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Sample records for irig standard format

  1. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  2. Guide to Synchronization of Video Systems to IRIG Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    and industry. 1-2 CHAPTER 2 SYNCHRONISATION Before delving into the details of synchronization , a review is needed of the reasons for synchronizing ... Synchronization of Video Systems to IRIG Timing Optical Systems Group Range Commanders Council White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5110 RCC Document 456-92 Range...This document addresses a broad field of video synchronization to IRIG timing with emphasis on color synchronization . This document deals with

  3. Mobile Digital Recording: Adequacy of the iRig and iOS Device for Acoustic and Perceptual Analysis of Normal Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele; Fava, Gaetano; Baglione, Melody; Pimpinella, Michael

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the iRig and iOS device recording system is comparable with a standard computer recording system for digital voice recording. Thirty-seven vocally healthy adults, between ages 20 and 62, with a mean age of 33.9 years, 13 males and 24 females, were recruited. Recordings were simultaneously digitalized in an iPad and iPhone using a unidirectional condenser microphone for smartphones/tablets (iRig Mic, IK Multimedia) and in a computer laptop (Dell-Inspiron) using a unidirectional condenser microphone (Samson-CL5) connected to a preamplifier with phantom power. Both microphones were lined up at an equal fixed distance from the subject's mouth. Speech tasks consisted of a sustained vowel "ah" at comfortable pitch/loudness, counting from 1 to 10, and a glissando "ah" from a low to a high note. The samples captured on the iOS devices were transferred via SoundCloud in WAV format, and analyzed using the Praat software. The acoustic parameters measured were mean, min, and max F0, SD F0, jitter local, jitter rap, jitter ppq5, jitter ddp, shimmer local, shimmer local-dB, shimmer apq3, shimmer apq5, shimmer apq11, shimmer dda, NHR, and HNR. There were no statistically significant differences for any parameter and speech task analyzed for both iOS devices as compared with the gold standard computer/preamp system (all P values > 0.050). In addition, there were no statistical differences in the perceptual identification of the recordings among devices (P device may provide reliable digital recording of normal voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it

  5. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  6. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17. Chapter 10. Digital Recording Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    IAW Subsection 10.4.2, or iSCSI (Ethernet) IAW Subsection 10.4.3. Recorder login and Chapter 6 CCM shall be transmitted and received using the SCSI...b. Login Security. The ground system shall invoke the iSCSI login phase with the LoginOperationalNegotiation stage. The SecurityNegotiation...the login phase not otherwise specified, the RMM and the ground station shall support the default values per RFC 3720. 10.9.3.4 FTP Data Access Method

  7. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    incorrect word count/message and illegal mode codes are not considered bus errors. 8.6.2 Source Signal The source of data is a signal conforming to...Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 8, July 2017 CHAPTER 8 Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard Acronyms...check FCS frame check sequence HDDR high-density digital recording MIL-STD Military Standard msb most significant bit PCM pulse code modulation

  8. Standard enthalpies of formation of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Ouweltjes, W.

    1977-01-01

    Enthalpies of solution of β-UO 2 SO 4 and α-UO 2 SeO 4 in H 2 SO 4 (aq) and of UO 2 SeO 3 in H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ce(SO 4 ) 2 have been measured calorimetrically. Together with measurements of the enthalpy of solution of γ-UO 3 in these solvents, the standard enthalpies of formation of anhydrous β-UO 2 SO 4 , α-UO 2 SeO 4 , and UO 2 SeO 3 have been derived. The results obtained are: ΔHsub(f) 0 (s, 298.15 K)/ kcalsub(th) mol -1 : β-UO 2 SO 4 , -(440.9 +- 0.2); α-UO 2 SeO 4 , -(367.9 +- 0.8); UO 2 SeO 3 , -(363.8 +- 0.2). (author)

  9. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  10. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of methoxyacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and computational energetic study of methoxyacetophenone isomers. • Enthalpies of formation and phase transition determined by calorimetric techniques. • Quantum chemical calculations allowed estimation of enthalpies of formation. • Structure and energy correlations were established. - Abstract: Values of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenones were derived from their standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was used to measure the enthalpies of sublimation/vaporization of the compounds studied. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase and the standard molar enthalpies for the phase transition. The results obtained are −(232.0 ± 2.5), −(237.7 ± 2.7) and −(241.1 ± 2.1) kJ · mol −1 for 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenone, respectively. Standard molar enthalpies of formation were also estimated from different methodologies: the Cox scheme as well as two different computational approaches using density functional theory-based B3LYP and the multilevel G3 methodologies

  11. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of monochloroacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the liquids 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-chloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO 2 (g) and HCl . 600H 2 O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet microcalorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. These two thermodynamic parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the chloroacetophenone isomers, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. (table) An empirical scheme, developed by Cox, was used to estimate the gas-phase enthalpies of formation and the obtained values were compared with the experimental ones.

  12. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of monochloroacetophenone isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the liquids 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-chloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2}(g) and HCl . 600H{sub 2}O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet microcalorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. These two thermodynamic parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the chloroacetophenone isomers, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. (table) An empirical scheme, developed by Cox, was used to estimate the gas-phase enthalpies of formation and the obtained values were compared with the experimental ones.

  13. The development of a standard format for accelerator data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of specifying a standard file format is to facilitate the analysis of data sampled by accelerator beam diagnostic instrumentation. The format's design needs to be flexible enough to allow storage of information from disparate diagnostic devices placed in the beam line. The goal of this project was to establish a standard file layout and syntax that can be generated and ''understood'' by a large set of applications running on the control and data-analysis computers at LAMPF as well as applications on personal computers. Only one file-parsing algorithm is needed for all computing systems. It is a straightforward process to code a parser for both the control computer and pc's once a consensus on the file syntax has been established. This paper describes the file format and the methods used to integrate the format into existing diagnostic and control software

  14. The development of a standard format for accelerator data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of specifying a standard file format is to facilitate the analysis of data sampled by accelerator beam-diagnostic instrumentation. The format's design needs to be flexible enough to allow storage of information from disparate diagnostic devices placed in the beam line. The goal of this project was to establish a standard file layout and syntax that can be generated and 'understood' by a large set of applications running on the control and data-analysis computers at LAMPF, as well as applications on personal computers. Only one file-parsing algorithm is needed for all computing systems. Once a consensus on the file syntax has been established, it is a straightforward process to code a parser for both the control computer and PCs. This paper describes the file format and the method used to integrate the format into existing diagnostic and control software. (orig.).

  15. Towards a systematic format for (seismic) equipment qualification standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 1), a systematic format for seismic equipment qualification (EQ) was initiated. This format consists of thirty issues associated with seismic EQ. Each issue was considered as a Category of Possible Seismic EQ Requirements and Criteria. That is, seismic EQ standards might be (but presently are not formulated in terms of requirements and criteria that address each of the thirty issues. Each of the thirty issues was ranked and a minimum set identified. The current requirements in existing NRC and national standards were also evaluated against this common set of issues, and they were estimated to score 60 out of 100 overall. It is believed that the systematic format exhibited in this paper can be of assistance in obtaining a broader and more complete perspective on seismic EQ issues. This format (but especially the technique) may also be of interest in non-seismic EQ since many of the issues are common

  16. Data format standard for sharing light source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. Groot; Ashdown, Ian; Brandenburg, Willi; Chabaud, Dominique; Dross, Oliver; Gangadhara, Sanjay; Garcia, Kevin; Gauvin, Michael; Hansen, Dirk; Haraguchi, Kei; Hasna, Günther; Jiao, Jianzhong; Kelley, Ryan; Koshel, John; Muschaweck, Julius

    2013-09-01

    Optical design requires accurate characterization of light sources for computer aided design (CAD) software. Various methods have been used to model sources, from accurate physical models to measurement of light output. It has become common practice for designers to include measured source data for design simulations. Typically, a measured source will contain rays which sample the output distribution of the source. The ray data must then be exported to various formats suitable for import into optical analysis or design software. Source manufacturers are also making measurements of their products and supplying CAD models along with ray data sets for designers. The increasing availability of data has been beneficial to the design community but has caused a large expansion in storage needs for the source manufacturers since each software program uses a unique format to describe the source distribution. In 2012, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) formed a working group to understand the data requirements for ray data and recommend a standard file format. The working group included representatives from software companies supplying the analysis and design tools, source measurement companies providing metrology, source manufacturers creating the data and users from the design community. Within one year the working group proposed a file format which was recently approved by the IES for publication as TM-25. This paper will discuss the process used to define the proposed format, highlight some of the significant decisions leading to the format and list the data to be included in the first version of the standard.

  17. Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation of some methylbenzenediol isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program on the energetics of formation of alkyl substituted benzenediols, aiming the study of the enthalpic effect of the introduction of methyl substituents into benzenediols. In this work we present the results of the thermochemical research on 2-methylresorcinol, 3-methylresorcinol, 4-methylresorcinol, and methylhydroquinone. The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, of the compounds mentioned above were derived from their standard massic energies of combustion, measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry, while the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of those compounds were obtained by the temperature dependence of their vapour pressures determined by the Knudsen effusion technique. From experimental values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the studied methylbenzenediols in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K were then derived. The results are interpreted in terms of structural contributions to the energetics of the substituted benzenediols and compared with the same parameters estimated from the Cox Scheme. Moreover, the standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the four isomers of methylbenzenediols.

  18. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Barros, Ana L.M.; Bessa, Ana R.C.; Brito, Barbara C.S.A.; Vieira, Joana A.S.; Martins, Silvia A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enthalpies of formation of 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene were measured by combustion calorimetry. → Vapor pressures of crystalline 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene obtained by Knudsen effusion mass loss technique. → Enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs functions of sublimation at T = 298.15 K were calculated. - Abstract: The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline state, of the 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry. Vapor pressure measurements at different temperatures, using the Knudsen mass loss effusion technique, enabled the determination of the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, for both isomers. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, for 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene, were also measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. (table) Combining these two experimental values, the gas-phase standard molar enthalpies, at T = 298.15 K, were derived and compared with those estimated by employing two different methodologies: one based on the Cox scheme and the other one based on G3MP2B3 calculations. The calculated values show a good agreement with the experimental values obtained in this work.

  19. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of sodium alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, K.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Gopalan, A.; Ganesan, V.

    2007-01-01

    The molar enthalpies of solution of sodium in methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol and of sodium alkoxides in their corresponding alcohols were measured at T=298.15K using an isoperibol solution calorimeter. From these results and other auxiliary data, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o (RONa,cr) of sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide, and sodium n-propoxide were calculated and found to be {(-366.21+/-1.38) (-413.39+/-1.45), and (-441.57+/-1.18)}kJ.mol -1 , respectively. A linear correlation has been found between Δ f H m o (RONa)andΔ f H m o (ROH) for R=n-alkyl, enabling the prediction of data for other sodium alkoxides

  20. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of hydroxy-, chlor-, and bromapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Fernando J.A.L. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Calado, Jorge C.G. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: jcalado@ist.utl.pt

    2005-10-15

    The standard (p{sup 0} =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state of hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite and a preliminary value for bromapatite, at T=298.15K, were determined by reaction-solution calorimetry as: {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2},cr]=-(13399+/-11)kJ.mol{sup -1},{delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2},cr]=-(13231+/-82)kJ.mol{sup -1},and{delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Br{sub 2},cr]=-(13063+/-81)kJ.mol{sup -1}. A critical assessment of these results and of previously published data is made. Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of iodapatite is estimated as {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}I{sub 2},cr]=-12949kJ.mol{sup -1}, from a linear correlation of {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}X{sub 2},cr] (X=OH, F, Cl, Br) against the corresponding {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0} [CaX{sub 2},cr].

  1. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0323] Standard Format and Content of License Applications... revision to regulatory guide (RG) 3.39, ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This guide endorses the standard format and content for license...

  2. Standard formatted data units-control authority procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish a set of minimum and optional requirements for the implementation of Control Authority (CA) organizations within and among the Agencies participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). By satisfying these requirements, the resultant cooperating set of CA organizations will produce a global CA service supporting information transfer with digital data under the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) concept. This service is primarily accomplished through the registration, permanent archiving, and dissemination of metadata in the form of Metadata Objects (MDO) that assist in the interpretation of data objects received in SFDU form. This Recommendation addresses the responsibilities, services, and interface protocols for a hierarchy of CA organizations. The top level, consisting of the CCSDS Secretariat and its operational agent, is unique and primarily provides a global coordination function. The lower levels are Agency CA organizations that have primary responsibility for the registration, archiving, and dissemination of MDOs. As experience is gained and technology evolves, the CA Procedures will be extended to include enhanced services and their supporting protocols. In particular, it is anticipated that eventually CA organizations will be linked via networks on a global basis, and will provide requestors with online automated access to CA services. While this Recommendation does not preclude such operations, it also does not recommend the specific protocols to be used to ensure global compatibility of these services. These recommendations will be generated as experience is gained.

  3. Accuracy of standard craniometric measurements using multiple data formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Adam H; Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2014-09-01

    With continuing advancements in biomedical imaging technologies, anthropologists are increasingly making use of data derived from indirect measurement and analysis of skeletal material. To that end, the purpose of this study was to test the reliability of 26 standard craniometric measurements routinely utilized in forensic casework across several different imaging technologies. Measurements from five crania of known individuals were collected in duplicate by two anthropologists via computed tomography (CT) scans and three-dimensional (3D) laser scans of the known skulls. The laser scans were also used to create prototype models of the known skulls. These prototypes were, themselves, laser-scanned, and measurements were also collected from the prototypes and the laser scans of the prototypes. Measurement sets from each technology were then compared with one another using the previously collected osteometric measurements taken on the crania themselves as the ground truth. indicate that, while the majority of measurements showed no significant differences across data formats, a handful were found to be problematic for particular technologies. For instance, measurements taken in a supero-inferior direction (e.g., BBH, OBH) from CT scans were prone to greater deviation from direct measurements of the cranium than other technologies, especially for CT scans taken at 5 mm thickness and increment. Also, several measurements defined by Type 1 landmarks, particularly those occurring at complicated or indistinct suture junctures (e.g., ASB, ZMB), were found to have high variance across all technologies while measurements based on Type 3 landmarks proved to be highly reproducible. This is contrary to measurements taken directly on crania, in which measures defined by Type 1 landmarks are typically the most reliable, likely attributable to diminished or totally obscured suture definition in the scan data. If medical imaging data are to be increasingly utilized in

  4. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1272, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities... Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,'' which was issued in July 2000. DG-1271...

  5. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a...

  6. 76 FR 59173 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0302] Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide..., ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills.'' DG- 3024 was a...

  7. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  8. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  9. Standard molar enthalpies of formation and of sublimation of the terphenyl isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S.

    2008-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline phases of ortho, meta and para-terphenyl isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence of the vapour pressure of the crystals with the temperature, thus deriving their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Combining the standard molar enthalpies of formation and sublimation of the crystalline terphenyls, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the three isomers. Results are provided in a table. The results show small but detectable isomerization enthalpies between the terphenyls, indicating the following relative enthalpic stabilities: m- > p- ∼ o-terphenyl

  10. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 24. Message Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Structure A TSS data message is a wrapper used to aid specialized routing of network traffic between TmNS networks over other networks . The structure of...IP)- network systems and, therefore, are not required to comply with the big -endian convention. The IP specification defines standard network byte...numeric values in TmNSMessageHeader and PackageHeader fields of the TmNSMessage as following network byte order (i.e., big -endian). 24.2.1

  11. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Recorder Data Packet Format Standard Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    communication data. This packet standard will allow use of a common set of data interpretation libraries to reduce the cost of producing data analysis...controller CAN controller area network CBR constant bit rate CIU communication interface unit CSDW channel-specific data word CTS Combat Training Systems...field shall be used to indicate bus identification as follows. 111 Communication interface unit (CIU) Left Bus A 110 CIU Left Bus B 101 CIU Right Bus

  12. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone: An experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Margarida S.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2010-01-01

    The energetics of 1-benzosuberone was studied by a combination of calorimetric techniques and computational calculations. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone, in the liquid phase, was derived from the massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, was measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. From these two parameters the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived: -(96.1 ± 3.4) kJ . mol -1 . The G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite method and appropriate reactions were used to computationally calculate the standard molar enthalpy of formation of 1-benzosuberone, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. The computational results are in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  13. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML.

  14. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3- and 4-cyanobenzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.; Boaventura, Cristina R.P.; Gomes, Jose R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3- and 4-cyanobenzoic acids were derived from their standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was used to measure the enthalpies of sublimation of 2- and 3-cyanobenzoic acids. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase and standard molar enthalpies for phase transition. The results obtained are -(150.7 ± 2.0) kJ . mol -1 , -(153.6 ± 1.7) kJ . mol -1 and -(157.1 ± 1.4) kJ . mol -1 for 2-cyano, 3-cyano and 4-cyanobenzoic acids, respectively. Standard molar enthalpies of formation were also estimated by employing two different methodologies: one based on the Cox scheme and the other one based on several different computational approaches. The calculated values show a good agreement with the experimental values obtained in this work

  15. NASA Standard for Airborne Data: ICARTT Format ESDS-RFC-019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, A.; Brown, C.; Aknan, A.; Crawford, J. H.; Chen, G.; Williams, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne field studies generate a plethora of data products in the effort to study atmospheric composition and processes. Data file formats for airborne field campaigns are designed to present data in an understandable and organized way to support collaboration and to document relevant and important meta data. The ICARTT file format was created to facilitate data management during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign in 2004 that involved government-agencies and university participants from five countries. Since this mission the ICARTT format has been used in subsequent field campaigns such as Polar Study Using Aircraft Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models of Climates, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) and the first phase of Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). The ICARTT file format has been endorsed as a standard format for airborne data by the Standard Process Group (SPG), one of the Earth Science Data Systems Working Groups (ESDSWG) in 2010. The detailed description of the ICARTT format can be found at http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/etc/ESDS-RFC-019-v1.00.pdf. The ICARTT data format is an ASCII, comma delimited format that was based on the NASA Ames and GTE file formats. The file header is detailed enough to fully describe the data for users outside of the instrument group and includes a description of the meta data. The ICARTT scanning tools, format structure, implementations, and examples will be presented.

  16. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of three N-benzoylthiocarbamic-O-alkylesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Schroeder, Bernd; Dietze, Frank; Beyer, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion in oxygen of three crystalline N-benzoylthiocarbamic-O-alkylesters, PhCONHCSOR, R=Et (Hbtcee), n-Bu (Hbtcbe), n-Hex (Hbtche), were measured at T=298.15 K by rotating bomb calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the three compounds were measured using Calvet microcalorimetry. These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in their crystalline and gaseous phases, respectively

  17. The Calculation of Standard Enthalpies of Formation of Alkanes: Illustrating Molecular Mechanics and Spreadsheet Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Eric Leigh

    1999-02-01

    How group increment methods may be used to predict standard enthalpies of formation of alkanes is outlined as an undergraduate computational chemistry experiment. The experiment requires input and output data sets. Although users may create their own data sets, both sets are provided. The input data set contains experimentally determined gas-phase standard enthalpies of formation and calculated steric energies for 10 alkanes. The steric energy for an alkane is calculated via a Molecular Mechanics approach employing Allinger's MM3 force field. Linear regression analysis on data contained in the input data set generates the coefficients that are used with the output data set to calculate standard enthalpies of formation for 15 alkanes. The average absolute error for the calculated standard enthalpies of formation is 1.22 kcal/mol. The experiment is highly suited to those interested in incorporating more computational chemistry in their curricula. In this regard, it is ideally suited for a physical chemistry laboratory, but it may be used in an organic chemistry course as well.

  18. Standard format and content for radiological contingency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit a radiological contingency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help assure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  19. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  20. Standard Electronic Format Specification for Tank Characterization Data Loader Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the standard electronic format for data files that will be sent for entry into the Tank Characterization Database (TCD). There are 2 different file types needed for each data load: Analytical Results; Sample Descriptions. The first record of each file must be a header record. The content of the first 5 fields is ignored. They were used previously to satisfy historic requirements that are no longer applicable. The sixth field of the header record must contain the Standard Electronic Format (SEF) version ID (SEF3.0). The remaining records will be formatted as specified below. Fields within a record will be separated using the ''|'' symbol. The ''|'' symbol must not appear anywhere in the file except when used as a delimiter

  1. A community standard format for the representation of protein affinity reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Orchard, Sandra; Bertinetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Protein affinity reagents (PARs), most commonly antibodies, are essential reagents for protein characterization in basic research, biotechnology, and diagnostics as well as the fastest growing class of therapeutics. Large numbers of PARs are available commercially; however, their quality is often...... that facilitates easy comparison of their cost and quality. However, in contrast to, for example, nucleotide databases among which data are synchronized between the major data providers, current PAR producers, quality control centers, and commercial companies all use incompatible formats, hindering data exchange....... Here we propose Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI)-PAR as a global community standard format for the representation and exchange of protein affinity reagent data. The PSI-PAR format is maintained by the Human Proteome Organisation PSI and was developed within the context of Proteome...

  2. XML as a standard I/O data format in scientific software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Tianming; Yang Jiamin; Yi Rongqing

    2010-01-01

    XML is an open standard data format with strict syntax rules, which is widely used in large-scale software development. It is adopted as I/O file format in the development of SpectroSim, a simulation and data-processing system for soft x-ray spectrometer used in ICF experiments. XML data that describe spectrometer configurations, schema codes that define syntax rules for XML and report generation technique for visualization of XML data are introduced. The characteristics of XML such as the capability to express structured information, self-descriptive feature, automation of visualization are explained with examples, and its feasibility as a standard scientific I/O data file format is discussed. (authors)

  3. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of three methyl-pyrazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Cabral, Joana I.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combustion calorimetry was used to determine Δ f H m ∘ (cr) of methyl-pyrazole derivatives. ► Vapour pressures were determined by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. ► Gas-phase Δ f H m ∘ of the studied compounds have been derived. - Abstract: The standard (p ° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline 3-methyl-1-pyrazolecarboxamide; 3-methyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one; and 4-methyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO 2 (g), H 2 O (l) and N 2 (g), at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated from the variation of the vapour pressures of each compound with temperature, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. These two thermodynamic parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the pyrazole derivatives, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation, in gaseous state, are analyzed in terms of enthalpic increments and interpreted in terms of molecular structure.

  4. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-furancarbonitrile, 2-acetylfuran, and 3-furaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar energies of combustion of 2-furancarbonitrile, 2-acetylfuran, and 3-furaldehyde were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry; the Calvet high-temperature microcalorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of these liquid compounds. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase and the standard molar enthalpies of phase transition, as (106.8 ± 1.1) kJ . mol -1 , -(207.4 ± 1.3) kJ . mol -1 , and -(151.9 ± 1.1) kJ . mol -1 , for 2-furancarbonitrile, 2-acetylfuran, and 3-furaldehyde, respectively. Standard molar enthalpies of formation are discussed in terms of the isomerization ortho meta. Enthalpic increment values of the introduction of the functional groups -CN, -CHO, and -COCH 3 were also compared with some other heterocycles; i.e. thiophene and pyridine

  5. Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation of some 4-alkoxybenzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Maciel, Fabrice M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program on the energetics of the linear 4-n-alkoxybenzoic acids, aiming the study of the enthalpic effect of the introduction of an alkoxy chain in the position 4- of the benzoic acid ring. In this work, we present the results of the thermochemical research on 4-n-alkoxybenzoic acids with the alkoxy chain length n = 2, 4, and 8. The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-butoxybenzoic acid, and 4-(octyloxy)benzoic acid was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by static-bomb calorimetry. These values, combined with the values of standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase.

  6. A standard format and a graphical user interface for spin system specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biternas, A G; Charnock, G T P; Kuprov, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a simple and general XML format for spin system description that is the result of extensive consultations within Magnetic Resonance community and unifies under one roof all major existing spin interaction specification conventions. The format is human-readable, easy to edit and easy to parse using standard XML libraries. We also describe a graphical user interface that was designed to facilitate construction and visualization of complicated spin systems. The interface is capable of generating input files for several popular spin dynamics simulation packages. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3-, and 4-piperidinomethanol isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Cabral, Joana I.T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar energies of combustion in oxygen of 2-piperidinemethanol, 3-piperidinemethanol, and 4-piperidinemethanol, all in the crystalline phase, were measured, at T=298.15K, by static bomb calorimetry. These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of combustion and the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, for these compounds. Further, the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T=298.15K, of these three piperidinomethanol isomers were determined by Cavet microcalorimetry. The combustion calorimetry results together with those from the Calvet microcalorimetry, were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation, at T=298.15K, in the gaseous phase, of the three piperidinemethanol studied. -Δ c H m o (cr)Δ cr g H m o kJ.mol -1 kJ.mol -1 2-Piperidinemethanol3890.70+/-0.9293.02+/-0.503- Piperidinemethanol3895.3+/-1.195.9+/-1.44-Piperidinemethanol3891.3+/- 1.198.31+/-0.69

  8. Low-tmperature Heat Capacities and Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG, Qingfen; TAN, Zhicheng; WANG, Xiaohuan; DONG, Yaping; LI, Wu; SHI, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol (4-NBA) have been measured by a high precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 396 K. The melting temperature, the molar calculated in the range from 80 to 400 K at the interval of 5 K. The constant-volume energy and standard molar en- at T=298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpy of formation has been derived, ΔfHom(C7H7NO3, s)=-(206.49± namic quantities through a Hess thermochemical cycle.

  9. Standard enthalpy of formation of Sm6UO12 acid dissolution calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2016-01-01

    The standard molar enthalpies of formation of Δ f (298 K) of Sm 6 UO 12 have been determined by using an indigenously developed isoperibol acid solution calorimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by electrical calibration. The accuracy of measurement were determined by using standard materials KCl and tris(hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (TRIS) and was found to be within ±2%. The enthalpies of solution at 298 K of Sm 2 O 3 , UO 3 and Sm 6 UO 12 were measured by using this calorimeter. From these experimental results the enthalpies of formation of Sm 6 UO 12 at 298 K were computed by using Hess's law of summation. (author)

  10. SGC method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from their molecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albahri, Tareq A.; Aljasmi, Abdulla F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ΔH° f is predicted from the molecular structure of the compounds alone. • ANN-SGC model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. • ANN-MNLR model predicts ΔH° f with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. • Better definition of the atom-type molecular groups is presented. • The method is better than others in terms of combined simplicity, accuracy and generality. - Abstract: A theoretical method for predicting the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds from various chemical families is presented. Back propagation artificial neural networks were used to investigate several structural group contribution (SGC) methods available in literature. The networks were used to probe the structural groups that have significant contribution to the overall enthalpy of formation property of pure compounds and arrive at the set of groups that can best represent the enthalpy of formation for about 584 substances. The 51 atom-type structural groups listed provide better definitions of group contributions than others in the literature. The proposed method can predict the standard enthalpy of formation of pure compounds with an AAD of 11.38 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient of 0.9934 from only their molecular structure. The results are further compared with those of the traditional SGC method based on MNLR as well as other methods in the literature

  11. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 1-methyl-2-piperidinemethanol, 1-piperidineethanol, and 2-piperidineethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Cabral, Joana I.T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, Δ c H m o , for the liquid compounds 1-methyl-2-piperidinemethanol, 1-piperidineethanol, and 2-piperidineethanol, were measured by static bomb calorimetry, in oxygen, at T=298.15K. The standard molar enthalpies of vaporization, at T=298.15K, of these three liquid compounds were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. -Δ c H m o (l)/(kJ.mol -1 )Δ l g H m o /(kJ.mol -1 )1-Methyl-2-piperidinemethanol4598.3+/-1.868. 22+/-0.711-Piperidineethanol4595.2+/-1.764.18+/-0.812 -Piperidineethanol4566.2+/-1.375.24+/-0.52 These values, were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, at T=298.15K, in their liquid and gaseous phase, respectively. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous state, are analyzed in terms of enthalpic increments and interpreted in terms of molecular structure.

  12. Development of format and contents of safety analysis report for the KNGR standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Yun, Y. K. and others

    1999-01-01

    Referring to the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 which has been used in the preparation of the SAR for conventional nuclear power plants, the draft guide for format and contents of the SAR for the KNGR standard design was developed based on new regulatory information related to advanced reactors. The draft guide will enable the regulator to make an effective and consistent review on the safety of the KNGR, when this draft guide is used, since the draft guide requires more specific and additional safety information for the standardized NPPs than RG 1.70. In addition, it is expected that the guide for the format and contents of the COL's SAR will be more easily developed using the draft guide suggested in this report. Also, the draft guide can serve as the Korean national guide, with the exception to some industry codes and standards. The experts' review will be performed during the next stage of the project to ensure the objectivity and consistency of the draft guide developed in this study. After reflecting the experts' comments in the guide and revising the contents, it will be utilized in the licensing activities for the KNGR standard design

  13. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0264] Standard Format and Content for a License...), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel..., Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information that must be in an application for a license to store...

  14. Standard formation enthalpies of Nasub(2+x)Vsub(6)Osub(16-y) bronze of kappa type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodos, M.Ya.; Slobodin, B.V.; Surat, L.L.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Standard formation enthalpies of sodium oxide vanadium bronze of kappa Nasub(2+x)Vsub(6)Osub(16-y) type of different composition have been determined by the method of solution calorimetry. It has been ascertained that within the limits of homogeneity a standard formation enthalpy decreases insignificantly with the increase of bronze oxygen defectiveness and is a linear function of sodium content

  15. Standardization and classification of In vitro biofilm formation by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with nosocomial infections. The development of biofilm exhibiting drug resistance especially in foreign body associated infections has enabled the bacterium to draw considerable attention. However, till date, consensus guidelines for in vitro biofilm quantitation and categorization criterion for the bacterial isolates based on biofilm-forming capacity are lacking. Therefore, it was intended to standardize in vitro biofilm formation by clinical isolates of S. aureus and then to classify them on the basis of their biofilm-forming capacity. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted for biofilm quantitation by tissue culture plate (TCP assay employing 61 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples during May 2015– December 2015 wherein several factors influencing the biofilm formation were optimized. Therefore, it was intended to propose a biofilm classification criteria based on the standard deviation multiples of the control differentiating them into non, low, medium, and high biofilm formers. Results: Brain-heart infusion broth was found to be more effective in biofilm formation compared to trypticase soy broth. Heat fixation was more effective than chemical fixation. Although, individually, glucose, sucrose, and sodium chloride (NaCl had no significant effect on biofilm formation, a statistically significant increase in absorbance was observed after using the supplement mix consisting of 222.2 mM glucose, 116.9 mM sucrose, and 1000 mM NaCl (P = 0.037. Conclusions: The present study puts forth a standardized in vitro TCP assay for biofilm biomass quantitation and categorization criteria for clinical isolates of S. aureus based on their biofilm-forming capacity. The proposed in vitro technique may be further evaluated for its usefulness in the management of persistent infections caused by the bacterium.

  16. Standard format and content for emergency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This regulatory guides is being developed to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be included in emergency plans and to establish a format for presenting the information. Use of a standard format will help ensure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of emergency plans. An acceptable emergency plan should describe the licensed activities conducted at the facility and the types of accidents that might occur. It should provide information on classifying postulated accidents and the licensee's procedures for notifying and coordinating with offsite authorities. The plan should provide information on emergency response measures that might be necessary, the equipment and facilities available to respond to an emergency, and how the licensee will maintain emergency preparedness capability. It should describe the records and reports that will be maintained. There should also be a section on recovery after an accident and plans for restoring the facility to a safe condition. 4 refs

  17. Standard molar Gibbs free energy of formation of URh3(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Sayi, Y.S.; Radhakrishna, J.; Yadav, C.S.; Shankaran, P.S.; Chhapru, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Equilibrium partial pressures of CO(g) over the system (UO 2 (s) + C(s) + Rh(s) + URh 3 (s)) were measured in the temperature range 1327 - 1438 K. Standard Gibbs molar free energy of formation of URh 3 (Δ f G o m ) in the above temperature range can be expressed as Δ f G o m (URh 3 ,s,T)+-3.0(kJ/mol)= -348.165 + 0.03144 T(K). The second and third law enthalpy of formation, ΔfH o m (URh 3 ,s,298.15 K) are (-318.4 +- 3.0) and (298.3 +- 2.5) kJ/mol respectively. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Rh2YZ Heusler compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ming; Nash, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The standard enthalpies of formation (Δ f H°) of selected ternary Rh-based Rh 2 YZ (Y = Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) compounds were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mol of atoms) are, for the Heusler compound Rh 2 MnSn (−40.1 ± 3.6), for the B2-structured compounds: Rh 2 FeAl (−48.5 ± 2.9); Rh 2 MnAl (−72.4 ± 2.7); Rh 2 MnGa (−55.3 ± 2.0); Rh 2 MnIn (−35.3 ± 1.9), for the tetragonal compounds: Rh 2 FeSn (−28.9 ± 1.3); Rh 2 TiAl (−97.6 ± 2.2); Rh 2 TiGa (−79.0 ± 1.8); Rh 2 TiSn (−74.7 ± 3.1). Values are compared with those from first principles calculations in published papers and the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD). Lattice parameters of these compounds are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). - Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Rh 2 YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Measured enthalpies agree with first principles data in general. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Rh 2 TiSn of tI8 structure were reported for the first time.

  19. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Rh{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2015-11-25

    The standard enthalpies of formation (Δ{sub f}H°) of selected ternary Rh-based Rh{sub 2}YZ (Y = Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) compounds were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mol of atoms) are, for the Heusler compound Rh{sub 2}MnSn (−40.1 ± 3.6), for the B2-structured compounds: Rh{sub 2}FeAl (−48.5 ± 2.9); Rh{sub 2}MnAl (−72.4 ± 2.7); Rh{sub 2}MnGa (−55.3 ± 2.0); Rh{sub 2}MnIn (−35.3 ± 1.9), for the tetragonal compounds: Rh{sub 2}FeSn (−28.9 ± 1.3); Rh{sub 2}TiAl (−97.6 ± 2.2); Rh{sub 2}TiGa (−79.0 ± 1.8); Rh{sub 2}TiSn (−74.7 ± 3.1). Values are compared with those from first principles calculations in published papers and the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD). Lattice parameters of these compounds are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). - Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Rh{sub 2}YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Measured enthalpies agree with first principles data in general. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Rh{sub 2}TiSn of tI8 structure were reported for the first time.

  20. Benefits of standard format and content for approval of packaging for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pstrak, D.; Osgood, N.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) uses Regulatory Guide 7.9, ''Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packaging for Radioactive Material'' to provide recommendations on the preparation of applications for approval of Type B and fissile material packages. The purpose of this Regulatory Guide is to assist the applicant in preparing an application that demonstrates the adequacy of a package in meeting the 10 CFR Part 71 packaging requirements. NRC recently revised Regulatory Guide 7.9 to reflect current changes to the regulations in Part 71 as a result of a recent rulemaking that included changes to the structural, containment, and criticality requirements for packages. Overall, the NRC issues Regulatory Guides to describe methods that are acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing specific parts of the NRC's regulations, to explain techniques used by the NRC staff in evaluating specific problems, and to provide guidance to applicants. It is important to note the specific purpose of this Regulatory Guide. As the name indicates, this Guide sets forth a standard format for application submission that is acceptable to the NRC staff that, when used by the applicant, will accomplish several objectives. First, use of the guide provides a consistent and repeatable approach that indicates the information to be provided by the applicant. Second, the organization of the information in the application will assist the reviewer(s) in locating information. Ultimately, accomplishing these objectives will help to ensure the completeness of the information in the application as well as decrease the review time. From an international perspective, use of a standard format approach could enhance the efficiency with which Competent Authorities certify and validate packages for use in the packaging and transportation of radioactive material worldwide. This streamlined approach of preparing package applications could ultimately lead to uniform

  1. Determination of standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of Sm6UO12(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Manjulata; Dash, Smruti

    2015-01-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of Sm 6 UO 12 (s) have been measured using an oxygen concentration cell with yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte. Δ f G o m (T) for Sm 6 UO 12 (s) has been calculated using the measured and required thermodynamic data from the literature. The calculated Gibbs energy expression in the temperature range 899 to 1127 K can be given as: Δ f G o m (Nd 6 UO 12 , s,T)/(±2.3) kJ∙ mol -1 = -6681 +1.099 (T/K) (899-1127 K)(T/K). (author)

  2. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  3. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE teaching format structured around the following steps: assemble (A) into groups, convey (C) learning objectives, teach (T) background information, inquire (I) through cases and questions, verify (V) understanding, and explain (E) answer choices and educate on the learning points. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the ACTIVE teaching format versus the standard lecture format, comparing resident satisfaction, immediate knowledge achievement and long-term knowledge retention. We qualitatively assessed participating faculty members’ perspectives on the faculty development efforts and the feasibility of teaching using the ACTIVE format. Results Sixty-nine internal medicine residents participated in the study. Overall, there was an improvement in perceived engagement using the ACTIVE teaching format (4.78 vs. 3.80, P teaching format (overall absolute score increase of 11%, P = 0.04) and a trend toward improvement in long-term knowledge retention. Faculty members felt adequately prepared to use the ACTIVE teaching format, and enjoyed teaching with the ACTIVE teaching format more than the standard lecture. Conclusions A structured ACTIVE teaching format improved resident engagement and initial knowledge, and required minimal resources. The ACTIVE teaching format offers an exciting alternative to the standard lecture for resident noon conference and is easy to implement. PMID:24985781

  4. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1979-1991): Sighting and Census (F127) (NODC Accession 0014197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  6. Standard formation enthalpies of mononuclear and cluster oxoanions of boron, silicon and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glybin, V.P.; Svirko, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Standard formation enthalpies of boron, silicon and phosphorus are calculated. For calculations thermochemical method in conjunction with potential energy model of oxoanions in approximation of valence-force field of molecules and crystals are used. In the model of valence-force field ion-covalent crystals are considered as population of clusters of molecular type the number of which is equal to number of translation-nonequivalent atoms in the lattice dipped in nonhomogeneous electrostatic field of long-range interactions. For gaseous oxoanions field created by end oxygen atoms or other ones on which negative charge of anions is localized serves as equivalent of nonhomogeneous electrostatic field. In such approach potential energy of oxoanion is equal to sum of energy of electrostatic repulsion of negatively charged atoms and energy of valent element-oxygen bonds in neutral cluster [ru

  7. CALCIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATES HYDRATES: FORMATION, STABILITY AND INFLUENCE ON STANDARD PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziliunas A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of phosphogypsum to produce the binders requires a much higher input than preparation of natural gypsum stone. This makes it uncompetitive material. The investigations presented therein are meant to reduce this input by looking for the ways of rendering impurities harmless. Soluble acid orthophosphates are the main harmful impurity of phosphogypsum. The studies show that dry insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates (1.09 % and 2.18 % P2O5 in gypsum have little effect on W/C, setting times and soundness of Portland cement pastes. Insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates {CaHPO4∙2H2O, Ca8(HPO42(PO44∙5H2O and Ca9(HPO4(PO45(OH∙4H2O} formed in acidic medium (pH = 4.2 - 5.9 have been destroyed in alkaline medium and reduce standard compressive strength of cement up to 28 %. Calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group are stable in alcaline medium, while in dry state they reduce the standard compressive strength of cement until 10 %, but their suspensions prolong setting times of Portland cement as soluble orthophosphates – 2 - 3 times. Alkalis in cement increase pH of paste, but do not change the process of formation of calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group: it takes place through an intermediate phase - CaHPO4·2H2O, whose transformation into apatite lasts for 2 - 3 months.

  8. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Ru{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Ru{sub 2}YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Result of L2{sub 1} structured compounds agrees with first principles data. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Ru{sub 2}HfSn, Ru{sub 2}TiSn, Ru{sub 2}VGa, Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VSn of L2{sub 1} structure were reported for the first time. - Abstract: The standard enthalpies of formation of selected ternary Ru-based Heusler compounds Ru{sub 2}YZ (Y = Fe, Hf, Mn, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the Heusler compounds are, Ru{sub 2}FeGe (−19.7 ± 3.3); Ru{sub 2}HfSn (−24.9 ± 3.6); Ru{sub 2}MnSi (−46.0 ± 2.6); Ru{sub 2}MnGe (−29.7 ± 1.0); Ru{sub 2}MnSn (−20.6 ± 2.4); Ru{sub 2}TiSi (−94.9 ± 4.0); Ru{sub 2}TiGe (−79.1 ± 3.2); Ru{sub 2}TiSn (−60.6 ± 1.8); Ru{sub 2}VSi (−55.9 ± 1.7);for the B2-structured compounds, Ru{sub 2}FeSi (−28.5 ± 0.8); Ru{sub 2}HfAl (−70.8 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnAl (−32.3 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnGa (−25.3 ± 3.0); Ru{sub 2}TiAl (−62.7 ± 3.5); Ru{sub 2}VAl (−30.9 ± 1.6); Ru{sub 2}ZrAl (−64.5 ± 1.5). Values were compared with those from published first principles calculations and the OQMD (Open Quantum Materials Database). Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)

  9. Determination of standard molar enthalpies of formation of SrMoO4 micro/nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yunxiao; Fan, Gaochao; Huang, Zaiyin; Sun, Jilong; Wang, Lude; Wang, Tenghui; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of thermochemical cycle between the nano and bulk reaction systems. Highlights: ► A thermochemical cycle was designed. ► Relationship of standard molar enthalpies of formation between micro/nano and bulk SrMoO 4 was gained. ► Microcalorimetry was used as a supplementary technology. ► Standard molar enthalpies of formation of the synthesized micro/nano SrMoO 4 were obtained. ► This novel approach can be used to other micro/nano materials. - Abstract: SrMoO 4 micro/nano structures were prepared by a simple reverse microemulsion method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In order to associate standard molar enthalpies of formation of nano SrMoO 4 with bulk SrMoO 4 , the relationship of them was obtained through designing a thermochemical cycle according to thermodynamic potential function method. Combined with microcalorimetry, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the synthesized micro/nano SrMoO 4 at 298.15 K were gained in this paper. And the variation of standard molar enthalpies of formation of micro/nano SrMoO 4 with different morphologies and sizes was discussed.

  10. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72; aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete; and help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. This guide address financial assurance for decommissioning of facilities under materials licenses granted under Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72. These parts include licensees in the following categories: Part 30, Byproduct Material; Part 40, Source Material; Part 70, Special Nuclear Material; and Part 72, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations

  11. MAPA: Implementation of the Standard Interchange Format and use for analyzing lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasharina, Svetlana G.; Cary, John R.

    1997-05-01

    MAPA (Modular Accelerator Physics Analysis) is an object oriented application for accelerator design and analysis with a Motif based graphical user interface. MAPA has been ported to AIX, Linux, HPUX, Solaris, and IRIX. MAPA provides an intuitive environment for accelerator study and design. The user can bring up windows for fully nonlinear analysis of accelerator lattices in any number of dimensions. The current graphical analysis methods of Lifetime plots and Surfaces of Section have been used to analyze the improved lattice designs of Wan, Cary, and Shasharina (this conference). MAPA can now read and write Standard Interchange Format (MAD) accelerator description files and it has a general graphical user interface for adding, changing, and deleting elements. MAPA's consistency checks prevent deletion of used elements and prevent creation of recursive beam lines. Plans include development of a richer set of modeling tools and the ability to invoke existing modeling codes through the MAPA interface. MAPA will be demonstrated on a Pentium 150 laptop running Linux.

  12. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  13. A Summary of Proposed Changes to the Current ICARTT Format Standards and their Implications to Future Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III

    2015-12-01

    The current ICARTT file format standards were developed for the purpose of fulfilling the data management needs for the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign in 2004. The goal of the ICARTT file format was to establish a common and simple to use data file format to promote data exchange and collaboration among science teams with similar science objectives. ICARTT has been the NASA standard since 2010, and is widely used by NOAA, NSF, and international partners (DLR, FAAM). Despite its level of acceptance, there are a number of issues with the current ICARTT format, especially concerning the machine readability. To enhance usability, the ICARTT Refresh Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) was established to enable a platform for atmospheric science data producers, users (e.g. modelers) and data managers to collaborate on developing criteria for this file format. Ultimately, this is a cross agency effort to improve and aggregate the metadata records being produced. After conducting a survey to identify deficiencies in the current format, we determined which are considered most important to the various communities. Numerous recommendations were made to improve upon the file format while maintaining backward compatibility. The recommendations made to date and their advantages and limitations will be discussed.

  14. Standard format and content for emergency plans for fuel-cycle and materials facilities: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel-cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit an emergency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help ensure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  15. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... format so that patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers may access and utilize device labeling as... labeling, and what they would want in a standard version of device labeling. Key findings from the survey... survey with the National Family Caregivers Association (NFCA) on medical device labeling to elicit home...

  16. The Common Core State Standards: An Opportunity to Enhance Formative Assessment in History/Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Wyngowski, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunity that the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present for enhancing formative assessment (FA) in history and social studies classrooms. There is evidence that FA can enhance learning for students if implemented well. Unfortunately, teachers continue to be challenged in implementing FA in their classrooms. We…

  17. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Results Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research......Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB......, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three...

  18. Standard enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of formation of «A» type carbonate phosphocalcium hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebri, Sonia; Khattech, Ismail; Jemal, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A-type carbonate hydroxyapatites with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1 were prepared and characterized by DRX, IR spectroscopy and CHN analysis. • The heat of solution was measured in 9 wt% HNO 3 using an isoperibol calorimeter. • The standard enthalpy of formation was determined by thermochemical cycle. • Gibbs free energy has been deduced by estimating standard entropy of formation. • Carbonatation increases the stability till x = 0.6 mol. - Abstract: « A » type carbonate phosphocalcium hydroxyapatites having the general formula Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) (2-2x) (CO 3 ) x with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1, were prepared by solid gas reaction in the temperature range of 700–1000 °C. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The carbonate content has been determined by C–H–N analysis. The heat of solution of these products was measured at T = 298 K in 9 wt% nitric acid solution using an isoperibol calorimeter. A thermochemical cycle was proposed and complementary experiences were performed in order to access to the standard enthalpies of formation of these phosphates. The results were compared to those previously obtained on apatites containing strontium and barium and show a decrease with the carbonate amount introduced in the lattice. This quantity becomes more negative as the ratio of substitution increases. Estimation of the entropy of formation allowed the determination of standard Gibbs free energy of formation of these compounds. The study showed that the substitution of hydroxyl by carbonate ions contributes to the stabilisation of the apatite structure.

  19. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem respiration...

  20. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem...

  1. NODC Standard Format Microbiological Degradation (F059) Data (1973-1980) (NODC Accession 0014190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This format is designed to support microbiological studies of bacteria, microbiota, and fungi. There are twelve data record types used to report cruise and station...

  2. Summative and Formative Evaluations, National Skill Standards Project. Prepared for the National Grocers Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michael S.

    In 1993-1996, the Grocers Research and Educational Foundation of the National Grocers Association developed entry-level skill standards for the food marketing industry. A coalition formed early in the project directed the skill standard development process and solicited input from major organizations involved in the industry. The validity of the…

  3. Guide to LIBXSIF, a Library for Parsing the Extended Standard Input Format of Accelerated Beamlines(LCC-0060)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2003-01-01

    We describe LIBXSIF, a standalone library for parsing the Extended Standard Input Format of accelerator beamlines. Included in the description are: documentation of user commands; full description of permitted accelerator elements and their attributes; the construction of beamline lists; the mechanics of adding LIBXSIF to an existing program; and ''under the hood'' details for users who wish to modify the library or are merely morbidly curious

  4. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established technical and financial regulations for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities (53 FR 24018, June 27, 1988). The regulations address decommissioning planning needs, timing, funding methods, and environmental review requirements for public and private facilities holding licenses under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72, with the exception of uranium mills. The intent of the regulations is to ensure that the decommissioning of all licensed facilities will be accomplished in a safe and timely manner and that licensees will provide adequate funds to cover all costs associated with decommissioning. The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will (1) help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, and (3) help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. 5 refs., 13 figs

  5. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    -type domains in the active organic layer. The molecular packing in these is of same importance, as it strongly affects the carrier transport in the cells. In this work, we present the study of alpha-sexithiophene (α 6T) temperature dependent growth for standard, on gold anodes, and inverted, on electron...... accepting C60 layers, solar cell configurations. Furthermore, a comparative study of the correlation between the α-6T morphology and device performance parameters for standard and inverted solar cell configurations is presented. The morphology of the α 6T layer is controlled by means of the substrate...

  6. Standard format and content guide for financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The Standard Format and Content Guide for Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, discusses the information to be provided in a license application and established a uniform format for presenting the information required to meet the decommissioning licensing requirements. The use of the Standard Format and Content Guide will (1) help ensure that the license application contains the information required by the regulations, (2) aid the applicant in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Standard Format and Content Guide to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time required for the review process. The Standard Format and Content Guide ensures that the information required to perform the review is provided, and in a useable format

  7. The standard enthalpies of formation of L-asparagine and L-{alpha}-glutamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contineanu, Iulia, E-mail: icontineanu@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' I.G. Murgulescu' , Spl. Independentei 202, Bucharest (Romania); Neacsu, Ana, E-mail: anna_matache@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' I.G. Murgulescu' , Spl. Independentei 202, Bucharest (Romania); Perisanu, Stefan T., E-mail: stefan.perisanu@upb.ro [Laboratory of General Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, str. Polizu nr. 1, Bucuresti (Romania)

    2010-01-10

    The energies of combustion of L-asparagine and L-{alpha}-glutamine were measured in a static bomb adiabatic calorimeter. Corrections were made for the heats due to the ignition of sample and for the nitric acid formation. The derived enthalpies of formation in solid state of asparagine monohydrate, nonhydrated asparagine and glutamine are respectively -1084.1 {+-} 3.0, -788.1 {+-} 4.7 and -834.3 {+-} 4.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. The data of enthalpy of formation are compared with the literature values and with estimated values by means of group additivity, using parameters recommended by Domalski and Hearing. The discrepancies between experimental and calculated values are explained by considering the number and strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The dehydration of asparagine monohydrate and the possible melting of the three amino acids were investigated by means of DSC. Glutamine melts without considerable decomposition at about 182 {sup o}C, while asparagines decompose during the fusion process (208 {sup o}C).

  8. Detecting intrajudge inconsistency in standard setting using test items with a selected-response format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Vos, Hendrik J.; Chang, Lei

    2002-01-01

    In judgmental standard setting experiments, it may be difficult to specify subjective probabilities that adequately take the properties of the items into account. As a result, these probabilities are not consistent with each other in the sense that they do not refer to the same borderline level of

  9. Combustion energies and standard molar enthalpies of formation for the complexes of the first-row transitional metal chlorides with L-α-histidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seven novel solid complexes of the first-row transitional metal with L-α-histidine were synthesized, and their compositions were determined. The constant-volume combustion energies of the complexes were measured by a precision rotation bomb calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpies of combustion and the standard molar enthalpies of formation were calculated. The results indicated thatthe plots of the standard enthalpies of formation against the atomic number of the metal show a regularity of zigzag.

  10. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Programmers Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    szDataItem. Specific parsers are called for specific attribute types, indicated by the first letter of the code name. After all TMATS attributes are...EnI106Status I106_CALL_DECL enI106Ch10Close(int iHandle) { // If handles have been init’ed then bail if

  11. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of nickel(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Giera, Edward [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2} and bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(HttfaS){sub 2} were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of the monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) complex was measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean nickel(II)-ligand molar dissociation enthalpies, (Ni-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(cr)/(kJ.mol{sup -1})Diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-993.3+/-3.8Diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-2452.0+/-8.3Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2}-42.1+/-5.9Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfaS){sub 2}-1473.5+/-8.1.

  12. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) {beta}-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, (Cu-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (cr){delta}{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup o} kJ.mol{sup -1}kJ.mol{sup -1}Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm){sub 2}-364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa){sub 2}-1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS){sub 2}35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS){sub 2}-1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15].

  13. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) β-diketonates and monothio-β-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) β-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, m >(Cu-L), were derived. Δ f H m o (cr)Δ cr g H m o kJ.mol -1 kJ.mol -1 Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm) 2 -364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa) 2 -1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS) 2 35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS) 2 -1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15

  14. Oxygen concentration cell for the measurements of the standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of Nd6UO12(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Manjulata; Dash, Smruti

    2011-01-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of Nd 6 UO 12 (s) have been measured using an oxygen concentration cell with yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte. Δ f G m o (T) for Nd 6 UO 12 (s) has been calculated using the measured and required thermodynamic data from the literature. The calculated Gibbs energy expression can be given as: Δ f G m o (Nd 6 UO 12 , s,T)/(± 2.3) kJmol -1 = -6660.1+1.0898 (T/K). (author)

  15. Energetic studies of urea derivatives: Standard molar enthalpy of formation of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Maria das Dores M.C. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, Vera L.S. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Roux, Maria Victoria; Jimenez, Pilar; Davalos, Juan Z. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , C.S.I.C., Serrano, 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cabildo, Pilar; Claramunt, Rosa M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica y Bio-Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pinilla, Elena; Rosario Torres, M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Laboratorio de Difraccion de Rayos X, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Elguero, Jose [Instituto de Quimica Medica, C.S.I.C., Juan de la Cierva, 3, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Thermochemical and thermophysical studies have been carried out for crystalline 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide. The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, at T = 298.15 K, for the crystalline 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide (TCC) was experimentally determined using rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry, as -(234.6 +- 8.3) kJ . mol{sup -1}. The standard enthalpy of sublimation, at the reference temperature of 298.15 K, was measured by the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, using a High Temperature Calvet Microcalorimeter as (182.1 +- 1.7) kJ . mol{sup -1}. These two thermochemical parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the studied compound, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, as -(52.5 +- 8.5) kJ . mol{sup -1}. This parameter was also calculated by computational thermochemistry at M05-2X/6-311++G** and B3LYP/6-311++G(3df, 2p) levels, with a deviation less than 4.5 kJ . mol{sup -1} from experimental value. Moreover, the thermophysical study was made by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, over the temperature interval between T = 263 K and its onset fusion temperature, T = (527.5 +- 0.4) K. A solid-solid phase transition was found at T = (428 +- 1) K, with the enthalpy of transition of (6.1 +- 0.1) kJ . mol{sup -1}. The X-ray crystal structure of TCC was determined and the three-centred N-H...O=C hydrogen bonds present analyzed.

  16. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  17. Standard format and content of a licensee physical protection plan for strategic special nuclear material in transit - April 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events is required to be prepared, based on personnel and other physical protection resources described in the Physical Protection Plan for strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in transit. Specific requirements for the contingency plan are provided in Appendix C. Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plans, to 10 CFR Part 73. Regulatory Guide 5.56, Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation, provides guidance for the preparation of transportation contingency plans. Licensee is reminded that all three submissions - the Physical Protection Plan, the Physical Protection Arrangements for Specific Shipments, and the Safeguards Contingency Plan - together describe the system for physical protection of each particular shipment. They should be developed and maintained to be completely consistent with each other for each shipment

  18. The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of lithium manganese oxides at the temperatures of (680, 740 and 800) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rog, G.; Kucza, W.; Kozlowska-Rog, A.

    2004-01-01

    The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of LiMnO 2 and LiMn 2 O 4 at the temperatures of (680, 740 and 800) K has been determined with the help of the solid-state galvanic cells involving lithium-β-alumina electrolyte. The equilibrium electrical potentials of cathode containing Li x Mn 2 O 4 spinel, in the composition ranges 0≤x≤1 and 1≤x≤2, vs. metallic lithium in the reversible intercalation galvanic cell have been calculated. The existence of two-voltage plateaus which appeared during charging and discharging processes in reversible intercalation of lithium into Li x Mn 2 O 4 spinel, has been discussed

  19. Low-temperature heat capacity and standard molar enthalpy of formation of 9-fluorenemethanol (C14H12O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, You-Ying; Tan, Zhi-Cheng.; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Mei-Han; Xu, Fen; Liu, Yuan-Fa; Sun, Li-Xian; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2004-01-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of the 9-fluorenemethanol (C 14 H 12 O) have been precisely measured with a small sample automatic adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range between T=78 K and T=390 K. The solid-liquid phase transition of the compound has been observed to be T fus =(376.567±0.012) K from the heat-capacity measurements. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the melting of the substance were determined to be Δ fus H m =(26.273±0.013) kJ · mol -1 and Δ fus S m =(69.770±0.035) J · K -1 · mol -1 . The experimental values of molar heat capacities in solid and liquid regions have been fitted to two polynomial equations by the least squares method. The constant-volume energy and standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound have been determined, Δ c U(C 14 H 12 O, s)=-(7125.56 ± 4.62) kJ · mol -1 and Δ c H m compfn (C 14 H 12 O, s)=-(7131.76 ± 4.62) kJ · mol -1 , by means of a homemade precision oxygen-bomb combustion calorimeter at T=(298.15±0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound has been derived, Δ f H m compfn (C 14 H 12 O,s)=-(92.36 ± 0.97) kJ · mol -1 , from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound in combination with other auxiliary thermodynamic quantities through a Hess thermochemical cycle

  20. A laboratory study on formation of oil-SPM aggregates using the NIST standard reference material 1941b. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Landriault, M.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.; Pjontek, D.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of spilled oil in water can be enhanced by a natural process in which suspended particulate matter (SPM) combines with oil droplets to form Oil-SPM aggregates (OSA). A laboratory setup and procedure were developed in this study to examine the formation of OSAs in which the sediment (Standard Reference Material 1941b) was mixed with Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crudes at concentrations varying from 25 to 300 mg/L. The OSAs were separated from the bulk water using a newly developed procedure. Gas chromatography combined with flame ionization analysis was used to measure the oil trapped in the OSAs. The sediment trapped in the sinking OSAs was then isolated for gravimetric quantification. This procedure has the potential to isolate sinking OSAs with minimum alteration with dispersed oil. Oil mass of less than 2 mg trapped in OSAs was measured with 0.8 mg uncertainty at a 95 per cent confidence level. This setup was capable of imaging droplets of 0.1 μg and up in size. The study showed that formation of sinking OSAs reaches maximum efficiency at an optimum oil to sediment ratio that decreases from 0.5 to approximately 0.1 when the ratio between oil density and the water density increases from 0.84 to 0.97. The percentage of oil trapped in sinking OSAs increases quickly from approximately 0.5 per cent to 30 per cent of the initial oil mass when sediment concentration increases from 25 to 100 mg/l. The highest trapping efficiency was found to decrease exponentially with oil density. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Facing the challenge of predicting the standard formation enthalpies of n-butyl-phosphate species with ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad; Réal, Florent; Šulka, Martin; Cantrel, Laurent; Virot, François; Vallet, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Tributyl-phosphate (TBP), a ligand used in the PUREX liquid-liquid separation process of spent nuclear fuel, can form an explosive mixture in contact with nitric acid that might lead to a violent explosive thermal runaway. In the context of safety of a nuclear reprocessing plant facility, it is crucial to predict the stability of TBP at elevated temperatures. So far, only the enthalpies of formation of TBP are available in the literature with rather large uncertainties, while those of its degradation products, di-(HDBP) and mono-(H2MBP), are unknown. In this goal, we have used state-of-the art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of TBP and its degradation products di-(HDBP) and mono-(H2MBP) in gas and liquid phases. Comparisons of levels of quantum chemical theory revealed that there are significant effects of correlation on their electronic structures, pushing for the need of not only high level of electronic correlation treatment, namely, local coupled cluster with single and double excitation operators and perturbative treatment of triple excitations, but also extrapolations to the complete basis to produce reliable and accurate thermodynamics data. Solvation enthalpies were computed with the conductor-like screening model for real solvents [COSMO-RS], for which we observe errors not exceeding 22 kJ mol-1. We thus propose with final uncertainty of about 20 kJ mol-1 standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP which amounts to -1281.7 ± 24.4, -1229.4 ± 19.6, and -1176.7 ± 14.8 kJ mol-1, respectively, in the gas phase. In the liquid phase, the predicted values are -1367.3 ± 24.4, -1348.7 ± 19.6, and -1323.8± 14.8 kJ mol-1, to which we may add about -22 kJ mol-1 error from the COSMO-RS solvent model. From these data, the complete hydrolysis of TBP is predicted as an exothermic phenomena but showing a slightly endergonic process.

  2. Standard enthalpies of formation of some Lanthanide–Cobalt binary alloys by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meschel, S.V., E-mail: meschel@jfi.uchicago.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology, Thermal Processing Technology Center, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Gordon Center of Interactive Science, 929 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nash, P. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Thermal Processing Technology Center, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL (United States); Gao, Q.N.; Wang, J.C.; Du, Y. [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Studied binary Lanthanide–Cobalt intermetallic alloys by high temperature calorimetry. •Determined the enthalpies of formation of 16 magnetostrictive alloys. •Compared the experimental measurements with theoretical predictions by two different models. -- Abstract: The standard enthalpies of formation of intermetallic compounds of some Lanthanide–Cobalt systems have been measured by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry at 1373 ± 2 K. The following results in kJ/mol of atoms are reported: CeCo{sub 5}(−9.4 ± 3.3); Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−6.8 ± 3.2); PrCo{sub 5}(−10.5 ± 2.4); Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−6.8 ± 3.6); NdCo{sub 5}(−12.7 ± 2.6); Nd{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−6.6 ± 2.7); SmCo{sub 5}(−12.2 ± 1.8); Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−7.2 ± 2.5); GdCo{sub 5}(−10.0 ± 2.4); Tb{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−7.7 ± 2.9); Dy{sub 2}Co{sub 17}(−8.1 ± 2.9); HoCo{sub 3}(−17.5 ± 2.2); ErCo{sub 3}(−19.7 ± 3.3); TmCo{sub 3}(−22.9 ± 3.0); LuCo{sub 3}(−23.0 ± 2.6). The measurements are compared with values from the literature and with predicted values of the semi empirical model of Miedema and Coworkers. We also compare the measurements with predicted values by ab initio calculations. We will present a systematic picture of how the enthalpies of formation may be related to the atomic number of the Lanthanide element (LA). We will also compare the thermochemical behavior of the Fe, Co and Ni binary alloys with Lanthanide elements.

  3. Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of RE(C5H8NS2)3(o-phen)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-Xin; GAO Sheng-Li; CHEN San-Ping; YANG Xu-Wu; XIE Gang; SHI Qi-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Five solid ternary complexes of RE(C5H8NS2)3(o-phen) (RE=Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) have been synthesized in absolute ethanol by rare earth chloride low hydrate reacting with the mixed ligands of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and 1,10-phenanthroline·H2O (o-phen·H2O) in the ordinary laboratory atmosphere without any cautions against moisture or air. IR spectra of the complexes showed that the RE3+ coordinated with six sulfur atoms of three PDC- and two nitrogen atoms of o-phen·H2O. It was assumed that the coordination number of RE3+was eight. The constant-volume combustion energies of the complexes, △cU, were determined as (-16788.46±7.74), (- 15434.53± 8.28), (- 15287.807.31), (- 15200.50±7.22) and (- 15254.34±6.61) kJ·mol-1, respectively, by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard molar enthalpies of combustion, △cH m,and standard molar enthalpies of formation, △fH m, were calculated as (-16803.95 ±7.74), (-15450.02±8.28),(-15303.29±9.28), (-15215.99±7.22), (-15269.83±6.61) kJ·mol-1 and (-1115.42±8.94), (-2477.80±9.15), (-2619.95 ±10.44), (-2670.17 ± 8.22), ( -2650.06± 8.49) kJ·mol-1, respectively.

  4. The effect of a fourth element (Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) on the standard enthalpy of formation of the Heusler compound Ni{sub 2}MnSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2016-05-15

    The standard enthalpies of formation of quaternary Heusler compounds (X, Ni){sub 2}MnSn (X = Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) were investigated experimentally using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructures were identified using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effect of an additional X element on the standard enthalpy of formation of the Heusler compound Ni{sub 2}MnSn is discussed. - Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation of (X,Ni){sub 2}YZ (X = Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) were measured by drop calorimeters. • Magnetic contribution to enthalpy of formation plays an important role. • Introducing a fourth element could stabilize an unstable Heusler structure. • Lattice parameters do not necessarily obey the Vegard's law. • It is possible to tailor properties of Heusler compounds with enough background information.

  5. Thermodynamics of Micellar Systems : Comparison of Mass Action and Phase Equilibrium Models for the Calculation of Standard Gibbs Energies of Micelle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, Michael J.; Cullis, Paul M.; Soldi, L. Giorgio; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Kacperska, Anna; Os, Nico M. van

    1995-01-01

    Micellar colloids are distinguished from other colloids by their association-dissociation equilibrium in solution between monomers, counter-ions and micelles. According to classical thermodynamics, the standard Gibbs energy of formation of micelles at fixed temperature and pressure can be related to

  6. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Berlacher, Kathryn; Granieri, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE...

  7. Acceptable standard format and content for the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan required for low-enriched uranium facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a standard format suggested by the NRC for use in preparing fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans as required by the Low Enriched Uranium Reform Amendments (10CFR 74.31). This report also describes the necessary contents of a comprehensive plan and provides example acceptance criteria which are intended to communicate acceptable means of achieving the performance capabilities of the Reform Amendments. By using the suggested format, the licensee or applicant will minimize administrative problems associated with the submittal, review and approval of the FNMC plan. Preparation of the plan in accordance with this format Will assist the NRC in evaluating the plan and in standardizing the review and licensing process. However, conformance with this guidance is not required by the NRC. A license applicant who employs a format that provides a equal level of completeness and detail may use their own format. This document is also intended for providing guidance to licensees when making revisions to their FNMC plan

  8. Image Format Conversion to DICOM and Lookup Table Conversion to Presentation Value of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) Standard Digital Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Satoshi; Imahana, Masato; Suwa, Kazuaki; Sugimura, Hitomi; Nishiki, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.

  9. Standard Gibbs energies of formation and equilibrium constants from ab-initio calculations: Covalent dimerization of NO2 and synthesis of NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Neha; Ritschel, Thomas; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Knecht, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ΔG and K eq for NO 2 dimerization and NH 3 synthesis calculated via ab-initio methods. • Vis-á-vis experiments, W1 and CCSD(T) are accurate and G3B3 also does quite well. • CBS-APNO most accurate for NH 3 reaction but shows limitations in modeling NO 2 . • Temperature dependence of ΔG and K eq is calculated for the NH 3 reaction. • Good agreement of calculated K eq with experiments and the van’t Hoff approximation. -- Abstract: Standard quantum chemical methods are used for accurate calculation of thermochemical properties such as enthalpies of formation, entropies and Gibbs energies of formation. Equilibrium reactions are widely investigated and experimental measurements often lead to a range of reaction Gibbs energies and equilibrium constants. It is useful to calculate these equilibrium properties from quantum chemical methods in order to address the experimental differences. Furthermore, most standard calculation methods differ in accuracy and feasibility of the system size. Hence, a systematic comparison of equilibrium properties calculated with different numerical algorithms would provide a useful reference. We select two well-known gas phase equilibrium reactions with small molecules: covalent dimer formation of NO 2 (2NO 2 ⇌ N 2 O 4 ) and the synthesis of NH 3 (N 2 + 3 H 2 ⇌ 2NH 3 ). We test four quantum chemical methods denoted by G3B3, CBS-APNO, W1 and CCSD(T) with aug-cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = 2, 3, and 4), to obtain thermochemical data for NO 2 , N 2 O 4 , and NH 3 . The calculated standard formation Gibbs energies Δ f G° are used to calculate standard reaction Gibbs energies Δ r G° and standard equilibrium constants K eq for the two reactions. Standard formation enthalpies Δ f H° are calculated in a more reliable way using high-level methods such as W1 and CCSD(T). Standard entropies S° for the molecules are calculated well within the range of experiments for all methods, however, the values of standard formation

  10. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  11. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance (Revision 1, Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This regulatory guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standard format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical security plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CFR Part 73

  12. Standard format and content of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses the information that should be provided in the Safety Analysis Report and establishes a uniform format for presenting the information necessary to fulfill the licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste called for in 10 CFR 61. The uniform format will (1) help ensure that the Safety Analysis Report contains the information required by 10 CFR 61, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Safety Analysis Report to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time needed for the review process

  13. Standard format and content of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the information that should be provided in the Safety Analysis Report and establishes a uniform format for presenting the information necessary to fulfill the licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste called for in 10 CFR 61. The uniform format will (1) help ensure that the Safety Analysis Report contains the information required by 10 CFR 61, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Safety Analysis Report to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time needed for the review process

  14. Effect of enamel matrix derivative and parathyroid hormone on bone formation in standardized osseous defects: an experimental study in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Chen, B; Bornstein, Michael M

    2011-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have indicated that locally administered enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may have a stimulatory effect on bone formation. However, it is not clear if the positive effect of EMD is related to its effect on the periodontium as a whole...

  15. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloroquinoline, 4-chloroquinoline, 6-chloroquinoline and 4,7-dichloroquinoline by rotating-bomb calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Matos, Maria Agostinha R.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, Δ c H m - bar , for crystalline 2-, 4-, 6-chloroquinoline and 4,7-dichloroquinoline were determined at the temperature 298.15K using a rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, Δ cr g H m o , at T= 298.15K, were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. The results were as follows: -Δ c H m o (cr)/(kJ.mol -1 )Δ cr g H m o /(kJ.mol -1 )2-Chloroquinoline4492.5+/-1.684.3+/-2.64-Chloroquinoline4508.4 +/ -1.678.6+/-1.76-Chloroquinoline4508.2+/-1.680.8+/-1.94,7-Dichloroquinoline 4353.3+/-1.389.5+/-2.3 These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in their crystalline and gaseous phases, respectively. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous state, are analysed in terms of enthalpic increments and interpreted in terms of molecular structure

  16. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  17. Standard format and content for a license application to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Subpart B, ''License Application, Form, and Contents,'' of 10 CFR Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' specifies the information to be covered in an application for a license to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). However, Part 72 does not specify the format to be followed in the license application. This regulatory guide suggests a format acceptable to the NRC staff for submitting the information specified in Part 72 for license application to store spent fuel in an ISFSI or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in an MRS

  18. Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    intermediate frequency IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group kbps kilobits per second kHz kilohertz LHCP left hand circular polarization lsb...repeatedly to automate the setup of the station for a particular test. The receiver filters are defined below. The receiver intermediate

  19. Revision of standard molar enthalpies of formation of glycine and L-alanine in the gaseous phase on the basis of theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeeva, Olga V.; Ryzhova, Oxana N.

    2009-01-01

    The standard molar enthalpies of formation of urea, glycine, and L-alanine in the gaseous phase at 298.15 K were calculated by the high-level Gaussian-3X method. The agreement with the available experimental data is very good for urea and glycine and, thus, supports the high accuracy of calculated values. A significant discrepancy between theoretical and experimental enthalpy of formation values for L-alanine provides a reason to reconsider the experimental data previously used to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of L-alanine in the gaseous phase at 298.15 K. To obtain a more reliable value of enthalpy of sublimation at 298.15 K, the heat capacity values of gaseous L-alanine were calculated by standard statistical thermodynamics formulae using molecular parameters determined from B3LYP/cc-pVTZ calculations. With the obtained value of C p,m 0 (L-alanine, g, 298.15 K) = 112.6 ± 4.0 J . K -1 . mol -1 the original published experimental values of enthalpy of sublimation of L-alanine were readjusted to the reference temperature: Δ cr g H m (L-alanine, 298.15 K) = 135.2 ± 2.0 kJ . mol -1 . This value, together with the experimental enthalpy of formation of solid L-alanine, Δ f H m 0 (L-alanine, cr, 298.15 K) = -560.0 ± 1.0 kJ . mol -1 [S.N. Ngauv, R. Sabbah, M. Laffitte, Thermochim. Acta 20 (1977) 371-380; I. Contineanu, D.I. Marchidan, Rev. Roum. Chim. 29 (1984) 43-48], gives a new value for the enthalpy of formation of L-alanine in the gaseous phase, Δ f H m 0 (L-alanine, g, 298.15 K) = -424.8 ± 2.0 kJ . mol -1 , which is in good agreement with our theoretical G3X result, -427.6 ± 4.0 kJ . mol -1 . The same procedure for glycine allowed us to improve the literature value of the enthalpy of formation for this compound, Δ f H m 0 (glycine, g, 298.15 K) = -393.7 ± 1.5 kJ . mol -1 . As a result a set of self-consistent thermochemical data for glycine and L-alanine is proposed

  20. Low-temperature heat capacity and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of compound chromium(III) tri(pyrazine-2-carboxylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shengli; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Sanping; Yang, Desuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low-temperature heat capacities of chromium(III) tri(pyrazine-2-carboxylate) were measured from 78 to 400 K. ► Thermodynamic functions of the compound at 298.15 K were calculated based on low-temperature heat capacity. ► The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the target was determined to be −1207.86 ± 3.39 kJ mol −1 through a designed thermochemical cycle. - Abstract: Low-temperature heat capacities of the coordination compound, chromium(III) tri(pyrazine-2-carboxylate), formulated as Cr(pyza) 3 (pyza = pyrazine-2-carboxylate), were measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range of 78–400 K. A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of the temperature was fitted by the least square method. Based on the fitted polynomial equation, the fitted heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated at the interval of 5 K. In accordance with a reasonable thermochemical cycle designed, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the title complex was determined to be −1207.86 ± 3.39 kJ mol −1 by an isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter.

  1. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  2. Standard Glbbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution. Rate Constants for the Reaction C102- -t O3 S 03- -t CIO,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaning, U. K.; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, J.

    1985-01-01

    The rate constants of the following reactions were determined by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow experiments: C102- + O3 + C102 + 03-(k f= (4 f 1) X lo6 dm3 mol-' s-', k, = (1.8 f 0.2) X lo5 dm3 mol-' s-]); C102 + OH - C103- + H+ (k = (4.0 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); C102 + 0- - C103- (k = (2.......7 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); and O3 + C102 - C103 + O2 (k = (1.05 f 0.10) X lo3 dm3 mol-l s-'), where kf is the forward rate of reaction and k, is the reverse rate of reaction. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of OH in aqueous solution A&O,,(OH) and the corresponding standard oxidation potential...

  3. Low-temperature heat capacities and standard molar enthalpy of formation of 4-(2-aminoethyl)-phenol(C8H11NO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di You-Ying; Kong Yu-Xia; Yang Wei-Wei; Tan Zhi-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that low-temperature heat capacities of 4-(2-aminoethyl)-phenol(C8H11NO)are measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 400 K.A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of the temperature was fitted by the least square method.Based on the fitted polynomial,the smoothed heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated and tabulated at the interval of 5 K.The energy equivalent,gcalor,of the oxygen-bomb The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T=298.15 K was measured by a precision oxygen-bomb combustion and other thermodynamic principles.Finally,the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound

  4. Standard partial molar heat capacities and enthalpies of formation of aqueous aluminate under hydrothermal conditions from integral heat of solution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulier, Yohann; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heats of solution of NaAlO 2 (s) were measured at five temperatures up to 250 °C. • Standard molar enthalpies of solution were determined from the measured heats of solution. • Standard molar enthalpies of solution were correlated with the density model. • The density model allows us to determine the standard molar heat capacities of reaction. - Abstract: Heats of solution of sodium aluminum oxide, NaAlO 2 (s), were measured in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions using a Tian–Calvet heat-flow calorimeter (Setaram, Model C80) with high pressure “batch cells” made of hastelloy C-276, at five temperatures from (373.15 to 523.15) K, steam saturation pressure, and concentrations from (0.02 to 0.09) mol · kg −1 . Standard molar enthalpies of solution, Δ soln H ∘ , and relative standard molar enthalpies, [H ∘ (T) − H ∘ (298.15 K)], of NaAl(OH) 4 (aq) were determined from the measured heats of solution. The results were fitted with the “density” model. The temperature dependence of Δ soln H ∘ from the model yielded the standard molar heat capacities of reaction, Δ soln C p ∘ , from which standard partial molar heat capacities for aqueous aluminate, C p ∘ [A1(OH) 4 − ,aq], were calculated. Standard partial molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H ∘ , and entropies, S ∘ , of A1(OH) 4 − (aq) were also determined. The values for C p ∘ [A1(OH) 4 − ,aq] agree with literature data determined up to T = 413 K from enthalpy of solution and heat capacity measurements to within the combined experimental uncertainties. They are consistent with differential heat capacity measurements up to T = 573 K from Schrödle et al. (2010) [29] using the same calorimeter, but this method has the advantage that measurements could be made at much lower concentrations in the presence of an excess concentration of ligand. To our knowledge, these are the first standard partial molar heat capacities measured under hydrothermal conditions by the

  5. Quantitative Analyses of Force-Induced Amyloid Formation in Candida albicans Als5p: Activation by Standard Laboratory Procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho X J Chan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adhesins have amyloid-forming sequences. In Als5p, these amyloid sequences cluster cell surface adhesins to create high avidity surface adhesion nanodomains. Such nanodomains form after force is applied to the cell surface by atomic force microscopy or laminar flow. Here we report centrifuging and resuspending S. cerevisiae cells expressing Als5p led to 1.7-fold increase in initial rate of adhesion to ligand coated beads. Furthermore, mechanical stress from vortex-mixing of Als5p cells or C. albicans cells also induced additional formation of amyloid nanodomains and consequent activation of adhesion. Vortex-mixing for 60 seconds increased the initial rate of adhesion 1.6-fold. The effects of vortex-mixing were replicated in heat-killed cells as well. Activation was accompanied by increases in thioflavin T cell surface fluorescence measured by flow cytometry or by confocal microscopy. There was no adhesion activation in cells expressing amyloid-impaired Als5pV326N or in cells incubated with inhibitory concentrations of anti-amyloid dyes. Together these results demonstrated the activation of cell surface amyloid nanodomains in yeast expressing Als adhesins, and further delineate the forces that can activate adhesion in vivo. Consequently there is quantitative support for the hypothesis that amyloid forming adhesins act as both force sensors and effectors.

  6. First records of talon cusps on baboon maxillary incisors argue for standardizing terminology and prompt a hypothesis of their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Jason L; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2013-12-01

    Dental characters can provide vital clues for understanding intra- and intertaxonomic morphological variation and its underlying genetic and environmental components. However, the unambiguous identification of particular traits and their comparative study is often confounded by lack of consistent terminology in the relevant literature. This difficulty is exacerbated when the etiologies are not completely understood, as is the case with talon cusps. To date, research on talon cusps has focused on modern humans. In many instances, descriptions of talon cusps appear in clinical case studies focusing on their treatment and removal. What is lacking in those discussions, though, is a comparative framework, in which the occurrence of talon cusps in nonhuman primates, and possibly other mammals, is established and understood. Here, we report on a taloned upper central incisor of a wild baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) from South Africa. The anomalous incisor of this individual includes an exaggerated accessory cusp diagnosed as a Type II talon. Microcomputed tomographic and radiographic analyses show that the taloned cusp possesses enamel, dentin, and pulp. In addition, we identified an unclassifiable talon cusp on a central maxillary incisor of a baboon skull housed in the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Museum collection. Our observations of talon cusps on baboon incisors demonstrate that, with regard to this phenomenon, systematic study of nonhuman primates is much needed, along with a consistent use of terminology in the anatomical and anthropological literature. Finally, we present a hypothesis of the formation of talon cusps on mammalian incisors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Data format for rapid prototyping systems; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sekiso zokei system yo data format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the rapid prototyping (RP) system use new RP format and the related software, the paper promoted the international standardization in consideration of relationships with an international standard, STEP. RP, which is a technology to rapidly prototype a solid body based on the three-dimensional CAD data, is used in various fields of product manufacture, medical field, etc., and is expected to further expand its field of application. In this R and D, an international version of the RP software system developed for domestic use was developed, and at the same time a software was trially manufactured so that the data on STEP/AP203/CC5 and CC6 can be delivered to the system. Moreover, a plan on new AIC51X as the STEP/AIC suitable for PR was studied. Relating to these results, the paper conducted the publicity work to the persons concerned in RP in the U.S. and Europe, and also explained those at ISO/TC184/SC4 (STEP Conference). The PR use interface enabling highly rapid and accurate data processing reached to a stage of the international commercialization, and at the same time the study items were materialized for proposal of the new STEP standards suitable for RP. 18 refs., 80 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. PRIDE Inspector Toolsuite: Moving Toward a Universal Visualization Tool for Proteomics Data Standard Formats and Quality Assessment of ProteomeXchange Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Xu, Qing-Wei; Wang, Rui; Uszkoreit, Julian; Griss, Johannes; Sanchez, Aniel; Reisinger, Florian; Csordas, Attila; Ternent, Tobias; Del-Toro, Noemi; Dianes, Jose A; Eisenacher, Martin; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The original PRIDE Inspector tool was developed as an open source standalone tool to enable the visualization and validation of mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data before data submission or already publicly available in the Proteomics Identifications (PRIDE) database. The initial implementation of the tool focused on visualizing PRIDE data by supporting the PRIDE XML format and a direct access to private (password protected) and public experiments in PRIDE.The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium has been set up to enable a better integration of existing public proteomics repositories, maximizing its benefit to the scientific community through the implementation of standard submission and dissemination pipelines. Within the Consortium, PRIDE is focused on supporting submissions of tandem MS data. The increasing use and popularity of the new Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) data standards such as mzIdentML and mzTab, and the diversity of workflows supported by the PX resources, prompted us to design and implement a new suite of algorithms and libraries that would build upon the success of the original PRIDE Inspector and would enable users to visualize and validate PX "complete" submissions. The PRIDE Inspector Toolsuite supports the handling and visualization of different experimental output files, ranging from spectra (mzML, mzXML, and the most popular peak lists formats) and peptide and protein identification results (mzIdentML, PRIDE XML, mzTab) to quantification data (mzTab, PRIDE XML), using a modular and extensible set of open-source, cross-platform libraries. We believe that the PRIDE Inspector Toolsuite represents a milestone in the visualization and quality assessment of proteomics data. It is freely available at http://github.com/PRIDE-Toolsuite/. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Low-temperature heat capacities and standard molar enthalpy of formation of N-methylnorephedrine C211H17NO(s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di You-Ying; Wang Da-Qi; Shi Quan; Tan Zhi-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that low-temperature heat capacities of N-methylnorephedrine C11H17NO(s) have been mea- sured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from T=78 K to T=400 K. A solid to liquid phase transition of the compound was found in the heat capacity curve in the temperature range of T=342- 364 K. The peak temperature, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion of the substance were determined. The experimental values of the molar heat capacities in the temperature regions of T=78-342 K and T=364-400 K were fitted to two poly- nomial equations of heat capacities with the reduced temperatures by least squares method. The smoothed molar heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of N-methylnorephedrine C11H17NO(s) relative to the standard refer- ence temperature 298.15 K were calculated based on the fitted polynomials and tabulated with an interval of 5 K. The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T=298.15 K was measured by means of an isoperibol preci- sion oxygen-bomb combustion calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the sample was calculated. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was determined from the combustion enthalpy and other auxiliary thermodynamic data through a Hess thermochemical cycle.

  10. TMATS/ IHAL/ DDML Schema Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group PCM pulse code modulation POC point of contact RCC Range Commanders Council...RF radio frequency SVG Scalable Vector Graphics T&E test and evaluation TMATS Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard TmNS telemetry network ...configured. For more details on IHAL, see the IHAL Handbook.2 The DDML standard is a specification of an XML-based neutral format that is intended to

  11. Lattice potential energy and standard molar enthalpy in the formation of 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide(1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu-Pu; Di You-Ying; Dan Wen-Yan; He Dong-Hua; Kong Yu-Xia; Yang Wei-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that 1-dodecylamine hydrobromide (1-C12H25NH3·Br)(s) has been synthesized using the liquid phase reaction method. The lattice potential energy of the compound 1-C12H25NH3·Br and the ionic volume and radius of the 1-C12H25NH3+ cation are obtained from the crystallographic data and other auxiliary ther-modynamic data. The constant-volume energy of combustion of 1-C12H25NH3·Br(s) is measured to be △cUm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s) =-(7369.03±3.28) kJ·mol-1 by means of an RBC-Ⅱ precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T=(298.15±0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound is derived to be △cHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(7384.52±3.28) kJ·mol-1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound is calculated to be △fHm°(1-C12H25NH3·Br, s)=-(1317.86±3.67) kJ·mol-1 from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the title compound and other auxiliary thermodynamic quantities through a thermochemical cycle.

  12. Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of RE(C5H8NS2)3(C12H8N2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangxin; Shuai Qi; Chen Sanping; Xie Gang; Gao Shengli; Shi Qizhen

    2005-01-01

    Four solid ternary complexes of RE (C5H8NS2)3(C12H8N2) (RE=Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) were synthesized in absolute ethanol by rare earth chloride low hydrate with the mixed ligands of ammonium pyrrolidinedi-thiocarbamate (APDC) and 1, 10-phenanthroline*H2O (o-phen*H2O) in the ordinary laboratory atmosphere without any cautions against moisture or air sensitivity. IR spectra of the complexes show that the RE3+ coordinated with six sulfur atoms of three PDC- and two nitrogen atoms of o-phen*H2O. It was assumed that the coordination number of RE3+ is eight. The constant-volume combustion energies of the complexes, ΔcU, were determined as (-16937.88±9.79 ), (-17588.79±8.62 ), (-17747.14±8.25 ) and (-17840.37±8.87 ) kJ*mol-1, by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard molar enthalpies of combustion, ΔcHθm, and standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHθm, were calculated as (-16953.37±9.79), (-17604.28±8.62), (-17762.63±8.25), (-17855.86±8.87) kJ*mol-1 and (-857.04±10.52), (-282.43±9.58), (-130.08±9.13), (-55.75±9.83) kJ*mol-1.

  13. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Lee, G.J.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, J.B.; Kim, D.S.; Kang, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  14. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  15. 政府出版品電子化格式與作業標準 | Digital Formats and Standards for Government Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳昭珍 Chao-Chen Chen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:48-67

    在資訊社會中,政府資訊電子化將是大勢所趨,雖然技術進步相當快速,而我們對於網路環境的資訊出版、利用、管理、分享、儲存、安全性、智慧財產權等問題的了解事實上還很淺顯,但是資訊系統的建立與資訊的電子化,交不能等待,為免人力、經費等投資上的浪費,學習他人既有的經驗及採用適當的標準是較妥善的作法。本文主要將就政府出版品電子化所牽涉到的資料處理相關標準,如電子化格式、書目處理、資訊查尋與檢索標準等,以目前歐美國家已普便遍採用者做一深入的探討,作為我國政府出版品電子化與組織與檢索系統建立的參考。

    To digitalize our government publications, it seems better to learn from the experience of the more advanced countries such as Europe and U.S.A., and also to use their standards. This article is to investigate the currently adopted standards of file formats, metadata and information searching for government publications. We have reached some suggestions which may be used as a reference for digitalization of our government publications.

  16. Fuel and Electrical Systems Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien de systemes d'alimentation en carburant et electriques. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for fuel and electrical systems mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related…

  17. Standard thermochemical characteristics of combustion and formation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashanova, Kira I.; Abakumov, Gleb A.; Markin, Alexey V.; Piskunov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the results of thermochemical study for benzoquinone derivatives. • Optimal conditions for determination of combustion energy for benzoquinone were done. • The formation enthalpies for crystalline benzoquinone have been detected at T = 298.15 K. • The formation enthalpy of isomeric quinones were compared. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for investigations of thermodynamic properties have been determined experimentally by the method of combustion calorimetry for compounds of the o-benzoquinone series. In the present work, the energies of combustion in oxygen were measured at T = 298.15 K by static bomb combustion calorimetry for 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. The experimental values have been used to calculate the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion Δ_cH"o_m and formation Δ_fH"o_m for the examined compounds in the crystalline phase.

  18. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) (NODC Accession 0014156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Standard Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975...

  19. 3D for free using the Mac's standard apps : converting raw 3D text files to QuickDraw 3D's 3DMF format using AppleScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces you to the basics of 3D files in general and the 3D Metafile (3DMF), QuickDraw 3D's native 3D format, in particular. It shows how you can use AppleScript to easily convert a raw 3D text file into a 3DMF readable by the QuickDraw 3D Viewer or any other QuickDraw 3D compatible

  20. Determination of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca2P2O7 and Ca(PO3)2 from solid-state EMF measurements using yttria stabilised zirconia as solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Malin Hannah; Bostroem, Dan; Rosen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium reactions: 3Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar 2Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) and 2Ca(PO 3 ) 2 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) were studied in the temperature range 890K to 1140K. The oxygen equilibrium pressures were determined using galvanic cells incorporating yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte. From the measured data and using the literature values of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Ni 3 P, the following relationship of the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 2 P 2 O 7 and Ca(PO 3 ) 2 were calculated:Δ f G o (Ca 2 P 2 O 7 )+/-11/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3475.9+1.5441(T/K)-0.1051(T/K).ln(T/K)andΔ f G o (Ca(PO 3 ) 2 )+/-12/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3334.8+6.1561(T/K)-0.6950(T/K).ln(T/K)

  1. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  2. Comparison of Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Vehicle Emissions: Emission Certification Standards, Cold-Start, Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential, and Potential Climate Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Georges; Saleh, Rawad; Zhao, Yunliang; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Frodin, Bruce; Sardar, Satya; Maldonado, Hector; Maddox, Christine; May, Andrew A; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Russell, Lynn M; Hagen, Fabian; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-06-06

    Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV). We quantified the effects of engine technology, emission certification standards, and cold-start on emissions. For vehicles certified to the same emissions standard, there is no statistical difference of regulated gas-phase pollutant emissions between PFIs and GDIs. However, GDIs had, on average, a factor of 2 higher particulate matter (PM) mass emissions than PFIs due to higher elemental carbon (EC) emissions. SULEV certified GDIs have a factor of 2 lower PM mass emissions than GDIs certified as ultralow-emission vehicles (3.0 ± 1.1 versus 6.3 ± 1.1 mg/mi), suggesting improvements in engine design and calibration. Comprehensive organic speciation revealed no statistically significant differences in the composition of the volatile organic compounds emissions between PFI and GDIs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology. Cold-start contributes a larger fraction of the total unified cycle emissions for vehicles meeting more-stringent emission standards. Organic gas emissions were the most sensitive to cold-start compared to the other pollutants tested here. There were no statistically significant differences in the effects of cold-start on GDIs and PFIs. For our test fleet, the measured 14.5% decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs was much greater than

  3. A standard format for data exchange - SFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindorp, Ulla; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the issues in making experimental data available for later inspection or reuse. A prototype software system - SFD - that solves the technical problems in data exchange is presented, and early user experience is discussed.......We investigate the issues in making experimental data available for later inspection or reuse. A prototype software system - SFD - that solves the technical problems in data exchange is presented, and early user experience is discussed....

  4. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  5. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  6. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  7. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  8. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  9. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  10. The formation of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The presently fashionable ideas for galaxy formation are reviewed briefly, and it is concluded that the standard isothermal heirarchy fits the available data best. A simple infall picture is presented which explains many of the observed properties of disk galaxies. (orig.)

  11. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  12. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  13. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  14. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  15. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  16. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  17. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  18. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  19. A format for phylogenetic placements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A Matsen

    Full Text Available We have developed a unified format for phylogenetic placements, that is, mappings of environmental sequence data (e.g., short reads into a phylogenetic tree. We are motivated to do so by the growing number of tools for computing and post-processing phylogenetic placements, and the lack of an established standard for storing them. The format is lightweight, versatile, extensible, and is based on the JSON format, which can be parsed by most modern programming languages. Our format is already implemented in several tools for computing and post-processing parsimony- and likelihood-based phylogenetic placements and has worked well in practice. We believe that establishing a standard format for analyzing read placements at this early stage will lead to a more efficient development of powerful and portable post-analysis tools for the growing applications of phylogenetic placement.

  20. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  1. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  2. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  3. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  4. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  5. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  6. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  7. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  8. Rail Safety/Equipment Crashworthiness : Volume 3. Proposed Engineering Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The document, the third of four volumes, contains recommended Engineering Standards prepared in the format of the standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 49, Transportation, Parts 200). The standards proposed provide improved oc...

  9. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  10. L’impossible seconde vie ? Le poids des standards éditoriaux et la résistance de la bande dessinée franco-belge au format de poche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Lesage

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Si le livre de poche a joué un rôle central dans la diffusion du patrimoine littéraire, la bande dessinée ne dispose pas de cet outil permettant la constitution d’un corpus de classiques aisément accessibles au plus grand nombre. En ceci, la bande dessinée constitue bien une véritable exception dans le champ éditorial français, par la quasi-absence de collections permettant de republier des classiques en format de poche. L’importance de l’image et l’impératif de lisibilité compliquent en effet le problème de l’adaptation du « grand format » vers le poche, mais demeurent insuffisants pour comprendre la réticence de la bande dessinée au poche. Le présent article propose un retour en arrière sur les expériences des années 1980-1990, afin de mieux cerner cette singularité éditoriale.

  11. Commensuration and Legitimacy in Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    This paper claims that commensuration is a form of valuation crucial for the legitimacy of standards. It is thus far poorly understood how standards are constructed in a legitimate manner, let alone the role of commensuration, the micro-process of converting qualities into measurable quantities...... for the purpose of comparison. The aim is to show how commensuration affects legitimacy at different phases of a standard's formation and diffusion. In order to do this, the lens is placed upon the relationship between the commensuration processes and input and output legitimacies. Research on the Active House...... legitimacy in different stages, either technical for the standard's specifications or contextual for the standard's implementation. Based on these findings, the paper offers a model of the commensurative development undergone in order to develop the legitimacy of a standard....

  12. Planetesimals and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John

    The first step in the standard model for planet formation is the growth of gravitationally bound bodies called ``planetesimals'' from dust grains in a protoplanetary disk. Currently, we do not know how planetesimals form, how long they take to form, or what their sizes and mechanical properties are. The goal of this proposal is to assess how these uncertainties affect subsequent stages of planetary growth and the kind of planetary systems that form. The work will address three particular questions: (i) Can the properties of small body populations in the modern Solar System constrain the properties of planetesimals? (ii) How do the properties of planetesimals affect the formation of giant planets? (iii) How does the presence of a water ice condensation front (the ``snow line'') in a disk affect planetesimal formation and the later stages of planetary growth? These questions will be examined with computer simulations of planet formation using new computer codes to be developed as part of the proposal. The first question will be addressed using a statistical model for planetesimal coagulation and fragmentation. This code will be merged with the proposer's Mercury N-body integrator code to model the dynamics of large protoplanets in order to address the second question. Finally, a self- consistent model of disk evolution and the radial transport of water ice and vapour will be added to examine the third question. A theoretical understanding of how planets form is one of the key goals of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems programme. Researchers have carried out many studies designed to address this goal, but the questions of how planetesimals form and how their properties affect planet formation have received relatively little attention. The proposed work will help address these unsolved questions, and place other research in context by assessing the importance of planetesimal origins and properties for planet formation.

  13. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  14. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  15. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  16. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  17. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  18. US Topo Product Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    This document defines a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital topographic map. This map series, named “US Topo,” is modeled on what is referred to as the standard USGS 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) topographic map series that was created during the period from 1947 to approximately 1992. The US Topo map product has the same extent, scale, and general layout as the older standard topographic maps. However, unlike the previous maps, US Topo maps are published using Adobe Systems Inc. Portable Document Format (PDF) with a geospatial extension that is called Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF), patented by TerraGo Technologies. In addition, the US Topo map products incorporate an orthorectified image along with data that was included in the standard 7.5-minute topographic maps. US Topo maps are intended to serve conventional map users by providing Geographic Information System (GIS) information in symbolized form in the customary topographic map layout. The maps are not intended for GIS analysis applications.

  19. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  20. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  1. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  2. Accounting Standards: What Do They Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jerry B.

    1992-01-01

    Four recent and proposed changes in national school accounting standards have significant policy implications for colleges and universities. These changes address (1) standards regarding postemployment benefits other than pensions, (2) depreciation, (3) financial report format, and (4) contributions and pledges made to the school. Governing boards…

  3. Towards a 'standard model' of large scale structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1994-01-01

    We explore constraints on inflationary models employing data on large scale structure mainly from COBE temperature anisotropies and IRAS selected galaxy surveys. In models where the tensor contribution to the COBE signal is negligible, we find that the spectral index of density fluctuations n must exceed 0.7. Furthermore the COBE signal cannot be dominated by the tensor component, implying n > 0.85 in such models. The data favors cold plus hot dark matter models with n equal or close to unity and Ω HDM ∼ 0.2 - 0.35. Realistic grand unified theories, including supersymmetric versions, which produce inflation with these properties are presented. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  4. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  5. Analysis of constituents of earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Grau, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of an earth formation is investigated by repetitively irradiating the formation with bursts of neutrons from a source and measuring an energy spectrum of the scattering gamma rays resulting from such irradiation e.g. by photomultiplier or solid state detector. The measured spectrum is thereafter analyzed by comparing it with a composite spectrum, made up of standard spectra, measured in a controlled environment, of constituents postulated to comprise the formation. As a result of such analysis, the proportions of the postulated constituents in the formation are determined. Since the measured spectrum is subject to degradation due to changes in the resolution of the detector, a filtering arrangement effects modification of the standard spectra in a manner which compensates for the changes in the detector and thereby provides for a more accurate determination of the constituents of the formation. Temperature is measured by sensor to compensate for temperature dependence of detector resolution. (author)

  6. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  7. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  8. Defining nuclear medical file formal based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Jin Yongjie; Li Yulan

    2001-01-01

    With the wide application of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file formal based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the format of ANMIS system the authors defined the validity and integrality of this format

  9. AXAF FITS standard for ray trace interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.

    1993-07-01

    A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.

  10. Telemetry Group Inter-Range Instrumentation Group Range Commanders Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    PMR-AFWR-NWC- AFETR -•AMTEC-ADTC-AFFTC-AFSCF REPLY TO STEWS-SA-R ATTN OF, SuWu, IRIG Standard 106-73 (Revised November 1975) TO% Holders of IRIG...ETV-TM-67-16, "Multiple-Link Reception Through Wideband Nonlinear Components," 31 March 1967. 1. Purpose - To provide guidelines for the most effective ...telemetering must be restricted to .the 1435-1535 MHz and 2200-2300 MHz bands, effective 1 January 1970, in ord’er to permit unrestricted use of the 225-400

  11. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  12. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  13. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  14. Why adult formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the primary aim of adult formation is comprehensive personality development which is supposed to ensure quality existence in modern world. The article also suggests that formarion is a permanent process. Justinek puts special emphasis on adult formation methodology and defines fundamental formation styles which encourage independent action in individuals. Justinek differentiates between formation and education. methods and concludes that formation methods are related to the emotional sphere of personality, and education methods mostly to the rational. Justinek believes that formation of adults is based primarily on appropriate formation methodology.

  15. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  16. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  17. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  18. Formation of nitric acid hydrates - A chemical equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roland H.

    1990-01-01

    Published data are used to calculate equilibrium constants for reactions of the formation of nitric acid hydrates over the temperature range 190 to 205 K. Standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies are calculated for the tri- and mono-hydrates. These are shown to be in reasonable agreement with earlier calorimetric measurements. The formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar stratosphere is discussed in terms of these equilibrium constants.

  19. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  1. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  2. NODC Standard Format Fish Pathology Format (F013) Data (1975-1980) (NODC Accession 0014146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Pathology (F013) data set contains data from examinations of diseased fishes. Although these data may be from field observations, they derive primarily from...

  3. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  4. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  5. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  6. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  7. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  8. XML-based DICOM data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cong; Yao, Zhihong

    2010-04-01

    To enhance the readability, improve the structure, and facilitate the sharing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) files, this research proposed one kind of XML-based DICOM data format. Because XML Schema offers great flexibility for expressing constraints on the content model of elements, we used it to describe the new format, thus making it consistent with the one originally defined by DICOM. Meanwhile, such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of the XML-encoded DICOM files, acting as a standard for data transmission and sharing on the Web. Upon defining the new data format, we started with representing a single data element and further improved the whole data structure with the method of modularization. In contrast to the original format, the new one possesses better structure without loss of related information. In addition, we demonstrated the application of XSLT and XQuery. All of the advantages mentioned above resulted from this new data format.

  9. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  10. Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  11. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  12. Some considerations about standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, Ph L; Fanjas, Y R [C.E.R.C.A., Romans (France)

    1985-07-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  13. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  14. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  15. Some considerations about standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, Ph.L.; Fanjas, Y.R.

    1985-01-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  16. OGC Consensus: How Successful Standards Are Made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Reed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the history, background, and current status of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards development consensus process. The roots of the formation of the OGC lie in the early 1990s when a very strong market requirement for exchanging GIS data content was clearly stated. At that time, each GIS vendor had their own formats for publishing and/or exchanging their GIS data. There was no mechanism or organization that provided a forum for the GIS vendors and GIS data users to collaborate and agree on how to share GIS data. That requirement, along with the vision of a few individuals, led to the formation of the OGC. This paper describes the early development of the consensus process in the OGC, how this process has evolved over time, why consensus is so important for defining open standards that are implemented in the marketplace, and the future of the OGC consensus process.

  17. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  18. Making standards work

    OpenAIRE

    Stigzelius, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Social and environmental standards can function as tools for companies that want to improve their conduct in social and environmental areas in the supply chain. However, relatively little attention has been given to how the adoption of social and environmental standards may influence the actual business practices in the supply chain. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the institutional context surrounding the adoption of social and environmental standards and how these standards inf...

  19. Standards, the users perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The term standard has little meaning until put into the proper context. What is being standardized? What are the standard conditions to be applied? The list of questions that arise goes on and on. In this presentation, answers to these questions are considered in the interest of providing a basic understanding of what might be useful to the electrical power industry in the way of standards and what the limitations on application of them would be as well. 16 figs

  20. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  1. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  2. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  3. Simulation of Kinkband Formation in Fiber Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badri; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2010-01-01

    subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard for analyzing the kinkband formation in the fiber composites under compressive loading within the framework of large deformation kinematics. This computational model analyses the effects of misalignment on elastic plastic deformation under plane strain conditions based...

  4. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  5. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  6. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  7. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  8. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  9. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  10. ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-09-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  11. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  12. Methods and apparatus for constituent analysis of earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Nelligan, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The composition of an earth formation is investigated by repetitively irradiating the formation with bursts of fast neutrons and generating an energy spectrum of the gamma rays resulting from the inelastic scattering of such neutrons by nuclei of the formation. This spectrum is analyzed by comparison with a composite spectrum, consisting of standard spectra of constituents postulated to comprise the formation. This spectrum includes one or more standard spectrum derived from a background energy spectrum generated from gamma rays detected during periods between neutron bursts. The standard background spectra are updated to reflect the current background component. More reliable information can be obtained of the presence of oil in the formation through the derivation of such indicators as the carbon/oxygen ratio, calcium/silicon ratio etc. the detected background gamma ray spectrum may also be analysed to determine the proportions of the formation constituents contributing to the spectrum; and the standards for the most significant background contributors, or the composite spectrum produced by such standard spectra, may be used among the standard spectra for the inelastic scattering spectrum analysis in lieu of the standardized detected background spectrum itself. (UK)

  13. Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

  14. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs

  15. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  16. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  17. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  18. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  19. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  20. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  1. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  2. ENDF/B Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B, the evaluated neutron nuclear data library of the US National Nuclear Data Center. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-50274 (ENDF-102) should be consulted. (author)

  3. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  4. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    today is less about exercising the authority of an office and more about embodying authenticity. I argue that traditional homiletic education can benefit from implementing a learner-centered approach to teaching moving from sermon formation towards preacher formation, in order to develop and train...... preachers. This involves a learning strategy to ministry where theological skills, pastoral competences, and own personality are interwoven. Teaching here means facilitating a room of learning where teacher’s power and control is reduced, allowing the preacher to reflect upon own practice without being...... judged, evaluated, or critiqued. In this paper, I explain how a learner-centered approach to education works in practice and show how pastors experience the teaching method and the congregations’ positive response to their improvements. I shall present the results of a focus-group interview with pastors...

  5. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  6. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  7. Informatics and Standards for Nanomedicine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Klaessig, Fred; Harper, Stacey L.; Fritts, Martin; Hoover, Mark D.; Gaheen, Sharon; Stokes, Todd H.; Reznik-Zellen, Rebecca; Freund, Elaine T.; Klemm, Juli D.; Paik, David S.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    There are several issues to be addressed concerning the management and effective use of information (or data), generated from nanotechnology studies in biomedical research and medicine. These data are large in volume, diverse in content, and are beset with gaps and ambiguities in the description and characterization of nanomaterials. In this work, we have reviewed three areas of nanomedicine informatics: information resources; taxonomies, controlled vocabularies, and ontologies; and information standards. Informatics methods and standards in each of these areas are critical for enabling collaboration, data sharing, unambiguous representation and interpretation of data, semantic (meaningful) search and integration of data; and for ensuring data quality, reliability, and reproducibility. In particular, we have considered four types of information standards in this review, which are standard characterization protocols, common terminology standards, minimum information standards, and standard data communication (exchange) formats. Currently, due to gaps and ambiguities in the data, it is also difficult to apply computational methods and machine learning techniques to analyze, interpret and recognize patterns in data that are high dimensional in nature, and also to relate variations in nanomaterial properties to variations in their chemical composition, synthesis, characterization protocols, etc. Progress towards resolving the issues of information management in nanomedicine using informatics methods and standards discussed in this review will be essential to the rapidly growing field of nanomedicine informatics. PMID:21721140

  8. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  9. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  10. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  11. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school...

  12. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  13. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  14. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  15. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  16. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  17. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  18. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  19. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  20. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  1. The enthalpies of formation of two dibenzocyclooctadienones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perisanu, St.; Contineanu, Iulia; Banciu, M.D.; Liebman, Joel F.; Farivar, Behzad S.; Mullan, Melissa A.; Chickos, James S.; Rath, Nigam; Hillesheim, Dorothea M.

    2003-01-01

    The standard molar enthalpies of formation (Δ f H m 0 (s)/kJ mol -1 ) for 2,3:6,7-dibenzocycloocta-2,6-dien-1-one and 2,3:7,8-dibenzocycloocta-2,7-dien-1-one [6H-11,12-dihydro-dibenzo[a,e]cycloocten-5-one (ketone 1) and 10H-11,12-dihydrodibenzo[a,d]-cycloocten-5-one (ketone 2), respectively] were derived from enthalpies of combustion, measured by means of a microbomb calorimeter. The fusion and vaporization enthalpies of these compounds were obtained from DSC and correlation gas chromatography measurements. The standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase were calculated by combining the condensed phase standard molar enthalpies of formation with the fusion and vaporization enthalpies adjusted to 298.15 K. Values for Δ f H m 0 (g) of (-39.9±5.5) and (-14.8±5.3) kJ mol -1 were obtained for 2,3:6,7-dibenzocycloocta-2,6-dien-1-one and 2,3:7,8-dibenzocycloocta-2,7-dien-1-one, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations are reported for the compounds investigated experimentally and an additional four isomers. Isomerization enthalpies are derived from computed energies. The enthalpies of formation are also calculated by group additivity, compared with the experimental values and then correlated with the structure of the molecules investigated. The X-ray analysis of ketone 1 is also reported

  2. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jeffery L; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H; Olsen, Shawn R; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung; Tripathy, Shreejoy; Blanche, Timothy J; Harris, Kenneth; Buzsáki, György; Koch, Christof; Meister, Markus; Svoboda, Karel; Sommer, Friedrich T

    2015-11-18

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Teeters, Jeffery L.; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H.; Olsen, Shawn R.; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung

    2015-01-01

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released.

  4. BabeLO--An Extensible Converter of Programming Exercises Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiros, R.; Leal, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, there was a proliferation of programming exercise formats that hinders interoperability in automatic assessment. In the lack of a widely accepted standard, a pragmatic solution is to convert content among the existing formats. BabeLO is a programming exercise converter providing services to a network of heterogeneous…

  5. Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Underwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.

  6. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  7. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  8. A case of standardization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-01-01

    the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion...... and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We...

  9. The Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    The initial evidence from Fermilab for the long awaited sixth ('top') quark puts another rivet in the already firm structure of today's Standard Model of physics. Analysis of the Fermilab CDF data gives a top mass of 174 GeV with an error of ten per cent either way. This falls within the mass band predicted by the sum total of world Standard Model data and underlines our understanding of physics in terms of six quarks and six leptons. In this specially commissioned overview, physics writer Christine Sutton explains the Standard Model

  10. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  11. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  12. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  15. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  16. Fracturing formations in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroza, R A

    1964-05-15

    This well stimulation method comprises introducing through the well bore a low-penetrating, dilatant fluid, and subjecting the fluid to sufficient pressure to produce fractures in the formation. The fluid is permitted to remain in contact with the formation so as to become diluted by the formation fluids, and thereby lose its properties of dilatancy. Also, a penetrating fluid, containing a propping agent suspended therein, in introduced into contact with the fractures at a pressure substantially reduced with respect to that pressure which would have been required, prior to the fracturing operation performed using the low-penetrating dilatant fluid. The propping agent is deposited within the fractures, and thereafter, fluid production is resumed from the fractured formation. (2 claims)

  17. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  18. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  19. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  20. Running code as part of an open standards policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rajiv; Kesan, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Governments around the world are considering implementing or even mandating open standards policies. They believe these policies will provide economic, socio-political, and technical benefits. In this article, we analyze the failure of the Massachusetts’s open standards policy as applied to document formats. We argue it failed due to the lack of running code. Running code refers to multiple independent, interoperable implementations of an open standard. With running code, users have choice ...

  1. DOD Information Technology Standard Guidance (ITSG) Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-07

    Survey USL Unix Systems Labs USMTF United States Message Text Format USS Uniform Symbology Specification UUCP Unix-to-Unix Copy Protocol VDI Virtual...h. VDI (Virtual Device Interface) 3.5.6.3.3 Standards deficiencies. The COM standards have limited capabilities for handling 3-D geometries...not expected to be included in the proposed standard. Project 1158-D also allows for three sector sizes, 512, 1024, and 2048 bytes per sector. f. ANSI

  2. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-04-01

    The unresolved issues of the standard model are reviewed, with emphasis on the gauge hierarchy problem. A possible mechanism for generating a hierarchy in the context of superstring theory is described. 24 refs

  3. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  4. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  5. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  6. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...... predictions can be made. And, the paper contributes with a methodologically based discussion concerning the outcome of the battle between 3G standards....

  7. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  8. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  9. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  10. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  11. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  12. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  13. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.

    1994-01-01

    The search for physics laws beyond the standard model is discussed in a general way, and also some topics on supersymmetry theories. An approach is made on recent possibilities rise in the leptonic sector. Finally, models with SU(3) c X SU(2) L X U(1) Y symmetry are considered as alternatives for the extensions of the elementary particles standard model. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Testing the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions

  15. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  16. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  17. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  18. Standard software for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  19. Standards update -- 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  20. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  1. Enthalpy of formation of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Navrotsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    Using high-temperature solution calorimetry in molt 2PbO · B 2 O 3 , the enthalpy of reaction of the formation of zircon, ZrSiO 4 , from its constituent oxides has been determined: Δ 4 H 977 (ZrSiO 4 ) = -27.9 (±1.9) kJ/mol. With previously reported data for the heat contents of ZrO 2 SiO 2 and ZrSiO 4 and standard-state enthalpies of formation of ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , we obtain Δ f H 298 degrees. (ZrSiO 4 ) = -2034.2 (±3.1) kJ/mol and Δ t G 298 degrees (ZrSiO 4 ) = -1919.8 kJ/mol. The free energy value is in excellent agreement with a range previously estimated from solid-state reaction equilibria. At higher temperature also the data are in close agreement with existing data, though the data sets diverge somewhat with increasing T. In this paper the limitations of the data for predicting the breakdown temperature of zircon into its constituent oxides are discussed

  2. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  3. Standardized structure of electronic records for information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabova, Sevdalina; Trencheva, Tereza; Trenchev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper is presented the structure of the electronic record whose form is standardized in ISO 2709:2008. This International Standard describes a generalized structure, a framework designed specially for communications between data processing systems and not for use as a processing format within systems.Basic terms are defined as follows: character, data field, directory, directory map, field, field separator etc. It’s presented the general structure of a record. The application analysis of this structure shows the effective information exchange in the widest range.The purpose of this research is to find out advantages and structure of the information exchange format standardized in ISO 2709:2008. Key words: Standardized structure, electronic records, exchange formats, data field, directory, directory map, indicators, identifiers

  4. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.

  5. SCIFIO: an extensible framework to support scientific image formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Mark C; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2016-12-07

    No gold standard exists in the world of scientific image acquisition; a proliferation of instruments each with its own proprietary data format has made out-of-the-box sharing of that data nearly impossible. In the field of light microscopy, the Bio-Formats library was designed to translate such proprietary data formats to a common, open-source schema, enabling sharing and reproduction of scientific results. While Bio-Formats has proved successful for microscopy images, the greater scientific community was lacking a domain-independent framework for format translation. SCIFIO (SCientific Image Format Input and Output) is presented as a freely available, open-source library unifying the mechanisms of reading and writing image data. The core of SCIFIO is its modular definition of formats, the design of which clearly outlines the components of image I/O to encourage extensibility, facilitated by the dynamic discovery of the SciJava plugin framework. SCIFIO is structured to support coexistence of multiple domain-specific open exchange formats, such as Bio-Formats' OME-TIFF, within a unified environment. SCIFIO is a freely available software library developed to standardize the process of reading and writing scientific image formats.

  6. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  7. Focus on the post-DVD formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Jingsong

    2005-09-01

    As the digital TV(DTV) technologies are developing rapidly on its standard system, hardware desktop, software model, and interfaces between DTV and the home net, High Definition TV (HDTV) program worldwide broadcasting is scheduled. Enjoying high quality TV program at home is not a far-off dream for people. As for the main recording media, what would the main stream be for the optical storage technology to meet the HDTV requirements is becoming a great concern. At present, there are a few kinds of Post-DVD formats which are competing on technology, standard and market. Here we give a review on the co-existing Post-DVD formats in the world. We will discuss on the basic parameters for optical disk, video /audio coding strategy and system performance for HDTV program.

  8. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  9. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  10. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  11. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1995-01-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  12. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  14. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  15. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  16. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  18. Observsational Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Planets form in gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding newborn stars. As such, the most direct way to learn how they form from observations, is to directly watch them forming in disks. In the past, this was very difficult due to a lack of observational capabilities; as such, planet formation was largely a subject of pure theoretical astrophysics. Now, thanks to a fleet of new instruments with unprecedented resolving power that have come online recently, we have just started to unveil features in resolve images of protoplanetary disks, such as gaps and spiral arms, that are most likely associated with embedded (unseen) planets. By comparing observations with theoretical models of planet-disk interactions, the masses and orbits of these still forming planets may be constrained. Such planets may help us to directly test various planet formation models. This marks the onset of a new field — observational planet formation. I will introduce the current status of this field.

  19. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  20. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  1. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  2. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  3. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Data Exchange Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...... of which are XML-based, lend themselves to the integration of prototypes into middleware architectures, e.g., as Web services....

  5. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  6. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  7. Formation of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, A.S.

    1984-12-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities and the correlation function of galaxies points to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. Scale invariant properties of the cluster-cluster correlations are discussed. Comparing the correlation functions in a dimensionless way, galaxies appear to be stronger clustered, in contrast with the comparison of the dimensional amplitudes of the correlation functions. Theoretical implications of several observations as Lyman-α clouds, correlations of faint galaxies are discussed. None of the present theories of galaxy formation can account for all facts in a natural way. 29 references

  8. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  9. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  10. The Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  11. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  12. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...

  13. Ultra-cold WIMPs relics of non-standard pre-BBN cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    We point out that in scenarios in which the Universe evolves in a non-standard manner during and after the kinetic decoupling of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), these relics can be much colder than in standard cosmological scenarios (i.e. can be ultra-cold), possibly leading to the formation of smaller first objects in hierarchical structure formation scenarios.

  14. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  15. Low Impact Development Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  16. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  17. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  18. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  19. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  20. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  1. Standard Model festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July.

  2. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  3. Standardized terminology in electronic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallas, R.

    1985-01-01

    The correct definitions of the most usual terms on standardization and homologation are given. Then the factors concerning the safety of electrical equipments are reviewed, as they are considered in most of the present legislations. Last, the state of homologations in Spain and Europe is included. (author)

  4. Standard Model festival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July

  5. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  6. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  7. Mixed RIA standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talan, P.; Mucha, J.; Krizan, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the radioimmunoassay of digoxin, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and α 1 -fetoprotein a mixed standard was prepared of these substances in a gamma globulin solution at a concentration of 0.8 to 1.4 wt.% in an aqueous buffer at pH within the range of 6 - 9. The standard contains digoxin at a concentration of 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l, 17β-estradiol at 10 -4 to 2 nmol/l, progesteron at 10 -4 to 100 nmol/l, testosterone at 1o -4 to 21 nmol/l, and α 1 -fetoprotein at 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l with at least two of these substances having concentrations higher than 10 -3 nmol/l. Examples are given of the preparation of the mixed standard with different concentrations of the components. The use of the standard has the following advantages: it is labor saving, reduces the risk of failure in the manufacture of RIA kits, eliminates mistakes in the selection of kits for the determination of different substances and allows a more economical use of material. (E.S.)

  8. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  9. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  10. Formation of topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaspati, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects occur. These arguments are substantiated by numerical results in the case of strings and for monopoles in two dimensions. We find that the network of strings at formation undergoes a transition at a certain critical density below which there are no infinite strings and the closed-string (loop) distribution is exponentially suppressed at large lengths. The results are contrasted with the results of statistical arguments applied to a box of strings in dynamical equilibrium. We argue that if point defects were to form with smaller probability, the distance between monopoles and antimonopoles would decrease while the monopole-to-monopole distance would increase. We find that monopoles are always paired with antimonopoles but the pairing becomes clean only when the number density of defects is small. A similar reasoning would also apply to other defects

  11. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  12. Chlorination and chloramines formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Lim Fang; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Sadia Ata; Abbas Abdullah; Basar IShak; Khairul Nidzham

    2008-01-01

    Chlorination is the most important method of disinfection in Malaysia which aims at ensuring an acceptable and safe drinking water quality. The dosing of chlorine to surface water containing ammonia and nitrogen compounds may form chloramines in the treated water. During this reaction, inorganic and organic chloramines are formed. The recommended maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) for chloramines in drinking water is 3000 μg/L. The production of monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine is highly dependent upon pH, contact time and the chlorine to ammonia molar ratio. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of chloramines that occur upon the chlorination during the treatment process. Chloramines were determined using the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric method. The influences of ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage on the chloramines formation were also studied. This paper presents a modeling approach based on regression analysis which is designed to estimate the formation of chloramines. The correlation between the concentration of chloramines and the ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage was examined. In all cases, the quantity of chloramines formed depended linearly upon the amount of chlorine dosage. On the basis of this study it reveals that the concentration of chloramines is a function of chlorine dosage and the ammonia concentration to the chlorination process. PH seems to not significantly affect the formation of chloramines. (author)

  13. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  14. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific...

  16. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  17. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  18. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  19. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  20. DOE standard: Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  1. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  2. COMPETENCYTHE FORMATION FOR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Mederos-Piñeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of life competences is the result of a quality education that prepares students to meet the challenges of a fast moving world where equality and equal opportunities should constitute premises of education; training them is a challenge teachers to assume new generations contribute actively to a better world. In Cuba are important research on the formation of communication competences and self-regulated learning in primary school. The paper shows the result of an investigation that provides a methodology for the formation of life competences in primary school education, used as an essential pathway research activity. The methodological approach of research has a quantitative approach and an explanatory scope to establish and make sense of understanding the causal relationship between the direction of research activity and training of life competences. Theoretical, empirical and mathematical-statistical, for characterizing the initial state, processing of results and analysis: research methods are used. The application of the methodology for the formation of life competences makes teachers lead the teaching-learning process with a research and transforming teaching concept, where the school is the protagonist of their learning and causes changes in their performances, which are evident in the formed competences related to effective and affective communication; the solution of problems related to life; the use of means in obtaining the knowledge and the expression of a behavior consistent with school and social demands. The effectiveness of the methodology confirms that there is a causal relationship between the direction of research activity by teachers and the formation of life competences in school.

  3. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  4. The need for data standards in zoomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lars; Nickel, Michael; Jenner, Ronald A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-07-01

    eScience is a new approach to research that focuses on data mining and exploration rather than data generation or simulation. This new approach is arguably a driving force for scientific progress and requires data to be openly available, easily accessible via the Internet, and compatible with each other. eScience relies on modern standards for the reporting and documentation of data and metadata. Here, we suggest necessary components (i.e., content, concept, nomenclature, format) of such standards in the context of zoomorphology. We document the need for using data repositories to prevent data loss and how publication practice is currently changing, with the emergence of dynamic publications and the publication of digital datasets. Subsequently, we demonstrate that in zoomorphology the scientific record is still limited to published literature and that zoomorphological data are usually not accessible through data repositories. The underlying problem is that zoomorphology lacks the standards for data and metadata. As a consequence, zoomorphology cannot participate in eScience. We argue that the standardization of morphological data requires i) a standardized framework for terminologies for anatomy and ii) a formalized method of description that allows computer-parsable morphological data to be communicable, compatible, and comparable. The role of controlled vocabularies (e.g., ontologies) for developing respective terminologies and methods of description is discussed, especially in the context of data annotation and semantic enhancement of publications. Finally, we introduce the International Consortium for Zoomorphology Standards, a working group that is open to everyone and whose aim is to stimulate and synthesize dialog about standards. It is the Consortium's ultimate goal to assist the zoomorphology community in developing modern data and metadata standards, including anatomy ontologies, thereby facilitating the participation of zoomorphology in e

  5. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  6. A call for the adoption of nuclear utility information standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, B.J. III; Richardson, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1986, the International Organization for Standardization (SO) issued a standard for document representation, ISO 8879, open-quotes Standard Generalized Markup Languageclose quotes (SGML). The standard prescribes a method for defining documents in two parts, one containing text and the other describing its structure without reference to word processing or publishing system software or hardware. It provides a method for open-quotes marking upclose quotes information, a way to place open-quotes tagsclose quotes on pieces of information to define their purpose. The SGML is part of a group of ISO standards titled open-quotes Information Processing-Text and Office Systems.close quotes This group contains the Document Style Specification and Semantics Language, the Standard Document Interchange Format, the Standard Page Description Language, and the fonts standard. The Department of Defense (DoD) has taken a standards initiative to improve the efficiency and reliability of systems by mandating that DoD suppliers comply with specific standards when delivering technical information. The initiative is called the Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) and includes a package of standards to address engineering drawings, raster font images, vector illustrations, text, and magnetic tape format. SGML is the CALS standard for documentation representation. Other industries have adopted this standard. Several industry groups, such as the Air Transport Association, American Association of Publishers, and the Telecommunications Industry Forum, are moving ahead vigorously with their own applications of SGML. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has also adopted the ISO standard for production of its documents. Work is under way to develop their own SGML application

  7. Medusae Fossae Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  8. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...

  9. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e + e - colliders

  10. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  11. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed

  12. Testing the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Riles, K

    1998-01-01

    The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.

  13. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  14. The enthalpies of formation of two dibenzocyclooctadienones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisanu, St.; Contineanu, Iulia; Banciu, M.D.; Liebman, Joel F.; Farivar, Behzad S.; Mullan, Melissa A.; Chickos, James S.; Rath, Nigam; Hillesheim, Dorothea M

    2003-04-17

    The standard molar enthalpies of formation ({delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(s)/kJ mol{sup -1}) for 2,3:6,7-dibenzocycloocta-2,6-dien-1-one and 2,3:7,8-dibenzocycloocta-2,7-dien-1-one [6H-11,12-dihydro-dibenzo[a,e]cycloocten-5-one (ketone 1) and 10H-11,12-dihydrodibenzo[a,d]-cycloocten-5-one (ketone 2), respectively] were derived from enthalpies of combustion, measured by means of a microbomb calorimeter. The fusion and vaporization enthalpies of these compounds were obtained from DSC and correlation gas chromatography measurements. The standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase were calculated by combining the condensed phase standard molar enthalpies of formation with the fusion and vaporization enthalpies adjusted to 298.15 K. Values for {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g) of (-39.9{+-}5.5) and (-14.8{+-}5.3) kJ mol{sup -1} were obtained for 2,3:6,7-dibenzocycloocta-2,6-dien-1-one and 2,3:7,8-dibenzocycloocta-2,7-dien-1-one, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations are reported for the compounds investigated experimentally and an additional four isomers. Isomerization enthalpies are derived from computed energies. The enthalpies of formation are also calculated by group additivity, compared with the experimental values and then correlated with the structure of the molecules investigated. The X-ray analysis of ketone 1 is also reported.

  15. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  16. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  17. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The attempts to develop models beyond the Standard Model are briefly reviewed paying particular regard to the mechanisms responsible for symmetry breaking and mass generation. A comparison is made of the theoretical expectations with recent precision measurements for theories with composite Higgs and for supersymmetric theories with elementary Higgs boson(s). The implications of a heavy top quark and the origin of the light quark and lepton masses and mixing angles are considered within these frameworks. ((orig.))

  18. New standard environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, Luca; Luciani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The ISO 14001:2004 standard, like ISO 9001:2000 on quality management, transcends the preventive approach (based on a rigid and more or less adequate process-management model still mainly inspired by traditional production methods) and introduces in its stead a highly flexible approach applicable to any socio-economic activity. It is structured by processes rather than system elements, and is based on the quest for efficacy and ongoing improvement [it

  19. Standard Model physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Altarelli, Guido

    1999-01-01

    Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.

  20. Standard model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1984-09-01

    The SU(3)/sub c/ circle crossSU(2)/sub L/circle crossU(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory of ineractions among quarks and leptons is briefly described, and some recent notable successes of the theory are mentioned. Some shortcomings in our ability to apply the theory are noted, and the incompleteness of the standard model is exhibited. Experimental hints that Nature may be richer in structure than the minimal theory are discussed. 23 references

  1. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  2. Natural matrix standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical intercomparision and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of matrices, each naturally contaminated by a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized

  3. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  4. Natural matrix standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental radiochemistry needs, for use in analytical inter-comparison and as standard reference materials, very large homogeneous samples of a variety of longer-lived radionuclides, at several different ranges of concentrations. The reasons for this need are discussed, and the minimum assortment of matrices, of radionuclides, and of concentrations is established. Sources of suitable materials are suggested, and the international approach to meeting this need is emphasized. (author)

  5. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  6. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  7. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  8. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  9. Emission- and product standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, P. de

    1988-01-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an inventarization of the use of radioactive materials and ionizing-radiation emitting apparates in the Netherlands. Ch. 2 deals with the varous applications of radioactive materials in the Netherlands. Herein also the numbers and the various locations by application, and the amounts and character of the radioactive materials used, come under discussion. Besides, the various waste currents are considered separately. The use of ionizing-radiation emitting apparates is treated in ch. 3. In ch. 4 the differences and agreements of the various applications, concentrating on the emission and product standards to be drawn up, are entered further. Also on the base of these considerations, a number of starting points are formulated with regard to the way in which emission and product standards may be drawn up. Ch. 7 deals with the conclusions and indicates the most important hiates. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  10. The IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  11. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  12. ISO radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.; West, N.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

  13. The format of things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth

    this conception is identified as “the Format of Things.” The format is embedded in our everyday thinking. In relation to design,it is found in the name taken by the design community, that is human-computer interaction (HCI), and it is mirrored in the desktop metaphor, wherein information is conceived...... available. It consists of philosophical considerations on matters of relevance for the design of interfaces. It takes the position that the graphical user interfaces of computers (the Desktop Metaphor or Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers [‘WIMP’]) that ordinarily come to mind for most people are cognates......The development of novel interfaces is one of the most important current design challenges for the intellectual, cultural and cognitive evolution of human imagination and knowledge work. Unfortunately, the thinking surrounding this design challenge is heavily mired in conceptions that harbor...

  14. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H 2 , A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author) [pt

  15. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  16. CytometryML and other data formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    Cytology automation and research will be enhanced by the creation of a common data format. This data format would provide the pathology and research communities with a uniform way for annotating and exchanging images, flow cytometry, and associated data. This specification and/or standard will include descriptions of the acquisition device, staining, the binary representations of the image and list-mode data, the measurements derived from the image and/or the list-mode data, and descriptors for clinical/pathology and research. An international, vendor-supported, non-proprietary specification will allow pathologists, researchers, and companies to develop and use image capture/analysis software, as well as list-mode analysis software, without worrying about incompatibilities between proprietary vendor formats. Presently, efforts to create specifications and/or descriptions of these formats include the Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification; extensions to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM); Open Microscopy Environment (OME); Flowcyt, an extension to the present Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS); and CytometryML. The feasibility of creating a common data specification for digital microscopy and flow cytometry in a manner consistent with its use for medical devices and interoperability with both hospital information and picture archiving systems has been demonstrated by the creation of the CytometryML schemas. The feasibility of creating a software system for digital microscopy has been demonstrated by the OME. CytometryML consists of schemas that describe instruments and their measurements. These instruments include digital microscopes and flow cytometers. Optical components including the instruments' excitation and emission parts are described. The description of the measurements made by these instruments includes the tagged molecule, data acquisition subsystem, and the format of the list-mode and/or image data. Many

  17. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    military, transportation, and communications technologies, which caused every place in the world to be politically significant. Second, “divisions of power...test a similar claim about the association between distance and dyadic alliance formation. In their first model, in which they use the complete data...1885 to 1990] are positively related to dyadic trade levels, and that their non- defense-pact counterparts are not significantly related to trade in

  18. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  19. Formation of TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, C. W.; Liu, B.; Schoonenberg, D.

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for the formation of the recently-discovered TRAPPIST-1 planetary system. In our scenario planets form in the interior regions, by accretion of mm to cm-size particles (pebbles) that drifted from the outer disk. This scenario has several advantages: it connects to the observation that disks are made up of pebbles, it is efficient, it explains why the TRAPPIST-1 planets are ˜Earth mass, and it provides a rationale for the system's architecture.

  20. THE ALLIANCE FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipple, Judith M.; Frankel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While interest in developing strategic alliances within the food system continues to increase, there remains considerable risk when firms adopt such a cooperative strategy. The risk is due in part to the lack of concrete guidelines that illustrate the steps or stages of alliance development and the important strategic and operational decisions required at each stage. The existence of such guidelines would facilitate alliance formation and enable managers and researchers to better understand a...

  1. CORPORATE STANDARD OF ICT COMPETENCE OF MASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Morze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current labor market demand determines the modification of the system of higher education, including the transfer of emphasis on the educational process in its final qualitative result, a paradigm shift from knowledge education to competency. Student should must possess ICT competence that today has become a part of professional competence of professionals of any type. The purpose of the study is to develop standards in the ICT competence of all members of the educational process to ensure the quality of university education and the creation and subsequent implementation of educational policies of the University. The paper highlights the need to develop a corporate standard of ICT competence of masters based on UNESCO scientific approaches. It describes model, the level of ICT competence and tools for monitoring its formation in the future for today's professionals. For each of the selected three levels of ICT competence (basic, advanced and professional determined necessary knowledge and skills, talents and ideas to master. The necessary and sufficient conditions are determined for the formation of the ICT competence of masters in modern university, proffered examples of tasks and competency requirements for the personal educational electronic space for student and educational electronic space of university. Developed and approved corporate standard provides appropriate expertise contemporary specialist who meets the requirements of the labor market and will allow the graduate to be successful in today's information society.

  2. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  3. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  4. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  5. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen

  6. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  7. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  8. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. (paper)

  9. Standard Wiggler magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Helm, R.H.

    1977-09-01

    Interest in Wiggler magnets (a close sequence of transverse fields with alternating polarity) to extend and enhance the spectrum of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings has increased significantly during the past few years. Standard wigglers, i.e., wigglers in which interference effects on the spectrum of synchrotron radiation are not important, are considered. In standard wigglers the spectrum of synchrotron radiation has the same general shape as the spectrum from ring bending magnets. However, the critical energy of the wiggler spectrum may be different. The critical energy of the wiggler spectrum is given by epsilon/sub CW/ = epsilon/sub CB/(B/sub W//B/sub B/) where epsilon/sub CB/ is the critical energy from the bending magnets and B/sub W/ and B/sub B/ are the magnetic field strengths of the wiggler magnet and bending magnets respectively. Since most electron storage rings operate with relatively low bending magnet fields (B/sub B/ less than or equal to 12 kG), even a modest wiggler magnet field (less than or equal to 18 kG) can significantly increase the critical energy. Such magnets are planned for ADONE and SPEAR. Higher field (30 to 50 kG) superconducting magnets are planned at Brookhaven, Daresbury, and Novosibirsk to produce even larger increase in the critical energy. For some standard wigglers a further enhancement of the spectrum is produced due tothe superposition of the radiation from the individual poles. Wiggler designs are discussed as well as the effect of wigglers on the synchrotron radiation spectrum and on the operation of storage rings

  10. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  11. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  12. Quasi standard model physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Possible small extensions of the standard model are considered, which are motivated by the strong CP problem and by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Phenomenological arguments are given which suggest that imposing a PQ symmetry to solve the strong CP problem is only tenable if the scale of the PQ breakdown is much above M W . Furthermore, an attempt is made to connect the scale of the PQ breakdown to that of the breakdown of lepton number. It is argued that in these theories the same intermediate scale may be responsible for the baryon number of the Universe, provided the Kuzmin Rubakov Shaposhnikov (B+L) erasing mechanism is operative. (orig.)

  13. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  14. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  15. Standard-model bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  16. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  17. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  18. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 open-quotes Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Caskclose quotes contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed

  19. Galaxy formation and physical bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    We have supplemented our code, which computes the evolution of the physical state of a representative piece of the universe to include, not only the dynamics of dark matter (with a standard PM code), and the hydrodynamics of the gaseous component (including detailed collisional and radiative processes), but also galaxy formation on a heuristic but plausible basis. If, within a cell the gas is Jeans' unstable, collapsing, and cooling rapidly, it is transformed to galaxy subunits, which are then followed with a collisionless code. After grouping them into galaxies, we estimate the relative distributions of galaxies and dark matter and the relative velocities of galaxies and dark matter. In a large scale CDM run of 80/h Mpc size with 8 x 10 exp 6 cells and dark matter particles, we find that physical bias b is on the 8/h Mpc scale is about 1.6 and increases towards smaller scales, and that velocity bias is about 0.8 on the same scale. The comparable HDM simulation is highly biased with b = 2.7 on the 8/h Mpc scale. Implications of these results are discussed in the light of the COBE observations which provide an accurate normalization for the initial power spectrum. CDM can be ruled out on the basis of too large a predicted small scale velocity dispersion at greater than 95 percent confidence level.

  20. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  1. Repeated Interaction in Standard Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    As part of the standard-setting process, certain patents become essential. This may allow the owners of these standard-essential patents to hold up implementers of the standard, who can no longer turn to substitute technologies. However, many real-world standards evolve over time, with several

  2. Standard cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  4. Beyond standard model calculations with Sherpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kuttimalai, Silvan [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Siegert, Frank [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We present a fully automated framework as part of the Sherpa event generator for the computation of tree-level cross sections in Beyond Standard Model scenarios, making use of model information given in the Universal FeynRules Output format. Elementary vertices are implemented into C++ code automatically and provided to the matrix-element generator Comix at runtime. Widths and branching ratios for unstable particles are computed from the same building blocks. The corresponding decays are simulated with spin correlations. Parton showers, QED radiation and hadronization are added by Sherpa, providing a full simulation of arbitrary BSM processes at the hadron level. (orig.)

  5. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  6. Standards for Lithotripter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Reiner; Doerffel, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Standards for lithotripsy have been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the FDA. In addition to the existing regulations and norms for the manufacturers, special standards were developed to address a treatment method developed in the early 1980's using extracorporeal shock waves. Initially, the FDA regulated the premarket approval process for lithotripters as a Class III device but reclassified lithotripters in 2000 to a Class II device. The corresponding guidance document for showing the substantial equivalence of new devices with predicate devices will be described in detail. The FDA guidance document is very useful in helping device manufacturers: (i) develop technical performance testing for a shock wave lithotripter within the parameters of an FDA submission, and (ii) conduct clinical performance testing via at least one clinical confirmation study with a small number of subjects. Unfortunately although the submitted data are available at the FDA they are not available in the marketplace and this causes difficulties for physicians in deciding which device to use. The results of the technical performance testing of the LithoGold™ are provided.

  7. Standards for backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for backscattering standards appears to be twofold and depends on the uses and requirements of the users. The first is as a calibrated reference by which samples of a similar nature to the standard may be absolutely compared. The second is as a means of intercomparing the relative results obtained by different laboratories using, as near as possible, identical samples. This type of comparison is of a relative nature and the absolute values are not necessarily required. In the present work the authors try to satisfy both needs by providing identical samples which have been absolutely calibrated to a high accuracy. Very thin copper and vanadium layers were evaporated onto bismuth implanted silicon crystals and on glass plates under carefully controlled conditions. The mass of the deposits was determined in situ using a sensitive UHV microbalance. In addition, two quartz oscillator monitors were used. The samples have been analysed by Rutherford backscattering and the absolute quantity of bismuth determined by a comparison with the known amounts of deposited material. (Auth.)

  8. The standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1994-03-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future

  9. The illusory nature of standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of the paradoxical situation in which standard setters are placed when standardising human practice. Contrary to standards, human practices are ambiguous, heterogeneous, and highly context dependent; in contrast, standards...... creation is innate in the practice of standardisation and therefore the risk of creating untrustworthy standards is prevalent for standard setters. Originality/value – The paper provides a new understanding of standards and demonstrates the need to research standardization processes in depth and bring...

  10. 78 FR 79319 - Amendment to Standards and Practices for All Appropriate Inquiries Under CERCLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Standard? The ASTM E1527-13 standard is similar to the ASTM E1527-05 standard in format, process, and areas... under Section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) for this revision to become effective immediately. Section 553(d)(3) of the APA allows an effective date less than 30 days after publication ``as...

  11. Understanding Grades and Standards: and how to apply them

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannucci, Daniele; Reardon, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    With the expanding globalization of trade, grades and standards help to set the ‘rules of the game’ and their implications for developing countries are becoming increasingly relevant. While they are clearly important to trade, their formation and utilization is also undergoing a shift from being neutral market lubricants to also being tools of product differentiation. This implies a fundamental shift in the role of standards from just reducing transaction costs of commodity market particip...

  12. Fracturing of subterranean formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O.M.; Kidwell, A.L.

    1968-03-19

    This method of propping fractured formations results in high conductivities. In the method, certain naturally occurring crystals are used as propping agents. Suitable crystals include garnet, corundum, zircon, rutile, high-temperature quartz, and other minerals which have Moh's hardness values of about 6 or greater and weather out as individual crystals of about 40 mesh or larger. These are said to result in permeabilities significantly higher than those obtained with ordinary quartz sand, metallic shot, glass beads, plastic particles, walnut hulls, or similar materials. (10 claims)

  13. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...... theoretical textual analysis method. Asynchronous written dialogue from an online master’s course at Aalborg University forms the empirical basis of the study. The findings suggests in general that students play an essential role in SFF and that students and educators are equal in the COP, but holds different...

  14. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, J; Joeveer, M; Saar, E [Tartu Astrophysical Observatory, Toravere, Estonia (USSR)

    1980-01-03

    A study of the structure of superclusters in the Southern galactic hemisphere using Zwicky clusters as principal tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe is reported. The data presented suggest that the formation of galaxies was a two stage process involving larger spatial dimensions than earlier workers have postulated. In the first stage proto-superclusters and big holes had to form from the non-dissipative dark matter while in the second hot gas, by cooling and settling down into the potential wells caused by dark matter, will form galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  15. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  16. Experimental formation enthalpies for intermetallic phases and other inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, George; Meschel, S. V.; Nash, Philip; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the energy associated with the reaction to form the compound from its component elements. The standard enthalpy of formation is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines its phase stability, which can be coupled with other thermodynamic data to calculate phase diagrams. Calorimetry provides the only direct method by which the standard enthalpy of formation is experimentally measured. However, the measurement is often a time and energy intensive process. We present a dataset of enthalpies of formation measured by high-temperature calorimetry. The phases measured in this dataset include intermetallic compounds with transition metal and rare-earth elements, metal borides, metal carbides, and metallic silicides. These measurements were collected from over 50 years of calorimetric experiments. The dataset contains 1,276 entries on experimental enthalpy of formation values and structural information. Most of the entries are for binary compounds but ternary and quaternary compounds are being added as they become available. The dataset also contains predictions of enthalpy of formation from first-principles calculations for comparison. PMID:29064466

  17. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  19. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  20. A Mesoproterozoic iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Huajian; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Su, Jin; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Haxen, Emma R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a 1,400 million-year old (Ma) iron formation (IF) from the Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We estimate this IF to have contained at least 520 gigatons of authigenic Fe, comparable in size to many IFs of the Paleoproterozoic Era (2,500–1,600 Ma). Therefore, substantial IFs formed in the time window between 1,800 and 800 Ma, where they are generally believed to have been absent. The Xiamaling IF is of exceptionally low thermal maturity, allowing the preservation of organic biomarkers and an unprecedented view of iron-cycle dynamics during IF emplacement. We identify tetramethyl aryl isoprenoid (TMAI) biomarkers linked to anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and thus phototrophic Fe oxidation. Although we cannot rule out other pathways of Fe oxidation, iron and organic matter likely deposited to the sediment in a ratio similar to that expected for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Fe reduction was likely a dominant and efficient pathway of organic matter mineralization, as indicated by organic matter maturation by Rock Eval pyrolysis combined with carbon isotope analyses: Indeed, Fe reduction was seemingly as efficient as oxic respiration. Overall, this Mesoproterozoic-aged IF shows many similarities to Archean-aged (>2,500 Ma) banded IFs (BIFs), but with an exceptional state of preservation, allowing an unprecedented exploration of Fe-cycle dynamics in IF deposition.

  1. Endocytosis and Enamel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Dat Pham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel formation requires consecutive stages of development to achieve its characteristic extreme mineral hardness. Mineralization depends on the initial presence then removal of degraded enamel proteins from the matrix via endocytosis. The ameloblast membrane resides at the interface between matrix and cell. Enamel formation is controlled by ameloblasts that produce enamel in stages to build the enamel layer (secretory stage and to reach final mineralization (maturation stage. Each stage has specific functional requirements for the ameloblasts. Ameloblasts adopt different cell morphologies during each stage. Protein trafficking including the secretion and endocytosis of enamel proteins is a fundamental task in ameloblasts. The sites of internalization of enamel proteins on the ameloblast membrane are specific for every stage. In this review, an overview of endocytosis and trafficking of vesicles in ameloblasts is presented. The pathways for internalization and routing of vesicles are described. Endocytosis is proposed as a mechanism to remove debris of degraded enamel protein and to obtain feedback from the matrix on the status of the maturing enamel.

  2. Standardized mappings--a framework to combine different semantic mappers into a standardized web-API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Philipp; Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic coding of medical terms is an important, but highly complicated and laborious task. To compare and evaluate different strategies a framework with a standardized web-interface was created. Two UMLS mapping strategies are compared to demonstrate the interface. The framework is a Java Spring application running on a Tomcat application server. It accepts different parameters and returns results in JSON format. To demonstrate the framework, a list of medical data items was mapped by two different methods: similarity search in a large table of terminology codes versus search in a manually curated repository. These mappings were reviewed by a specialist. The evaluation shows that the framework is flexible (due to standardized interfaces like HTTP and JSON), performant and reliable. Accuracy of automatically assigned codes is limited (up to 40%). Combining different semantic mappers into a standardized Web-API is feasible. This framework can be easily enhanced due to its modular design.

  3. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  4. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic...... dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets....... The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  5. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  6. Standard model baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O

    1994-01-01

    Simply on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. We comment as well on related works.

  7. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A5 B 942 943 943 ASM SA 69 D, 8115 056; ASTM D 5118 FABRICATION OF FIBERBOARD SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 Di- N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND...DR&E(AR)759 STANDARDIZATION PROJECTS REPORT - 1ST QTR FY 1994 PREPARING ACTIVITY LISTING PA AAPAA p BPP .A- G/ASA NC AC 21 RC G CSOL- Qý yqFyýFT7RL AL...941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8115 0562 ASTM D 5168 FAB AND CLOSURE TRIPLE WALL SM AS B 941 943 943 A SM SA 69 DH N 8125 0379 V’L-B-61000 BOTTLES

  8. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  9. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  10. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  11. Formative Research in Educational Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Timothy

    This paper distinguishes between basic research, applied research, and evaluation. Evaluation is broken down into two types: summative and formative. The limitations of formative research are presented, followed by a discussion of the value of the formative researcher participating in the product planning process. The types of data which formative…

  12. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  13. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  14. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  15. Temperature controlled formation of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungardt, M.

    At present, standard formation programs have to accommodate the worst case. This is important, especially in respect of variations in climatic conditions. The standard must be set so that during the hottest weather periods the maximum electrolyte temperature is not exceeded. As this value is defined not only by the desired properties and the recipe of the active mass, but also by type and size of the separators and by the dimensions of the plates, general rules cannot be formulated. It is considered to be advantageous to introduce limiting data for the maximum temperature into a general formation program. The latter is defined so that under normal to good ambient conditions the shortest formation time is achieved. If required, the temperature control will reduce the currents employed in the different steps, according to need, and will extend the formation time accordingly. With computer-controlled formation, these parameters can be readily adjusted to suit each type of battery and can also be reset according to modifications in the preceding processing steps. Such a procedure ensures that: (i) the formation time is minimum under the given ambient conditions; (ii) in the event of malpractice ( e.g. actual program not fitting to size) the batteries will not be destroyed; (iii) the energy consumption is minimized (note, high electrolyte temperature leads to excess gassing). These features are incorporated in the BA/FOS-500 battery formation system developed by Digatron. The operational characteristics of this system are listed in Table 1.

  16. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  17. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  18. Recipes for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  19. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  20. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  1. Guidelines for drafting national and international seismic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of engineering reliability are discussed in relation to the formation of seismic standards. The basic recommendations of the International Association of Earthquake Engineering in the field of inspection and earthquake resistance evaluation of engineering structures and systems are characterized. Attention is also paid to efforts aimed at a unification of standards and regulations, based on the fact that quasistatic and response spectra methods are largely common to the standards amd regulations. However, as the potential of computer techniques increases, more complex computer programs appear and the amount of tenuous input data increases, and this can affect the quality of seismic inspections. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  2. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF STANDARDIZATION AND HARMONIZATION OF ACCOUNTING FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cristina Onica; Neculina Chebac

    2008-01-01

    Accountancy normalization supposes rules and accountancy standards making, rules which are accomplished in the way of common denominator concerning the way of action and implementation in order to realize a content comparison and accountancy in formations approach. Accountancy normalization process is structured in two main areas: national accountancy normalization and international accountancy normalization. Though international accountancy normalization concept has to be realized a differen...

  5. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  6. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  7. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors briefly review the necessity of going beyond the Standard Model. We argue that certain types of composite models of quarks and leptons may resolve some of the difficulties of the SM. Furthermore the authors argue that, even without a full specification of a composite model, one may predict some observable effects following from the compositeness hypothesis. The effects are most easily seen in reaction channels in which there is little competition from known processes predicted by the SM, typically in neutrino induced reactions. The authors suggest that above a certain characteristic energy, neutrino cross sections rise well above those predicted within the framework of the SM and the difference between the characteristic features of lepton and hadron induced reactions is blurred. The authors claim that there is some (so far, tenuous) evidence for the phenomenon we just alluded to: in certain high energy cosmic ray interactions it appears that photons and/or neutrinos behave in a manner which is inconsistent with the SM. The authors analyze the data and conclude that the origin of the anomaly in the observational data arises from an increased neutrino interaction cross section

  8. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  9. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  10. Intelligent Transportation Systems : critical standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards are industry-consensus standards that provide the details about how different systems interconnect and communicate information to deliver the ITS user services described in the National ITS Architect...

  11. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  12. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  13. Shielding standards: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the sequence of events leading from the inception of a standard to its transmittal to the ANSI Board of Standards Review will be given. The standard referred to is entitled, ''Neutron and Gamma-Ray Flux-to-Dose-Rate Factors,'' (ANSI N666). Certain questions raised during the review process and the compatibility of this standard with the USA Code of Federal Regulations will be discussed

  14. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  15. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  16. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  17. Standardization of splash device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  18. The JPEG XT suite of standards: status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Thomas; Bruylants, Tim; Schelkens, Peter; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-09-01

    The JPEG standard has known an enormous market adoption. Daily, billions of pictures are created, stored and exchanged in this format. The JPEG committee acknowledges this success and spends continued efforts in maintaining and expanding the standard specifications. JPEG XT is a standardization effort targeting the extension of the JPEG features by enabling support for high dynamic range imaging, lossless and near-lossless coding, and alpha channel coding, while also guaranteeing backward and forward compatibility with the JPEG legacy format. This paper gives an overview of the current status of the JPEG XT standards suite. It discusses the JPEG legacy specification, and details how higher dynamic range support is facilitated both for integer and floating-point color representations. The paper shows how JPEG XT's support for lossless and near-lossless coding of low and high dynamic range images is achieved in combination with backward compatibility to JPEG legacy. In addition, the extensible boxed-based JPEG XT file format on which all following and future extensions of JPEG will be based is introduced. This paper also details how the lossy and lossless representations of alpha channels are supported to allow coding transparency information and arbitrarily shaped images. Finally, we conclude by giving prospects on upcoming JPEG standardization initiative JPEG Privacy & Security, and a number of other possible extensions in JPEG XT.

  19. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  20. Darwin Core: An Evolving Community-Developed Biodiversity Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, John; Bloom, David; Guralnick, Robert; Blum, Stan; Döring, Markus; Giovanni, Renato; Robertson, Tim; Vieglais, David

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations. PMID:22238640

  1. Can Habit Formation be Reconciled with Business Cycle Facts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    Many asset pricing puzzles can be explained when habit formation is added to standard preferences. We show that utility functions with a habit then gives rise to a puzzle of consumption volatility in place of the asset pricing puzzles when agents can choose consumption and labor optimally in

  2. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  3. Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, D. Royce

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the nature and function of formative assessment in the development of students' expertise for evaluating the quality of their own work. Highlights include the transition from teacher-supplied feedback to learner self-monitoring; qualitative judgments; communicating standards to students; multicriterion judgments; and implications for the…

  4. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  5. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  6. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, A.; Rao, P.S.; Sachadev, R.N.; Shaha, V.V.; Sharma, D.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  7. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  8. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  9. Empirical soot formation and oxidation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussouara Karima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling internal combustion engines can be made following different approaches, depending on the type of problem to be simulated. A diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a combustion, model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion, and soot pollutant formation. The models of turbulent combustion of diffusion flame, apply to diffusion flames, which one meets in industry, typically in the diesel engines particulate emission represents one of the most deleterious pollutants generated during diesel combustion. Stringent standards on particulate emission along with specific emphasis on size of emitted particulates have resulted in increased interest in fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of soot particulate formation and oxidation in internal combustion engines. A phenomenological numerical model which can predict the particle size distribution of the soot emitted will be very useful in explaining the above observed results and will also be of use to develop better particulate control techniques. A diesel engine chosen for simulation is a version of the Caterpillar 3406. We are interested in employing a standard finite-volume computational fluid dynamics code, KIVA3V-RELEASE2.

  10. Report formatting in laboratory medicine - a call for harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Legg, Michael

    2018-04-19

    The results of medical laboratory testing are only useful if they lead to appropriate actions by medical practitioners and/or patients. An underappreciated component of the medical testing process is the transfer of the information from the laboratory report into the reader's brain. The format of laboratory reports can be determined by the testing laboratory, which may issue a formatted report, or by electronic systems receiving information from laboratories and controlling the report format. As doctors can receive information from many laboratories, interpreting information from reports in a safe and rapid manner is facilitated by having similar report layouts and formats. Using Australia as an example, there is a wide variation in report formats in spite of a body of work to define standards for reporting. In addition to standardising of report formats, consideration needs to be given to optimisation of report formatting to facilitate rapid and unambiguous reading of the report and also interpretation of the data. Innovative report formats have been developed by some laboratories; however, wide adoption has not followed. The need to balance uniformity of reporting with appropriate innovation is a challenge for safe reporting of laboratory results. This paper discusses the current status and opportunity for improvement in safety and efficiency of the reading of laboratory reports, using current practise and developments in Australia as examples.

  11. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  12. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  13. Common Data Format (CDF) and Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) data browsing system provides plotting, listing and open access v ia FTP, HTTP, and web services (REST, SOAP, OPeNDAP) for data from mo st NASA Heliophysics missions and is heavily used by the community. C ombining data from many instruments and missions enables broad resear ch analysis and correlation and coordination with other experiments a nd missions. Crucial to its effectiveness is the use of a standard se lf-describing data format, in this case, the Common Data Format (CDF) , also developed at the Space Physics Data facility , and the use of metadata standa rds (easily edited with SKTeditor ). CDAweb is based on a set of IDL routines, CDAWlib . . The CDF project also maintains soft ware and services for translating between many standard formats (CDF. netCDF, HDF, FITS, XML) .

  14. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  15. Current standard treatment for pediatric glioma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Saito, Ryuta; Kanamori, Masayuki; Yamashita, Yoji; Tominaga, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we selected three representative disorders among pediatric gliomas and reviewed standard treatments for these diseases. The formation of this rare disease is involved with BRAF mutation as well as cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Radical resection is not recommended as initial therapy due to high morbidity. Despite its good tumor control, radiotherapy is not a standard therapy due to neuroendocrine and neurocognitive dysfunction. Several papers have reported the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy, which is a useful for induction therapy. Recent progress in molecular analyses has suggested that some markers might be used for staging ependymoma. While total resection is considered to be strongly correlated with patients' survival, the majority of recurrence occurs in the primary site. Despite many clinical trials, chemotherapeutic agents were not found to be effective for this disease. Since whole brain radiation cannot prevent dissemination, local radiation is recommended for adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of this disease is still dismal, and median survival time is within 1 year. Although clinical trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy prior to, concomitantly with, or after radiotherapy, an effective regimen has not yet been established. Therefore, only conventional local radiotherapy is the standard regimen for this disease. A new therapeutic approach, such as convection-enhanced drug delivery, would be required for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. (author)

  16. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  17. A New Format for Handling Nuclear Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, S I; Tenreiro, C; Kadi, Y; Hong, S W; Manchanda, V; Gheata, M; Chai, J S; Carminati, F; Park, T S; Brun, R

    2011-01-01

    The ASCII ENDF format for nuclear data has been used for four decades. It is practical for human inspection and portability, but; it is not very effective for manipulating and displaying the data or for using them in Monte-Carlo applications. In this paper we present a prototype of a nuclear data manipulation package (TNudy) based on the ROOT system (http://root.cern.ch). The ROOT object-oriented C++ framework is the de-facto standard in high energy and nuclear physics since ten years. Starting from the ENDF format, the data. is stored in machine-portable binary format. Root files also offer a powerful direct access capability to their different sections and compressibility upon writing, minimising the disk occupancy. ROOT offers a complete library of visualisation and mathematical routines and the Virtual Monte-Carlo system, which allows running different transport Monte-Carlo (Geant 4, Geant 3) with common scoring and geometry modellers, which comes as part of ROOT. ROOT contains isotope decay data and the ...

  18. Managing digitally formatted diagnostic image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, A.W.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiologists are very comfortable using analog radiographic film and interpreting its recorded images. To improve patient care, the radiologist has sought the finest quality radiographic film for use with the best radiographic imaging systems. The proper choice and use of x-ray tubes, generators, film-screen combinations, and contrast media has occupied the professional attention of the radiologist since the inception of radiology. Image quality can be significantly improved with digitally formatted diagnostic imaging systems by providing dynamic ranges in excess of those possible with analog x-ray films. In a CT scanner, the digital acquisition and reconstruction system can obtain a dynamic range (contrast resolution) of 10,000 to 1. Digital subtraction angiography systems achieve 10-bit dynamic ranges for each of the acquired television frames. Increases in the dynamic ranges of the various imaging modalities have been coupled with improved spatial resolution. A digitally formatted image is a two-dimensional, numerical array of discrete image elements. Each picture element is called a pixel. Each pixel has a discrete size. Figure 15.1 illustrates a digitally formatted image depicting the spatial resolution, array size, and quantization or numerical range of the pixel values. Currently, 512 x 512 image arrays are standard. Development of 1024 x 1024 digital arrays are underway. Significant improvements have also been achieved in the rates at which digital diagnostic imaging data can be acquired, manipulated, and archived

  19. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  20. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant....