IRIS team members are examining higher enrichment, eight to ten year life cores which could be considered for reloads. (authors)

  12. IRIS. Progress in licensing and toward deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.D.; Kling, C.L.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled, pressurized reactor of smaller generating capacity (1000 MWt, or 335 MWe). It is being developed through a strong international partnership by a team lead by Westinghouse and including organizations from 10 countries. The main objective of the project is to offer a simple nuclear power plant with outstanding safety, attractive economics and enhanced proliferation resistance characteristics ready for deployment within the next decade. IRIS embodies the requirements set forth by the recently announced US DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program for worldwide deployment of a smaller-scale reactors and provides a viable bridge to Generation IV reactors. IRIS is designed to address the needs of both developed and emerging markets. Its smaller power level provides deployment flexibility in larger developed markets, and makes it in particular well suited for markets with limited grids or where the annual energy demand growth is moderate. Due to its short construction time and the staggered build option, IRIS significantly reduces the required financing, improves cash flow, and provides a viable solution for economies with limited resources. While based on proven and worldwide accepted LWR technology, IRIS introduces a number of innovative solutions to simplify its design and improve safety and operational characteristics, including the integral primary system and its components, as well as the safety-by-design approach. These features will be tested and demonstrated in a testing program that has been initiated. As its centerpiece, the program will include the integral test facility. Results of this program will support licensing with the US NRC. A multinational licensing is considered to facilitate worldwide deployment. (author)

  13. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  14. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  15. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database.

  16. IRIS design overview and status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.; Kling, C.L.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Collado, J.M.; Cinotti, L.; Storai, S.; Berra, F.; Todreas, N.E.; Ninokata, H.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.; Oriolo, F.; Moraes, M.M.; Frederico, C.; Henning, F.; Griffith, W.; Love, J.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Wood, R.; Alonso, G.; Kodochigov, N.; Polunichev, V.; Augutis, J.; Alzbutas, R.; Boroughs, R.D.; Naviglio, A.; Panella, B.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light-water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or ∼335 MWe), geared at near term deployment (2012- 2015). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international consortium--led by Westinghouse--that includes 21 organizations from 10 countries, and it is currently in the pre-application licensing process with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper describes its integral design (i.e., steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms are all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique ('safety-by-design') TM IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ('safety by- design') TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant without the need for off-site emergency response planning--an objective which is part of the pre-application with NRC and is also pursued within an international research project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This would allow IRIS to be treated as any other industrial facility, located closer to population centers, and enable its effective dual-purpose use for electricity production and co-generation (district heating, desalination, industrial steam). The modular IRIS--with each module rated at ∼335 MWe--is an ideal size for developing countries as it allows to easily introducing single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs, or a moderate amount of power on limited electric grids. IRIS can be also deployed in

  17. IRIS COLOUR CLASSIFICATION SCALES--THEN AND NOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mariana; Avram, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most obvious phenotypic traits of an individual. Since the first documented classification scale developed in 1843, there have been numerous attempts to classify the iris colour. In the past centuries, iris colour classification scales has had various colour categories and mostly relied on comparison of an individual's eye with painted glass eyes. Once photography techniques were refined, standard iris photographs replaced painted eyes, but this did not solve the problem of painted/ printed colour variability in time. Early clinical scales were easy to use, but lacked objectivity and were not standardised or statistically tested for reproducibility. The era of automated iris colour classification systems came with the technological development. Spectrophotometry, digital analysis of high-resolution iris images, hyper spectral analysis of the human real iris and the dedicated iris colour analysis software, all accomplished an objective, accurate iris colour classification, but are quite expensive and limited in use to research environment. Iris colour classification systems evolved continuously due to their use in a wide range of studies, especially in the fields of anthropology, epidemiology and genetics. Despite the wide range of the existing scales, up until present there has been no generally accepted iris colour classification scale.

  18. IRIS COLOUR CLASSIFICATION SCALES – THEN AND NOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mariana; Avram, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most obvious phenotypic traits of an individual. Since the first documented classification scale developed in 1843, there have been numerous attempts to classify the iris colour. In the past centuries, iris colour classification scales has had various colour categories and mostly relied on comparison of an individual’s eye with painted glass eyes. Once photography techniques were refined, standard iris photographs replaced painted eyes, but this did not solve the problem of painted/ printed colour variability in time. Early clinical scales were easy to use, but lacked objectivity and were not standardised or statistically tested for reproducibility. The era of automated iris colour classification systems came with the technological development. Spectrophotometry, digital analysis of high-resolution iris images, hyper spectral analysis of the human real iris and the dedicated iris colour analysis software, all accomplished an objective, accurate iris colour classification, but are quite expensive and limited in use to research environment. Iris colour classification systems evolved continuously due to their use in a wide range of studies, especially in the fields of anthropology, epidemiology and genetics. Despite the wide range of the existing scales, up until present there has been no generally accepted iris colour classification scale. PMID:27373112

  19. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  20. Extending the depth of field with chromatic aberration for dual-wavelength iris imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Niamh M; Dainty, Christopher; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-12-11

    We propose a method of extending the depth of field to twice that achievable by conventional lenses for the purpose of a low cost iris recognition front-facing camera in mobile phones. By introducing intrinsic primary chromatic aberration in the lens, the depth of field is doubled by means of dual wavelength illumination. The lens parameters (radius of curvature, optical power) can be found analytically by using paraxial raytracing. The effective range of distances covered increases with dispersion of the glass chosen and with larger distance for the near object point.

  1. Prosessiautomaation häiriösuojaus

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua prosessiteollisuuden automaatio- ja ohjausjärjestelmien häiriösuojaukseen ja varmistaa sen oikeanlainen rakenne ja toiminta käytännössä. Työ tehtiin Insta Automation Oy:lle, joka vastaa Boliden Harjavallan sähkökunnossapidosta ja sähkösuunnittelusta. Työ tehtiin Boliden Harjavallan sulaton alueella. Työhön kuului häiriöttömän eli TE-maadoituksen rakenteen tarkastaminen ja mittaus sekä prosessinohjaukseen käytettävän Metso DNA-järjestelmän sähköns...

  2. Preliminary core design of IRIS-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Franceschini, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    IRIS-50 is a small, 50 MWe, advanced PWR with integral primary system. It evolved employing the same design principles as the well known medium size (335 MWe) IRIS. These principles include the 'safety-by-design' philosophy, simple and robust design, and deployment flexibility. The 50 MWe design addresses the needs of specific applications (e.g., power generation in small regional grids, water desalination and biodiesel production at remote locations, autonomous power source for special applications, etc.). Such applications may favor or even require longer refueling cycles, or may have some other specific requirements. Impact of these requirements on the core design and refueling strategy is discussed in the paper. Trade-off between the cycle length and other relevant parameters is addressed. A preliminary core design is presented, together with the core main reactor physics performance parameters. (author)

  3. Fuel management approach in IRIS Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of fuel management approach employed in IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). It introduces the initial, rather ambitious, fuel management goals and discusses their evolution that reflected the fast pace of progress of the overall project. The updated objectives rely on using currently licensed fuel technology, thus enabling near-term deployment of IRIS, while still providing improved fuel utilization. The paper focuses on the reference core design and fuel management strategy that is considered in pre-application licensing, which enables extended cycle of three to four years. The extended cycle reduces maintenance outage time and increases capacity factor, thus reducing the cost of electricity. Approaches to achieving this goal are discussed, including use of different reloading strategies. Additional fuel management options, which are not part of the licensing process, but are pursued as long-term research for possible future implementation, are presented as well. (Author)

  4. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of trichloroacetic acid provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroacetic acid.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Characteristics of Iris Melanocytic Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalet, Alison H.; Li, Yan; Lu, Chen D.; Jia, Yali; Lee, ByungKun; Husvogt, Lennart; Maier, Andreas; Fujimoto, James G.; Thomas, Charles R.; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate tumor vasculature with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in malignant iris melanomas and benign iris lesions. Design Cross-sectional observational clinical study. Participants Patients with iris lesions and healthy volunteers. Methods Eyes were imaged using OCTA systems operating at 1050 and 840 nm wavelengths. Three-dimensional OCTA scans were acquired. Iris melanomas patients treated with radiation therapy were imaged again after I-125 plaque brachytherapy at 6 and 18 months. Main Outcome Measures OCT and OCTA images, qualitative evaluation of iris and tumor vasculature and quantitative vessel density. Results One eye each of eight normal volunteers and nine patients with iris melanomas or benign iris lesions including freckles, nevi, and an iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cyst were imaged. The normal iris has radially-oriented vessels within the stroma on OCTA. Penetration of flow signal in normal iris depended on iris color, with best penetration seen in light to moderately pigmented irides. Iris melanomas demonstrated tortuous and disorganized intratumoral vasculature. In two eyes with nevi there was no increased vascularity; in another, fine vascular loops were noted near an area of ectropion uveae. Iris freckles and the IPE cyst did not have intrinsic vascularity. The vessel density was significantly higher within iris melanomas (34.5%±9.8%, piris nevi (8.0%±1.4%) or normal irides (8.0%±1.2%). Tumor regression after radiation therapy for melanomas was associated with decreased vessel density. OCTA at 1050 nm provided better visualization of tumor vasculature and penetration through thicker tumors than at 840 nm. But in very thick tumors and highly pigmented lesions even 1050 nm OCTA could not visualize their full thickness. Interpretable OCTA images were obtained in 82% participants in whom imaging was attempted. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of OCTA in iris tumors. OCTA may provide a dye-free, no

  7. [Analysis of iris: history and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the iris has ancient roots, but iridology in its present sense was established by Philippi Meyers in 1670. The discipline was further developed by Ignaz Péczely in 1881 and by Nils Liljequist in 1890. Other studies have been published in Germany, Sweden, Norway, England, France, USA, Australia and elsewhere, and iridology is practiced worldwide. The techniques used are described and the sources of error are mentioned when several photos from the same patient are compared (e.g. the influences of differences in pupil size, magnification and the effect of oblique light). The iris key (irigraphy) and the interpretation of different sights are discussed in some detail; there is little agreement among iridologists. Some iris diagnoses are of little interest to day and some modern diseases are missing in the diagnostic system. Controlled studies reveal that iridology is of no use whatsoever for the detection of cancer and other diseases in the stomach, intestines, kidney, lungs and heart. The reason for the continued popularity of iridology is discussed, and it is concluded that this type of alternative medicine is not harmless.

  8. Three-dimensional Hessian matrix-based quantitative vascular imaging of rat iris with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huangxuan; Wang, Guangsong; Lin, Riqiang; Gong, Xiaojing; Song, Liang; Li, Tan; Wang, Wenjia; Zhang, Kunya; Qian, Xiuqing; Zhang, Haixia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhicheng; Liu, Chengbo

    2018-04-01

    For the diagnosis and evaluation of ophthalmic diseases, imaging and quantitative characterization of vasculature in the iris are very important. The recently developed photoacoustic imaging, which is ultrasensitive in imaging endogenous hemoglobin molecules, provides a highly efficient label-free method for imaging blood vasculature in the iris. However, the development of advanced vascular quantification algorithms is still needed to enable accurate characterization of the underlying vasculature. We have developed a vascular information quantification algorithm by adopting a three-dimensional (3-D) Hessian matrix and applied for processing iris vasculature images obtained with a custom-built optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging system (OR-PAM). For the first time, we demonstrate in vivo 3-D vascular structures of a rat iris with a the label-free imaging method and also accurately extract quantitative vascular information, such as vessel diameter, vascular density, and vascular tortuosity. Our results indicate that the developed algorithm is capable of quantifying the vasculature in the 3-D photoacoustic images of the iris in-vivo, thus enhancing the diagnostic capability of the OR-PAM system for vascular-related ophthalmic diseases in vivo.

  9. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  10. Preliminary ATWS analysis for the IRIS PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena Barra; Marco S Ghisu; David J Finnicum; Luca Oriani

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002. IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions. The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction. To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. A preliminary but extensive Level 1 PRA model has been developed to support the pre-application licensing of the IRIS design. As a result of the Preliminary IRIS PRA, an optimization of the design from a reliability point of view was completed, and an extremely low (about 1.2 E -8 ) core damage frequency (CDF) was assessed to confirm the impact of the safety by design approach. This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events. During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed

  11. Multispectral diagnostic imaging of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

    2012-08-01

    To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light-emitting diode probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (Ppigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes.

  12. Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.

  13. Spatula scaffold: An iris-sparing technique for lensectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2017-12-01

    Lensectomy with vitrectomy is often performed for crystalline lenticular subluxation. We report a new technique and a practical approach that involves the placement of a spatula beneath the iris tissue that facilitates retroiridial removal of subluxated lens and acts as a scaffold by protecting the iris tissue from being accidentally trapped into the vitrectomy cutter port. Our technique facilitates management of the lens and vitreous without any trauma to the iris and secondarily obviates the need to perform an iris repair procedure that may arise due to iatrogenic reasons.

  14. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS): a practical approach to medical and surgical considerations in cataract extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Børme, Kim Kamp

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery is characterized by iris fluttering, iris prolapse towards the incisions, and a progressive pupillary constriction leading to high rates of complications. The syndrome has been reported following the treatment of benign...

  15. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  16. Effect of tamsulosin on iris vasculature and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Hussain, Munira T; Cooney, Theresa M; Elner, Victor M; Hood, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). Academic multispecialty practice. Case series. Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was statistically significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P=.009 and P=.003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P=.05) but not in the control group (P=.3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of tamsulosin on iris vasculature and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Hussain, Munira T.; Cooney, Theresa M.; Elner, Victor M.; Hood, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). SETTING Academic multispecialty practice. DESIGN Case series. METHODS Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. RESULTS Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P = .009 and P = .003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P = .05) but not in the control group (P = .3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. CONCLUSIONS Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. PMID:24631201

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Iris Genotypes (Iris spp Using ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyedeh zeinab attari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of Iris species are growing in different parts of the Iran as wild species. Iris species have important medicinal and horticultural properties. Understanding of the genetic variation within and between populations is essential for the establishment of effective and efficient methods for conservation of the plants. Genetic variation studies are fundamental for the management and conservation of this species. The use of molecular markers is a powerful tool in the genetic study of populations. The use of DNA marker, such as AFLP, SSR, RAPD and ISSR represents an alternative method in detection of polymorphism. ISSRs are highly variable, require less investment in time, money and labor than other methods. ISSR can generate higher percentages of polymorphic loci than other PCR methods. These can serve as an efficient tool for phylogenetic studies. ISSRs had reported that used in studies of cultivated species to produce genetic linkage maps and to determine the relatedness of lines of agriculturally important species. ISSR analysis involves the PCR amplification of regions between adjacent, inversely oriented microsatellites, using a single simple sequence repeat (SSR motifs (dinucleotide, trinucleotide, tetranucleotide or penta nucleotides. Therefore, little is known about the genetic variability of the Iranian Iris ssp .The objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic diversity among genotypes using ISSR markers and the degree of polymorphism generated from ISSR technique as a pre-requisite for their applicability to population genetics studies in Iris ssp. Materials and Methods: To evaluate genetic variations in some wild Iris genotypes, Iris kopetdaghensis ،Iris songarica and Iris fosteriana were collected from some parts of Khorasan province. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves following the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB procedure. Extracted DNA concentration was quantified by using the spectrophotometer

  19. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  20. Data structures, computer graphics, and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, A; Kunii, T L

    1977-01-01

    Data Structures, Computer Graphics, and Pattern Recognition focuses on the computer graphics and pattern recognition applications of data structures methodology.This book presents design related principles and research aspects of the computer graphics, system design, data management, and pattern recognition tasks. The topics include the data structure design, concise structuring of geometric data for computer aided design, and data structures for pattern recognition algorithms. The survey of data structures for computer graphics systems, application of relational data structures in computer gr

  1. Adaptive weighted local textural features for illumination, expression, and occlusion invariant face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2014-03-01

    Biometric features such as fingerprints, iris patterns, and face features help to identify people and restrict access to secure areas by performing advanced pattern analysis and matching. Face recognition is one of the most promising biometric methodologies for human identification in a non-cooperative security environment. However, the recognition results obtained by face recognition systems are a affected by several variations that may happen to the patterns in an unrestricted environment. As a result, several algorithms have been developed for extracting different facial features for face recognition. Due to the various possible challenges of data captured at different lighting conditions, viewing angles, facial expressions, and partial occlusions in natural environmental conditions, automatic facial recognition still remains as a difficult issue that needs to be resolved. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to tackling some of these issues by analyzing the local textural descriptions for facial feature representation. The textural information is extracted by an enhanced local binary pattern (ELBP) description of all the local regions of the face. The relationship of each pixel with respect to its neighborhood is extracted and employed to calculate the new representation. ELBP reconstructs a much better textural feature extraction vector from an original gray level image in different lighting conditions. The dimensionality of the texture image is reduced by principal component analysis performed on each local face region. Each low dimensional vector representing a local region is now weighted based on the significance of the sub-region. The weight of each sub-region is determined by employing the local variance estimate of the respective region, which represents the significance of the region. The final facial textural feature vector is obtained by concatenating the reduced dimensional weight sets of all the modules (sub-regions) of the face image

  2. Early Career Investigator Opportunities in Geophysics with IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, H.; Sumy, D. F.; Schutt, D.

    2016-12-01

    Early career geoscientists face many challenges as they transition from senior level graduate students into postdoctoral researchers, tenure-track faculty positions, or the vast array of employment opportunities outside of academia. However, few receive adequate mentoring or guidance on how to successfully make the leap from graduate school to a fulfilling career. In recognition of these hurdles and challenges, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) created an early-career investigator (ECI) program in 2011 to help reduce barriers for newly minted scientists, researchers, and educators on their path to success. The core mission of the ECI program is to organize practical resources and professional development opportunities for ECIs. The initiative has encouraged and supported collaboration between ECIs and senior scientists through colloquium lectureships and visiting scientist collaborations, which aimed to increase the visibility of ECIs and their research and to promote interaction between junior and senior scientists outside of their home institutions. Additionally, ECI-centric events are held at various national meetings to showcase the range of career paths available in geophysics, openly discuss the challenges ECIs face (e.g., work-life balance, job search difficulties, teaching challenges), expose participants to the ECI program's initiatives and resources, and better inform IRIS about the needs of the community. Post-workshop evaluations reveal ECIs are eager to have exposure to a variety of workforce options and a forum in which to ask difficult questions. Of note, there is a variety of cultural knowledge and expectations assumed in both the academic and professional worlds that is often not formally disseminated. The ECI program aims to better understand and facilitate transfer of this knowledge and reduce barriers to success for ECIs from both traditional and non-traditional backgrounds. The program also features webinars focused

  3. Under the hood of IRIS's Distributed REU Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Taber, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1998 the IRIS Undergraduate Internship Program has provided research experiences for up to 15 students each summer. Through this 9 to 11 week internship program, students take part in an intensive week-long preparatory course, and work with leaders in seismological research, in both lab-base and field-based settings, to produce research products worthy of presentation and recognition at large professional conferences. The IRIS internship program employs a distributed REU model that has been demonstrated to bond students into a cohort, and maintain group cohesion despite students conducting their research at geographically distributed sites. Over the past 16 years the program has encountered numerous anticipated and unanticipated challenges. The primary challenges have involved exploring how to modify the REU-system to produce outcomes that are better aligned with our programmatic goals. For example, some questions we have attempted to address include: How can the success of an REU site be measured? How do you find, interest, and recruit under-represented minorities into a geophysics program? Can the program increase the probability of interns receiving some minimal level of mentoring across the program? While it is likely that no single answer to these questions exists, we have developed and piloted a number of strategies. These approaches have been developed through a process of identifying relevant research results from other REUs and combing this information with data from our own programmatic evaluations. This data informs the development of specific changes within our program which are then measured as a feedback. We will present our current strategies to address each questions along with measures of their effectiveness. In addition to broad scale systematic issues, we have also placed significant effort into responding to smaller, process challenges that all REU sites face. These range from simple logistical issues (e.g. liability), to educational

  4. CFD modeling of the IRIS pressurizer dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R.; Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  5. CFD modeling of the IRIS pressurizer dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R., E-mail: rsanz@instec.cu, E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira, E-mail: jair.lima@ufpe.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universida Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  6. Dom IRIS in njegova vloga v rehabilitaciji: Smart Home IRIS and its role in rehabilitation: Smart Home IRIS and its role in rehabilitation:

    OpenAIRE

    Jenko, Mojca; Ocepek, Julija; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Smart Home IRIS is a demonstrative apartment, founded in 2008 on the basis of numerous European smart home projects. The aim of this study was to establish the role of Smart Home IRIS in improving quality of life for persons with disabilities and elderly in Slovenia and the satisfaction of persons who have already been involved in a treatment in it. We analyzed a satisfaction questionnaire of the treatment in Smart Home IRIS, sent to all patients in 2008 (79 in total), as well as the problems...

  7. Small incision guarded hydroaspiration of iris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D

    2017-11-01

    To describe the technique and results of a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of small iris lesions. Consecutive case series of 22 patients with localised, small iris lesions that were resected using the described surgical technique that composed of multiple, small corneal incisions created to allow for internal iris resection with 23-gauge horizontal vitrectomy scissors, followed by guarded tumour aspiration through a clear plastic tubing (diameter 3.5 mm) primed with viscoelastic agent. The mean largest basal diameter was 3.0 mm (range 1.5-5.0 mm; median 3.0 mm) and mean thickness was 1.3 mm (range 0.5-2.5 mm; median 1.0 mm). Use of multiple (2-4) small corneal incisions (range 2.0-3.0 mm; mean 2.8 mm) allowed reduced postoperative morbidity (significant hyphema (0%), hypotony (0%), wound leak (0%), >2 line change in best corrected visual acuity at postoperative 1 week (4.5%) and mean corneal astigmatism of 1.0 D (range 0.14-2.99 D; median 0.8 D) at postoperative 4-12 weeks. The tumour could be resected with clear surgical margins in all neoplastic cases (benign (2), borderline (1) and malignant (16)). Local recurrence or metastases were not observed in any melanoma case over a mean follow-up of 33.0 months (range 1.0-90.0 months; median 33.5 months). Small incision guarded hydroaspiration is a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of select small iris lesions. Use of multiple small corneal incisions avoids morbidity associated with a single large corneoscleral incision, and use of guarded aspiration may eliminate the risk of wound contamination by the malignant tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Grading of Iris Color with an Extended Photographic Reference Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Franssen

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: The new method is promising to be more accurate than existing iris color classification systems in clinical situations where objective colorimetry-based systems are not available. The method may be useful to assess iris translucency and fundus reflectance as sources of variation in retinal straylight.

  9. Driving Simulator study for intelligent cooperative intersection safety system (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.; Schendzielorz, T.; Mathias, P.; Feenstra, P.

    2008-01-01

    About forty percent of all accidents occur at intersections. The Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety system (IRIS), as part of the European research project SAFESPOT, is a roadside application and aims at minimizing the number of accidents at controlled and uncontrolled intersections. IRIS

  10. Simplified safety and containment systems for the iris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, L.E.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.; Oriani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a 100 - 300 MW modular type pressurized water reactor supported by the U.S. DOE NERI Program. IRIS features a long-life core to provide proliferation resistance and to reduce the volume of spent fuel, as well as reduce maintenance requirements. IRIS utilizes an integral reactor vessel that contains all major primary system components. This integral reactor vessel makes it possible to reduce containment size; making the IRIS more cost competitive. IRIS is being designed to enhance reactor safety, and therefore a key aspect of the IRIS program is the development of the safety and containment systems. These systems are being designed to maximize containment integrity, prevent core uncover following postulated accidents, minimize the probability and consequences of severe accidents, and provide a significant simplification over current safety system designs. The design of the IRIS containment and safety systems has been identified and preliminary analyses have been completed. The IRIS safety concept employs some unique features that minimize the consequences of postulated design basis events. This paper will provide a description of the containment design and safety systems, and will summarize the analysis results. (author)

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia (Revised External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA submitted a revised draft IRIS assessment of ammonia to the agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB) and posted this draft on the IRIS website. EPA had previously released a draft of the assessment for public comment, held a public meeting about the draft, and ...

  12. Eclipse-Free-Time Assessment Tool for IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, David

    2012-01-01

    IRIS_EFT is a scientific simulation that can be used to perform an Eclipse-Free- Time (EFT) assessment of IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) mission orbits. EFT is defined to be those time intervals longer than one day during which the IRIS spacecraft is not in the Earth s shadow. Program IRIS_EFT implements a special perturbation of orbital motion to numerically integrate Cowell's form of the system of differential equations. Shadow conditions are predicted by embedding this integrator within Brent s method for finding the root of a nonlinear equation. The IRIS_EFT software models the effects of the following types of orbit perturbations on the long-term evolution and shadow characteristics of IRIS mission orbits. (1) Non-spherical Earth gravity, (2) Atmospheric drag, (3) Point-mass gravity of the Sun, and (4) Point-mass gravity of the Moon. The objective of this effort was to create an in-house computer program that would perform eclipse-free-time analysis. of candidate IRIS spacecraft mission orbits in an accurate and timely fashion. The software is a suite of Fortran subroutines and data files organized as a "computational" engine that is used to accurately predict the long-term orbit evolution of IRIS mission orbits while searching for Earth shadow conditions.

  13. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  14. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Topical Bimatoprost and Iris Pigmentation Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Ruth, Nadine H; Fabi, Sabrina G

    2017-12-01

    Topical bimatoprost is a topical prostaglandin analog originally used to treat glaucoma and more recently used to cosmetically induce hypertrichosis of the eyelashes. Iris pigmentation change has been noted in the treatment of glaucoma but has not been assessed with the cosmetic periorbital application of bimatoprost. To evaluate for iris pigmentation change with the long-term cosmetic use of topical bimatoprost. A retrospective chart review in a cosmetic dermatology practice of women (N = 50) who consistently purchased topical bimatoprost over an average of 4.59 years was compared with that of age-matched non-bimatoprost patients (N = 50). A blinded evaluator assessed each patient for iris pigmentary change. No iris pigmentation change was noted with the cutaneous application of bimatoprost. The cutaneous application of bimatoprost appears to be safe with minimal risk for iris pigmentation change.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (External Review Draft ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of n-butanol that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  17. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    complete the wavefront aberration guided treatment of astigmatism, can separate the application of wavefront aberration analyzer automatic iris recognition technology to improve precision of astigmatism treatment, give full play to advanced technical performance of equipment, which has good application value.

  18. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  19. Multimodal Biometric System Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Gon Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of unimodal biometric systems (based on a single modality such as face or fingerprint has to contend with various problems, such as illumination variation, skin condition and environmental conditions, and device variations. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems have been used to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometrics and provide high accuracy recognition. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on score level fusion of face and both irises' recognition. Our study has the following novel features. First, the device proposed acquires images of the face and both irises simultaneously. The proposed device consists of a face camera, two iris cameras, near-infrared illuminators and cold mirrors. Second, fast and accurate iris detection is based on two circular edge detections, which are accomplished in the iris image on the basis of the size of the iris detected in the face image. Third, the combined accuracy is enhanced by combining each score for the face and both irises using a support vector machine. The experimental results show that the equal error rate for the proposed method is 0.131%, which is lower than that of face or iris recognition and other fusion methods.

  20. Barumiki antocyjanowe u Iris germanica [Anthocyanin pigments in Iris germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szczepańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments occurring in the flowers of Iris germanica were investigated in five varieties: Rota, Wedgewood, Empress of India, Deputate Nomblot and Joanna. The relation between the colour of the flower and the amount of the pigment was studied. The pigments were extracted from the dry plant material with 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Paper chromatography and colorimetric determinations were used for identification of the pigments and their quantitative determination. The results allow the following conclusions: 1. The varieties investigated were characterized toy the occurrence of delphinidine glycoside; 2. The colour intensity is dependent on the anthocyanin pigments; 3. The colour spectrum of Iris sp. flowersis greatly extended by yellow copigments.