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Sample records for ireland italy spain

  1. The text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    On 5 April 1989 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Spain the notification required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which therefore came into force for Spain on that date

  2. Ireland and Spain 1931-1933. Divergent Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Jaspe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the development of the fledgling diplomatic ties between the new Irish state and the recently established Spanish legation based in Dublin.  It will analyse the formal establishment of political, cultural and social links developed in contemporary times between the two old historical allies that had previously been limited to polite lip-service; conditioned, in part, as they were by  monarchical Madrid’s caution in regard to London and previous Spanish reluctance to engage with a rebellious state.  1931 signified a volte face in the relationship developing between Dublin and Madrid since the establishment of a Spanish consulate in Dublin in March 1924, facilitated by their commitment to the League of Nations, to which both were strongly committed in the 1920s.  This paper will illustrate how the declaration of the II Republic in Spain was a crossroads in the relationship between these two nations.  The roles of ‘rebel’ and ‘traditionalist’ state had been instantly switched.  The Church and much of the new political elite in Ireland viewed republican reforms in Spain with ever growing and public distaste creating conflict among Irish republicanism, post-independence.  The main Spanish republican representative in Ireland in this 1931-33 period, Emilio Sanz y Tovar, became very sensitive to these schisms as he tried to cement political and socio-economic ties with his Irish hosts.

  3. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  4. Debt Development in Ireland and Spain: the Same or Different? Pre- and Post-crisis Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Ptak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the development of general government debt in two Eurozone countries: Ireland and Spain that suffered from serious imbalance in public finance during the last crisis. Prior to the crisis, both economies were developing well against the background of the whole Eurozone and had a relatively good situation in public finance. The genesis of the crisis was also quite similar in these two countries. The similarity of factors influencing the crisis and the pre-crisis high development of both economies were among the reasons for selection of these two countries to be compared. Thus, the article focuses on the outbreak of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation period of 2008-2015, however the pre-crisis analysis is also provided. The debt sustainability analysis carried out in the article shows the possibility of growing out of debt in both countries depending on the macroeconomic circumstances. Both Ireland and Spain have been aiming to achieve a primary surplus. Besides the similarity of pre-crisis conditions, in this respect, the progress was highly noticeable, especially in Ireland, where it resulted from a fiscal consolidation but also a high real GDP dynamics that supported the process. Due to this, Ireland has already managed to lower the debt-to- -GDP ratio and put it on a downward path. Spain, on the contrary, has recorded a high debt-to-GDP ratio which is still on the upward path and is forecasted to continue until 2016.

  5. Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area; France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Lissovolik; Julio Escolano; Stefania Fabrizio; Werner Schule; Herman Z Bennett; Stephen Tokarick; Yuan Xiao; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Eva Gutierrez; Iryna V. Ivaschenko

    2008-01-01

    This collection of studies analyzes developments in nonprice external competitiveness of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. While France, Italy, and Portugal have experienced substantial export market share losses, Greece and Spain performed relatively well. Export market share losses appear associated with rigidities in resource allocation (sectoral, geographical, technological) relative to peers and lower productivity gains in high value-added sectors. Disaggregated analysis of goo...

  6. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    previously isolated PCVs. A rapid and convenient PCR-based test was developed and used for the genotyping of these PCV isolates. These PCV isolates were found to be antigenically and genomically similar to previously reported isolates of PCV from pigs with wasting disease (PCV2), but distinct from......A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...... the isolate of PCV from continuous PK/15 cell cultures (PCV1)....

  7. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-807, A-583-828] Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan... stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and Taiwan would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in the United...

  8. Benefits and costs of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.; Ansink, E.; van de Wiel, C.; Wesseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  9. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  10. Public Management Reform in Napoleonic states: france, greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ongaro

    2008-01-01

    The special issue fills a gap in literature by providing systematic and comparative analysis of public management reform in five under-investigated countries in the Napoleonic administrative tradition: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain. It thus provides an important contribution to the widening of the comparative research agenda in public management

  11. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the..., and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-770-773 and 775 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  12. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  13. Southern-European Signposts for Critical Popular Adult Education: Italy, Portugal and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Paula; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio; Mayo, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on three Southern European countries, Italy, Portugal and Spain, to explore examples of projects that provide signposts for a critical popular education that contributes to an ongoing democratic process--one whereby citizens are developed as social actors and members of a collectivity rather than simply passive…

  14. Modern Languages and Interculturality in the Primary Sector in England, Greece, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    Addresses concerns and issues regarding modern language teaching and learning at primary schools in Greece, Italy, Spain, and England. It focuses on the optimal age for learning and acquiring languages and to the educational reforms which have been undertaken in each country relating to early modern language teaching and learning and…

  15. Energy and the non-energy inputs substitution: evidence for Italy, Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, J.; Vega-Cervera, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The factor demand is modeled for Italy, Portugal and Spain. We estimated a translog cost function with capital, labor and energy over the 1980-1996 period. Our objective regarding energy as input was two-fold: on the one hand, to verify its incorporation as a productive factor, and, on the other, to observe its degree of substitutability with the other classical factors, given the high level of energy dependency of these countries. Using a separability test and confidence intervals for the Allen and price elasticities, our estimates confirmed both the nonseparability of the energy input and the existence of consistent substitution between energy and labor only for Italy. (author)

  16. Analyzing the international competitiveness of the industry in Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain using revealed comparative advantages (RCA) indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Oelgemöller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the export structure of the four European countries Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain, the so called PIGS countries. These countries were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with the national debt crisis and recession. One way to identify sectoral international competitiveness is provided by the revealed comparative advantage index developed by Balassa (RCA 1). This indicator evolved through several studie...

  17. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  18. The eastward enlargement of the eurozone: social and policy aspects in Portugal, Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Aurora; Caétano, José; Costa, Sofia; Liiv, Reilika

    2003-01-01

    This report explores some features of the social dimension of enlargement regarding the Southern EU-Member countries, namely Portugal, Spain and Italy. Economic theory suggests that integration may affect wages, employment and income distribution through changes on trade, FDI and migration flows. By removing all barriers to the free movement of goods and services, capital and labour, Eastward Enlargement will affect the location of economic activities, innovation, and technology. Subsequently...

  19. [Medical education and medical anthropology in Europe: the cases of Italy and Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelles, Josep M; Riccò, Isabella; Bañuelos, Aida Terrón; Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the development of health education in Italy and Spain from the point of view of the role played by medical anthropology in both countries. The context is provided by the changes in the concept of health education advocated by the UN technical agencies, especially the World Health Organization and Unesco, during the second half of the twentieth century. Despite their many similarities, Italy and Spain underwent different political evolutions over the last century. Therefore, it is interesting to compare both cases and the influence the social sciences had in health education initiatives. In order to assess the role of medical anthropology, the 1958 launch and the development of the Centro Sperimentale per l'Educazione Sanitaria (Perugia, Italy), which was at the forefront of health education in Europe until the 1990s, was reconstructed through oral sources. After a brief description of the scant initiatives regarding health education existing in the Spain of the dictatorship, the influence of the Perusine anthropologists on Spanish health education during the democratic transition is evaluated.

  20. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rosano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  1. End-of-life care across Southern Europe: a critical review of cultural similarities and differences between Italy, Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meñaca, Arantza; Evans, Natalie; Andrew, Erin V W; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Silvia; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert; Gysels, Marjolein

    2012-06-01

    Evidence from a range of sources demonstrates that end-of-life (EoL) care practices and preferences vary across countries; culture is consistently one of the main explanations given for this. In order to understand how cultural factors are used to explain similarities and differences in EoL care between Spain, Italy and Portugal, database and hand searches were performed and cross-cutting core themes identified. Similarities included higher proportions of people who wished to die at home than actually died at home, a persistent trend for partial disclosure in Italy and Spain, low use of advance directives, and low incidence of all medical EoL decisions (with the exception of terminal sedation) compared to northern European countries. The role of religion and the importance of family ties were the two main cultural factors used to explain the similarities. Further research is needed in order to interpret the important differences that were also found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring a large number of pesticides and transformation products in water samples from Spain and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Zuccato, Ettore; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used to screen a database of 450 pesticides and TPs. Detection and identification were based on specific criteria, i.e. mass accuracy, fragmentation, and comparison of retention times when reference standards were available, or a retention time prediction model when standards were not available. Seventeen pesticides and TPs from different classes (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides) were found in WW in Italy and Spain, and twelve in SW. Generally, in both countries more compounds were detected in effluent WW than in influent WW, and in SW than WW. This might be due to the analytical sensitivity in the different matrices, but also to the presence of multiple sources of pollution. HRMS proved a good screening tool to determine a large number of substances in water and identify some priority compounds for further quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Digital Protest Media Imaginaries: Anti-Austerity Movements in Greece, Italy & Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Treré

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from an empirical study of repertoires of contention and communication engaged during anti-austerity protests by the Indignados in Spain, the precarious generation in Italy, and the Aganaktismenoi in Greece. Drawing on 60 semi­structured interviews with activists and independent media producers involved in the 2011 wave of contention, we bring together social movement and communications theoretical frameworks to present a comparative critical analysis of digital protest media imaginaries. After examining the different socio-political and protest media contexts of the three countries translocally, our critical analysis emphasizes the emergence of three different imaginaries: in Spain the digital protest media imaginary was technopolitical, grounded in the politics and political economies of communication technologies emerging from the free culture movement; in Italy this imaginary was techno-fragmented, lacking cohesion, and failed to bring together old and new protest media logics; and finally in Greece it was techno-pragmatic, envisioned according to practical objectives that reflected the diverse politics and desires of media makers rather than the strictly technological or political affordances of the digital media forms and platforms. This research reveals how pivotal the temporal and geographical dimensions are when analyzed using theoretical perspectives from both communications and social movement research; moreover it emphasizes the importance of studying translocal digital protest media imaginaries as they shape movement repertoires of contention and communication; both elements are crucial to better understanding the challenges, limitations, successes and opportunities for digital protest media.

  4. Pre- and Post-Migration Determinants of Socio-Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Haas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre- and post-migration determinants of socio-cultural integration among first-generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and

  5. [Management of Chagas disease in Europe. Experiences and challenges in Spain, Switzerland and Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Y; Angheben, A; Carrilero Fernandez, B; Jansa i Lopez del Vallado, J M; Jannin, J G; Albajar-Viñas, P

    2009-12-01

    The intention of this article is not to describe the illness or evaluate the number of cases diagnosed in Spain, Switzerland and Italy, nor to analyse the protocols followed in various centres. The authors rather seek to examine the main technical, local and national challenges involved in the care of patients with Chagas disease. To this end, they review concisely a number of themes which are common to the three countries. These are: the detection of disease; confirmation of the diagnosis; treatment; response to treatment; follow-up; the risk of transmission by transfusion, by organ donation and from mother to child; the psychosocial and socio-economic aspects of Chagas disease outside endemic areas; and what progress needs to be made in improving information about the condition.

  6. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  7. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Danny

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains information on the distribution of household incomes in the five most populous European countries as surveyed in 2012, with data released in 2014 and published here aggregated and so further anonymized in 2015. The underlying source data is the already anonymized EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EUSILC) Microdata. The data include the annual household income required in each country to fall within the best-off 1% in that country, median and mean incomes, average (mean) incomes of the best off 1%, 0.1% and estimates for the 0.01%, 0.001% and so on for the UK, and of the 90% and worse-off 10%, the best-off 10% and best-off 1% of households for all countries. Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority). Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted) median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off): France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median) French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015) Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1].

  8. Cost of diabetic foot in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Training in the Industry 4.0 (in Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamil Tony Kahale Carrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Industry 4.0, known as the fourth industrial revolution, refers to an industrial revolution that is stimulated by the digital transformation and the introduction of the digital technology in the industry in general. The digital transformation supposes the whole challenge for the Spanish and Italian industry; nevertheless, it offers the opportunity to improve the competitive position on the international market.The reports indicate that the digitalization of the industry will suppose the disappearance of 7,1 million employments in 15 countries most industrialized of the world; as well as the creation of 2,1 million new positions for 2020. For this better competitive position of the activation of the Industry 4.0 there is needed that the workers have a training 4.0, provided that new professions based on the digitalization will be demanded.The present study offers a first definition of the Industry 4.0 and an analysis of the training policies for Industry 4.0 in Spain and Italy, concluding with some remarks.

  10. International Business in Southern Europe: Renault in Italy, Portugal and Spain, 1908-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomàs Fernández de Sevilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According with Peter Buckley, Business history provides sources of testing for international business theory such as internalisation theory; the eclectic paradigm; the Uppasla internationalization process model; the evolutionary theory of the firm; and the resource-based view of the firm. For its part, Mira Wilkins has highlighted that an important contribution of business historians is to instil a recognition of complexity business enterprises as they emerge and mature, as managers and managerial directions change, and as the environment in which managers operate takes on different characteristics. As Julian Birkinshaw explains, in doing so MNEs can be used as the primary unit of analysis, considering that the MNE subsidiary has its own strategy and make effective use of its far-flung network. By using a Business History approach, the aim of this article is to study how Renault entered in Spain, Italy and Portugal, and how it has evolved its presence through time. This article shows that the development path of Renault subsidiaries in Southern Europe not only it has been determined in the headquarters of the MNEs, but also in subsidiaries own development of its organizational capabilities.

  11. CORPORATE FINANCIAL DISTRESS AND BANKRUPTCY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN FRANCE, ITALY AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Amendola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a competing-risks approach for investigating the determinants of corporate financial distress. In particular a comparative analysis of three European markets-France, Italy and Spain–is performed in order to find out the similarities and the differences in the determinants of distress.By using the AMADEUS dataset, two possible causes of exit from the market are considered:bankruptcy and liquidation. For identifying the variables that influence the risk of leaving the market,a competing-risks model for each country is estimated and is compared with a pooled model including all the three countries. In addition, the performance of the competing-risks approach is evaluated versus the single-risk model, in which all states are considered without any distinctions.The reached results show that the competing risks approach leads to a saving in the number of selected variables that becomes more significant when the model is estimated for each country separately. Moreover, the selected variables for each country enable to identify similarities between the different exit routes across the markets. Some of the differences between Spain and the other two countries may be related to the dissimilar definition of the distress states.

  12. Business models in urban farming: A comparative analysis of case studies from Spain, Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pölling Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Urban Agriculture Europe” EU COST-Action (2012–2016 has shown that the complexity of urban agriculture (UA is hardly compressible into classic business management models and has proposed new management models, such as the Business Model Canvas (BMC. Business models of UA have to be different from rural ones. In particular, factors such as differentiation and diversification, but also low cost-oriented specialisation, are characteristic and necessary business models for UA to stay profitable in the long term under challenging city conditions. This paper aims to highlight how farm enterprises have to adjust to urban conditions by stepping into appropriate business models aiming to stay competitive and profitable, and how the BMC is useful to analyse their organisation and performance, both economically and socially. The paper offers an inter-regional analysis of UA enterprises located in Spain, Italy, and Germany, which are further subdivided into: local food, leisure, educational, social, therapeutic, agri-environmental, cultural heritage and experimental farms. The analysis demonstrates that UA is differentially adjusted to specific urban conditions and that the BMC is useful for analysing urban farming. Heterogeneous local food farms and the integration of local and organic food production in social farming business models are most frequent in our case studies.

  13. Child protection in Italy and Spain: Influence of the family supported society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. del Valle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the historical development of child protection in Spain and Italy shows remarkable common aspects. There has been a strong tradition of using residential care by means of large institutions, mostly run by catholic religious organizations, in both countries, and both have had to face the challenge of changing the tendency of this institutional care to a family based care. On the other hand, both countries share aMediterranean culture where the family has been the main provider of personal and social wellbeing, although the welfare state has achieved a high level of development with large health, education, and socialservices coverage in the last decades. The current financial crisis of these countries is jeopardizing these recently attained advances and again the importance of family support is becoming crucial. The articlereviews the historical development of out-of-home care in both countries and compares foster family and residential care, as well as the main research contributions to these topics in both countries.

  14. Migrants' access to healthcare services within the European Union: a content analysis of policy documents in Ireland, Portugal and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Céline; Pilot, Eva; Diaz, Esperanza; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-06-15

    The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health. A content analysis of official policy documents was undertaken and the conceptual framework developed by Mladowsky was adapted to classify the actions indicated in the policies. The content analysis revealed that the policy aim for all three analysed countries is the improvement of the health status of the immigrant population based on equity and equality principles. The main strategies are the adaptation of services through actions targeting patients and providers, such as the implementation of cultural mediators and trainings for health professionals. The three countries propose a great range of policies aiming at improving access to healthcare services for immigrants that can inspire other European countries currently welcoming refugees. Developing inclusive policies, however does not necessarily mean they will be implemented or felt on the ground. Inclusive policies are indeed under threat due to the economic and social crises and due to the respective nationalistic attitudes towards integration. The European Union is challenged to take a more proactive leadership and ensure that countries effectively implement inclusive actions to improve migrant's access to health services.

  15. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  16. The elderly care and domestic services sector during the recent economic crisis. The case of Italy, Spain and France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Picchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years in Italy, Spain and France, the demographic pressure and the increasing women’s participation in labour market have fuelled the expansion of the private provision of domestic and care services. In order to ensure the difficult balance between affordability, quality and job creation, each countries’ response has been different. France has developed policies to sustain the demand side introducing instruments such as vouchers and fiscal schemes, since the mid of the 2000s. Massive public funding has contributed to foster a regular market of domestic and care services and France is often presented as a “best practices” of those policies aimed at encouraging a regular private sector. Conversely in Italy and Spain, the development of a private domestic and care market has been mostly uncontrolled and without a coherent institutional design: the osmosis between a large informal market and the regular private care sector has been ensured on the supply side by migrant workers’ regularizations or the introduction of new employment regulations . The analysis presented in this paper aims to describe the response of these different policies to the challenges imposed by the current economic crisis. In dealing with the retrenchment of public expenditure and the reduced households’ purchasing power, Italy, Spain and France are experiencing greater difficulties in ensuring a regular private sector of domestic and care services. In light of that, the paper analyses the recent economic conjuncture presenting some assumptions about the future risk of deeper inequalities rising along with the increase of the process of marketization of domestic and care services in all the countries under analysis.    

  17. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Ming-Ann Hsu,3 Andrew Bushmakin41Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USA; 4Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USABackground: Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes.Methods: All women aged 40–75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801. VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L, work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause.Results: Over half (50.3% of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%, moderate (17.6%, or severe (8.1% VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = −0.03, P < 0.05, moderate (b = −0.07, P < 0.05, and severe VMS (b = −0.17, P < 0.05 were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04–2.39, all P < 0.05, overall work impairment (b = 8.71–19.69, all P < 0.05, and activity impairment (b = 11.22–24.54, all P < 0.05 were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the

  18. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Chandran, Arthi; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Bushmakin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes. All women aged 40-75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801). VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L), work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause. Over half (50.3%) of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%), moderate (17.6%), or severe (8.1%) VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = -0.03, P < 0.05), moderate (b = -0.07, P < 0.05), and severe VMS (b = -0.17, P < 0.05) were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04-2.39, all P < 0.05), overall work impairment (b = 8.71-19.69, all P < 0.05), and activity impairment (b = 11.22-24.54, all P < 0.05) were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the reference category). These results suggest a high prevalence of VMS in Western Europe. These symptoms are also associated with both humanistic and economic outcomes. Improved management of VMS may be able to increase the health status and ability to work productively as well as reduce societal direct costs.

  19. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  1. Chinese investments in Southern Europe's energy sectors: Similarities and divergences in China's strategies in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja-Alcaraz, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    China's Foreign Direct Investment in Europe has experienced a significant surge over the last decade. Southern European countries have not missed out on this trend and have gradually consolidated as important recipients of Chinese investments. This has allowed them to accumulate 23.5% of all Chinese FDI to Europe between 2000 and 2014 (10.8 billion Euro). The energy sectors of all four countries have been primary beneficiaries. Chinese entities have carried out impressive acquisitions in the Italian and Portuguese energy markets. In contrast, their presence in the Greek and Spanish energy markets has been discrete. In parallel, the penetration of Chinese investments in Italy and Spain's subsectors of renewable energies has been more prominent than in the Greek and the Portuguese ones. The former two countries have received significant investments in solar-related greenfield projects, whereas the latter have mostly benefited from operations in wind-related ones. The influence of Chinese ergy policies and promoting foreignntities has had an impact on the markets of all four countries. This trend is not consolidated. Data suggests that Chinese investments have been highly opportunistic. Athens, Rome, Lisbon and Madrid should see China's penetration in their markets as a mix bag of opportunities and challenges that demands better informed analysis. - Highlights: • China’s FDI in Southern European energy markets has experienced a recent surge. • Italy and Portugal are the region’s top recipients of Chinese FDI in energy markets. • Italy and Spain have received large Chinese investments in solar greenfield projects. • Chinese FDI in Southern Europe’s energy sectors is market and asset seeking. • Southern European energy strategies urge to be revised.

  2. Getting Skills Right: Good Practice in Adapting to Changing Skill Needs. A Perspective on France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment…

  3. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of Clostridium difficile infection on resource use and costs in hospitals in Spain and Italy: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel; Di Bella, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Grau, Santiago; Hart, Warren M; Isidoro, Beatriz; Scotto, Ricardo; Petrosillo, Nicola; Watt, Maureen; Nazir, Jameel

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on hospital resources and costs in Spain and Italy. CDI data were collected from institutions in Spain and Italy. Each patient was matched with two randomly selected uninfected controls in the same institution. Patient outcomes were assessed for the first and second episodes of CDI and for patients aged ≤65 and >65 years. The impact of CDI on hospital length of stay (LOS) was used to calculate CDI-attributable costs. A multivariate analysis using duration of stay as the continuous outcome variable assessed the independent effect of CDI on hospital costs and LOS. LOS attributable to CDI ranged from 7.6-19.0 days in adults and was 5.0 days in children; the increases were greater in adults in Italy than in Spain. Attributable costs per adult patient ranged from €4396 in Madrid to €14 023 in Rome, with the majority of the cost being due to hospitalization. For children, the total attributable cost was €3545/patient. These data show that the burden of CDI is considerable in Spain and Italy. Treatments that can reduce LOS, disease severity, and recurrence rates, as well as effective infection control measures to prevent transmission, have the potential to reduce the burden of CDI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of Clostridium difficile infection on resource use and costs in hospitals in Spain and Italy: a matched cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Asensio

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: These data show that the burden of CDI is considerable in Spain and Italy. Treatments that can reduce LOS, disease severity, and recurrence rates, as well as effective infection control measures to prevent transmission, have the potential to reduce the burden of CDI.

  6. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  7. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  8. Modelling the costs of care of hypertension in patients with metabolic syndrome and its consequences, in Germany, Spain and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eberhard; Scholze, Jürgen; Alegria, Eduardo; Ferri, Claudio; Langham, Sue; Stevens, Warren; Jeffries, David; Uhl-Hochgraeber, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with hypertension and its consequences, in three European countries in 2008, and to forecast future economic burden in 2020 using projected demographic estimates and assumptions around the growth of MetS. An age-, sex- and risk group-structured prevalence-based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define MetS. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. The economic burden to the health service of MetS in patients with hypertension has been estimated at 24,427 euro, 1,900 euro and 4,877 euro million in Germany, Spain and Italy, and is forecast to rise by 59, 179 and 157%, respectively, by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with MetS compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of MetS components present. In conclusion, the presence of MetS in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden, and costs are likely to increase in the future due to an aging population and an increase in the prevalence of components of MetS.

  9. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO 2 emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO 2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy

  10. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Katherine [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Villalba, Gara, E-mail: gara.villalba@uab.es [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  11. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  12. Are There Similar or Divergent Transitions to Adulthood in a Mediterranean Context? A Cross-National Comparison of Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pace

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the differences and similarities between Italy and Spain in regard to emerging adults’ perceptions of identity status, autonomy, attachment, and life satisfaction. The goal was to verify whether a Mediterranean model of transitions from adolescence to adulthood exists. Three hundred and forty undergraduate students (171 Italians and 169 Spanish ranging in age from 19 to 22 completed measures of identity status, emotional autonomy, attachment style, and life satisfaction. Multiple correspondence analyses provided a graphic synthesis of results. The results indicate that no common model of young adult development exists in Spain and Italy and that Italian youth have a more complex quality of development compared to their Spanish peers.

  13. Neorealist landscapes. Habitat and collective housing in Italy and Spain in the post- war years. 1943-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colella, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting point for this research is the analysis of relationship between Italian and Spanish culture in the post-war era, especially in the field of cinematography, in order to describe possible correspondences or differences in the contemporary architectural and urban production, especially in social housing. Neorealism is the artistic movement that characterizes these years, in which economic, social and political problems weigh on these countries: it was born in Italy and influenced cinematography of different European countries, including Spain. Through comparison between some films, we can define a common urban landscape, with the aim to represent context in which the architecture of Italy and Spain, as in the neorealist cinema, seek new references and a more sensitive look on reality. El Punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación es el análisis de las similitudes existentes entre la cultura Italiana y la Española de la época de la posguerra, sobre todo en el campo de la cinematografía, con el fin de fijar posibles analogías y diferencias en la producción contemporánea arquitectónica y urbanística, especialmente de vivienda social. El Neorrealismo, es la corriente artística que mejor define estos años, en los cuales las grandes dificultades en el panorama económico, social y político, marcan la situación de los dos países: se trata de una expresión cultural que nace en Italia y que influenció distintas cinematografías europeas, entre las cuales la española. A través la comparación de algunas películas, es posible definir un paisaje urbano común, que representa el contexto en el cual se desarrolla la arquitectura de los dos países que, como en el cinema neorrealista, tratará de buscar nuevas referencias y de plantear una mirada más sensible hacia la realidad de la época.

  14. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  15. DO PUBLIC POLICIES FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP MAKE A DIFFERENCE? PROSPECTIVE SCENARIOS FOR CANADA, IRELAND, AND ITALY DOI:10.7444/fsrj.v4i1.95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs constitute the majority of businesses and a significant part of developed and developing countries’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This article presents a series of prospective scenarios that investigate the effects of public policies on entrepreneurship in Canada, Ireland, and Italy. Public policies for this sector can be classified as regulatory policies (e.g., laws for the entrance and exit of businesses, labor and social laws, property laws, tax laws, intellectual property laws, bankruptcy laws, and laws that affect the liquidity and availability of capital and stimulus policies (e.g., promotion of cultural and educational programs to foster entrepreneurship and internationalization. Regulatory policies influence the business environment for MSMEs, and are generally designed to provide entrepreneurs with high growth potential (known as “gazelles”. Four scenarios involving the critical uncertainties surrounding political and economic integration and technological development are developed for each country. Each scenario is constructed based on public policies specific to each country. This article concludes that public policies are not a panacea capable of generating economic development, given that their effectiveness depends on other economic decisions and exogenous economic conditions. However, the absence of state intervention does not produce positive effects, even in the case of positive scenarios under exogenous conditions.

  16. Continental Contemporary Readings of the English Revolution. The Cases of Italy and Spain as Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel ALLOZA APARICIO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiated at the very beginning of the movements, discussions about the origin and causes of the English revolution have become one of the most valuable themes within the Anglo-Saxon historiography. On the contrary, continental contemporary readings of those events remain to be decoded and fully comprehended. This article reveals and examines some of those readings, notably those registered in Italian republics and in Spain, including some of them which have remained so far out of the scope of the historian. Despite the common features apprehended among the cases studied, all of them show a wide range of interpretations; variety which derives from the different forms of approaching to the past, from the degree of pragmatism of the reports analysed, and from the ideological and cultural positioning of their authors.

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article 111(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 25(a) thereof, on 21 February 1977 [es

  20. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  1. People-flood interaction: victims throughout four Mediterranean countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Greece) in 34 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Aceto, Luigi; Boissier, Laurent; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Rosselló, Joan; Papagiannaki, Katerina; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Vinet, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Floods and flash floods are widespread phenomena in Mediterranean countries, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the people. The aim of this work is to highlight similarities and differences, if any, among circumstances and people behavior in four Mediterranean countries frequently affected by fatal floods: France, Italy, Spain, and Greece. In order to do this, we collected and organized detailed information on victims caused by floods throughout the period 1981-2015. The database is made of different sections allowing: a) Event identification, in terms of time of occurrence and place where fatalities occurred, b) People identification, in terms of gender, age, and often even the name and surname of victims, c) People-event interaction, characterizing the circumstances in which fatalities occurred, including dangerous behaviors, d) External features that could have had some influence on the occurrence of fatalities, as the presence/absence of alert systems and prevention measures. We used the collected information to investigate the event dynamics that led to the loss of lives and we identified the most dangerous event circumstances. The aim is to understand how and why people are involved in these events, and the most dangerous conditions, places, activities and dynamics of people-event interaction. The results can improve the understanding of the impacts that floods pose to people and can increase risk awareness among administrators and citizens. The outcomes can also be used to understand and highlight similarities and differences, if existing, in the behaviors of people in the four analyzed countries, in order to strength the strategies aiming to save people and warn about risky behaviors. We think our study can improve the understanding on the impacts that geo-hydrological hazards pose to the population of analyzed places, and on their consequences, and we believe it could be an important step for increasing knowing and awareness among

  2. Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-08-01

    The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.

  3. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholze Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. Results The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to

  4. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Hungary and Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  7. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case

  8. Comparison of fundamental natural period of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings retrieved from experimental campaigns performed in Italy, Greece and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Antonella; Ponzo, Felice C.; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Domenico S.; Soupios, Pantelis; García-Fernández, Mariano; Jimenez, Maria-Jose

    2017-04-01

    Aim of this study is the experimental estimation of the dynamic characteristics of existing buildings and the comparison of the related fundamental natural period of the buildings (masonry and reinforced concrete) located in Basilicata (Italy), in Madrid (Spain) and in Crete (Greece). Several experimental campaigns, on different kind of structures all over the world, have been performed in the last years with the aim of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of buildings. Most of formulas retrieved from experimental analyses provide vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian Seismic Code (NTC2008) and the European Seismic Code (EC8). It is known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct estimation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses and to detect possible resonance phenomena with the foundation soil. Usually, simplified approaches dictate the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth dynamic linear and nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover any unexpected uncertainties. The fundamental period calculated with the simplified formula given by both NTC 2008 and EC8 is higher than the fundamental period measured on the investigated structures in Italy, Spain and Greece. The consequence is that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear seismic static analyses. Based on numerical and experimental results, in order to confirm the results proposed in this work, authors suggest to increase the number of numerical and experimental tests considering also the effects of non-structural components and soil during small, medium and strong motion earthquakes. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4

  9. A Survey entrepreneurship in Ireland 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2017-01-01

    A survey of entrepreneurship in Ireland, using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Data is collected from a representative sample of 2,000 adults. Key findings include that Ireland had relatively high rates of entrepreneurship in 2016, as measured by the TEA index. The levels of entrepreneurship in Ireland have now returned to the levels observed pre-recession. In many developed European economies, such as France, Germany, Spain and Sweden rates of entrepreneurship are much lower tha...

  10. Crisis, precariedad y desigualdad de género en España y en Italia (Crisis, precariousness and gender inequality in Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alcañiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de 2008 ha precarizado el mercado laboral de España e Italia, mediante medidas de flexibilización así como reduciendo las políticas de cuidado y ayudas familiares. El objetivo del presente artículo se centra en comparar a las mujeres italianas y españolas desde la perspectiva de la precariedad y la desigualdad, mediante la utilización de datos secundarios obtenidos de fuentes oficiales europeas y estatales. Los resultados manifiestan diferencias entre las mujeres españolas y las italianas basadas por una parte, en la estructura económica y laboral existente en cada uno de los estados y por otra, en la mayor o menor presencia de las relaciones de género tradicionales. | The financial crisis of 2008 has led to a precarious labour market in Spain and Italy, the result of measures that have increased the flexibility of work conditions in each country and reduced the number of policies that foster welfare and aid for families. This article will compare Italian and Spanish women by focusing on insecurity and inequality, using secondary data obtained from official European and government sources. The results show differences between Italian and Spanish women, which are based on the financial and labour structure of these countries on the one hand, and the extent to which each country exhibits traditional gender relations on the other.

  11. High-resolution phylogeography of zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1 with an emphasis on its distribution in Turkey, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Simsek, Sami; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Varcasia, Antonio; Lavikainen, Antti; González, Luis Miguel; Rehbein, Steffen; VAN DER Giessen, Joke; Sprong, Hein; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis. The disease is a significant global public health concern and human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) genotype G1. The objectives of this study were to: (i) analyse the genetic variation and phylogeography of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in part of its main distribution range in Europe using 8274 bp of mtDNA; (ii) compare the results with those derived from previously used shorter mtDNA sequences and highlight the major differences. We sequenced a total of 91 E. granulosus s. s. G1 isolates from six different intermediate host species, including humans. The isolates originated from seven countries representing primarily Turkey, Italy and Spain. Few samples were also from Albania, Greece, Romania and from a patient originating from Algeria, but diagnosed in Finland. The analysed 91 sequences were divided into 83 haplotypes, revealing complex phylogeography and high genetic variation of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in Europe, particularly in the high-diversity domestication centre of western Asia. Comparisons with shorter mtDNA datasets revealed that 8274 bp sequences provided significantly higher phylogenetic resolution and thus more power to reveal the genetic relations between different haplotypes.

  12. Adaptation of the osteoarthritis-specific quality of life scale (the OAQoL) for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Kutlay, Şehim; Bender, Tamas; Braun, Jürgen; Castillo-Gallego, Concepcion; Favero, Marta; Geher, Pal; Kiltz, Uta; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Ramonda, Roberta; Rouse, Matthew; Tennant, Alan; Küçükdeveci, Ayşe A

    2017-05-01

    The Osteoarthritis Quality of Life scale (OAQoL) is specific to individuals with osteoarthritis. The present study describes the adaptation of the OAQoL for use in the following five European languages: German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. The study involved three stages in each language; translation, cognitive debriefing (face and content validity) and validation. The validation stage assessed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlations), convergent and divergent validity (correlations with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of osteoarthritis and Nottingham Health Profile) and known group validity. The OAQoL was successfully translated into the target languages with minimal problems. Cognitive debriefing interviewees found the measures easy to complete and identified few problems with content. Internal consistency ranged from 0.94 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability (reproducibility) from 0.87 to 0.98. These values indicate that the new language versions produce very low levels of measurement error. Median OAQoL scores were higher for patients reporting a current flare of osteoarthritis in all countries. Scores were also related, as expected, to perceived severity of osteoarthritis. The OAQoL was successfully adapted for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey. The addition of these new language versions will prove valuable to multinational clinical trials and to clinical practice in the respective countries.

  13. The use and design of the BSC in the health care sector: A systematic literature review for Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, Maria Beatriz; Broccardo, Laura; Martins Pires, Amélia Maria

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how the balanced scorecard (BSC) has evolved in Spain, Italy, and Portugal. It reviews all the articles on the BSC in the health care sector written between 1992 and 2015 by Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese authors and published in Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese as well as in English. Our study first shows the state of knowledge on BSC in health care for a homogeneous group of Southern European countries. Second, it uncovers the perspectives, indicators, and generation used in the countries under observation to reveal the extent to which this management tool has evolved. Third, it analyses international variations in design and use within the health care context, especially in the United States. Moreover, it also highlights a number of important issues. The BSC is in its early stage of development in these 3 countries, which do not use it as a tool to implement strategy and align all of the elements that help integrate the organization. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  15. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  16. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    considered by taking into account the medium term evolution (approx. 30 years) of the dune toe and dune vegetation cover. The proposed methodology was tested for two coastal sectors with different physiographic and marine conditions and different land use characteristics: the Valdelagrana beach and the Campomarino beach that are respectively located in the eastern part of the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain) and in the southern part of the Molise coastal stretch (Italy). Preliminary results show that the methodology allows identifying within the studied coastal sectors coast stretches with different degree of susceptibility. It is furthermore very advantageous as it requires parameters mostly already available through photo-interpretation, therefore it is easy to apply without requiring field surveys as do many other index-based methods.

  17. Exploring consumers’ perception and willingness to pay for “Non-Added Sulphite” wines through experimental auctions: A case study in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Amato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although scientific literature is still uncertain towards the real causes that can link headache episodes with moderate wine consumption, a growing proportion of consumers seems to address sulphites as possible culprits. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess consumers` willingness to pay for wine bearing a sulphites-free label in two traditional wine producing countries, Italy and Spain. The methodological framework is based on the specification of the Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM type of auction applied to consumers purchasing wine in the supermarket stores of both countries. A left censored Tobit model is used to analyse the bidding behaviour for conventional and 'Non-Added Sulphite' (NAS wine. Results in both countries show that consumers who link the headaches with the consumption of sulphite are willing to exchange the habitually consumed bottle of wine with a NAS wine and pay extra premium prices. Keywords: Experimental auctions, Non-added sulphite wines, Consumer behavior

  18. Spillover Events of Infection of Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus) with Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Type 2 Virus (RHDV2) Caused Sporadic Cases of an European Brown Hare Syndrome-Like Disease in Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R; Cavadini, P; Neimanis, A; Cabezón, O; Chiari, M; Gaffuri, A; Lavín, S; Grilli, G; Gavier-Widén, D; Lavazza, A; Capucci, L

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp. mediterraneus) and in Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Here, we describe two distinct incidents of RHDV2 infection in EBH that occurred in Italy (2012) and Spain (2014). The two RHDV2 strains caused macroscopic and microscopic lesions similar to European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) in hares, and they were genetically related to other RHDV2 strains in Europe. EBHs are common in Europe, often sharing habitat with rabbits. They likely have been exposed to high levels of RHDV2 during outbreaks in rabbits in recent years, yet only two incidents of RHDV2 in EBHs have been found in Italy and Spain, suggesting that EBHs are not a primary host. Instead, they may act as spillover hosts in situations when infection pressure is high and barriers between rabbits and hares are limited, resulting in occasional infections causing EBHS-like lesions. The serological survey of stocked hare sera taken from Italian and Spanish hare populations provided an understanding of naturally occurring RHDV2 infection in the field confirming its sporadic occurrence in EBH. Our findings increase the knowledge on distribution, host range and epidemiology of RHDV2. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Contentious precarious generation in anti-austerity movements in Spain and Italy (La protesta de la generación precaria en los movimientos antiausteridad en España e Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Andretta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the precarious generation protesting in Spain and Italy in times of crisis and austerity (2010-2012. Their many similarities notwithstanding, the two countries have experienced different types of mobilization against austerity measures. In Spain, a relatively autonomous mobilization –characterized by new collective actors and new forms of action– has made possible the building of a political actor, Podemos, able to seriously challenge the established political parties. In Italy, instead, the mobilization was dominated by established political actors, especially trade unions, did not produce innovative forms of action and has not been able to overcome (so far the fragmentation of the social movement sector. In both countries, however, the anti-austerity protests have been characterized by a strong presence of what we call hear the “precarious generation”, particularly exposed to the economic crisis and the austerity measures. By relying on data from several surveys conducted in demonstrations on social, economic and labor issues in the two countries from 2010 to 2011, in this article we single out differences and the similarities in terms of presence, social composition, grievances and emotion, collective identity and network embeddedness of the precarious generation. Our findings show that the precarious generation was almost equally present in the selected demonstrations in the two countries, share similar socio-graphic features and similar types of grievance and emotions. Nonetheless, in Spain it seems to have built a more cohesive and radical collective identity based upon a more informal and internet based network integration while in Italy it seems embedded in a more traditional and formal network, which prevented the formation of a strong collective identity. Moreover, while in Spain the differences between the older and the precarious generation reveal that, both have a strong identity based on different

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [fr

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  8. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  9. Screening of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and surface waters of Spain and Italy by high resolution mass spectrometry using UHPLC-QTOF MS and LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The existence of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs (PIDs) in environmental waters has led many analytical chemists to develop screening methods for monitoring purposes. Water samples can contain a huge number of possible contaminants, commonly at low concentrations, which makes their detection and identification problematic. Liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) has proven itself effective in the screening of environmental contaminants. The present work investigates the use of the most popular HRMS instruments, quadrupole time-of-flight and linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap, from two different laboratories. A suspect screening for PIDs was carried out on wastewater (influent and effluent) and surface water samples from Castellón, Eastern Spain, and Cremona, Northern Italy, incorporating a database of 107 PIDs (including 220 fragment ions). A comparison between the findings of both instruments and of the samples was made which highlights the advantages and drawbacks of the strategies applied in each case. In total, 28 compounds were detected and/or identified by either/both instruments with irbesartan, valsartan, benzoylecgonine and caffeine being the most commonly found compounds across all samples.

  10. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  11. Harriet Martineau and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Brian; Hill, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The Victorian sociologist-novelist Harriet Martineau visited Ireland on two different occasions, first in 1832 and again, twenty years later, in 1852, just six years after the Great Famine of 1846, when the country was still very much visibly affected by that event. Her latter journey covered some 1,200 miles and encompassed all four provinces that make up the island of Ireland, north and south. Martineau was not the first foreign visitor to nineteenth century Ireland, of co...

  12. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texte de l'Accord entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique Federale d' Allemagne, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute Europeenne de l'En-Ergie Atomique et L'Agence En Application Du Traite Sur La Non-Proliferation Des Armes Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [French] Le texte de l'Accord, ainsi que celui du Protocole qui y est joint, entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique fdrale d'Allemae, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute europenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence condu en application des paragraphes 1 et 4 de l'article III du Traite sur la non proliferation des armes nucleaires sont reproduits dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres.

  13. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  14. Cuisine Ireland 'APP'

    OpenAIRE

    Seberry, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Description Cuisine Ireland contains 15 samplerecipes from renowned Irish chef and author Dermot Seberry. Taking you to the heart of ancient Ireland, from the most northern beauty of the Mourne & Cooley peninsula along the magnificent east coastline and across to the Boyne Valley, the focus of this app is on the very best the region has to offer food tourists and local chefs. This app was developed as a companion piece to Dermot’s new book “Ireland, A Culinary Journey of the North East”. T...

  15. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  16. New Apprenticeships in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred new Apprenticeships. This paper addresses the steps being taken to develop these programmes and to encourage stakeholders to engage with Apprenticeship as a mode of education. Full Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred...

  17. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  18. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  19. L'azione collettiva dei lavoratori precari: elaborazione simbolica, identità collettive, rapporto con i sindacati e con la dimensione politica. Una comparazione tra Italia e Spagna (The collective action of precarious workers: symbolic production, collective identities, the relationship with trade unions and politics. A comparison between Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Giorgi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni la crisi economica ha colpito con forza l’intero Sud Europa, esasperando dinamiche di impoverimento e precarizzazione di lungo periodo. In Italia e in Spagna, tra gli altri, si è assistito a mobilitazioni contro la precarietà lavorativa e esistenziale. In questo contributo vengono presi in esame i movimenti contro la precarietà in Italia e in Spagna, allo scopo di analizzarne la genesi, gli sviluppi e le prospettive future. In particolare, il paper si concentra sulle rivendicazioni dei movimenti, l’autorappresentazione, la struttura delle alleanze e le strategie di azione, mettendo in luce i risultati delle proteste e i repertori discorsivi e di azione. | In the last years, the economic crisis heavily hit all the Southern European States, exacerbating well rooted dynamics of impoverishment and precarization. In Italy and Spain, among others, social movements against labour and existential precarity developed and took the streets, receiving a high degree of media attention. In this paper we focus on the movements against precarity in Italy and Spain, in order to analyse their genesis, developments, and future opportunities. In particular, the paper focuses on the movements’ claims, their self-representation, the structure of alliances and their strategies of action, highlighting the results of the protests and the repertories of discourse and action.

  20. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texto del Acuerdo Concertado Entre Belgica, Dinamarca, La Republica Federal De Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, Los Paises Bajos, La Comunidad Europea De Energia Ato Mica Y El Organismo En Relacion Con El Tratado Sobre La No Proliferacion De Las Armas Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo concertado entre Belgica, Dinamarca, la Republica Federal de Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, los Paises Bajos, la Comunidad Europea de Energia Atomica y el Organismo en ejecucion de lo dispuesto en los parrafos 1 y 4 del articulo III del Tratado sobre la no proliferacion de las armas nucleares, asi como el del Protocolo que acompana a dicho Acuerdo.

  2. [Primary care in Ireland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating drug cost per responder and number needed to treat associated with lixisenatide on top of glargine when compared to rapid-acting insulin intensification regimens on top of glargine, in patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK, Italy, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Marion; Ryan, Fay; Pitcher, Ashley; Lew, Elisheva

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the cost per responder and number needed to treat (NNT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients for lixisenatide compared to insulin intensification regimens using composite endpoints in the UK, Italy, and Spain. Efficacy and safety outcomes were obtained from GetGoal Duo-2, a 26-week phase 3 trial comparing lixisenatide vs insulin glulisine (IG) once daily (QD) and three times daily (TID). Response at week 26 was extrapolated to 52 weeks, assuming a maintained treatment effect, based on long-term evidence in other T2DM populations. Responders were defined using composite end-points, based on an HbA1c threshold and/or no weight gain and/or no hypoglycemia. The HbA1c threshold was varied in sensitivity analyses. Annual treatment costs were estimated in euros (1 GBP = 1.26 EUR), including drug acquisition and resource use costs. Cost per responder was computed by dividing annual treatment costs per patient by the proportion of responders. Lixisenatide was associated with the lowest cost per responder for all composite end-points that included a weight-related component. For the main composite end-point of HbA1c ≤7.5% AND no weight gain AND no symptomatic hypoglycemia, cost per responder results were: UK: 6,867€, 8,746€, and 12,410€; Italy: 7,057€, 9,160€, and 12,844€; Spain: 8,370€, 11,365€, and 17,038€, for lixisenatide, IG QD, and TID, respectively. The NNT analysis showed that, for every 6.85 and 5.86 patients treated with lixisenatide, there was approximately one additional responder compared to IG QD and TID, respectively. A limitation of the clinical inputs is the lack of 52-week trial data from GetGoal Duo-2, which led to the assumption of a maintained treatment effect from week 26 to 52. This analysis suggests lixisenatide is an efficient economic resource allocation in the UK, Italy, and Spain.

  4. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  5. THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPOSED TO THE RISK OF THE SOVEREIGN DEBT CRISIS. CASE STUDY: SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iulica, MIHAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis, intensely debated, started almost six years ago, subjected the EU to new resistance tests because of the macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro Zone, generated by the increase of sovereign debts, especially in the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain. The situation has degenerated because of the lack of legal leverages through which the member countries should be forced to correct the fiscal imbalances and to meet the macroeconomic convergence criteria imposed. The Treaty on Fiscal Governance in the EU, signed on 2 March 2012, appears to be the key to the macroeconomic recovery in the Euro Zone, due to the more severe budgetary discipline it imposes. This paper, by means of deductive analysis and causal explanations, outlines the current economic situation of the Euro Zone, under the impact of the member countries’ sovereign debt crisis, focusing on Spain and Portugal. In addition to reliable statistics, the paper also presents the EU’s economic recovery strategy that anticipates its future. Unfortunately, the perspective of the Euro Zone is still in a fairly high degree of uncertainty, strongly influenced by the economic development of the member countries and by solving the problems they face. Spain and Portugal are the actual example.

  6. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  7. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  8. Measured performance of a 1.72 kW rooftop grid connected photovoltaic system in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayompe, L.M.; Duffy, A.; McCormack, S.J.; Conlon, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from monitoring a 1.72 kW p photovoltaic system installed on a flat roof of a 12 m high building in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53.4 o N and longitude 6.3 o E). The system was monitored between November 2008 and October 2009 and all the electricity generated was fed into the low voltage supply to the building. Monthly average daily and annual performance parameters of the PV system evaluated include: final yield, reference yield, array yield, system losses, array capture losses, cell temperature losses, PV module efficiency, system efficiency, inverter efficiency, performance ratio and capacity factor. The maximum solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV module temperature recorded were 1241 W/m 2 in March, 29.5 o C and 46.9 o C in June respectively. The annual total energy generated was 885.1 kW h/kW p while the annual average daily final yield, reference yield and array yield were 2.41 kW h/kW p /day, 2.85 kW h/kW p /day and 2.62 kW h/kW p /day respectively. The annual average daily PV module efficiency, system efficiency and inverter efficiency were 14.9%, 12.6% and 89.2% respectively while the annual average daily performance ratio and capacity factor were 81.5% and 10.1% respectively. The annual average daily system losses, capture losses and cell temperature losses were 0.23 h/day, 0.22 h/day and 0.00 h/day respectively. Comparison of this system with other systems in different locations showed that the system had the highest annual average daily PV module efficiency, system efficiency and performance ratio of 14.9%, 12.6% and 81.5% respectively. The PV system's annual average daily final yield of 2.4 kW h/kW p /day is higher than those reported in Germany, Poland and Northern Ireland. It is comparable to results from some parts of Spain but it is lower than the reported yields in most parts of Italy and Spain. Despite low insolation levels, high average wind speeds and low ambient temperature improve Ireland

  9. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  11. Naturalizing Alterity: Edward Maturin’s Bianca: A Tale of Erin and Italy and Lady Morgan's Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century the image of Italy appealed also to Irish Romantic writers. But the way in which they naturalized the Italian alterity is quite ambivalent. On the one hand they filtered their images of the southern country through their relationship with England and thus ended up mirroring stereotypes common to the English-speaking world, and on the other hand they established a special, personal relationship with it shaped by their ideological and cultural differences from the British. This essay tackles the representations of Italy in two texts, namely Edward Maturin’s Bianca: A Tale of Erin and Italy, published in 1852, and in the earlier Italy (1821 by Lady Morgan. Both these works show that at that time there was a certain awareness, in Ireland, of the special historical and political conditions of Italy and of possible similarities with Ireland. Italy, oppressed by foreign domination yet aspiring to freedom, became a yardstick for gauging issues of subjugation, injustice, and national identity and invited sympathy from the citizens of a colonized country. Therefore, Italy was perceived as a mirror in which to reflect the Irish identity torn by aspirations which were hard to confess publicly or even to oneself. Keywords: Maturin, Lady Morgan, alterity, Italy, Irish Romanticism

  12. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  13. Restitution from public authorities in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Niamh

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the law of restitution from public authorities in Ireland. It operates on two levels. First, it is the first large scale research project on the law of restitution in Ireland. It also analyses the law of restitution in Ireland and considers how Ireland has integrated traditional principles of restitution that have been developed in other common law jurisdictions. Second, it examines the law of restitution as it applies to public authorities in Ireland. It considers the re...

  14. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Bernard; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  15. Using the ICF in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Anne

    2011-05-01

    This paper reflects on the use of ICF in Ireland, taking as a case study the experience of the first National Disability Survey (NDS). There were four clear effects in Ireland of using ICF as a framework for the NDS: a) that a broader range of people with disabilities was encompassed; b) that the environmental factors included from the ICF were comprehensive and policy relevant; c) that both barriers and facilitators were incorporated into the model; and d) that a focus on research ethics was encouraged. Some general conclusions regarding the benefits and limitations of ICF based on this experience are also drawn.

  16. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Bernard; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  17. Naval Assistance to Spain and the Triple Entente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I Spain rendered military support to the Triple Entente, avoiding the regime of neutrality. Five trawlers, converted into minesweepers were sold to Russia and eight – to Italy. Data, concerning France, vary. There is information about no less than 27 trawlers. But probably 243 watercrafts were sold to France and 14 were contracted to build.

  18. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    . The paleontological record and our data indicate a population replacement of the Iberian lynx by the Eurasian lynx during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Cantabrian cornice of Spain. Phylogeographic patterns of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Eurasian lynx from Iberia, France, Italy and Denmark show...

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  1. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  3. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  4. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  5. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Bernard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Whitaker, Andrew, E-mail: b.crossland@qub.ac.u, E-mail: a.whitaker@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  6. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  7. [[Abortion, Stigma and Conscientious Objection: Experiences and Opinions of Gynecologists in Italy and Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia

    This article discusses the issue of abortion stigma and conscientious objection based on the main results of a qualitative study carried out in hospitals providing abortion care in Italy and Spain (Catalunya). This study was aimed at examining obstetricians-gynaecologists' experiences and attitudes to abortion, or voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The abortion law is relatively liberal in these two Catholic countries (much more liberal in Spain than in Italy). However, abortion still is strongly stigmatized in the public debate on human and reproductive rights, whose focus has shifted, over the last decade, from women's rights to the "rights of the conceived". Based on a study carried out in Italy in 2011-2012 and in Spain in 2013- 2015, this article discusses the impact of the stigmatization of abortion on the quality of obstetricians-gynaecologists' training and on their professional choices concerning conscientious objection and shows how physicians contribute to reproduce abortion stigma in the two countries.

  8. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  9. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  10. Ethnopharmacology in Ireland: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Coady

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to extract information of the book Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition: An Ethnobotany of Britain & Ireland published in 2004 by Allen and Hatfield, to give an overview of plants with medicinal potential and their applications. This study attempts to attest, observe and comment on the diversity of plants, as well as the accompanying information which inevitably is vital for the future development of herbal medicines for human therapy. Initially, the information in relation to medicinal plants in Ireland only was extracted from the above-mentioned book and organised in tables. Afterwards, it was analysed through the construction of maps and the positioning of each piece of information in specific geographical regions of the country. Its division into provinces was taken into consideration as well as into counties within the provinces. These maps and graphs illustrate the most predominantly reported botanical families identified and utilised (Asteraceae, Scrophulariaceae and Lamiaceae, and to the most frequently cited medicinal uses were attributed to topical applications. As a result we can see that the uses of traditional medicines vary among these different geographical areas of the country. Not only different uses were reported but also different plants used to treat the same condition, or different conditions treated with the same plant depending on the county. Various phytopharmaceuticals date back several decades and despite the existing evolving technology, without a doubt herbal medicines can and still do provide exceptional and efficacious outcomes like many of the conventional remedies available today.

  11. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  12. Simulating Climate Change in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.

    2012-04-01

    At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1°C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

  13. La empresa social en España y en Italia durante la crisis ¿un laboratorio de innovación económica y social? (Social enterprise in Spain and Italy during the crisis. A laboratory for economic and social innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pirni

    2015-07-01

    . | The contribution explores the development of social enterprises in Spain and Italy in the framework of the economic and social crisis. Comparing the spread of the phenomena and its legal framework, we define the boundaries of the "ecosystem" of social enterprises in the two countries, identifying commonalities and specificities. The hypothesis is that the social enterprise represents a proactive tool for generating responses to the crisis, promoting economic and social trajectories of innovation and contributing to a sustainable development model. Innovation comes from the power of social enterprises to generate innovative responses to emerging demands and from the ability to create both social and economic value, to meet individual and collective spheres, enabling paths of change in the medium and in the long term and promoting the empowerment processes in the local dimension. Yet, the innovative character of the social enterprise does not merely arise from the externalization of social services from the public to the third sector, in order to reduce public expenditure. Instead, behind the rhetoric of social innovation it can hide projects to reduce public service through cutting down on wages and the quality of services. The article compares the presence and prospects of development of the phenomenon in Italy and Spain and, finally, offers a critical reflection on the risks and opportunities related to the spread of the social enterprise, as it is characterized by a novel integration between solidarity action and economic action, in entrepreneurial practices serving a social purpose.

  14. Political-Military Trends in Italy, Greece, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    the EU main- stream on most issues. PASOK , the leading opposition party, has also become increasingly moderate and centrist over the last decade...generally been supportive of Belgrade, and was overwhelmingly opposed to the western intervention in Kosovo. Despite this, the PASOK government of the...troversial character in the bilateral relationship in recent years. Politically, Crete is traditionally a PASOK stronghold, but not over

  15. Project Plan IRRS Ireland 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service, IRRS was established to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of national regulatory infrastructure for nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste and transport safety, and the security of radioactive sources, while recognising the ultimate responsibility of each Member State to ensure safety in these areas. The IRRS process sets out to accomplish this expressed purpose through consideration of both technical and policy issues of a regulatory nature against IAEA safety standards and, where appropriate, good practice elsewhere. The regulatory review process directly draws upon the wide-ranging international experience and expertise of IRRS review team members. Peer exchange on technical and policy issues gives insight into the efficiency and effectiveness of the legal and governmental framework and regulatory infrastructure for safety. Through this process, opportunities for improvement are explored and potential improvement strategies identified which may be shared with other States. IRRS missions provide an opportunity for sharing regulatory experiences, harmonising regulatory approaches among States, and creating mutual learning opportunities among regulators. IRRS discussions focus on issues arising from the State's self-assessment and the evaluation of technical areas and policy issues. There are binding legal requirements in both the Euratom Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Directives that the national regulatory framework, including the regulatory body, is subject to a periodic international peer review. In practice these peer reviews are organised by the IAEA through an agreement with the EU and comprise a detailed examination of national provisions against the IAEA's Safety Standards. Ireland applied for its peer review mission on the 28th September 2010 and in an exchange of letters, 2015 was agreed between the IAEA and Ireland with a follow up mission foreseen for 2018 Appendix 1

  16. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  17. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  18. The Future of Renewable Gas in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    An outline is given how grass and waste can be converted into natural gas and can then be used locally or piped into the national grid for distribution around Ireland. The report estimates that 7.5% of Ireland's natural gas demand could be met by renewable gas, the equivalent of heating 300,000 homes each year.

  19. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  20. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years ...

  1. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  2. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  3. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  4. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  5. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  6. How the national prices impact the international activity? The case of oilive oil market in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Magali; Demaria, Federica; Gutiérrez-Salcedo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil plays an important role in the European Union countries where Spain, Italy and Greece are the main actors. Spain industry knew a flourished period by confirming its own leadership in this sector. Spain is the main olive oil producer and exporter in the world. Starting from this evidence, the main objective of this work is that of analysing the price transmission at the national level to understand in which way this activity has some impact on the international ones. At first we look...

  7. 78 FR 54713 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... filing, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Italy, and Germany have... condition of continuing to do business. Customary legal agreements in the financial services industry...

  8. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  9. Policy Brief: Bargaining for social rights of precarious workers in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the Barsori project was the contribution that social partners make to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project studied experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the

  10. Energy in Ireland: context, management and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the fossil fuels shortage, the Ireland defined a new energy policy. The priority is the energy supply security and the research programs present a great interest in the ocean energies, which represent an important source in Ireland. The report presents the context, the irish energy policy, the research programs on energy and the different actors of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  12. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  13. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  14. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  15. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  16. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  18. Lady Morgan in Italy: A Traveller with an Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lady Morgan (née Sydney Owenson was a professional Irish travellerand travel-writer, who spent over a year on the peninsula. The travelogueItaly (1821 she was commissioned to write on the basis of the reputationshe had acquired as a novelist (e.g. The Wild Irish Girl, 1806 anda socio-political writer (France, 1817, left a mark on Italy and on theunderstanding of Italy in Great Britain. Her writings, in fact, helpeddisseminate the ideal of a unified Italy and influence British and Irishpublic opinion in favour of Italy’s aspirations to cast off foreign or domesticautocratic rule. Moreover, she used her travelogue to serve thecause of Ireland disguising a patriotic message about her home countryunder her many sallies about nationalism and the right to self-determinationconcerning Italy. The political impact of her book, unusualfor a travel account written by a woman, was enhanced by Morgan’sradical ideology, the gender bias of her observations and her originalmethods. The present article purposes to examine Morgan’s double,feminine and masculine, approach of mixing solid documentation withapparently frivolous notes originating in the feminine domain of societynews, commentary on the domestic scene and emotional reporting onsocial and historical events. Distrusting male-authored official history,Morgan gave a central place in her work to the informal sources fromwhich she gathered her insights about Italy. Analysing how she came toobtain the contemporary input for elaborating her ideas will be the aimof this chapter which will dwell on the more worldly aspects of Morgan’ssojourn in the peninsula focussing on the company she kept, theactivities she partook of, the events of a domestic nature she witnessed.

  19. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  20. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  1. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  2. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  3. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  4. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  5. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  6. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and…

  7. Climate change: potential implications for Ireland's biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison

    2018-03-01

    A national biodiversity and climate change adaptation plan is being developed for Ireland by the Department of Communications, Climate Action, and Environment. In order to inform such a plan, it was necessary to review and synthesize some of the recent literature pertaining to the impact of climate change on biodiversity in Ireland. Published research on this topic fell within three broad categories: (i) changes in the timing of life-cycle events (phenology) of plants, birds, and insects; (ii) changes in the geographic range of some bird species; and (iii) changes in the suitable climatic zones of key habitats and species. The synthesis revealed evidence of (i) a trend towards earlier spring activity of plants, birds, and insects which may result in a change in ecosystem function; (ii) an increase in the number of bird species; and (iii) both increases and decreases in the suitable climatic area of key habitats and species, all of which are expected to impact Ireland's future biodiversity. This process identified data gaps and limitations in available information both of which could be used to inform a focused research strategy. In addition, it raises awareness of the potential implications of climate change for biodiversity in Ireland and elsewhere and demonstrates the need for biodiversity conservation plans to factor climate change into future designs.

  8. IRELAND'S SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 1899–1902

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luke

    of modern research and the continued focus on the role of Irish Nationalism, the ... The absence of innovation amongst higher-ranked officers added to ... Chief, General Sir Redvers Buller, relieved the British garrison 118 days later. In ..... Yeomanry by aiding its organisation in Ireland, providing financial assistance to.

  9. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  10. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.; Herity, B.; Moriarty, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  11. Many Voices: Building a Biblioblogosphere in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Kouker, Alexander; O'Connor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Blogging has been associated with the Library and Information Science (LIS) community for some time now. Libfocus.com is an online blog that was founded in 2011. Its goal was to create a communal communication space for LIS professionals in Ireland and beyond, to share and discuss issues and ideas. The content of the blog is curated by an…

  12. Postgraduate training in Ireland: expectations and experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, D

    2014-01-05

    Postgraduate medical training in Ireland has been compared unfavourably with training abroad and blamed for an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools. Exploration of features of a good training environment and development of tools to measure it have been the focus of much published research. There have been no Irish studies examining training environment using such validated tools.

  13. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  14. A profile of physiotherapy supply in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighan, James; Walsh, Brendan; Smith, Samantha; Wren, Maev-Ann; Barron, Steve; Morgenroth, Edgar

    2018-04-13

    The lack of information on public and private physiotherapy supply in Ireland makes current and future resource allocation decisions difficult. This paper estimates the supply of physiotherapists in Ireland and profiles physiotherapists across acute and non-acute sectors, and across public and private practice. It examines geographic variation in physiotherapist supply, examining the implications of controlling for healthcare need. Physiotherapist headcounts are estimated using Health Service Personnel Census (HSPC) and Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists (ISCP) Register data. Headcounts are converted to whole-time equivalents (WTEs) using the HSPC and a survey of ISCP members to account for full- and part-time working practices. Non-acute supply per 10,000 population in each county is estimated to examine geographic inequalities and the raw population is adjusted in turn for a range of need indicators. An estimated 3172 physiotherapists were practising in Ireland in 2015; 6.8 physiotherapists per 10,000, providing an estimated 2620 WTEs. Females accounted for 74% of supply. Supply was greater in the non-acute sector; 1774 WTEs versus 846 WTEs in the acute sector. Physiotherapists in the acute sector were located mainly in publicly financed institutions (89%) with an even public/private split observed in the non-acute sector. Non-acute physiotherapist supply is unequally distributed across Ireland (Gini coefficient = 0.12; 95% CI 0.08-0.15), and inequalities remain after controlling for variations in healthcare needs across counties. The supply of physiotherapists in Ireland is 30% lower than the EU-28 average. Substantial inequality in the distribution of physiotherapists across counties is observed.

  15. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  16. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation

  17. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  18. Antigenic and molecular characterization of isolates of the Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Roser; Pujols, Joan; Ordóñez, German; Porta, Ramon; Majó, Natàlia

    2006-04-01

    As part of an epidemiological surveillance of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Spain, four Spanish field isolates showed high S1 spike sequence similarities with an IBV sequence from the GenBank database named Italy 02. Given that little was known about this new emergent IBV strain we have characterized the four isolates by sequencing the entire S1 part of the spike protein gene and have compared them with many reference IBV serotypes. In addition, cross-virus neutralization assays were conducted with the main IBV serotypes present in Europe. The four Spanish field strains and the Italy 02 S1 sequence from the NCBI database were established as a new genotype that showed maximum amino acid identities with the 4/91 serotype (81.7% to 83.7%), the D274 group that included D207, D274 and D3896 strains (79.8% to 81.7%), and the B1648 serotype (79.3% to 80%). Furthermore, on the basis of these results, it was demonstrated that the Italy 02 genotype had been circulating in Spain since as early as 1997. Based on the average ratio of synonymous:non-synonymous (dS/dN) amino acid substitutions within Italy 02 sequences, no positive selection pressures were related with changes observed in the S1 gene. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene suggested that the Italy 02 genotype has undergone a recombination event. Virus neutralization assays demonstrated that little antigenic relatedness (less than 35%) exists between Italy 02 and some of the reference IBV serotypes, and indicated that Italy 02 is likely to be a new serotype.

  19. Fiscal Policy in the EU Countries Most Affected by the Crisis: Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Światowy kryzys finansowy, który rozpoczął się w latach 2007-2008 w USA wpłynął negatywnie na gospodarkę Unii Europejskiej, a głównie na euro area, czyli w Grecji, Irlandii, Hiszpanii i Portugalii. Te peryferyjne kraje strefy euro wychodzą z recesji i kryzysu finansowego w dużym stopniu dzięki wielkiemu wsparciu finansowemu instytucji międzynarodowych. Na uratowanie tych gospodarek przeznaczono setki miliardów euro. Równocześnie jednak kraje te charakteryzowały się najniższym stopniem fiskalizacji mierzonym udziałem podatków w GDP wśród krajów należących do strefy euro. W referacie podjęta została próba odpowiedzi na następujące pytania:

  20. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Fenton, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  1. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  2. The Catholic Church and revolution in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Ó hAdhmaill, Féilim

    2013-01-01

    Despite the involvement of radical socialists like James Connolly and the Irish Citizen Army in the 1916 Rising and the unanimous passing of the Democratic Programme (a socialist manifesto for the new Government) by the First Dáil in 1919, the Irish state has since its inception exhibited a highly conservative approach to social and economic policy, and politics generally in Ireland, North or South, have never faced a serious challenge from those seeking radical change. Several factors have p...

  3. Care of epidermolysis bullosa in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Rosemarie

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the medical care of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) have led to the development of National Service Centers for EB in many countries worldwide. The exemplary model of care to children and adults with EB in the United Kingdom, combined with the knowledge that people with EB were travelling to the United Kingdom for treatment, encouraged the development of the Irish national service. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association of Ireland, founded in 1988 played a pivotal role in this development.

  4. Enterprise Ireland: Student Creativity Day Design Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Dee - Strategic Design & Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Student Creativity Day which was used on business cards, letterhead, appliction forms, information literature, large format posters, t-shirts and website. Competing in multi-disciplinary teams, students provided an innovative & creative solution to an exacting design brief. The design brief reflected the following themes: interface, learning, sci...

  5. ENTERPRISE IRELAND: Design for Competitive Advantage Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A stimulating conference bringing together world leading experts on design to address the importance of brand development strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, specialised in the creation of brand development strategies for Enterprise Ireland’s Design Unit. Peter was responsible for the design and development of the the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Design for Competitive Advantage Conference in Dublin.

  6. Analyse des processus cognitifs en écriture des élèves sourds et entendants en Espagne et en Italie

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Rafaela; Luque, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present some of the most relevant results from research that focused on the analysis of cognitive and metacognitive processes involved in written composition by the deaf and hearing students from two school contexts (Spain and Italy). Research participants were 84 students: 72 hearing and 12 deaf; 44 from Spanish context and 40 from Italy. The data collection process consisted of the application of an adapted questionnaire on self-evaluation of the processes in writing. Regar...

  7. Microseism Source Distribution Observed from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Donne, Sarah; Le Pape, Florian; Möllhoff, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Ocean generated microseisms (OGM) are recorded globally with similar spectral features observed everywhere. The generation mechanism for OGM and their subsequent propagation to continental regions has led to their use as a proxy for sea-state characteristics. Also many modern seismological methods make use of OGM signals. For example, the Earth's crust and upper mantle can be imaged using ``ambient noise tomography``. For many of these methods an understanding of the source distribution is necessary to properly interpret the results. OGM recorded on near coastal seismometers are known to be related to the local ocean wavefield. However, contributions from more distant sources may also be present. This is significant for studies attempting to use OGM as a proxy for sea-state characteristics such as significant wave height. Ireland has a highly energetic ocean wave climate and is close to one of the major source regions for OGM. This provides an ideal location to study an OGM source region in detail. Here we present the source distribution observed from seismic arrays in Ireland. The region is shown to consist of several individual source areas. These source areas show some frequency dependence and generally occur at or near the continental shelf edge. We also show some preliminary results from an off-shore OBS network to the North-West of Ireland. The OBS network includes instruments on either side of the shelf and should help interpret the array observations.

  8. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  9. Migrants and racial minorities in the labour market in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This report analyses the situation of migrant workers and ethnic minorities in Ireland over the post-economic boom period. From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced extraordinary economic growth and this brought with it an unprecedented increase in the migrant population. As a result of the economic crisis, the total number of migrants coming to Ireland has fallen dramatically. However, despite this situation, Ireland is likely to remain a multicultural society and ethnic diver...

  10. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  11. Benchmarking care for very low birthweight infants in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, B P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Benchmarking is that process through which best practice is identified and continuous quality improvement pursued through comparison and sharing. The Vermont Oxford Neonatal Network (VON) is the largest international external reference centre for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This report from 2004-7 compares survival and morbidity throughout Ireland and benchmarks these results against VON. METHODS: A standardised VON database for VLBW infants was created in 14 participating centres across Ireland and Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Data on 716 babies were submitted in 2004, increasing to 796 babies in 2007, with centres caring for from 10 to 120 VLBW infants per year. In 2007, mortality rates in VLBW infants varied from 4% to 19%. Standardised mortality ratios indicate that the number of deaths observed was not significantly different from the number expected, based on the characteristics of infants treated. There was no difference in the incidence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage between all-Ireland and VON groups (5% vs 6%, respectively). All-Ireland rates for chronic lung disease (CLD; 15-21%) remained lower than rates seen in the VON group (24-28%). The rates of late onset nosocomial infection in the all-Ireland group (25-26%) remained double those in the VON group (12-13%). DISCUSSION: This is the first all-Ireland international benchmarking report in any medical specialty. Survival, severe intraventricular haemorrhage and CLD compare favourably with international standards, but rates of nosocomial infection in neonatal units are concerning. Benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning neonatal intensive care service provision.

  12. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  13. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  14. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  15. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  16. Entrepreneurship in Ireland 2012: global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Report on entrepreneurship in Ireland in the year 2012. Data used is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data for Ireland and selected comparative countries. The report profiles entrepreneurs, reports on the rate of entrepreneurship in Ireland, discusses female entrepreneurship, and positions these results in the context of Irish entrepreneurship policy.

  17. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE DATA OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONAL POWER IN IRELAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataullina, K.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization processes put a number of regional languages on the verge of extinction, therefore, they have raised awareness of protecting and maintaining the minority languages among a great number of foreign and Russian scholars. The paper deals with Irish that is under protection of the European Charter for regional and Minority Languages in UK and is an official language of Ireland. The research is aimed at comparing the Irish language position in both regions: Ireland and Northern Ireland. Reviewing the quantitative data in the regions under the study allows us to see clearly the language situation, monitor development, and relying on the achieved results, assess the current state and predict the future of Irish in both regions. The research results are considered to be of practical use for further language planning, improving the efficiency of language policies.

  19. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  20. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  1. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  2. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  3. [Primary care in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  5. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  6. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  7. Modelling the wind climate of Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, H.P.; Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland has been calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The climatology is represented by 65 frequency classes of geostrophic wind that were selected as equiangular direction sectors and speed intervals with equal frequency in a sector. The results...... are compared with data from the European Wind Atlas which have been analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program, WA(S)P. The prediction of the areas of higher wind power is fair. Stations with low power are overpredicted....

  8. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  9. Country policy profile - Ireland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Ireland, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in-tariff scheme (REFIT). There is also a tax relief scheme for corporate investments in projects generating electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind, biomass, and hydro). Renewable Energy sources for heating purposes have two main support schemes: a grant to homeowners for the installation of solar thermal installations and a tax return to Irish companies of 100% of the purchase value of certain energy efficient equipment. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  10. MhicMathúna v Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This is a feminist re-imagining of the Supreme Court decision MhicMathúna v Ireland [1995] 1 I.R. 454. The actual Supreme Court decision in this case continues to have a profound impact upon how the Irish superior courts view constitutional socio-economic rights claims. This feminist judgment seeks to re-situate the legal analysis of constitutionalised socio-economic rights claims. However, this, as is seen from the feminist judgment, has not been an easy task. The plaintiffs' in this case at...

  11. Country policy profile - Ireland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Ireland, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in-tariff scheme (REFIT). There is also a tax relief scheme for corporate investments in projects generating electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind, biomass, and hydro). Renewable Energy sources for heating purposes have two main support schemes: a grant to homeowners for the installation of solar thermal installations and a tax return to Irish companies of 100% of the purchase value of certain energy efficient equipment. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  12. The Coming Out Experience in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis will tackle research into the coming out experience in Ireland and the affects of such experience. Such a topic is of importance to social care workers as the LGBT community are more likely to experience stress, depression, suicide ideation and drug use. The research reviewed was divided up into the following themes, in order to answer the research question; ‘age of realisation versus age of coming out, the ‘LGBT stereotype’, ‘experience of homophobia, the ‘acceptance ...

  13. Security of supply in Ireland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilian, Morgan; O'Leary, Fergal; O Gallachoir, Brian; Howley, Martin

    2006-12-01

    This is the second annual report on the title theme from SEI. Since SEI's initial security of supply publication there has been considerable attention paid to the security of supply aspects of energy policy worldwide. This reports updates and refines the metrics used to consider security of supply in Ireland. It also presents new analysis in three areas; the development of a supply/demand index, use of mean variance portfolio analysis for the electricity sector and a high oil price energy forecast scenario

  14. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  15. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  17. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  18. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  19. The courts in Renaissance Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Del Bo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the issue of the courts in Renaissance Italy along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  20. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  1. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  3. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  4. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  5. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  6. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  7. United Kingdom Ireland coal ports directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The directory gives details of ports at 65 locations in the UK and Ireland. For each port, the directory lists the name of the terminal; the name, address, contact name and numbers of the terminal owner and of the terminal operator; and the name and telephone/fax numbers of ship's agents. It also give details, for each terminal, where available, of tidal rise, access routes, vessel maxima, working hours, coal traders and handlers, discharge facilities, daily discharge rate, coal loading facilities, daily loading rate, stocking area dimensions and capacity, stocking area facilities and inland transport infrastructure. Research for the directory was undertaken by S. Fazal and C. Measham of Sheffield Hallam University, Business School.

  8. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available.

  9. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehanni, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2\\/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8\\/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children\\'s health.

  10. Societal costs of multiple sclerosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Peter; O'Boyle, Derek; Larkin, Aidan; McGuigan, Christopher; O'Rourke, Killian

    2018-05-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Ireland, and estimates the associated direct, indirect, and intangible costs to society based on a large nationally representative sample. A questionnaire was developed to capture the demographics, disease characteristics, healthcare use, informal care, employment, and wellbeing. Referencing international studies, standardized survey instruments were included (e.g. CSRI, MFIS-5, EQ-5D) or adapted (EDSS) for inclusion in an online survey platform. Recruitment was directed at people with MS via the MS Society mailing list and social media platforms, as well as in traditional media. The economic costing was primarily conducted using a 'bottom-up' methodology, and national estimates were achieved using 'prevalence-based' extrapolation. A total of 594 people completed the survey in full. The sample had geographic, disease, and demographic characteristics indicating good representativeness. At an individual level, average societal cost was estimated at €47,683; the average annual costs for those with mild, moderate, and severe MS were calculated as €34,942, €57,857, and €100,554, respectively. For a total Irish MS population of 9,000, the total societal costs of MS amounted to €429m. Direct costs accounted for just 30% of the total societal costs, indirect costs amounted to 50% of the total, and intangible or QoL costs represented 20%. The societal cost associated with a relapse in the sample is estimated as €2,438. The findings highlight that up to 70% of the total costs associated with MS are not routinely counted. These "hidden" costs are higher in Ireland than the rest of Europe, due in part to significantly lower levels of workforce participation, a higher likelihood of permanent workforce withdrawal, and higher levels of informal care needs. The relationship between disease progression and costs emphasize the societal importance of managing and slowing the progression of the illness.

  11. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health.

  12. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  13. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement.

  14. First record of Bruchidius raddianae in Italy: infested seeds of Vachellia karroo from Lampedusa island (Coleoptera: Bruchidae; Fabales: Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Toma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruchidius raddianae (Anton & Delobel 2003, a species of seed beetle spread in Northern Africa, was detected for the first time in Europe in some localities of the Southern Iberian Peninsula in 2007. In Spain this coleopteran lives on the shrubs of the South African acacia tree, Vachellia karroo (Hayne Banfi & Galasso, currently present in the Southern Iberian Peninsula. From seeds of V. karroo collected in October 2015, in Lampedusa island, Italy, where this plant is widely spread, 45 specimens of this coleopteran emerged. This observation represents the first record of B. raddianae in Italy and the second one for Europe.

  15. ”Savage Spain”? On the reception of Spanish art in Britain and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Nigel Glendinning and Hilary Macartney, eds, Spanish Art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920: Studies in Reception in Memory of Enriqueta Harris Frankfort, Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2010. This review evaluates the first scholarly study exclusively dedicated to the reception history of Spanish art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920. Progressing systematically through the different chapters, it highlights the various responses and perspectives that are addressed in the book. Issues of taste and collecting are examined, followed by historiographical concerns such as the methods and techniques of writing, illustrating and reproducing Spanish art in the nineteenth century. Shifting attitudes towards Spain and Spanish art are also explored, as are the roles of prominent figures in disseminating knowledge and appreciation of Spanish art, notably Sir William Stirling Maxwell and Richard Ford. Finally, the review outlines the critical fortunes of Spain’s foremost artists: Murillo, Velázquez, Ribera, Zurbarán and Goya. It ends by suggesting how this study could be expanded methodologically, considering the reception history of Spanish art in the light of important literature on reception theory and aesthetics.

  16. "Managed competition" for Ireland? The single versus multiple payer debate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mikkers, Misja

    2014-09-01

    A persistent feature of international health policy debate is whether a single-payer or multiple-payer system can offer superior performance. In Ireland, a major reform proposal is the introduction of \\'managed competition\\' based on the recent reforms in the Netherlands, which would replace many functions of Ireland\\'s public payer with a system of competing health insurers from 2016. This article debates whether Ireland meets the preconditions for effective managed competition, and whether the government should implement the reform according to its stated timeline. We support our arguments by discussing the functioning of the Dutch and Irish systems.

  17. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  18. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  19. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarossa, G.

    1990-01-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  20. Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarossa, G [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1990-07-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals.

  1. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Renewables integration, flexibility measures and operational tools for the Ireland and Northern Ireland power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Damian; Power, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Ireland and Northern Ireland power system is pursuing ambitious renewable energy (mainly wind generation) targets for 2020. A range of system-wide initiatives are being developed as part of the DS3 (Delivering a Secure, Sustainable Electricity System) programme, and, in particular, a bespoke suite of ancillary services incentivising fast frequency response, dynamic reactive power and ramping margin, and other, (future) system needs. With approximately half of the wind generation connected at distribution level, network development at both distribution and transmission levels is a key challenge for both the transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO): a wide range of technical options are being examined, including under-grounding, HVDC connection and series compensation, supported by a public and stakeholder engagement programme. The experience gained is highlighted, while also indicating solutions and strategies which have been proposed, and ongoing challenges for the future. (Authors)

  3. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  4. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  5. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  6. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  7. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2008 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The RPII recognises that Ireland is now entering a time of transition and change, with many uncertain variables in economic and environmental issues emerging. Against this background, this strategy document seeks to ensure that the high level of radiation protection that already exists in Ireland is sustained and built upon over the next three years

  8. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  9. Ireland's South African War 1899–1902 | Diver | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dearth in research is perhaps due to Irish Nationalist historiography and sensitivity during the twentieth century, which has arguably distorted our perspective of Ireland's shared history with the British Empire. Therefore, it is the purpose of this article to present an alternative Ireland, which has largely been ignored, ...

  10. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, John

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

  11. Cogeneration at FIAT AVIO (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Brief notes are provided on the FIAT (Italy) - Foster Wheeler joint venture to equip about 20 FIAT manufacturing plants with 50 MW(e) combined cycle cogeneration plants which will make use of a gas turbine whose design is based on that of the successful General Electric aeronautic LM 6000 engine. The paper also discusses solutions, e.g., wet and dry methods, being considered for nitrogen ox des control, and cites the need in Italy for the optimization of Government licensing procedures for small and medium sized manufacturing firms opting for on-site power generation through cogeneration plants

  12. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  15. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  16. CLP activities and control in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10th December 2010 marked a new beginning for Regulation (EC no. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP in Ireland with the start of its operational phase. It was on this date that the administrative and enforcement provisions for CLP were encompassed in the new Chemicals Amendment Act, 2010. In this Act, the Health and Safety Authority, known as the "the Authority" is named as Competent Authority (CA for CLP, along with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in respect of pesticides and plant protection products and the Beaumont Hospital Board with responsibility for receiving information relating to emergency health response. In practice, the Authority has been de facto CA for CLP since its publication on the 31st December 2008, given its role in existing classification and labelling regimes. This article focuses on the work undertaken by the Authority on CLP at a National, European and International level including its implementation, training, helpdesk, guidance, enforcement and awareness raising activities.

  17. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  18. First case report of invasive pseudoterranoviasis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, Serena; Scribano, Daniela; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Members of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova are the main causative agents of human anisakidosis: the disease is worldwide distributed, with major impact in countries with a large consumption of raw fish. Because of unspecific symptoms and limited diagnostic tools, incidence and burden of disease are probably underestimated. In Italy, all human infestations where the etiological agent has been properly identified, have been associated to the parasitic species Anisakis pegreffii, the most frequent anisakid in the Mediterranean area. Here, an invasive human case of pseudoterranoviasis is described for the first time in Italy: in 2015, a woman was found infected during a colonoscopy scheduled after the occurrence of nonspecific clinical symptoms. The nematode was found penetrating the ascending colon. The identification was performed by sequencing the mitochondrial region cox2 and by comparison to GenBank retrieved material using the BLAST search tool. The sample showed a 99% identity with Pseudoterranova decipiens sensu stricto. The record underlines the potential risk due to the consumption of raw or undercooked imported fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  20. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  1. Differentiated waste collection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaboni, V.; Landolfo, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    Differentiated collection is an essential part of the integrated urban waste management system. Despite the progress made in recent years, Italy is still far from achieving the targets set by EU regulations. The simulation thus calls for great efforts by local administrations and individual citizens, especially in the Southern part of the country [it

  2. Flood risk management in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina...

  3. Work-related ill-health: Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Great Britain 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Noone, P; Bourke, J; Hayes, J; Turner, S; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Data on work-related ill-health (WRIH) in the Republic of Ireland is inconsistent. To compare the incidence of WRIH in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), Northern Ireland (NI) and Great Britain (GB) reported by clinical specialists in skin and respiratory medicine and by specialist occupational physicians (OPs). Analysis of data reported to three surveillance schemes in The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in ROI and corresponding UK schemes. Contact dermatitis was the most frequently reported skin disease in the three areas. Asthma was the most frequently-reported respiratory disease in the ROI, while asbestos-related cases predominate in GB and NI. Mental health disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders were reported most frequently by OPs. Annual average incidence rates for skin disease were 2 per 100000 employed (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) in the ROI and 7 per 100000 for GB (95% CI 4.8-9.4). Unadjusted incidence rates for respiratory disease were 1 (95% CI 0.3-1) and 8 (95% CI 6.1-10.7) per 100000 in the ROI and GB, respectively; adjusted for reporter non-response, these figures increased to 15 (95% CI 11.3-19.6) and 32 (95% CI 28.4-35.6) per 100000 respectively. This is the first paper to include THOR data on WRIH from the ROI, NI and GB. Consistent and dedicated data collection in the ROI via the THOR schemes is viable and important in the light of a deficit of occupational ill-health data. Sustained efforts to improve participation are underway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. EWTD compliance amongst Anaesthesia trainees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohan, J; Moore, D

    2017-02-01

    The implications of the EWTD include a limit of 48 h working week and 11 consecutive hours rest every 24 h. This survey was designed to assess EWTD compliance over designated 1-week and 1-month periods amongst College of Anaesthesetists of Ireland (CAI) trainees and non-training Anaesthesia NCHDs. The two key elements of EWTD compliance were assessed; the compliance to a 48 h working week, and a minimizing of shift duration to 24 h. Existence of protected training time and teaching time were also assessed. This survey was completed by 191 Anaesthesia NCHDs, including 151 responses from CAI trainees; 75 % response rate from CAI trainees. 71 % of respondents worked in excess of 48 h. 37 % of respondents reported to have worked a shift >24 h duration. The average hours worked was 66 h (range 48.5-103 h). Our figures are a contrast to the reported figures in the HSE "Performance Assurance Report". 49 % of respondents reported a change in their working patterns to facilitate EWTD compliance. There appears to be a negative impact on training however, with 68 % respondents missing departmental teaching sessions and 30 % not receiving protected training time. 33 % of respondents were not in favour of full EWTD compliance. As work patterns change, it is vital to ensure that training is not compromised. Previous reports have recommended an increase in consultant numbers, which has yet to be achieved. This may provide a solution to allow service provision, NCHD training and EWTD compliance amongst NCHDs.

  5. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  6. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  7. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  8. Prevalence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) in marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestri Trotti, G; Baccarani, E M; Giannetto, S; Giuffrida, A; Paesanti, F

    1998-03-05

    Marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis traded with commercial certification from production sites in Italy and abroad (France, Spain) were examined for the presence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) from October 1994 to February 1996. The prevalence of M. intestinalis was 4.1% and 4.7% respectively in mussels from Lerici (La Spezia) and S. Pietro in Volta (Venice), whereas it rose to 57.9% in the samples from Spain. M. intestinalis was absent in mussels from Chioggia (Venice), Ganzirri (Messina), Taranto, Trieste and France. The prevalence of U. cyprinae varied considerably, ranging from 0.3% in mussels from Trani (Bari) to 33.2% and 86.3% respectively in those from Chioggia and Trieste. It was 85.7% in samples from France and 63.7% in those from Spain.

  9. Ireland or the Netherlands: Which country is more entrepreneurial?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Colm; Diaz-Moriana, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    What country was ranked the most entrepreneurial of the EU-15 countries in 2005? Ireland. In 2005, Ireland ranked 1st of the EU-15 countries in terms of the rate of entrepreneurship. The Dutch ranked jointed 9th. Which of the EU-15 countries was the most entrepreneurial in 2012? The Netherlands. Since 2005, the rate of entrepreneurship in the Netherlands has increased. They now rank 1stof the EU-15 countries. Ireland’s rate of entrepreneurship has decreased. By 2012, Ireland ranked 9th of the...

  10. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  11. Caries status in 16 year-olds with varying exposure to water fluoridation in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, J

    2012-12-01

    Most of the Republic of Ireland\\'s public water supplies have been fluoridated since the mid-1960s while Northern Ireland has never been fluoridated, apart from some small short-lived schemes in east Ulster.

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 8th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 24-27, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 8th International Workshop on Neonatology • SYSTEMS MEDICINE IN PERINATOLOGY AND PEDIATRICS TAILORED BIOMARKERS, DRUGS AND TREATMENTS • Cagliari (Italy • October 24th-27th 2012The Workshop has been organized on behalf of Union of European Neonatal and Perinatal Societies, Union of Mediterranean Neonatal Societies, Italian Society of Neonatology, UNICEF, and under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic. ABS 1. Urinary metabolomics as a new strategy to discriminate response to ibuprofen therapy in preterm neonates with patent ductus arteriosus • M. Castell Miñana et al.; Valencia (Spain ABS 2. A metabolomic approach to identify preterm neonates born of mothers with chorioamnionitis: preliminary data • L. Pugni et al.; Milan, Cagliari (Italy ABS 3. Urinary metabolomics in twins at birth • L. Paladini et al.; Lecce, Rome, Cagliari (Italy ABS 4. From prenatal diagnosis to neonatology: risk and protective factors in the development of mother-preterm child relationship • E. Boni et al.; Pavia (Italy ABS 5. Prolonged refrigerated storage of human milk: effects on nutritive and non-nutritive characteristics • P. Di Nicola et al.; Turin (Italy ABS 6. Use of donor human milk in nicu: is donor milk competing with breastfeeding or supporting it? • P. Di Nicola et al.; Turin (Italy ABS 7. Prenatal diagnosis of methymalonic aciduria and homocistinuria Cbl-C type using dna analysis • A. Zappu et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 8. Human breast milk vs formula milk. Is 1H-nmr metabolomics able to help to find the right formula? • A. Noto et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 9. A 1H-NMR study of Crisponi syndrome: can metabolomics help to describe the disorder? • M. Lussu et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 10. Nestin immunoreactivity in the developing human kidney • Y. Gibo et al.; Matsumoto (Japan, Rome, Cagliari (Italy ABS 11. A non-invasive approach to characterize epileptic children born elbw compared to

  13. Quality of environmental impact statements in Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canelas, Leonel; Almansa, P.; Merchan, M.; Cifuentes, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    One of the key steps of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, defined by Directive 337/85 'on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects' is the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a Project. The quality of the EIS is of great importance to properly inform the public and the decision makers about the significant environmental effects of the project. Using the 'Guidance on EIA-EIS Review' 2001 report, produced with the support of the European Commission, this paper analyses the overall quality of 46 recently elaborated EIS from Portugal and Spain (1998-2003). It also analyses the quality of the various chapters of the EIS and the Non-Technical Summary. A comparison is made between the quality of the EIS from Portugal and from Spain. The results for Portugal are also compared with those of other European countries (Ireland and United Kingdom) in similar periods. Finally it presents overall conclusions and suggestions for improvement

  14. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  15. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  16. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  17. "Willing to Pay?" Tax Compliance in Britain and Italy: An Experimental Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available As shown by the recent crisis, tax evasion poses a significant problem for countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy. While these societies certainly possess weaker fiscal institutions as compared to other EU members, might broader cultural differences between northern and southern Europe also help to explain citizens' (unwillingness to pay their taxes? To address this question, we conduct laboratory experiments in the UK and Italy, two countries which straddle this North-South divide. Our design allows us to examine citizens' willingness to contribute to public goods via taxes while holding institutions constant. We report a surprising result: when faced with identical tax institutions, redistribution rules and audit probabilities, Italian participants are significantly more likely to comply than Britons. Overall, our findings cast doubt upon "culturalist" arguments that would attribute cross-country differences in tax compliance to the lack of morality amongst southern European taxpayers.

  18. "Willing to Pay?" Tax Compliance in Britain and Italy: An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Andrighetto, Giulia; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Steinmo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    As shown by the recent crisis, tax evasion poses a significant problem for countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy. While these societies certainly possess weaker fiscal institutions as compared to other EU members, might broader cultural differences between northern and southern Europe also help to explain citizens’ (un)willingness to pay their taxes? To address this question, we conduct laboratory experiments in the UK and Italy, two countries which straddle this North-South divide. Our design allows us to examine citizens’ willingness to contribute to public goods via taxes while holding institutions constant. We report a surprising result: when faced with identical tax institutions, redistribution rules and audit probabilities, Italian participants are significantly more likely to comply than Britons. Overall, our findings cast doubt upon “culturalist” arguments that would attribute cross-country differences in tax compliance to the lack of morality amongst southern European taxpayers. PMID:26919201

  19. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  20. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. The first prospective injury audit of League of Ireland footballers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pLeague of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112

  2. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in Ireland: A review of the process

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacoeconomic assessment process in Ireland and to provide examples of recent appraisals and the subsequent impact on pricing and reimbursement decisions.\\r\

  3. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  4. Poisonings and clinical toxicology: a template for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2013-03-01

    Poisons information is accessed around the clock in the British Isles from six centres of which two are in Ireland at Dublin and Belfast accompanied by consultant toxicologist advisory service. The numbers of calls in Ireland are down to about 40 per day due to easy access to online data bases. Access to Toxbase, the clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service is available to National Health Service (NHS) health professionals and to Emergency Departments and Intensive Care units in the Republic of Ireland. There are 59 Toxbase users in the Republic of Ireland and 99 % of activity originates in Emergency Departments. All United States Poison Control Centres primarily use Poisindex which is a commercial database from Thomson Reuters.

  5. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  6. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  7. Schemes of Funding Music Research in Italy: A Case Study in Comparison with other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Gianturco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the central government and other supportive agencies in Italy as to the need for research to be accomplished in music and music history in that country is determined by first stating what that support has been for such research in the 1990s, together with its accessibility to groups and/or individuals working in that field, and then reporting how such aid has been reduced in the more recent times of financial crises. In order to assess Italy’s position not in isolation but more realistically by considering it within a broader geographical frame, the same investigation has been accomplished for a group of other culturally developed countries in Europe which offer sufficient areas of comparison: Spain, France, England, Germany. Sadly, Italy does not come off well. Perhaps surprisingly but still sadly this is shown not to be due to the present financial crises but to a long-standing absence of respect for the entire musical history of the country and for the need that it be known and understood thoroughly. In short, the government in Italy seems not to have been sufficiently aware of its responsibility to acknowledge and preserve its musical patrimony by adequately supporting research which aims at uncovering the country’s rich past, understanding it, and thereby making it available to professional performing musicians and, through them, also to the people of Italy and the rest of the world.

  8. The Tenth International Workshop on MULTIFREQUENCY BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH ENERGY COSMIC SOURCES Palermo, Italy, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Foreword

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizing Institutions:Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali IAPS-INAF, Roma, ItalyDpt de Cargas Utiles y Ciencias del Espacio, DCUCE-INTA Madrid, SpainE.O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, HCA-NRL, Washington D.C., USAMax-Planck Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, MPE, Garching, GermanySt. John’s College, SJC, Annapolis MD, USAInstitute für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Karls Eberhard, Universität SAND 1, Tübingen, GermanyASCR - Astronomical Institute, Ondřejov, Czech RepublicCTU - Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic

  9. Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the absence of far-right political formations in the history of the Republic of Ireland, especially in relation to immigration. I argue that the ‘mainstream’ nationalist parties have implemented a racialized governance of Ireland via the issue of citizenship (in the referendum of 2004). While hegemonic ideas on the racial purity of indigenous populations and the highly ambivalent attitudes and policies on immigration pursued over the last decade are characteristi...

  10. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  11. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  12. Estimating the economic cost of disability in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; Lyons, Seán

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the extra economic costs of disability seems a logical step towards alleviating elements of social exclusion for people with disabilities. This paper estimates the economic cost of disability in Ireland in terms of the additional spending needs that arise due to disability. It defines and estimates models of the private costs borne by families with individuals who have a disability in Ireland when compared to the wider population, both in general and by severity of illness. Our mod...

  13. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  14. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  15. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  16. Company profile: Edison of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The energy subsidiary of the Montedison chemicals company (Ferruzzi Group), Edison is Italy's largest private sector electricity producer. Last year production amounted to 4.7 TWh, an increase of 8.2% on 1990, and at the end of June this year, total net production of 2.4 TWh was 14.8% higher than in the first half of 1991. Edison also ranks first in the Italian league of private sector hydrocarbons producers, its Edison Gas subsidiary controlling a group that has significant exploration and development interests. These are mainly in Italy where production amounted to 333m cubic metres of natural gas and 690,000 barrels of oil in the first half of the year. The recent acquisition of Deutsche Shell's Italian fields should allow Edison to reach 2bn cubic metres of gas production by 1996. (author)

  17. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  19. Cold fusion research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramuzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes cold fusion (CF) research in Italy. In Italy, many Agencies and Universities are moderately funding research in CF, and the scientists have made a few attempts to coordinate each other, organizing meetings and conferences. However, the activity has been mostly the fruit of the scientists' initiative, and never a coordinated proposal of Agencies and Universities. No position on the scientific validity of the subject has been officially taken and the funds for CF have been rather modest. The investments in Italy on CF, the figure referring to 1992 amounts to about 0.5 million dollars, not including expenses for personnel. A number of about 70 scientists, mostly working part-time, is committed all around the Country in research on CF. The lack of offical commitment and effective support by the Research Agencies and the Universities has not prevented scientists from being quite active in performing research. On the other side, it has to be acknowledged that no formal vetoes have been interposed to the free initiative of scientists in this field: on the contrary, some of the Agencies and Universities have moderately funded such an effort. The quality of the experiments in Italy has been increasingly good, and the results obtained are rather out standing in the general panorama of CF. But it is time to perform a more coordinated effort, keeping in mind that material science aspects, such as the characteristics of the materials used, play a very important role in the development of this topic. Thus, a much more intense effort is required to obtain a more substantial progress in the field. The increasingly convincing results obtained by the whole CF community, and the example of the Japanese Government and Industry, which appear to be determined to promoting CF research, have changed the panorama of CF. These are now signs that also the Italian scientific authorities could consider favouring research in this field in the near future. (J.P.N.)

  20. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  1. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  2. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  3. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  4. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  5. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  6. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  7. The crisis impact on taxation and the social model in Spain. A gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palom de Villota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article underlines the plummet of public incomes in year 2008 as consequence of the collapse of the building sector and the risk to maintain the Spanish social model that this fact supposed. This model was established since Democratic Transition in year 1977 and has supposed and important increase during last thirty years in the tax burden to be paid by citizens. Even though, Spain has developed a social regime completely underdeveloped, inside European Union, similar to those existing in Italy, Greece and Portugal, countries where social services or public transfers for children or dependants, especially old, it is not yet a priority of their social policy.

  8. INFOMAR, Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme; Sharing Valuable Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; McGrath, F.; Cullen, S.; Verbruggen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Following the successful high-resolution deep-sea mapping carried out as part of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), a strategic, long term programme was established: INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland MArine Resources (INFOMAR). Funded by Ireland's Department of Communication, Climate Action and Environment, INFOMAR comprises a multi-platform approach to completing Ireland's marine mapping, and is a key action in the integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. Co-managed by Geological Survey Ireland and the Marine Institute, the programme has three work strands: Data Acquisition; Data Exchange and Integration; Value Added Exploitation.The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of geological, hydrographic, oceanographic, habitat and heritage datasets that underpin sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resources. INFOMAR operates a free data policy; data and outputs are delivered online through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of data and outputs are wide-ranging and multipurpose. In order to address the evolution and diversification of user requirements, further data product development is facilitated through the Value Added Exploitation strand.Ninety percent of Ireland's territory lies offshore. Therefore, strategic national seabed mapping continues to provide critical, high-resolution baseline datasets for numerous economic sectors and societal needs. From these we can glean important geodynamic knowledge of Ireland's vast maritime territory. INFOMAR remains aligned with national and European policies and directives. Exemplified by our commitment to EMODnet, a European Commission funded project that supports the collection, standardisation and sharing of available marine information, data and data products across all European Seas. As EMODnet Geology Minerals leaders we have developed a framework for mapping marine minerals. Furthermore, collaboration with the international research

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  10. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as a...

  11. 7 CFR 98.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... updated and expanded membership of nations. The original EC members are Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Horsemeat. That U.S...

  12. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  13. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.; Capra, M.; D'Acunto, A.; Del Ciello, R.; Molinas, P.; Virdis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited [it

  14. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  15. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  16. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  17. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  18. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  19. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  1. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  2. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  3. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  4. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland, 2001-2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó Maoldomhnaigh, Cilian

    2016-12-01

    In 1999, invasive meningococcal disease was hyperendemic in Ireland at 14.75\\/100 000 population, with 60% group B and 30% group C diseases. National sepsis guidelines and meningococcal C vaccines were introduced in 2000. Despite a spontaneous decline in group B infection, invasive meningococcal disease remains a leading cause of sepsis. This study characterises the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland since the introduction of meningococcal C vaccine and reviews its clinical presentation, hospital course and outcome in anticipation of meningococcal B vaccine introduction.

  5. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets.

  6. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  7. Radon Gas in Ireland Joint Position Statement by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Health Service Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part, A.M.; Colgan, P.A.; Fenton, D.; Kelly, I.; Long, S.; O'Mahony, M.; Pollard, D.

    2010-04-01

    This position statement is written by the Health Service Executive and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland with a view to forming and influencing policy in this area. It provides a summary of the health risks associated with radon exposure in Ireland and the steps that can be taken to reduce those risks. It outlines suggested ongoing work to reduce both the population dose from radon and the individual dose to those most at risk and considers future work needed to improve national policy to achieve these objectives

  8. Women and the Struggle for Daytime Adult Education in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Daytime adult education has emerged in Ireland in the form of voluntary, locally based groups of working class women providing education for themselves and others. A survey of 96 groups illuminated their struggles with finding suitable space, day care, and advertising. They thrive because of disenchantment with the content, scheduling, and form of…

  9. Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in child vaccination: results from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Edel; Walsh, Brendan; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2014-06-05

    There is limited knowledge of the extent of or factors underlying inequalities in uptake of childhood vaccination in Ireland. This paper aims to measure and decompose socioeconomic inequalities in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis was performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of the carers of over 11,000 nine-month old babies collected in 2008 and 2009. Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the child and parental factors, including socioeconomic factors that were associated with non-vaccination of children. A concentration index was calculated to measure inequality in childhood vaccination. Subsequent decomposition analysis identified key factors underpinning observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of vaccination (CI=-0.19) show a substantial pro-rich gradient. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that a substantial proportion of the inequality is explained by household level variables such as socioeconomic status, household structure, income and entitlement to publicly funded care (29.9%, 24% 30.6% and 12.9% respectively). Substantial differences are also observed between children of Irish mothers and immigrant mothers from developing countries. Vaccination was less likely in lower than in higher income households. Access to publicly funded services was an important factor in explaining inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  11. It's Not an Exact Science: Teaching Entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the approach to embedding entrepreneurship within third level education in Northern Ireland by assessing the perceptions of lecturers and learners and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching methods. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys and focus groups were conducted with lecturers and learners…

  12. Ireland's pathway towards a 100% renewable energy-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Leahy, Martin; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Ireland has an abundant supply of renewable energy, a dangerous reliance on imported fossil fuels, as well as very demanding energy and CO2 targets to reach. All of these indicate that a major alternation to the current energy system is necessary, especially an increase in the utilisation of rene...

  13. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one…

  14. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  15. Survey of diagnostic radiology in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; Howett, D.; Hone, C.; Mulholland, C.

    1988-03-01

    This survey examined a number of aspects of the practice of diagnostic radiology in Ireland. These included the frequency of examinations, the gonadal and active bone marrow doses to patients, the genetically significant dose, the standard of design of x-ray rooms and of performance of equipment, and an inventory of equipment currently in use (author)

  16. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  17. Hearing Voices: Lessons from the History of Psychiatry in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2017-03-10

    The history of psychiatry is a history of therapeutic enthusiasm, with all of the triumph and tragedy, hubris and humility that such enthusiasm brings. During the 1800s and early 1900s, Ireland-s public asylums were routinely overcrowded, unhygienic and, quite commonly, fatal. The asylums became all-too-convenient options for a society with an apparently insatiable hunger for institutions, incarceration and control. The emergence of clinical professionals, both medical and nursing, was inevitably a factor in this complex mix, but the effects of any search for professional prestige were dwarfed by asylum doctors' clear outrage at what the asylum system became. There were powerful, non-medical, vested interests in keeping large asylums open. Irish society consistently failed to generate solutions to real human suffering (mental illness, disability, disease, poverty, ill fortune) other than the extraordinary network of institutions that characterised so much of Irish history: orphanages, industrial schools, reformatories, workhouses, laundries, borstals, prisons and asylums. As a result, Ireland's remarkable asylum system was primarily a social creation rather than a medical one. Notwithstanding this complex history, Ireland's mental health services have been transformed over the past five decades, although real challenges remain, especially in relation to the homeless mentally ill, the mentally ill in prison, and providing meaningful support to families.

  18. A Strategy for the Digital Content Industry in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is a real opportunity for Ireland to develop a significant strength in the digital content industries of the future and to develop strong digital content clusters of high-growth, high-value digital businesses. This report identifies five key target areas: e-Learning, Games, Business and Consumer Wireless Services, Digital Libraries, and Non-Media Digital Applications

  19. Reviving a Community, Modernizing an Industry: Ireland's Furniture College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Connemara, a rural region in Ireland, is characterized by high unemployment, high emigration, poor infrastructure, inadequate public services, and a low rate of transfer to third-level education. To address the situation, the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), joined forces with Connemara West (a community-owned development organization…

  20. Religious Education and the Law in Northern Ireland's Controlled Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…

  1. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  2. Trends in air pollution in Ireland : A decomposition analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the emissions to air of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ammonia in Ireland are analysed with a logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition for the period of 1990-2009. Emissions fell for four of the five pollutants, with ammonia being

  3. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M P

    2012-02-03

    SETTING: The Southwest of Ireland (Counties Cork and Kerry) 1987-2000, average population 549,500. OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant morbidity worldwide and the study of epidemiology and characteristics helps in their prevention and treatment. This study was performed to determine the incidence of NTM disease in comparison to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Southwest Ireland, over the above time period. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out in all human isolates of NTM, M. tuberculosis and M. bovis between 1987 and 2000, in the Southwest Region of Ireland. RESULTS: The mean incidence of NTM (0.4\\/100,000 population) has risen since 1995, principally of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC). The annual incidence of M. tuberculosis in humans over 14 years in the same region was 971\\/100,000 population with a significant reduction since 1994 and M. bovis remained constant at 0.5\\/100,000 population. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of disease causing NTM noted in Southwest Ireland reflects global data and is surmised to be due to an ageing population, increased incidence related to chronic fibrotic lung disease, and environmental mycobacterial factors.

  4. The Changing Family in Northern Ireland: Young People and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Margaret I.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in Northern Ireland to investigate their experiences with the divorce process and help provided by family, friends, and professionals. They considered the separation/divorce process long, frequently underpinned by acrimony and violence. Extended family and peers provided great support. Many teens used specialist counselors…

  5. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  6. Logistic regression model for detecting radon prone areas in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Long, S

    2017-12-01

    A new high spatial resolution radon risk map of Ireland has been developed, based on a combination of indoor radon measurements (n=31,910) and relevant geological information (i.e. Bedrock Geology, Quaternary Geology, soil permeability and aquifer type). Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of having an indoor radon concentration above the national reference level of 200Bqm -3 in Ireland. The four geological datasets evaluated were found to be statistically significant, and, based on combinations of these four variables, the predicted probabilities ranged from 0.57% to 75.5%. Results show that the Republic of Ireland may be divided in three main radon risk categories: High (HR), Medium (MR) and Low (LR). The probability of having an indoor radon concentration above 200Bqm -3 in each area was found to be 19%, 8% and 3%; respectively. In the Republic of Ireland, the population affected by radon concentrations above 200Bqm -3 is estimated at ca. 460k (about 10% of the total population). Of these, 57% (265k), 35% (160k) and 8% (35k) are in High, Medium and Low Risk Areas, respectively. Our results provide a high spatial resolution utility which permit customised radon-awareness information to be targeted at specific geographic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geriatric care in Europe – the EUGMS Survey part I: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolb, G; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Cruz-Jentoft, A

    2011-01-01

    Quality of geriatric care depends on institutional resources e.g. hospitals, medical departments engaged in acute medicine, rehabilitation and long term care but especially in quality and quantity of well educated and trained specialists, i.e. “geriatricians”. This survey initiated by the Academi...

  8. A Comparison of Educational Systems of Turkey, Malta, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Portugal, Finland, Greece, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Asiye Toker; Celep, Cevat

    2011-01-01

    Managing people requires ongoing living in a harmony and to educate citizens who would support this status. It is not easy to continue the existence of management which can perform different cultures. The different management style is different educational systems. The management style also directly affects the country's educational philosophy.…

  9. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  10. Italy: a market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2002-01-01

    The prospects for the Italian gas market, the third biggest in Europe, are reviewed briefly. With increasing demand for gas-fired generation of electric power, Italy will need a new infrastructure. At present, Italian electric power is among the most expensive in Europe. Enei, the dominant generator in the country, is converting its oil-fired plants to gas to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are seen as the best way to enter the Italian market. Eni has much gas under 'take or pay' contracts but eventually their grip on the market will be loosened and international players such as Edison, BG Italia BP Shell, and Italian distributors such as AEM Milano, AEM Torino, and ACEA Roma may find new opportunities on offer

  11. Renewable energies. Italy is mobilizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2005-01-01

    About 3 quarter of the Italian electric power comes from fossil fuel power plants. The rest is generated from hydropower, few comes from biomass and wind energy and a very few from geothermal energy (2% of the national production). However, the situation is changing and geothermal energy, with only 5 TWh, makes Italy the European leader in this domain and the world number 4 behind USA, Philippines and Mexico. The renewable sources represent 18.5% of the total Italian energy production. During the last five years, the renewable energy sources have developed rapidly: +80% per year for the wind energy, +32% per year for biomass and about +3% per year for geothermal energy. Moreover, the Italian government is implementing incentives for the development of renewable energy sources. This article gives an overview of the situation. (J.S.)

  12. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  13. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Luigi Gini,; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The radionuclides 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m −3 for 131 I was recorded at April 3–4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with 131 I and 137 Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of 131 I and 137 Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L −1 and 0.12 Bq L −1 , respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27–28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of 137 Cs than it was for 131 I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. - Highlights: ► Radioactive plume from Fukushima reactor accident reached Milano, Italy. ► 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were determined in rainwater, air, soil, grass and milk samples. ► The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio values in air was about 1. ► High observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and milk samples are not due to Fukushima accident. ► The dose assessment show that the observed activities are very far below levels of concern.

  14. Seasonal immigrant workers and programs in UK, France, Spain and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sala, A.; Molinero Gerbeau, Y.; Eremenko, T.; Beauchemin, C.; Samuk, S.; Consterdine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Programmes aimed at channelling seasonal workers to the labour market of European countries have a long tradition. Many of them started in the decades following World War II, but have changed a great deal over time, alt hough the majority are aimed seasonal economic sectors, such as agriculture or

  15. Global Influences on National Definitions of Quality Education: Examples from Spain and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing attention worldwide to advancing quality education. Beyond a rhetorical aim, many international organizations and national education systems have articulated a commitment to promoting measures of quality education through the development of educational indicators. This article broadly explores the global influences on national…

  16. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  17. Vertical Coordination in Organic Food Chains: A Survey Based Analysis in France, Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Cavaliere

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses characteristics of vertical relationships of organic supply chains with a specific focus on the processing and retailing sectors. The analysis takes into account different regions of the EU Mediterranean area. Data were collected through interviews using an ad hoc questionnaire. The survey was based on a sample of 306 firms, including processors and retailers. The analysis revealed that a relevant aspect for the processing firms of organic products concerns the guaranteeing of safety and quality levels for the products. The main tools to implement the quality management are based on the adoption of specific production regulations and quality controls. The premium price most frequently applied by processors ranges from 10% to 40% and similar values are revealed for retailers. The diffusion of supply contracts allows the vertical coordination between agriculture and processing firms in the organic supply chains. The main distribution channels for the processing firms are represented by specialised shops in organic products, direct sales and supermarkets.

  18. Peer sexual harassment in adolescent girls: A cross-national study (Spain-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ortega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios internacionales sobre el acoso sexual en la adolescencia han mostrado que este fenómeno es más frecuente de lo esperado, aunque la prevalencia del acoso sexual varía de unos estudios a otros. Algunas de estas diferencias han sido explicadas en función de los modelos y dimensiones explicativas de las que parten los diferentes estudios. La presente estudio descriptivo intenta contribuir a esta línea de investigación, evaluando diferentes modelos explicativos del acoso sexual en 318 chicas adolescentes (edad media 17,05 años de dos países europeos (España e Italia. Aplicando análisis confirmatorios y modelos de múltiples grupos para medir la invarianza en ambos países, los resultados mostraron que un modelo bi-dimensional, compuesto por la dimensión acoso verbal/visual y la dimensión acoso físico fue el que mejor ajustó los datos. El modelo de Fitzgerald también fue evaluado aunque los índices de ajuste no alcanzaron niveles tan satisfactorios. Los resultados se discuten con relación a las investigaciones previas en este campo y respecto a las implicaciones que estos resultados tienen para la prevención y la intervención sobre acoso sexual y cortejo en la adolescencia.

  19. Funding health technologies in decentralized systems: A comparison between Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellaro, Giulia; Fattore, Giovanni; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2009-10-01

    Although cost-containment policies in Europe are focusing increasingly on medical devices, the impact of these policies has yet to be fully investigated, particularly in cross-country settings. This paper analyses coverage, procurement, and reimbursement of three inpatient medical devices (coronary stent, knee endoprosthesis and implantable cardioverter defibrillator) in the Italian and Spanish healthcare systems. The research was carried out by reviewing published and grey literature, as well as national and regional legislation; in addition, 19 experts from hospitals and the industry were interviewed. In both countries, there has been a shift in political power from the national to the regional level. At the same time, the content of public coverage has become more explicit. A major issue in both systems is reimbursement, i.e. the rules about funding the delivery of services included in the benefit baskets. The differences in procurement and funding mechanisms create different incentives that may have an impact on the uptake and diffusion of technologies. These mechanisms, however, can only partially explain organizational and professional behaviour, as the use of technologies in both countries is mainly left to professionals who are exposed to a variety of incentives. There is limited direct and indirect guidance of national and regional authorities over the use of technologies in both countries. It is likely that the difficult search for a balance between introducing innovations, containing costs and assuring equity will require stronger regulatory action in the next future.

  20. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  1. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  2. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  4. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  5. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  6. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  7. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  8. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  9. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  10. Biofuels in Italy: obstacles and development opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Vito; Clementi, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Today biofuels are the sole realistically practical way to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector. In many countries, including Italy, biofuel production and use are already a reality corresponding to a large agro-industrial production system that uses essentially mature technologies. To significantly lower production costs and optimise land use, Italy needs to develop new, second-generation biofuel production operations that can offer significant opportunities to the nation's agro-industrial sector [it

  11. Personal and professional challenges of nurse prescribing in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Barry

    This article presents the challenges regarding the development of a collaborative practice agreement in order to undertake nurse prescribing in an emergency department in a large teaching hospital. Nurse prescribing has been introduced quite recently in Ireland. Although there is a plethora of knowledge regarding the topic, there are many personal and professional challenges in relation to this emerging role. The nurse prescribing initiative in Ireland is continually developing and many nurses now have the authority to prescribe from almost the same range of medicines as doctors. Prescribing has the potential to improve job satisfaction, autonomy and ultimately improves patient outcomes. However, nurses need to be cognisant of the impact it can have on the dynamics of the healthcare team. An analysis of some complexities of nurse prescribing is given, in conjunction with reflective thoughts on a clinical incident in the area of morphine prescribing.

  12. Detecting internet search activity for mouth cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G; O'Rourke, C; Hogan, J; Fenton, J E

    2016-02-01

    Mouth Cancer Awareness Day in Ireland was launched in September 2010 by survivors of the disease to promote public awareness of suspicious signs of oral cancer and to provide free dental examinations. To find out whether its introduction had increased public interest in the disease, we used Google Trends to find out how often users in Ireland had searched for "oral cancer" and "mouth cancer" across all Google domains between January 2005 and December 2013. The number of internet searches for these cancers has increased significantly (p increase in public awareness of mouth cancer could result in earlier presentation and better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kim; Sammin, Donal; Harmeyer, Silke; Nath, Mintu; Livingstone, Morag; Longbottom, David

    2012-08-01

    Although few studies have investigated the prevalence of chlamydial infections in cattle, reported prevalence rates vary hugely. In order to assess the prevalence of this infection in cattle in Ireland, serum samples (100 herds, 20 samples/herd) collected for statutory screening for brucellosis were examined by soluble chlamydial antigen indirect ELISA. The assay detects antibodies to the two most common Chlamydiaceae spp. affecting cattle, namely Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum. A total of 95 samples from 57 herds were seropositive, representing an observed prevalence rate of 4.75%. The parametric bootstrap estimate of the mean disease prevalence in the population was 6.04% (95%, CI 4.70-7.50). The results suggest the prevalence of chlamydial infection is low in cattle in Ireland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ireland's recent contribution to the radiological literature; a bibliometric analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, CE

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyse all articles published by Irish radiology departments in the medical literature since the year 2000. The PubMed database was searched to identify and review all articles published by radiologists based in the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland. Citation counts were then obtained and the top ten most cited articles were identified. There were 781 articles published during the study period. Of these, 558 (71%) were published in radiology journals and the remaining 223 (29%) were published in general medical journals. Abdominal radiology was the most represented sub-specialty (33% of all articles). There was a general trend of increased publications per year. Only 75 (9.6%) of articles were collaborative efforts by more than one radiology department. Irish radiology departments have a considerable research output and this has increased since the year 2000. More collaborative research between Irish radiology departments is encouraged

  15. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  16. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  17. Identification and analysis of needs: the situation in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper I commence by outlining the arrangements for controlling and regulating the use of sources of ionizing radiation in Ireland. I then go on to describe the type and scope of training of various categories of personnel who are occupationally exposed. In doing so, I have distinguished between training received as part of general education and training programmes for different trades and professions and training given in dedicated courses. I have highlighted some of the shortcomings in training which, from the standpoint of the regulatory authority, have been noted and made suggestions as to how these might be remedied. I also briefly discuss the implications that the absence of a nuclear power facility in Ireland has for training

  18. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-08-05

    SUMMARY Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995-1999 and 2004-2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.

  19. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  20. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  1. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland activities and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This brochure describes the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland's functions and responsibilities which relate principally to the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and of radiation doses received by people occupationally or otherwise; regulation of the uses of ionising radiation in medicine, industry and elsewhere; assistance in developing national preparedness for response to a radiological emergency; and providing information and advice to government, other organisations and the general public on matters relating to ionising radiation. ills

  2. Using the IRRS to Strengthen Regulatory Competence in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Ireland underwent an IRRS (Integrated Regulatory Review Service) review mission. The purpose of the mission was to review Ireland’s radiation and nuclear safety regulatory framework and activities against the relevant IAEA safety standards, to report on the regulatory effectiveness and to exchange information and experience in the areas covered by the IRRS. The review mission was well-timed as there had been recent changes in the regulatory infrastructure with the merger of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2014, as well as the upcoming implementation of the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive. The key objectives of the mission were to enhance the national legal, governmental and regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety, and national arrangements for emergency preparedness and response. The agreed scope of the review covered all relevant facilities and activities regulated in Ireland and also included medical exposures and public exposure to radon. In advance of the mission, Ireland completed a process of self-assessment and review. This process identified strengths and weaknesses in the national regulatory framework compared with the international standards. In addition to the value of having Ireland’s radiation protection framework peer reviewed by senior international experts, the mission helped to further strengthen links between all the national bodies (government, licensees, regulatory) with a role in the regulation of radiation safety. The findings from the IRRS review team’s objective evaluation of Ireland’s regulatory infrastructure are being used to prioritise actions for strengthening the regulatory framework, to provide input into the transposition of the Euratom BSS, and to support the revision of the national emergency plan for nuclear accidents. It is planned to have addressed the findings of the IRRS mission in advance of a follow up

  3. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, David

    2013-01-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the condu...

  4. Censorship in the two Irelands 1922-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was based on archival research in the repositories named in the bibliography. This was supplemented by secondary sources where primary sources were inadequate or unavailable. Archival research has been supplemented by statistical analysis. In the case of film censorship this has been compiled from the Record of films Censored, the Film Censor’s Notebooks and the Reserve Books in the National Archives of Ireland. In the case of book censorship a database was prepared of all the ...

  5. Education, Training and the Role of Logistic Managers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mangan, John; Gregory, Orla

    2001-01-01

    The paper is based on the analysis of the responses of a questionnaire survey of logistics managers working in manufacturing firms in Ireland. The objectives of the survey were to establish the educational and training needs of the practicing logistics manager. The questionnaire was designed to address issues including the various logistics practices undertaken by the respondents' company and the time spent by respondents on these activities; the skills currently required by logistics manager...

  6. The consequences of Ireland's culture of medical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; Crowe, Sophie; McDermott, Cian; McAleese, Sara; Brugha, Ruairi

    2017-12-28

    In recent years, Ireland has experienced a large-scale, outward migration of doctors. This presents a challenge for national policy makers and workforce planners seeking to build a self-sufficient medical workforce that trains and retains enough doctors to meet demand. Although, traditionally, medical migration has been considered beneficial to the Irish health system, austerity has brought a greater level of uncertainty to the health system and, with it, a need to reappraise the professional culture of migration and its impact on the Irish health system. This paper illustrates how a culture of migration informs career and migration plans. It draws on quantitative data-registration and migration data from source and destination countries-and qualitative data-in-depth interviews with 50 doctors who had undertaken postgraduate medical training in Ireland. Of 50 respondents, 42 highlighted the importance of migration. The culture of medical migration rests on two assumptions-that international training/experience is beneficial to all doctors and that those who emigrate will return to Ireland with additional skills and experience. This assumption of return is challenged by a new generation of doctors whose professional lives have been shaped by globalisation and by austerity. Global comparisons reveal the comparatively poor working conditions, training and career opportunities in Ireland and the relative attractiveness of a permanent career abroad. In light of these changes, there is a need to critically appraise the culture of medical migration to determine if and in what circumstances migration is appropriate to the needs of the Irish health system. The paper considers the need to reappraise the culture of medical migration and the widespread emigration that it promotes.

  7. Listening to Identity: Music in 21st century Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper firstly reviews recent scholarship on music and identity in Ireland. The review detects and discusses a set of issues around the identification of genre and nationality in a country which continues to experience a rapidly changing population structure, against which the mapping of a communal Irishness onto existing categories such as ‘traditional music’ becomes increasingly difficult. Against the grain of this recent scholarship, the paper argues that, in a postmodern and globalise...

  8. Mental health law profile on the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anna; Frewen, Justin

    2016-02-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the legislation that has been enacted in Ireland with respect to mental health, in particular the 2001 Mental Health Act. Although that Act was a positive step towards developing an Irish mental health service that protects the human rights of service users, a number of concerns remain, including issues related to consent and capacity, involuntary out-patient treatment and admission, the adversarial nature and timing of tribunals, and the lack of safeguards for voluntary patients.

  9. A National Study of Wellbeing of Hospital Doctors in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Blanaid

    2016-01-01

    The working environment for hospital doctors in Ireland has undergone radical change in recent years with hospital posts becoming unattractive to doctors in training and to consultants. For young medical graduates, the tensions between training requirements and service demands have contributed to a ‘brain drain’ with over half leaving to work abroad after graduation. Many consultant posts are vacant or are filled on a temporary basis, impacting on the quality of patient care. This study se...

  10. Incidence of lead poisoning in calves in Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J R

    1964-08-01

    The concentrations of lead in kidneys of slaughtered calves from three slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland were analyzed for lead content to determine the frequency of lead-poisoning-attributable deaths. It was found that about 4% of the calves had concentrations of lead exceeding 25 ppm in the kidney, a level generally accepted to indicate lethality. This finding is substantially higher than previous estimates. 6 references, 1 table.

  11. Ireland's medical brain drain: migration intentions of Irish medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, Pishoy

    2015-12-01

    To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.

  12. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio

    2015-12-04

    fermented beverages, liqueurs, distilled spirits and aromatized wines. Among these, 37 ingredients (33 species) are used as medicinal remedies. 15 ingredients (14 species) are also used to prepare specific medicinal liqueurs. Most are addressed to the treatment of diseases of the digestive system, dyspepsia in particular, followed by diseases of the respiratory system symptoms, not elsewhere classified and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, fundamentally of allergic origin. Although medicinal wines, liqueurs and spirits are recorded in numerous classical herbals and pharmacopoeias in Italy and other countries of Europe these show in terms of formulations and ingredients little influence in the ethnobotanical formulations recorded in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy), they apparently play no role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in Appennino Tosco-Emiliano and similarly in other areas of Italy, France and Austria. No (or very poor) persistence was found of ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 16th century CE in later periods in the formulas in use in the pharmacies of Tuscany. Popular recipes are strongly dependent on the availability of local wild and cultivated plants. Overall, Alta Valle del Reno ethnobotanical formulations of medicinal wines and spirits are extremely simple involving from one single ingredient to a few, which are locally produced or collected and selected among relevant medicinal resources used for a wide range of diseases in form of non-alcoholic aqueous extracts. Fruits gathered in the forests are the main ingredients which in this aspect show similarities with those from Tyrol (Austria). Medicinal liqueurs and wines are in analyzed ethnobotanical data mainly employed as digestives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland: A New Digital Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Corey; Durham, Anthony; Gusev, Dmitri A.; Stafeyev, Sergey K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we expand application of our mathematical methods for translating ancient coordinates from the classical Geography by Claudius Ptolemy into modern coordinates from India and Arabia to Britain and Ireland, historically important islands on the periphery of the ancient Roman Empire. The methods include triangulation and flocking with subsequent Bayesian correction. The results of our work can be conveniently visualized in modern GIS tools, such as ArcGIS, QGIS, and Google Earth. The enhancements we have made include a novel technique for handling tentatively identified points. We compare the precision of reconstruction achieved for Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland with the precisions that we had computed earlier for his India before the Ganges and three provinces of Arabia. We also provide improved validation and comparison amongst the methods applied. We compare our results with the prior work, while utilizing knowledge from such important ancient sources as the Antonine Itinerary, Tabula Peutingeriana, and the Ravenna Cosmography. The new digital reconstruction of Claudius Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland presented in this paper, along with the accompanying linguistic analysis of ancient toponyms, contributes to improvement of understanding of our cultural cartographic heritage by making it easier to study the ancient world using the popular and accessible GIS programs.

  14. Epilepsy in Ireland: towards the primary-tertiary care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Jarlath; Delanty, Norman; Normand, Charles; Coyne, Imelda; McQuaid, Louise; Collins, Claire; Boland, Michael; Grimson, Jane; Fitzsimons, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease affecting people of every age, gender, race and socio-economic background. The diagnosis and optimal management relies on contribution from a number of healthcare disciplines in a variety of healthcare settings. To explore the interface between primary care and specialist epilepsy services in Ireland. Using appreciative inquiry, focus groups were held with healthcare professionals (n=33) from both primary and tertiary epilepsy specialist services in Ireland. There are significant challenges to delivering a consistent high standard of epilepsy care in Ireland. The barriers that were identified are: the stigma of epilepsy, unequal access to care services, insufficient human resources, unclear communication between primary-tertiary services and lack of knowledge. Improving the management of people with epilepsy requires reconfiguration of the primary-tertiary interface and establishing clearly defined roles and formalised clinical pathways. Such initiatives require resources in the form of further education and training and increased usage of information communication technology (ICT). Epilepsy services across the primary-tertiary interface can be significantly enhanced through the implementation of a shared model of care underpinned by an electronic patient record (EPR) system and information communication technology (ICT). Better chronic disease management has the potential to halt the progression of epilepsy with ensuing benefits for patients and the healthcare system. Copyright 2009 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. National survey of CT colonography practice in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, A.E.

    2016-06-01

    CT Colonography was first introduced to Ireland in 1999. Our aim of this study is to review current CT Colonography practices in the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire on CT Colonography practice was sent to all non-maternity adult radiology departments in the Republic of Ireland with a CT scanner. The results are interpreted in the context of the recommendations on CT Colonography quality standards as published by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus statement in the journal of European Radiology in 2013. Thirty centres provide CT Colonography; 21 of which responded (70%). Each centre performs median 90 studies per year; the majority follow accepted patient preparation and image acquisition protocols. Seventy-six percent of the centres repsonded that the majority of patients imaged are symptomatic. Of the 51 consultant radiologists reading CT Colonography, 37 (73%) have attended a CT Colonography course. In 17 (81%) of the centres the studies are single read although 81% of the centres have access to a second radiologist’s opinion. Fourteen (67%) of the centres reported limited access to CT scanner time as the major limiting factor to expanding their service. CT Colonography is widely

  16. Supervised classification of continental shelf sediment off western Donegal, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Craven, K.; McCarron, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Managing human impacts on marine ecosystems requires natural regions to be identified and mapped over a range of hierarchically nested scales. In recent years (2000-present) the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resources programme (INFOMAR) (Geological Survey Ireland and Marine Institute collaborations) has provided unprecedented quantities of high quality data on Ireland's offshore territories. The increasing availability of large, detailed digital representations of these environments requires the application of objective and quantitative analyses. This study presents results of a new approach for sea floor sediment mapping based on an integrated analysis of INFOMAR multibeam bathymetric data (including the derivatives of slope and relative position), backscatter data (including derivatives of angular response analysis) and sediment groundtruthing over the continental shelf, west of Donegal. It applies a Geographic-Object-Based Image Analysis software package to provide a supervised classification of the surface sediment. This approach can provide a statistically robust, high resolution classification of the seafloor. Initial results display a differentiation of sediment classes and a reduction in artefacts from previously applied methodologies. These results indicate a methodology that could be used during physical habitat mapping and classification of marine environments.

  17. Approach and institutions in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to identify those who require training and information, a brief description is given of the organizational framework which exists in Italy to deal with the radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies. Because the basic training varies and the different fields involve a wide range of tasks, specific information and training are required and should also cover the psychological implications of the subject. We therefore go on to examine the various methods and instruments used in giving training in and information on radiation protection and radiation pathology to the various categories of people working in the fields of prevention, care and treatment. We also describe to what extent the positions of qualified expert and approved doctor are formally recognized academically and administratively; both have an important part to play in terms of providing information and taking action both before and during emergency situations. Lastly, we single out certain aspects of the criteria and methods involved in training and information which could be useful for other countries

  18. [Urinalysis in Italy in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, M; Lanfranco, G

    2007-01-01

    Urinalysis and proteinuria testing represent fundamental tests for the clinician, even though they too often lack standardization. Through the Italian Society of Nephrology Mailing List we sent a questionnaire to 282 centers, in order to assess the state of the art in Italy in the year 2006. 82% of the questionnaires were completed (nephrology laboratories: 64%, general laboratories: 36%). The questionnaire dealt with the main steps of preparation, analysis and report of urinalysis, and proteinuria / microalbuminuria measurement. 85% of the centers use first morning urine, and 7% second morning urine; only 57% of the centers supply with written instructions, 189 laboratories (82%) have only one bright field microscope, rate and time of centrifugation are very varied among centers, different units of measurement are used in reports. Few laboratories measure routinely the proteinuria / creatininuria ratio, there is no agreement on the urine sample type for microalbuminuria assay, total urinary proteins are measured through different methods. 92% of the centers is endowed with an internal quality control system, but only 47% participate in an external quality control program. These data confirm the lack of standardization for urine analysis methods and procedures.

  19. Community Frames of Migration: The Path from Seaca to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliu Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transnational migration is a vast social phenomenon that has become a valid option for many Romanians since 1989. Romania is an emigration country and the favourite destinations of its citizens are Italy and Spain. This is the context in which I present my work, which focuses on the formation of transnational migration patterns from a village in the southern region of Romania. The data were generated during field research conducted in August 2012, and the empirical material consisted of field notes and interview transcripts corresponding to recorded conversations with local migrants, authority representatives and people without migration experience. In this particular community, two patterns of migration were identified, for which variables such as ethnicity (Roma/Romanian and religious orientation (Orthodoxy/Adventism appear to have explanatory power. My inquiry takes as its starting point the identification of this variety of migration patterns and concentrates on analysing them in the regional and national contexts based on the scholarly framework provided by network theory. Two major differences exist between them: the time frame of living and working abroad (clearly demarcated as three months, six months or indefinite and the nature of the work environment (departures based on a work contract between the migrant and a company located at the destination and departures accompanied by uncertainty regarding workplace concerns upon arrival. Making sense of these life strategies and their local configurations are the objectives of this paper.

  20. Sarcoidosis in Ireland: regional differences in prevalence and mortality from 1996-2005.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, T T

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  2. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  3. Invasive Group A streptococcal disease in Ireland, 2004 to 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-01-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) are a major clinical and public health challenge. iGAS is a notifiable disease in Ireland since 2004. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of iGAS in Ireland for the first time over the seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The Irish national electronic infectious disease reporting system was used by laboratories to enter the source of iGAS isolates, and by departments of public health to enter clinical and epidemiological details. We extracted and analysed data from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010. Over the study period, 400 iGAS cases were notified. The annual incidence of iGAS doubled, from 0.8 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 1.6 in 2008, and then remained the same in 2009 and 2010. The reported average annual incidence rates were highest among children up to five years of age (2.3\\/100,000) and adults aged over 60 years (3.2\\/100,000). The most common risk factors associated with iGAS were skin lesions or wounds. Of the 174 people for whom clinical syndrome information was available, 28 (16%) cases presented with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and 19 (11%) with necrotising fasciitis. Of the 141 cases for whom seven-day outcomes were recorded, 11 people died with iGAS identified as the main cause of death (seven-day case fatality rate 8%). The notification rate of iGAS in Ireland was lower than that reported in the United Kingdom, Nordic countries and North America but higher than southern and eastern European countries. The reasons for lower notification rates in Ireland compared with other countries may be due to a real difference in incidence, possibly due to prescribing practices, or due to artefacts resulting from the specific Irish case definition and\\/or low reporting in the early stages of a new surveillance system. iGAS disease remains an uncommon but potentially severe disease in Ireland. Ongoing surveillance is required in order to undertake appropriate control measures and

  4. Ireland's contribution to orthopaedic literature: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C; O Sullivan, P; Bilal, M; Walsh, A

    2013-10-01

    Bibliometric analysis of scientific performance within a country or speciality, facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and performance. Our aim was to illicit the current state of Irelands orthopaedic research output in terms of quantity and quality. We performed a retrospective bibliometric analysis of all Irish orthopaedic publications over the past 5 years, in the top 20 peer-reviewed orthopaedic journals. Utilising the MEDLINE database, each journal was evaluated for articles that were published over the study period. Reviews, editorials, reports and letters were excluded. Each article abstract was analysed for research content, and country of origin. A nation's mean IF was defined by multiplying each journal's IF by the number of articles. Publications per million (PmP) was calculated by dividing the total number of publications by the population of each country. We analysed a total of 25,595 article abstracts. Ireland contributed 109 articles in total (0.42% of all articles), however ranking according to population per million was 10th worldwide. Ireland ranked 18th worldwide in relation to mean impact factor, which was 2.91 over the study period. Ireland published in 16 of the top 20 journals, 9 of these were of European origin, and 1 of the top 5 was of American origin. In total, 61 Irish articles were assignable to clinical orthopaedic units. Clinical based studies (randomised controlled trials, observational, and epidemiology/bibliometric articles) and research based studies (In vivo, In vitro, and biomechanical) numbered 76 (69.7%) and 33 (30.2%) articles, respectively. This study provides a novel overview of current Irish orthopaedic related research, and how our standards translate to the worldwide orthopaedic community. In order to maintain our publication productivity, academic research should continue to be encouraged at post graduate level. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh

  5. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  6. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  7. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  8. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  9. Animal Health Ireland: providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Doherty, M L; Downey, L; McKenzie, K; Devitt, C; O'Flaherty, J

    2011-12-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in the Irish economy. Regulatory animal health issues are the responsibility of government, but until recently there has been no national coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues. This gap has recently been filled with the establishment of Animal Health Ireland (AHI), a not-for-profit, partnership-based organisation providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland. Animal Health Ireland provides benefits to livestock producers and processors by providing the knowledge, education and coordination required to establish effective control strategies, both on-farm and nationally. This paper presents a brief overview of the context for AHI, and of its establishment and initial activities. Non-regulatory animal health issues have been prioritised. A series of work programmes (each focusing on a high-priority issue) have been established. Partnership is critical to success, both for AHI as an organisation and for effective farm-level transfer of knowledge. This model for national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues may be of relevance elsewhere.

  10. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  11. Climate risk index for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  12. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  13. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  14. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  16. Hegemonic Shifts: The Latest from the Walls of Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Crowley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the changes that have taken place in the murals of Northern Ireland over the past decade or so. It will be argued that although there have been important developments in the murals that reflect the consolidation of ‘peace’ during this period, the walls also tell a different story.  It will be shown that, perhaps predictably, given the paralysis and stagnation that have characterised the power-sharing arrangements, and the disillusionment, cynicism and bitterness towards the political settlement which is now evident, a number of murals offer representations that indicate the growth of tendencies that present latent but real dangers.

  17. The distributional implications of a carbon tax in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, Tim; Lyons, Sean; Scott, Susan; Tol, Richard S.J.; Verde, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of carbon tax and revenue recycling across the income distribution in the Republic of Ireland. In absolute terms, a carbon tax of EUR20/tCO 2 would cost the poorest households less than EUR3/week and the richest households more than EUR4/week. A carbon tax is regressive, therefore. However, if the tax revenue is used to increase social benefits and tax credits, households across the income distribution can be made better off without exhausting the total carbon tax revenue. (author)

  18. Shiitake Flagellate Dermatitis: the First Case Reported in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, N

    2017-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is the second most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide1. It is used in Asian medicine for its anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive and lipid lowering properties2. Furthermore, extracts of these mushrooms are used in over-the-counter dietary supplements designed to improve the immune system1. The first case of shiitake mushroom induced flagellate dermatitis was described in Japan in 1977 and it is now being reported in the western world3. After literary review and consultation with the Irish National Poisons Information Centre, we believe this is the first reported case of shiitake flagellate dermatitis in Ireland

  19. The epidemiology of rubella in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    1993-07-16

    The trend in notified cases of rubella in the Republic of Ireland from 1950 to 1990 has been downward, with a mean interval of four years between peak periods. Vaccine uptake and antenatal immunity levelled out in the 1980s at 85% and 87%, respectively. One hundred and six cases of congenital rubella were recorded between 1975 and 1990, 66 being reported by paediatricians. The fact that cases of congenital rubella still occur highlights the need for a continued and aggressive immunisation policy, up-to-date and cohort-based data on vaccine uptake, and the introduction of a congenital rubella register.

  20. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  1. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  2. Country policy profile - Italy. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Italy, Renewable energy sources in are promoted through price and tax regulations mechanisms. Several kinds of feed-in and premium tariffs co-exist besides tendering schemes depending on technology and size of RES systems. Additionally regional support schemes exist for RES electricity. The thermal (heating and cooling) energy generated from renewable energies is incentivized through tax regulation and loans. A quota system is presently used for bio-fuels (transport). Under the country's NREAP, Italy has set a renewable energy target (electricity) of 26% to be achieved by 2020. The 2012 total share of renewable energy in Italy amounted to 13.5%; the target for 2020 has been defined as 17% (source: 'The State of Renewable Energies in Europe', 2013 edition)

  3. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  4. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  6. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  7. Spain and the Hamas government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the restoration of democracy, Spain’s successive governments have been noted for their favourable stance toward the issue of Palestine and their support for the creation of a sovereign independent state in the territories that Israel occupied during the Six-Day War. Yasser Arafat’s visit to Spain in the time of the UCD, the holding of the Madrid Conference during the term of government of the PSOE and the designation of Miguel Ángel Moratinos as the EU’s special envoy for the Peace Process during the Partido Popular’s term of government are some of the landmarks that have expressed this exemplary relationship between the Spanish State and the Palestine question. However, the victory of Hamas in the legislative elections of 25 January 2006 radically changed the situation, as it led to Rodríguez Zapatero’s government joining the international boycott of the new Islamist executive; even so, the Spanish government clearly maintained its support for restarting the Peace Process, in the form of its backing for Mahmud Abbas, the President of the Palestine Authority. The armed conflict in Gaza in June 2007 which led to the Islamists retaking the Gaza Strip and the formation of a new government in the West Bank led by the technocrat Salam Fayad served to normalise the situation, given that it encouraged the raising of international sanctions and a return to normality in Spanish-Palestine relations.

  8. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  9. Quality and safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  10. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  11. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  12. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  13. Burning peat in Ireland: An electricity market dispatch perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Bazilian, Morgan; Doherty, Ronan; Gallachoir, Brian O; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peat power production in Ireland under the three pillars of energy policy-security, competitiveness and environment. Peat contributes to energy security-as an indigenous fuel, it reduces dependency on imports. During a period of low capacity margins, the operation of the peat plants is useful from a system security perspective. Peat generation is being financially supported by consumers through an electricity levy. The fuel also has high carbon intensity. It is not politically viable to consider peat on equal economic criteria to other plant types because of history and location. This paper reviews electricity generation through combustion of peat in Ireland, and quantifies the costs of supporting peat utilising economic dispatch tools, finding the subsidy is not insignificant from a cost or carbon perspective. It shows that while peat is beneficial for one pillar of energy policy (security), the current usage of peat is not optimal from a competitiveness or environmental perspective. By switching from the current 'must-run' mode of operation for peat to the 'dispatched' mode used for the other generation, significant societal savings (in the range Euro 21 m per annum) can be achieved, as well as reducing system emissions by approximately 5% per year.

  14. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies/Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR. (author)

  15. Nazis on the State Payroll in 1930s Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O’Donoghue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austro-German population of Ireland in 1936 was 529. Approximately 25% of the adult male cohort were, or became, members of Hitler’s Nazi Party (NSDAP. A small cadre of senior figures in the party were active in recruiting new members as Nazi Germany’s fortunes rose from 1933 to 1939. Some 32 Germans and Austrians resident in pre-war Ireland have been identified as Nazi Party members, although a small number of these were exchange students rather than full-time residents. This paper examines the six NSDAP members who held senior positions in the Irish public service. As Irish state employees they were in a contradictory position: swearing loyalty to Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich while attempting to hold down important jobs on the Irish state payroll. Dr. David O’Donoghue’s article scrutinises the activities of these six men, as well as explaining how they tried, by varying degrees, to serve two masters. The paper also examines their wartime and post-war lives.

  16. Women's right to health and Ireland's abortion laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maeve

    2015-07-01

    The provision of the Irish Constitution that guarantees "the unborn" a right to life equal to that of a pregnant woman has consequences for access to abortion and the care of women in pregnancy generally. Long-awaited legislation to give effect to the narrow constitutional right to abortion was enacted into law in 2013. In 2014, a guidance document for health professionals' implementation of the legislation was published. However, the legislation and guidance document fall far short of international human rights bodies' recommendations: they fail to deliver effective procedural rights to all of the women eligible for lawful abortion within the state and create new legal barriers to women's reproductive rights. At the same time, cases continue to highlight that the Irish Constitution imposes an unethical and rights-violating legal regime in non-abortion-related contexts. Recent developments suggest that both the failure to put guidelines in place and the development of guidelines that are not centered on women or based on rights further reduce women's access to rights and set unacceptable limitations on women's reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, public and parliamentary scrutiny of cases involving Ireland's abortion laws is increasingly focusing on the need for reform. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling future private car energy demand in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted measures influencing vehicle technology are increasingly a tool of energy policy makers within the EU as a means of meeting energy efficiency, renewable energy, climate change and energy security goals. This paper develops the modelling capacity for analysing and evaluating such legislation, with a focus on private car energy demand. We populate a baseline car stock and car activity model for Ireland to 2025 using historical car stock data. The model takes account of the lifetime survival profile of different car types, the trends in vehicle activity over the fleet and the fuel price and income elasticities of new car sales and total fleet activity. The impacts of many policy alternatives may only be simulated by such a bottom-up approach, which can aid policy development and evaluation. The level of detail achieved provides specific insights into the technological drivers of energy consumption, thus aiding planning for meeting climate targets. This paper focuses on the methodology and baseline scenario. Baseline results for Ireland forecast a decline in private car energy demand growth (0.2%, compared with 4% in the period 2000–2008), caused by the relative growth in fleet efficiency compared with activity. - Highlights: ► Bottom-up private car energy forecasting model developed. ► The demographic and technological distribution of vehicle activity is a key veriable. ► Irish car energy demand growth predicted to slow steadily. ► Change in vehicle taxation forecast to save 10% energy.

  18. Activities of Intellectual Disability Clinical Nurse Specialists in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of Irish intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists (ID CNSs) to service delivery. A nonexperimental descriptive design was selected to survey ID CNSs presently working in Ireland. The questionnaire was developed based on focus group interviews, available literature, and expert panel views. Ethical approval and access were granted to all ID CNSs in Ireland. Thirty-two responded (33.68% response rate) from all work areas (voluntary organizations or health service executive) practicing within residential, community, or school services. Respondents were surveyed across a range of areas (demographic details and support to client, staff, family, organization, community, other agencies, and professional development). Findings identify that ID CNSs are active in all aspects of their roles as clinical specialist, educator, communicator, researcher, change agent, and leader, thus supporting person-centered care and improving service delivery. To meet changing healthcare demands, promote person-centered care, and improve service delivery, the CNS role in ID should be developed and supported. The findings merit a further study on ID CNS role activity, possible variables influencing role activity, and team members' views.

  19. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Murray, M.; Wong, J.; Sequeira, S.; Long, S.C.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, D

    2012-09-11

    BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Southwest Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ojo, Olabisi O

    2010-10-01

    Tuberculosis has had significant effects on Ireland over the past two centuries, causing persistently higher morbidity and mortality than in neighbouring countries until the last decade. This study describes the results of genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of 171 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated between January 2004 and December 2006 in a region of Ireland centred on the city of Cork. Spoligotype comparisons were made with the SpolDB4 database and clustered 130 strains in 23 groups, forty-one strains showed unique Spoligotyping patterns. The commonest spoligotypes detected were ST0137 (X2) (16.9%), and ST0351 (15.8%) (\\'U\\' clade). The major spoligotype clades were X (26.2%), U (19.3%), T (15.2%), Beijing (5.9%), Haarlem (4.7%), LAM (4.1%), BOVIS (1.75%), with 12.9% unassigned strains. A 24-locus VNTR genotyping produced 15 clusters containing 49 isolates, with high discrimination index (HGDI>0.99). A combination of Spoligotyping and VNTR reduced the number of clustered isolates to 47 in 15 clusters (27.5%). This study identified ST351 as common among Irish nationals, and found a low rate of drug resistance with little evidence of transmission of drug resistant strains. Strain clustering was significantly associated with age under 55 years and Irish nationality. Only strains of Euro-American lineage formed clusters. Molecular typing did not completely coincide with the results of contact investigations.

  3. vCJD risk in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harney, Michael S

    2003-11-26

    BACKGROUND: The Republic of Ireland has the second highest incidence of BSE worldwide. Only a single case of vCJD has been identified to date. METHODS: We estimate the total future number of clinical cases of vCJD using an established mathematical model, and based on infectivity of bovine tissue calculated from UK data and on the relative exposure to BSE contaminated meat. RESULTS: We estimate 1 future clinical case (95% CI 0-15) of vCJD in the Republic of Ireland. Irish exposure is from BSE infected indigenous beef products and from imported UK beef products. Additionally, 2.5% of the Irish population was exposed to UK beef through residing in the UK during the \\'at-risk\\' period. The relative proportion of risk attributable to each of these three exposures individually is 2:2:1 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The low numbers of future vCJD cases estimated in this study is reassuring for the Irish population and for other countries with a similar level of BSE exposure.

  4. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  5. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  6. Death in a legal poppy field in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Almarza, Elena; Garijo, Joaquín

    2016-08-01

    Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death. A 32-year-old white caucasian male was found unresponsive in a legal poppy field in the South of Spain. The emergency medical services responded to the scene where he was pronounced dead. The friends explained that the deceased had presented with about 30min of convulsions; in spite of trying to keep his airway tract open they noted that "he stayed airless". According to them the victim suffered from epilepsy. Tools found beside his body consisted of plain wood sticks with a blade razor, a fabric handle, and paper. A comprehensive toxicological screening for abuse and psychoactive drugs was performed in the deceased samples. This included ethanol and volatile analysis by HS-GC-FID in peripheral blood and urine, enzyme immunoassay in urine by CEDIA, and a basic drug screening in all samples (including paraphernalia) by GC-MS using modes full scan for screening/confirmation and selected ion monitoring for quantitation. The peripheral blood, urine, vitreous, and gastric content contained the following concentrations of opiates expressed in mg/L (gastric content additionally also expressed in mg total): 0.10, 7.12, 0.23, and 14.80 (2.81mg total) of thebaine, 0.13, 4.50, 0.13, and 6.60 (1.25mg total) of morphine (free), 0.48, 0.88, 0.17, and 1.50 (0.28mg total) of codeine. These tree opiates were also detected in the tools (paraphernalia) used by the deceased for opium consumption. Other toxicological findings were metabolites of

  7. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Vertical social mobility in Spain and ways to improve it. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Ortún, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we analyze the extent to which an individual's socioeconomic status is inherited and how equality of opportunity could be increased to improve social mobility. Poverty and deprivation can stop being dynastic-like if the social elevator works. In Spain, income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, rose from 0.31 in 2006 to 0.35 in 2012 (moving away from Scandinavia and Central Europe and more closely resembling income inequality in the UK or the United States), while the degree of intergenerational mobility is half-way between that in Italy and the United States. To change this situation and make the social elevator work, primary education should be improved and the health system should be steered toward primary healthcare. This will not be feasible without an improvement in politics and the institutional framework that determine these factors. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: laboratory detection methods in use in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2002-01-01

    There is no universally agreed laboratory protocol for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and hence a variety of approaches are used. As part of an all-island survey of MRSA in the Republic of Ireland (the South) and Northern Ireland (the North), a questionnaire was circulated to 14 participating laboratories in the North and 49 in the South, to determine the methods used to isolate MRSA from clinical specimens, identify S. aureus and test for susceptibility to methicillin. Almost two-thirds (64%) of laboratories in the North but only 16% of laboratories in the South use enrichment culture. There is heavy reliance on commercial kits to confirm the identification of S. aureus in the South but all laboratories in the North use the staphylocoagulase test. More than 90% of all laboratories use a disc method for susceptibility testing and 71% of laboratories in the North supplement this with the E-test; however, a range of methicillin disk concentrations are in use. There is a need to review current laboratory methods used to detect MRSA, with follow-up audit on their implementation. Additional resources may be needed in some laboratories to comply with revised guidelines, and reference facilities are required to assess new commercially available techniques and to confirm the identification of unusual or difficult strains.

  11. Is there nothing new under the sun? The influence of herbals and pharmacopoeias on ethnobotanical traditions in Albacete (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Moreno, Candelaria; Egea, Teresa; Fajardo, José; Palazón, José Antonio; Valdés, Arturo; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero

    2017-01-04

    This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods. The identity of medicines and ingredients was determined by analyzing contemporary pharmacopoeias and classical pharmaceutical references. We analyzed further 21 sources (manuscripts, herbals, and books of medicines, pharmacopoeias, pharmacy inventories, and modern ethnobotanical records) for the presence/absence of ingredients and complex formulations of the tariff. Using factorial and cluster analysis and Bayesian inference applied to evolution models (reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo), we compared textual sources. Finally, we analyzed the medicinal uses of the top 10 species in terms of frequency of citation to assess the dependence of modern ethnobotanical records on Renaissance pharmacy and herbals, and, ultimately, on Dioscorides. In Albacete 1526, we determined 101 medicines (29 simple drugs and 72 compound medicines) comprising 187 ingredients (85% botanical, 7.5% mineral, and 7.5% zoological substances). All composed medicines appear standardized in the pharmacopoeias, notably in the pharmacopoeia of Florence from 1498. However, most were no longer in use by 1750 in the pharmacy, and were completely absent in popular herbal medicine in Albacete 1995 as well as in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) in 2014. Among the ingredients present in different formulation are the flowers of Rosa gallica, honey (Apis mellifera), the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi, and Convolvulus

  12. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  13. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  14. Competitiveness and environmental protection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In presenting his Ministry's annual report for 1999, the Italian Environment Minister pointed out that after years of emergency-driven policies, Italy has finally embarked on far-reaching environmental reform designed to generate sustainable, lasting and high-quality development [it

  15. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  16. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Criscuolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs: important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  17. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bergamaschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  18. Palaeoflood evidence on the River Nore, South East Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ciara; Turner, Jonathan; Bourke, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Past geomorphic changes can be detected in sediment sinks, through the investigation of natural sediment archives. Since the advent of palaeoflood hydrology in the 1980s, numerous authors have demonstrated that such sediment deposits record valuable evidence of past flooding events. Many of these studies have focussed on fluvial systems in arid environments, with bedrock channels proving to be particularly successful field sites. In some districts, the collected datasets are now routinely employed to augment analyses of flood frequency and magnitude, which have traditionally relied on extrapolation of short hydrometric datasets. This study targets river reaches in a temperate humid environment, with a predominantly alluvial channel. The River Nore is one of the largest catchments draining South East Ireland. It is situated in a valley with an inherited glacial legacy and is principally a lowland river catchment. Specific morphological zones have been targeted which are optimal for flood deposit preservation, including palaeochannels, tributary junctions and floodplain overbank settings.There are a variety of anthropogenic pressures evident in this landscape. Among them are channelisation of select tributaries, a legacy of coal mining in the upland Carboniferous limestones, and the installation of man-made obstacles or modifications along the length of the river channel such as sluices and weirs. Regarding land-use, the majority of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, mainly pasture with some tillage. This study investigates palaeoflood evidence in the River Nore catchment and examines the development of the river floodplain using a variety of complementary field and desk-based methods. The sub-surface and micro-topography of river reaches are investigated using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Flood deposits have been characterised by examination of bank exposures and sediment cores. Installation of sediment traps

  19. Annual Report and Accounts 2000 Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the work of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000. The report highlights its report published a year ago on the safety of the storage tanks holding liquid high-level radioactive waste at Sellafield. This report has gained heightened relevance from the fear, following September 11, of a terrorist attack on Sellafield. Also detailed in the report is the programme of monitoring of the radioactive contamination of the Irish sea caused by discharges from Sellafield which continues to be an important area of the Institute's work. A major focus is on the levels of technetium-99, which rose sharply from 1994 to 1998. Since 1998 these levels have begun to decrease, but are still considerably above pre-1994 levels, and remain a significant cause of concern. Also of considerable current interest is the key role assigned to the Institute under the National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents. The Institute has further developed the capability of the computer model ARGOS (Accident Reporting and Guiding Operational System), which would enable it to predict the dispersion pattern of a plume of radioactive material being transported in the atmosphere towards Ireland from a disaster at a nuclear installation overseas. This prediction would be a vital element in ensuring an optimum response to a nuclear disaster affecting Ireland. The lung cancer risk associated with exposure to high levels of naturally occurring radon gas in buildings continues to be an important concern for the Institute. The Institute's nationwide survey of radon levels in primary and secondary level schools, commissioned by the Minister for Education and Science, and aimed at eliminating the exposure of children and staff to elevated radon levels in schools, has been highly successful and is entering its final stages. New legislation introduced in 2000 addresses the issue of radon in workplaces, and the Institute's implementation of this legislation has got

  20. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  1. World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharae Deckard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental

  2. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donations in Europe and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura

    2010-07-01

    The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services.

  3. What has contributed to the change in life expectancy in Italy between 1980 and 1992?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, K N; Nante, N; Chenet, L; McKee, M

    1999-07-01

    Life expectancy at birth in southern Europe is known to be greater than expected in comparison with levels of economic development. This has been attributed to the 'Mediterranean diet'. There are, however, concerns that this comparative advantage is being lost. This paper examines the factors underlying changing life expectancy in Italy since 1980. The subjects of this analysis are obtained from data on all deaths in Italy between 1980 and 1992. Change in age specific death rates is calculated from selected causes and, using the method developed by Pollard, the contribution of deaths from different causes and at different ages to changing life expectancy at birth is estimated. Between 1980 and 1992, life expectancy at birth increased by 2.70 years for men and 2.75 years for women. Death rates have fallen among children and those over 40. In contrast, death rates have increased among men aged between 20 and 39 and have increased very slightly among women aged 25-29. Falling death rates from ischaemic heart disease are continuing to contribute to increasing life expectancy. Death rates from lung and breast cancer are rising among women but are compensated for by falling death rates from other cancers. Among men, falling death rates from cancer at younger ages are being offset by increases at older ages. The rising death rate among younger men is almost entirely due to AIDS, with accidents also making a small contribution. Life expectancy in Italy has improved throughout the 1980s, largely driven by falling death rates from cardiovascular diseases. Here are, however, some worrying trends, most notably the rising death rate among young men, due almost entirely to AIDS. The changing pattern of mortality has some similarities with Spain, another Mediterranean country, but there are also important differences.

  4. Is the digital divide an obstacle to e-health? An analysis of the situation in Europe and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Francesca; Sardella, Maria Vittoria; Alboni, Fabrizio; Russo, Luana; Mariotti, Rita; Nicastro, Irene; Barletta, Valentina; Di Bello, Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    The digital divide affecting elderly patients may compromise the diffusion of telemedicine systems for this age segment. It might be that the difficulties in the passage from trials to the effective distribution of telemedicine systems are also due to the awareness of a personal digital divide in the target population. The analysis aims to estimate the number of people over the age of 50 years with potential cardiovascular problems able to access the Web. It made use of data from several sources (the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica Multiscopo Survey). Furthermore, with regard to Italy, the estimates obtained from official data were compared with those obtained in a survey investigating heart failure patients in Tuscany. In 2011, the percentage of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and with Web access was 24% in Europe, with significant differences by country (ranging from 53% in Switzerland to below 20% in Italy, Spain, and Portugal). In Italy, however, the proportion of people with Web access increased from 2007 to 2011, and the survey in Tuscany showed that elderly people with limited information and communications technology skills overcame challenges and learned how to connect to the Web because they started to appreciate new technologies. The opportunity to use the Internet to monitor patients with chronic disease can serve as a challenge to reduce the digital divide gap and, furthermore, to increase their social and technological inclusion.

  5. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  6. Chernobyl - 10 years on. Proceedings of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident from an Irish perspective was the focus of a conference organised by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to mark the tenth anniversary of the accident. The health consequences of Chernobyl were discussed along with presentations on such issues as the hazards to the Irish population from Sellafield; the radiation hazard posed by radon gas; radiation hazards in medicine, industry and education, and Ireland`s National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents.

  7. An assessment of aquatic radiation pathways in Ireland, 2008 Environment Report RL 16/08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, F.J.; Garrod, C.J.; Jeffs, T.M; Jenkinson, S.B

    2009-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of aquatic radiation exposure pathways in Ireland relating to anthropogenic radioactivity in the Irish Sea. It comprises the results of a habits survey undertaken on the north east coast of Ireland; a dose assessment using the habits survey data; 2007 monitoring data provided by the RPII; and recommendations for changes to the 2007 east coast of Ireland marine monitoring programme conducted by the RPII

  8. Soldiers of Destiny: The Fianna Fail Party, The Irish Republican Army and a United Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-07

    Republicas sead aside and let the Treaty cme into force, it eans acguiescen in and the aba n nt of the national sovereignty and in the partition of our...prevented the bipolar divisions that have plagued Ireland Sn . 2. Basil Cuibb, The Goveninent and Politics of Ireland, 2rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford...p 2_0 15. Paul Arthur and Keith Jeffery, Northern Ireland Since ~ (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), p. 37. 16. Kelley, p. 127. 17. Ibid., p. 128. 101

  9. Urinary phthalate concentrations in mothers and their children in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Griffin, Chris

    2017-01-01

    . This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the ‘Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring...... on a European Scale’ (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental...... conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents...

  10. The development of IVF practice in Ireland: a personal view.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Robert F

    2012-03-01

    This paper traces the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the Republic of Ireland from when the first attempts at using this technique were carried out in 1985 up to the present. Clinical changes are chronicled principally using the personal work of the author and his colleagues as representative of the day. The impact of the Catholic Church and the alterations in Medical Council governance guidelines over the years as these reflect societal changes are highlighted. The potential role of other regulators including Irish case law and the EU Tissue directive are discussed as well as the almost invariable private practice nature of the services provided and the various ways in which costs have been alleviated.

  11. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  12. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  13. Transforming youth mental health services and supports in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illback, Robert J; Bates, Tony

    2011-02-01

    Young people in the Republic of Ireland do not have access to appropriate mental health services and supports, necessitating transformational change in delivery systems. Describe ongoing development and change efforts facilitated by Headstrong--The National Centre for Youth Mental Health. Discusses findings from a national needs assessment, core strategies within the change initiative, progress in system-building, and preliminary descriptive and outcome data. Five demonstration sites comprised of four counties and a city neighbourhood are operational and preliminary data are promising with respect to implementation and outcomes. Effective change initiatives require vision and leadership, competence- and capacity-building, participative planning and engagement, adequate and thoughtfully deployed resources, and a comprehensive change management approach. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  15. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife C Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L EX, 8h was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  16. Health insurance and health services utilization in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, C; Nolan, B

    2001-03-01

    The numbers buying private health insurance in Ireland have continued to grow, despite a broadening in entitlement to public care. About 40% of the population now have insurance, although everyone has entitlement to public hospital care. In this paper, we examine in detail the growth in insurance coverage and the factors underlying the demand for insurance. Attitudinal responses reveal the importance of perceptions about waiting times for public care, as well as some concerns about the quality of that care. Individual characteristics, such as education, age, gender, marital status, family composition and income all influence the probability of purchasing private insurance. We also examine the relationship between insurance and utilization of hospital in-patient services. The positive effect of private insurance appears less than that of entitlement to full free health care from the state, although the latter is means-tested, and may partly represent health status. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  18. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger

    2009-01-01

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  19. Comparison Of Development: Ireland, South Korea, Finland And Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The article compares the development followed by Finland, South Korea and Ireland and compares in some ways with which Costa Rica has had. The initial situation starts in the 1960s, the policies pursued by each country in the context of their models and then, sets the current situation of these countries. Finally, define some lessons learned by the nations, the result of the achievements and challenges of development. El artículo compara, en ciertos aspectos, el desarrollo que ha tenido Fi...

  20. Trailblazers and Cassandras: Other Voices in Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2012-01-01

    ’ voices and alternative positions in the process of conflict interpretation and resolution. This essay will outline a ‘thumbnail’ sketch of three areas in which ‘other’ voices are sidelined or silenced: in terms of political discourses; community discourses; and wider academic and public discourses......’ and ‘Cassandras’ the essay concludes that the arguments forwarded by other voices are not disappeared but adapted and realigned to the reigning discourses, and that there is not so much a culture of silence surrounding ‘other’ voices as a certain selective and sectarian hearing in picking them up. Whilst...... it follows that ‘other’ voices have failed to dissolve the magnetic field of Northern Irish politics, the essay suggests that in order to rise to current political challenges in Northern Ireland it is worthwhile sounding out the historical and contemporary ‘other’ voices for carefully thought out and non...

  1. Suicide and changing values and beliefs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Brannick, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the generalized theories explaining rising suicide rates in Ireland. The conclusion here is that linking suicide patterns to changing beliefs and values is problematic. Church attendance as well as adherence to traditional values remain high in this country compared to European levels, and variations in beliefs and values, especially rural/urban differences, do not fit with general explanations. Moreover, attitudes to value areas fluctuate in that justification for suicide--which showed an upward trend in the 1980s--was reversed in the 1990s, and this may have resulted from increased public focus and debate. Generalized explanations are unlikely to decipher complex phenomena such as suicidal behavior. Religious belief, if protective in relation to suicide, is unlikely to act alone. Social transformations have a differential impact depending on one's socio-economic positioning, which translates ideas of a general male vulnerability to suicide into focused areas of male distress.

  2. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  3. Publication productivity of neurosurgeons in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Fiona A; Akram, Harith; Hyam, Jonathan A; Kitchen, Neil D; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-04-01

    Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual departments were contacted for an up-to-date list of consultant (attending) neurosurgeons practicing in these departments. Scopus was used to determine the h-index and m-quotient for each neurosurgeon. Indices were measured by surgeon and by departmental mean and total. Additional information was collected about the surgeon's sex, title, listed superspecialties, higher research degrees, and year of medical qualification. Data were analyzed for 315 neurosurgeons (25 female). The median h-index and m-quotient were 6.00 and 0.41, respectively. These were significantly higher for professors (h-index 21.50; m-quotient 0.71) and for those with an additional MD or PhD (11.0; 0.57). There was no significant difference in h-index, m-quotient, or higher research degrees between the sexes. However, none of the 16 British neurosurgery professors were female. Neurosurgeons who specialized in functional/epilepsy surgery ranked highest in terms of publication productivity. The 5 top-scoring departments were those in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; St. George's Hospital, London; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London; and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. The h-index is a useful bibliometric marker, particularly when comparing between studies and individuals. The m-quotient reduces bias toward established researchers. British academic neurosurgeons face considerable challenges, and women remain underrepresented in both clinical and academic neurosurgery in Britain and Ireland.

  4. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  5. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  6. Trends in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis in Spain from 2000 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, M Esther; Manso, Gloria; Castells, Xavier; Jimeno, Francisco J; Ordoñez, Lucía; González, Verónica; Rodríguez, Alfonso; Capellà, Dolors

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the time trends in anti-osteoporosis medications consumption in Spain between 2000 and 2008 and the influence on such consumption induced by the Information Sheets related to the safety of menopausal hormone therapy and strontium ranelate published by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS). Purchase data of anti-osteoporosis medications from 2000 to 2008 were obtained from the Spanish Ministry of Health. This information includes the pharmacy sales data of medicinal products reimbursed by the Spanish National Health Service. Anti-osteoporosis medications consumption data were expressed as defined daily dose per 1 000 inhabitants per day in women aged 50 or more. During the study period, anti-osteoporosis medications consumption showed a continuous increase. The greatest increase was observed with bisphosphonates, particularly alendronate and risedronate in their weekly formulations. Strontium ranelate consumption was low but continuously increased and new information concerning its safety in 2007 had no effect on its consumption. The use of menopausal hormone therapy remained stable until 2003, and from then presented a continuous decrease until 2008. Raloxifene utilization increased from 2000 to 2004 and decreased thereafter. Calcitonin utilization decreased uninterruptedly and teriparatide was infrequently used. This study reports a marked change in osteoporosis treatment in Spain, which includes an important increase in anti-osteoporosis medication use, particularly of bisphosphonates and a decrease in menopausal hormone therapy use secondary to the new information about their safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  8. Abstracts of 38th Symposium on Cuniculture, ASESCU. Zamora, Spain, 30th-31st May, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symposium on Cuniculture Zamora (Spain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The 38th Congress of the Spanish Association of Cuniculture (ASESCU was held in Zamora from 30th to 31st of May 2013. This edition was mainly devoted to analysing the current situation of production costs in rabbit farming, processing of rabbit meat and new aspects in relation to rabbit diseases. The main papers were related to economic weights in rabbit meat production and production costs in terms of productivity, the cost of feed ingredients, new trends in rabbit meat processing, crossbreds in rabbit farming, hygiene on industrial rabbit farms, feed restriction and de-medicalisation and the new rabbit haemorrhagic disease, as well as the state of the knowledge on epizootic rabbit enteropathy. In addition, 2 round tables were held on the future of rabbit meat presentations and the unified market of Spain and Portugal for rabbit meat. Moreover, a total of 24 communications were presented, both in working sessions with oral communications and posters (pathology, technical-economical management, nutrition, meat and carcass quality and reproduction. The meeting was attended by more than 160 participants, including researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Ecuador, Egypt, and Tunisia. The abstracts of the contributions presented are reported below.

  9. Comparison of gridded versus observation data to initialize ARAC dispersion models for the Algeciras, Spain steel mill CS-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluzzi, F J; Pace, J C; Pobanz, B M; Vogt, P J

    1999-01-01

    On May 30, 1998 scrap metal containing radioactive Cesium-137 (Cs-137) was accidentally melted in a furnace at the Acerinox steel mill in Algeciras, Spain. Cs-137 was released from the mill's smokestack, and spread across the western Mediterranean Sea to France and Italy and beyond. The first indication of the release was radiation levels up to 1000 times background reported by Swiss, French, and Italian authorities during the following two weeks. Initially no elevated radiation levels were detected over Spain. A release of hazardous material to the atmosphere is the type of situation the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) emergency response organization was designed to address. The amount and exact time of the release were unknown, though the incident was thought to have taken place during the last week in May. Using air concentration measurements supplied by colleagues of ARAC in Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Russia and the European Union, ARAC meteorologists estimated the magnitude and timing of the release (Vogt, 1999). Correctly locating the downwind footprint is the most important goal of emergency response modeling. In this study, we compare predicted results for the Algeciras event based on four wind data sources: (1) US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) data alone, (2) surface and upper air observations alone, (3) NOGAPS data together with surface and upper air observations, and (4) forecasts from ARAC's in-house execution of the U.S. Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System (NORAPS) (without surface or upper air observations). We compare the resulting dispersion predictions from ARAC's diagnostic dispersion modeling system to the measurements supplied by our European colleagues to determine which data source produced the best results

  10. Women with urinary incontinence in Spain: Health-related quality of life and the use of healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro; Jiménez, Margarita; Martínez, Lucía; Aracil, Javier

    2016-12-01

    To describe Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and healthcare resource utilization in women aged 60 and over in Spain. Descriptive analysis of primary data from the Spanish National Health Survey, 2012. Utility indices were obtained through the EQ5D5L questionnaire included in the survey, and utilization rates of consultations, hospitalizations, emergency services, and medication intake. HRQOL and utilization rates were systematically compared between women diagnosed with UI, women diagnosed with other chronic conditions (OCC) and healthy women of the same age. Utility indices were 0.47 in UI women versus 0.78 and 0.96 in women diagnosed with OCC and healthy women, respectively. Each year 351,675 Quality Adjusted Life Years are lost in Spain due to UI in the population of women aged 60 and over. Resource utilization of these women was significantly higher than that of other women. UI has a larger impact on both HRQOL and healthcare consumption in women who are aged 60 and over, than OCC. Appropriate treatment of UI might entail an important gain in terms of HRQOL and a significant reduction in healthcare consumption in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  12. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  14. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  15. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Spain over a fourteen-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Roser; Pujols, Joan; Ordóñez, German; Porta, Ramon; Majó, Natàlia

    2008-04-25

    An in-depth molecular study of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) with particular interest in evolutionary aspects of IBV in Spain was carried out in the present study based on the S1 gene molecular characterization of twenty-six Spanish strains isolated over a fourteen-year period. Four genotypes were identified based on S1 gene sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies. A drastic virus population shift was demonstrated along time and the novel Italy 02 serotype was shown to have displaced the previous predominant serotype 4/91 in the field. Detailed analyses of synonymous to non-synonymous ratio of the S1 gene sequences of this new serotype Italy 02 suggested positive selection pressures might have contributed to the successful establishment of Italy 02 serotype in our country. In addition, differences on the fitness abilities of new emergent genotypes were indicated. Furthermore, intergenic sequences (IGs)-like motifs within S1 gene sequences of IBV isolates were suggested to enhance the recombination abilities of certain serotypes.

  16. As easy as A, B and C: will A, B and C v. Ireland be Ireland's wake-up call for abortion rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Ciara

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the development of Ireland's abortion policy from 1861 to the present day. It explores the reasoning for this policy as well as the inherent problems with this policy. It examines in detail the A, B and C v. Ireland judgement and its impact, (if any) on Irish abortion law. Finally, it discusses the margin of appreciation doctrine used by the European Court of Human Rights in deciding cases of a moral nature.

  17. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Document Server

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  18. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  19. Climate indicators for Italy: calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to another. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators was developed. The products publicly available through a dedicated web site are described, as well as an example of climate trends estimates over Italy, based on the application of statistical models on climate indicators from quality-checked and homogenised time series.

  20. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial