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Sample records for ird-whole body counter

  1. Intercalibration of CDTN and IRD whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Alonso, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Intercalibration exercises are designed to harmonize analytical techniques and ensure reliability of measurement results performed in a laboratory network. Such strategy helps to improve laboratory performance among participants in future intercomparison exercises, when it is verified the metrological capacity, by determining accuracy, precision and reproducibility of data produced by each laboratory. In Brazil, there are currently four in vivo monitoring systems, located in IRD, in Rio de Janeiro, CDTN, in Belo Horizonte, IPEN, in Sao Paulo and CNAAA, in Angra dos Reis. Such systems, generically referred as whole body counters, aim to detect and quantify radionuclides in organs and tissues for radiological protection purposes and to provide useful information for studies on biokinetic behavior of radionuclides in humans and animals. The objective of this work is to establish a methodology to be applied for intercalibration of whole body counters. The IRD whole body counter is installed in a 15 cm steel shielded room where two NaI(Tl) and four HPGe detectors are calibrated for the determination of radionuclides in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The CDTN whole body counter has one NaI detector set up in a shadow shield configuration, and is able to determine radionuclides emitting photons from 100 to 2000 keV. The intercalibration exercise described in this work was planed for whole body geometry using the scintillation detectors available in both laboratories. It was used a thin glass vial containing 2,6615 g of a solution of four gamma emitters ( 57 Co, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn), supplied by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The glass vial was measured in the same geometry in both IRD and CDTN whole body counters, being positioned at 31,5 cm distance from the NaI(Tl) detector of each laboratory. The calibration curves (photo peak channel and Efficiency vs Energy) of each detection system were compared. The

  2. Sensitivity of the IRD whole-body counter for in vivo measurements in the case of accidental intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil), Laboratorio de Monitoracao In Vivo

    2016-07-01

    Intakes of radionuclides by humans may occur in the fuel cycle, nuclear medicine, biological research and in TENORM industries and in case of accidents involving workers and the general public. In vivo monitoring is recognized as a useful tool for the evaluation of such exposures. The IRD whole-body counter consists of a shielded room equipped with four HPGe and two NaI(Tl) detectors. The system is able to identify and quantify photon emitters in the range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  3. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  4. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  5. IRD-CNEN whole body counter capabilities for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao in Vivo

    2015-07-01

    Internal exposure to radionuclides may occur as a result of a variety of practices, such as in nuclear industry, production of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; as well as in mining and milling of minerals with associated NORM. The IRD whole-body counter consists of shielded room equipped with an array of four HPGe detectors and two NaI(Tl) with dimensions of 8” x 4” and 3” x 3”. The detection systems are able to detect and quantify a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  6. Whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G A; Kosterev, V V

    1975-01-24

    A counter for detecting radiation of a man (CRM) is described, which consists of two measuring converters and a recording device. In order to obtain data on spatial distribution of a gamma-radiating nuclide studied, a fixed collimator and a mobile coder made of separate slit elements are placed between the measuring converters and an object investigated.

  7. Counter of radiation in body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiation counter for the determination of radiocontaminated body parts has been designed. Composed of several movable detectors, shielded from background radiation and focused on different parts of the human body by narrow apertures in the lead enclosure, the invention provides a quick tool for quantitative and qualitative part-by-part analysis of the body with respect to radiocontamination. The counter can be handled easily by the tested person himself and consequently, it is suitable for mass controls etc. (G.J.P.)

  8. The ORNL whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs

  9. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  10. Current capabilities of the IRD-CNEN-RJ whole body counter for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    Occupational exposure to radioactive materials may occur as a result of a variety of professional human activities, such as in nuclear industry; use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; production of radiopharmaceuticals, as well as in mining and milling of minerals associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials. The IRD whole-body counter (UCCI) consists of a shielded room with internal dimensions of 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m. The walls are made of steel and have a graded-Z interior lining made of 3 mm of lead, 1.5 mm of cadmium and 0.5 mm of copper. Such thin layers are aimed to reduce environmental sources of natural background radiation that would affect the measurements of radionuclides emitting low energy photons. An array of four HPGe detectors was used to perform low-energy measurements of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 200 keV in the lungs, liver and bone tissue. Additionally, one NaI(Tl)8” x 4” and one NaI(Tl)3” x 3” scintillation detectors are used for measurements in the energy range from 100 up to 3000 keV. A configuration of detector supports allows setting up flexible counting geometries, i.e., whole body and specific organs such as head, lungs, liver and thyroid of an individual laid on a monitoring chair. The UCCI is able to perform in vivo measurement of a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow its application for occupational monitoring as well as in the case of accidental incorporations. (author)

  11. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  12. Improvement of measuring techniques with whole-body and partial-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical simulation methods have been applied for optimizing and standardizing the calibration of whole-body and partial-body counters for any nuclide accumulation in the human body. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Whole-body counters in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.

    1986-08-01

    A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting

  14. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  15. The whole-body counter of the radiation centre Giessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    The layout of the whole-body counter at the institute for biophysics of the Giessen radiation centre is decribed. With suitable collimators, the whole-body counter may be used to determine the radioactivity in human and animal organs. The shielding and the measuring and waiting rooms for the patients are described with regard to their technical details. The whole-body counting system enables the radioactivity and the retention of various radioisotopes (e.g. 58 Co-vitamin B 12 , 40 K, 54 Mn, 137 Co, 131 J, 22 Na) to be measured. The estimation of the radiation exposure due to different types of examinations in nuclear medicine, in terms of the critical organs for each type of examination, is very accurate with this counting device. (GSE) [de

  16. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author) [pt

  17. Calibration of the whole body counter at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Sabine; Boschung, Markus; Fiechtner, Annette; Habegger, Ruedi; Meier, Kilian; Wernli, Christian

    2008-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), measurements with the whole body counter are routinely carried out for occupationally exposed persons and occasionally for individuals of the population suspected of radioactive intake. In total about 400 measurements are performed per year. The whole body counter is based on a p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector mounted above a canvas chair in a shielded small room. The detector is used to detect the presence of radionuclides that emit photons with energies between 50 keV and 2 MeV. The room itself is made of iron from old railway rails to reduce the natural background radiation to 24 n Sv/h. The present paper describes the calibration of the system with the IGOR phantom. Different body sizes are realized by different standardized configurations of polyethylene bricks, in which small tubes of calibration sources can be introduced. The efficiency of the detector was determined for four phantom geometries (P1, P2, P4 and P6 simulating human bodies in sitting position of 12 kg, 24 kg, 70 kg and 110 kg, respectively. The measurements were performed serially using five different radionuclide sources ( 40 K, 60 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 152 Eu) within the phantom bricks. Based on results of the experiment, an efficiency curve for each configuration and the detection limits for relevant radionuclides were determined. For routine measurements, the efficiency curve obtained with the phantom geometry P4 was chosen. The detection limits range from 40 Bq to 1000 Bq for selected radionuclides applying a measurement time of 7 min. The proper calibration of the system, on one hand, is essential for the routine measurements at PSI. On the other hand, it serves as a benchmark for the already initiated characterisation of the system with Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  18. Radiological Emergency Preparedness using Old ORTEC Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological emergency (RE) a large number of occupational and public may be exposed externally and to a number of radionuclides internally as a result of inhalation or injection. The radiological effect is directly proportional to the time of exposure and the activity of the contaminant materials. The main task of this paper is to show the emergency preparedness capability of using the old ORTEC whole body counter (WBC). In case of a nuclear accident ORTEC WBC is ready for use to estimate the radioactivity which inhaled or digested with food, as well as in case of medical exposure in general and nuclear medicine in particular. The present study showed that the duration time to make analysis for only one individual is about 25 min. Hence 57 individuals are monitored per day. Consequently, old ORTEC WBC is effective tool in field of research and limited use for radiological and nuclear emergencies

  19. Whole-body monitoring: Goiania case, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: individuals from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1); occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121, 57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was stablished according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job that will be done. Some body burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement, are presented. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity X time curve. (author) [pt

  20. Possibility of semiconductor counters application for internal contamination measurement of whole human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunic, O.; Orlic, M.; Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of high resolution semiconductor counters application in 'Vinca' Whole Body Counter for direct beta-gamma internal contamination measurement are discussed, assuming the following relevant characteristics: efficiency, resolution and counter price. A comparison with appropriate characteristics of NaI(Tl) crystal used in 'Vinca' WBC is treated. It is evident that the scintillation counters have the higher detection efficiency, but HPGe counters having much better resolution and recently lowest prices are also acceptable to join the existing NaI(Tl) counters with the HPGe counters in the same time, allow better spectral analyses of the human body activity and additionally more precise estimation of the equivalent doses rate which is generally a essential problem in WBC measurements. (author)

  1. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  2. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results

  4. The ACCUSCAN-II vertical scanning germanium whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCUSCAN-II is manufactured by Canberra Industries, and represents a new generation of WBC systems. One or two Germanium detectors are used for precise nuclide identification. The detectors scan the total body and can accurately quantify radioactive material anywhere in the body. The shield is a full 4'' thick steel or 2'' lead and weighs about 9000 lbs. The subject can be counted standing for full body scans, or seated for longer counting times of limited portions of the body. Optional electronics also generate a count rate vs. body position profile, as an aid to interpretation of the dose implications of the count. Typical LLD's are 5 - 10 nCi for a 5 minute total body count and 0.5 - 0.7 nCi for a 5 minute long screening count. The system is available in several flavors. The manual version is an inexpensive system intended for universities, hospitals and small industrial facilities. The automatic system includes a MicroVAX-II computer and runs ABACOS0-II Body Burden Software, and is ideal for facilities with large numbers of people to count and where automated analysis of the data is desirable

  5. Calibration of Single High Purity Germanium Detector for Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Morsi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new Accuscan II single germanium detector for whole body counter was installed in NRC (Egypt). The current paper concerned on calibration of single high purity germanium detector for whole body counter. Physical parameters affecting on performance of whole body counter such as linearity, minimum detectable activity and source detector distance, SDD were investigated. Counting efficiencies for the detector have been investigated in rear wall, fixed diagnostic position in air. Counting efficiencies for organ compartments such as thyroid, lung, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract have been investigated using transfer phantom in fixed diagnostic and screening positions respectively. The organ compartment efficiencies in screening geometry were higher than that value of diagnostic geometry by a factor of three. The committed dose equivalents of I-131 in thyroid were ranged from 0.073 ± 0.004 to 1.73±0.09 mSv and in lung was 0.02±0.001 mSv

  6. An investigation into the potassium body burden in humans with the help of a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the available information concerning the potassium body burden of a large number of adults and to find a correlation with other easily measurable body parameters such as mass, height and age so that a normal expected body potassium may be predicted for patients with potassium abnormalities who are also referred to the whole-body counter. The calibration of the whole-body counter to make provision for the differences in geometry and absorption in various body sizes was carried out by injecting a number of people with a small dose of potassium-42 and calculating a correction factor for the potassium standard which is in use daily. All measurements of body potassium were corrected with the calculated correction factor. Fatty tissue in the body contains very little potassium in comparison with muscle tissue and a better correction should therefore be obtained between body potassium and lean body mass. Although it is not possible to predict the smaller potassium abnormalities even when lean body mass is used, the derived regression equation in which lean body mass and age are used, may be viewed as a good first approach in the advance estimation of body potassium

  7. A simple calibration of a whole-body counter for the measurement of total body potassium in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; El-Fiki, S.A.; El-Enany, N.; Youssef, S.K.; Aly, A.M.; Abbas, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple calibration procedure for the Inshas whole body counter for evaluating total body potassium has been adopted. More than 120 Egyptian employees in the Nuclear Research Center (N.R.C.) were studied for their total body potassium (TBK). The potassium values were found to have an average of 2.85±0.57 g K kg -1 body weight for males and 2.62±0.52 g K kg -1 for females, which are higher than the recommended value given for reference man by ICRP. The TBK varied directly with body build index and is slightly sex dependent (Author)

  8. Body load in heel-strike running: the effect of a firm heel counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a firm heel counter in the shoe was studied in 11 athletes during submaximal heel-strike running on a treadmill under standardized conditions. The runners were tested in identical shoes with and without the distal 2 cm of the firm heel counter. Body load was expressed by absolute and relative VO2, surface EMG on the right leg, and g-force registration from an accelerometer below the right tibial tuberosity. The heel counter caused a 2.4% significant decrease in VO2, a reduction in musculoskeletal transients, and a decrease in the activity of the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles at heel strike. The changes found are expressions of kinematic adaptations in the body to increased or decreased load and provide functional evidence for the loading factor in the pathophysiology of overuse injuries.

  9. Application of Whole Body Counter to Neutron Dose Assessment in Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, O.; Tsujimura, N.; Takasaki, K.; Momose, T.; Maruo, Y. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai (Japan)

    2001-09-15

    Neutron dose assessment in criticality accidents using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was proved to be an effective method as rapid neutron dose estimation at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. The 1.36MeV gamma-ray of {sup 24}Na in a body can be detected easily by a germanium detector. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of {sup 24}Na is approximately 50Bq for 10minute measurement by the germanium-type whole body counter at JNC Tokai Works. Neutron energy spectra at the typical shielding conditions in criticality accidents were calculated and the conversion factor, whole body activity-to-organ mass weighted neutron absorbed dose, corresponding to each condition were determined. The conversion factor for uncollied fission spectrum is 7.7 [(Bq{sup 24}Na/g{sup 23}Na)/mGy].

  10. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  11. Whole-body counter intercomparison measurements in Hungary and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary). KFKI; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a co-operation agreement between Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf, Italian ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection and Hungarian KFKI Atomic Energy Research Centre, an intercomparison on WBC measurements using a modular bottle phantom was performed during 1995 in Hungary, on May-July 1996 in the Northern part of Italy. Results related to the relative bias for the three body masses are reported, together with indication of their compliance with ANSI report N13.30. It turned out that majority of the results were found to be within the performance criteria of the ANSI report, however there were also few outfalling results which were a good indication to check and improve the reliability of calibration and/or other methodological procedures. In the contrary of the expectance, the results related to 20 kg phantom resulted not significantly worse than those obtained for the adult phantom indicating the capacity for the participating WBC centres of measuring people from the general population. [Italiano] Nell`ambito di un accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro di Ricerca di Seibersdorf (Austria), l`Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell`ENEA (ENEA AMB PRO IRP) ed il Centro di Ricerca per l`Energia Atomica KFKI di Budapest (Ungheria), si e` svolto un interconfronto su misure WBC basato sull`utilizzo di un unico fantoccio modulare a bottiglie cui hanno partecipato centri WBC Ungheresi (1995) ed Italiani (Maggio-Giugno 1996). Nel presente rapporto tecnico vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti ed una loro analisi impostata sui criteri di valutazione recentemente proposti dall`ANSI nel rapporto N. 13.30. Sulla base di tale criterio la maggior parte dei risultati dell`interconfronto rientra nell`intervallo di accettabilita`; nei pochi casi di non accettabilita` si rende invece necessaria una revisione dei dati di calibrazione e delle metodologie. Contrariamente a quanto si poteva prevedere, i risultati relativi al fantoccio da 20 kg appaiono sostanzialmente

  12. Development of personnel dose control system and whole body counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooki, Yasushi; Harato, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    We delivered Personnel Dose Control System to Higashidohri nuclear plant of Tohoku Electric Power Company, in November 2004. In this system development, we automated the registration of radiation worker with close link between this system and Whole Body Counter System. In addition, this system enables the user to reduce workload for accumulation and notification of personal exposure data, because we adopted the system to extract the data effectively operating the terminal PC which the associate company gets ready in their office. We also delivered Whole body Counter System in December 2004, which was developed to measure internal exposure without feeling of oppression in chair-style device for the first time in Japan. This system enables non-operator system for measurement allowing workers to operate by themselves. (author)

  13. Efficiency determination of whole-body counters by Monte Carlo method, using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computing program using Monte Carlo method for calculate the whole efficiency of distributed radiation counters in human body is developed. A simulater of human proportions was used, of which was filled with a known and uniform solution containing a quantity of radioisopes. The 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K were used in this experience, and theirs activities compared by a liquid scintillator. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole-body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Stephan; Loehnert, Daniela [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany).; Schreiber, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    A large part of radionuclides to be evaluated in the frame of incorporation monitoring are gamma emitter that can be directly measured (in vivo). In order to reach the required detection limits for the relevant radionuclides in the short measuring time high effort is necessary for the shielding of natural radioactivity. The contribution describes planning, construction and installation of the shielding chamber for the new in vivo whole body counter in Rossendorf. First experiences and preliminary results are discussed.

  15. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  16. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmo@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  17. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Semi-portable whole body counter deployable during post-radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.G.; Bansode, P.Y.; Vinod, M.; Sarade, Bhagyashree; Jain, R.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    A versatile whole body counter with the state of art electronics has been indigenously designed and developed which can be readily deployed for use during nuclear emergency. This instrument is designed to quickly identify and quantify the activity of high energy photon emitters accumulated particularly in vital organs like thyroid, lungs besides the body of the victims of the radiological incident or accident. Special features of the instruments are swivel type detectors assembly mountable on a wall or table top and detachable collimator configurable to assess the internal contamination selectively to meet protective measures of the radiological accidents, mechanically rugged and functionally reliable to perform in contaminated environmental field conditions. (author)

  19. Importance of Intercomparison Exercises in Assessment of Internal Exposure by Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic requirement for any kind of measurement is to check and prove the reliability and correctness of the measured results. Quality assurance programmes require several activities among which the participation in intercomparison exercises plays an important role. Since the determination of radioactive materials in the human body by whole-body counting technique implies many sources of uncertainties the reliability of calibration data and consequently the measured results have to be checked by participation in intercomparison quality control programmes. In these programmes mostly different kinds of phantoms simulating the human body are circulated among the participating laboratories, however sometimes contaminated persons are also subjects of intercomparison measurements. There are guidelines in several countries laid down concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the relative bias, precision and minimum detectable amounts are formulated. These quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute participated in intercomparison exercises several times in the last few years. The lessons learned during these activities helped in checking the capabilities of applied methods and measuring geometry as well as contributed in improving the accuracy of the measured results. A short overview on the previous international intercomparison exercises their main characteristics the results obtained and conclusions drawn are discussed in the paper with special attention to those in which also our laboratory participated. (author)

  20. Evaluation of fat-free mass by whole-body counter in Japanese healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)

  1. The establishment of bed type germanium-based whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Sun, C.L.; Yeh, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial germanium detector was installed in a shadow-shield counter for the in-vivo measurement of γ emitters in the body. It is divided into two subparts, automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and the Ge-based counting system. The automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and a complete gamma spectroscopy software package were manufactured by EG and G ORTEC company. Some experiments were finished to get the optimum three setting parameters for how to operate the auto liquid nitrogen transfer system in good conditions. The filling interval should be setting at eight hours, the filling time should be setting at ten minutes, and the pressure of dewar should operate in a range from 14 to 26 PSI. The RMC-II phantom that is designed by Canberra company is used as standard man for all kinds of calibrations. The detector has resolutions that are less than 2.5 keV with an average of 1.87 keV for the 60 Co 1.33-MeV γ-ray peak. The efficiency value of thyroid geometry for four different organs is highest in the phantom. The resolution of the Germanium detector for measuring radioactivity in the body that is better than the sodium iodide detector is used to measure the internal depositions of radionuclide mixtures. So, the advantage of the germanium counter can just compensate the disadvantage of the NaI(TI) detector. The qualitative and quantitative analysis for whole body counting can keep in the best conditions if both whole body counters are operated at the same time for routine measurement purpose in the laboratory

  2. Bases for calibration of whole body counters using anthropomorphic physical simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao

    1998-01-01

    The quantification of radionuclides in the human body can be carried out through in vivo measurements performed in facilities generically called whole body counters. The calibration of such units is usually done by using physical anthropomorphic phantoms, which can be defined as artificial structures with geometrical characteristics and attenuation properties similar to the living tissues. This work presents the development of the phantoms necessary to the monitoring of the internal contamination by the radionuclides manipulated in Brazil. It also presents the procedures for the calibration of the detectors used for the in vivo measurements. The developed phantoms are applied in the determination of radionuclides deposited in specific organs, such as Th-232 and Am-241 in the lungs and skull, isotopes of iodine in the thyroid and photon emitters in the energy range from 100 to 3000 keV in the whole body. (author)

  3. 35 years of existence of whole-body counter in the Czech Republic - experiences and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Foltanova, L.; Cespirova, I.

    1998-01-01

    A whole-body counter was built up in the Czech Republic in 1962, this at the then Institute of the Hygiene of Labour and Occupational Diseases. The shielding was made of steel plates taken from Tiger tanks which remained in the country as aftermath of World War II. The detecting and evaluating parts of the counter were upgraded gradually. The original 4 scintillator detectors (10.16 cm x 12.7 cm in size) were replaced with an HPGe semiconductor detector exhibiting a roughly fifty-fold better resolution, owing to which radionuclide activities can be determined in complex matrices. Currently, the whole-body counter is equipped with a high-purity Ge detector displaying a relative efficiency of 120%, special detectors for low-energy gamma radiation, so-called LEGe detectors which are employed during the determination of radionuclides in the individual organs. The facility is applied to the monitoring of internal contamination in persons handling unsealed sources, monitoring in cases of suspect accidents associated with internal contamination of humans, as well as to the determination of internal contamination in epidemiological studies. In the past, a group of persons contaminated with radioactive fluorescent dyes which contained 226 Ra and 90 Sr, and a group of patients with applied thorotrast were also examined. Currently, methods which are under development are aimed at the determination of 210 Pb in the skulls of people who have been exposed to elevated radon concentrations in dwellings for a long time, and the determination of 241 Am in human bodies and their individual organs

  4. Estimation of throium deposited in thorotrast patients by whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo; Takao, Hideaki; Norimura, Toshiyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Thorotrast, a colloidal solution of thorium dioxide was injected to wounded soldiers, for angiography from 1930 to 1945. The patients who received Thorotrast are interesting objects for finding a biological effect due to the internal irradiation by 232 Th. To determine a distribution and body burden of 232 Th, forty-one Thorotrast patients were measured their gamma-rays with a pair of NaI(T1) scintillation detectors coaxially positioned above and below the coach in the whole body counter of Nagasaki University. The comparison between the usual method using constant values and the method using individual values depend on the organ positions determined with CT (Computed Tomography) scanner for patients was performed to estimate the errors due to the individual differences in the detection efficiency of 232 Th. From the results, the estimates by the whole body counter of the amounts of 232 Th deposits in abdominal region were obtained within the uncertainties of 16 %. And the absorbed dose in the liver and the spleen was also estimated from the amounts of 232 Th. (author)

  5. Using a whole body counter to attract a younger generation to radiation and radiation protection topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Mohr, U.; Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of young academics in the nuclear field especially in the field of radiation protection RP. One of the reasons is the very small number of students in the so called STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) which distribute among the different topics in these fields. One important task to overcome the foreseeable shortage of RP professionals is to attract pupils to this field. In routine monitoring the whole body counter of the Institute of Radiation Research (ISF) is used to identify and quantify radioactive materials that are incorporated in the human body using the technique of gamma spectroscopy. The in-vivo monitoring lab participates in activities for pupils at school level, e.g. Kinderuniversitaet, practical studies of secondary level pupils and 'Girls day'. Pupils that come to the lab are ages 14 to 18. The whole body counter is an optimal tool for these children to experience (natural) radioactivity and radiation protection issues. First pupils get a short introduction on radioactivity and gamma spectroscopy at a level adjusted to their current knowledge. After this they are measuring themselves in the whole body counter. A routine measurement of 300 s is able to show the natural occurring K-40 in their bodies. After their own measurements they do calibration measurements using a bottle phantom with a set up adjusted to their own body weights. The bottle phantom is filled with a potassium chloride (KCl) solution and contains no other radioactivity than the natural K-40 content of the KCl. Thus no further radiation protection measures need to be taken for using this phantom. A simple Excel-Sheet is then used to estimate their own K-40 activity by comparing the spectra of their measurement to the ones of the calibration measurements. This 'hands on' experience and the connection of radiation and their own bodies often is a 'eureka' effect and opens discussion on preconceptions of radiation and the need of RP

  6. Implementation of ISO 28218 quality system in the laboratory of body radioactivity counter CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Perez Jimenez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The laboratory of body radioactivity counter has implemented IS0 28218 standard Performance Criteria for Radio bioassay in all measured in vivo techniques of internal contamination in the human organism in monitoring programs defined by the Personal Dosimetry Service Internal CIEMAT. The application of this rule in the laboratory's quality system is essential to meet the technical requirements of the standard IS0/IEC 17025 with the purpose of obtaining ENAC accreditation as a testing laboratory and calibration within the framework of the accreditation of Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry. (Author)

  7. Whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N.; Cunha, P.G.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Bertelli, L.N.; Fonseca, A.M.G.; Ramalho, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers has recently been added to the Bioassay Division of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IRD/CNEN). For the last two years the laboratory has been monitoring personnel involved in uranium mining and milling activities, monazite industry workers and nuclear medicine staff dealing with iodine-131 and technetium-99. Uptakes of radionuclides by the different organs and also dose equivalents are evaluated through the use of mathematical models. The IRD whole-body counter unit was specially designed to detect a variety of internally deposited radionuclides which emit photons in the energy range of 15 keV to 3 MeV. It consists of a monitoring room (2.5x2.5x2.5 m internal dimension), with 0.15 m thick steel walls, internally lined with 0.3 cm lead, 0.15 cm cadmium and 0.05 cm thick copper sheets. The facility is equipped with three different size NaI(T1) detectors and three 12.7 cm diameter phoswich detectors. (author)

  8. Experimental study of absorption of iron in foods using whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tadamitsu

    1978-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain which showed normal hematological picture were given 59 Fe-labeled foods orally, and the iron absorption rate was determined by an animal whole body counter. When 59 Fe was given in a mixture with each of gruel, spinach, cow's milk, the yolk, and the yolk with orange juice, the iron absorption rates in each food were 9.4%, 8.9%, 6.6%, 10.8% and 7.2% respectively. None of these foods seemed to inhibit the 59 Fe absorption. When 59 Fe was given in a mixture with chicken, the iron absorption rate was 35.8%. This result suggested that the chicken promoted the 59 Fe absorption. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given, the iron absorption rate was 4.9%. If the yolk labeled in vitro was used, the absorption rate was 10.8%. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given with orange juice, the iron absorption rate was 13.3%. If the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given, the absorption rate was 7.2%. Orange juice had no effect on the iron absorption when the yolk labeled in vitro was used. After chicken eggs labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given to children, the iron absorption was determined by a whole body counter; the rate averaged 5.4 in the children without anemia and 24.7 in those with anemia. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Calibration of the LDI/CDTN Whole Body Counter using three physical phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, F.G.; Fonseca, T.C.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Nuclear; Mendes, B.M.; Silva, T.A. da; Lacerda, M.A.S.; Pinto, J.R.; Prates, S.; Filho, N.N.A., E-mail: fgpaiva92@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil); Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (LDI/CDTN) is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs) at the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals (UPPR/CDTN), the Research Reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1/CDTN and other workplaces of the institute where there is a risk of accidental intakes. Additionally, LDI supports the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) to attend radiological emergencies. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides in the human body requires the use of calibration techniques in different counting geometries for converting the count rates into activity in organs and tissues. This paper presents and discusses the calibration of the LDI/CDTN Whole Body Counter (WBC) using a standard BOMAB phantom (Bottle Mannequin Absorber) compared to a home-made phantom produced with Polyethylene Terephthalate bottles (PET). Initially, the BOMAB was filled with a cocktail containing {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba. The phantom was counted at the LDI whole body counter and an Efficiency x Energy curve was obtained. Subsequently the PET-BOMAB was filled with the same standard source and a second curve was determined. The efficiency values in each region of interest as well as the shape of both curves were found to be equivalent. The results validate the use of the PET-BOMAB for the calibration of whole body geometry applied to the measurement of high energy photon emitting radionuclides in the energy region evaluated in this work. (author)

  10. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the dose committed as based on direct measurements with the Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meladani, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1989-01-01

    During normal working activities or in accidental situations, when the introduction of radioactive gamma emitters is non-negligible amount, accurate determination of effective committed dose equivalent based on direct measurements of the internal contamination cannot be avoided. Internal contamination measurements carried out by Whole Body Counter and the application of dosimetric and metabolic models as proposed by ICRP Publication 30 allow the intakes and committed dose equivalents to be evaluated. This paper presents the evaluation methodologies of committed dose equivalent both for istantaneous and extended contaminations. Furthermore, some advice about useful, opportune modes and time uncertainties due to the application of generalized models to particular situations, are also reported. On the basis of the Chernobyl experience, the general criteria for the chice and size of homogeneous groups of individuals to be measured, are finally submitted with a view to collecting the necessary radiation protection information concerning contamination of a part or a whole population

  12. Efficiency determination of whole-body counter by Monte Carlo method, using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, Jose Maria

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was the development of an analytical microcomputer model to evaluate a whole body counter efficiency. The model is based on a modified Sryder's model. A stretcher type geometry along with the Monte Carlo method and a Synclair type microcomputer were used. Experimental measurements were performed using two phantoms, one as an adult and the other as a 5 year old child. The phantoms were made in acrylic and and 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K were the radioisotopes utilized. Results showed a close relationship between experimental and predicted data for energies ranging from 250 keV to 2 MeV, but some discrepancies were found for lower energies. (author)

  13. Producing 'internal suspect bodies': divisive effects of UK counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities in Leeds and Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Madeline-Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-01-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  15. Development of sealed sheet sources for calibration of whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Mai; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Ogata, Yoshimune; Narita, Norihiko; Kawaura, Chiyo; Nakano, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Whole body counters are usually calibrated with the aid of a whole body phantom assembled with simply-shaped plastic vessels that are filled with an aqueous solution of the relevant radioisotopes. Most vessel-type phantoms represent only a human body in which radioisotopes are homogeneously distributed, whereas the radioisotopes in vivo are sometimes localized to specific organs. Each set of the vessels is usually applicable only to a specific combination of radioisotopes, because the replacement of radioisotopes requires troublesome procedures. Possible leakage of the solution is another disadvantage of the vessel-type phantom. The authors are developing a new-type calibration phantom that is free from these disadvantages, in which sealed sheet sources are sandwiched between sections of a sliced anthropomorphic phantom. This paper describes a method to prepare sealed sheet sources for this calibration phantom. Instead of γ-ray emitters a pure β-ray emitter 32 P was used. This isotope is suitable for autoradiography and is easy to handle as its half-life is relatively short. An ink-jet printer was used to spread the solution of 32 P mixed with ink on a sheet of paper. The surface concentration of radioactivity was regulated by the function of color density adjustment of an image processing software. The radioisotope-printed paper was laminated for sealing. Through the measurement of surface concentration of radioactivity with a liquid scintillation counter, the autoradiographical investigation of the pattern of the radioactivity distributed on the sheet sources, the immersion test of the sealed sheet sources and the monitoring of the concentration of 32 P in air during the printing, it was demonstrated that sealed sheet sources for the calibration phantom can be prepared safely by the method described in this paper. Furthermore, by using sheet sources of 99m Tc prepared as a trial it was confirmed that discrete arrangement of sheet sources in a phantom at a

  16. An unshielded whole body radioactivity counter for monitoring persons after a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoch, D.S.; Somasundaram, S.

    1979-01-01

    An unshielded chair in which the subject sits, holding a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI (Tl) detector in his lap, was evaluated for monitoring of persons suspected of internal radioactive contamination following a radiation accident. The reduction in different energy bands of the background gamma-ray spectrum due to self-shielding of the subject was studied for two postures, designated ''upright'' and ''folding'' and the data were analysed in a CDC 3600 computer to obtain the best-fit regression equation relating the reduction factor with body weight and height. The response of the counter was evaluated using an in vitro method and the ranges of under/over-estimation of body burden resulting from assumption of partial/uniform distribution of activity were determined. Counting sensitivities were derived for 13 radioisotopes having gamma-ray energies in the range 145 keV-1.46 MeV. The results are presented and discussed. The study shows that this simple system may be used not only in radiation emergencies but also for operational monitoring of radiation workers for a number of radioisotopes of low and medium radiotoxicity. (auth.)

  17. Mechanical component design for upgrading of whole body counter ND7500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norizam Saad; Mohamad Annuar Assadat Husain; Ishak Mansor

    2007-01-01

    The Whole Body Counter (WBC) ND7500 is a bed type counting system that used for measuring radionuclide in the entire human body. Malaysian Nuclear Agency has this system, which savaged from Institute of Medical Research (IMR) in 1987. This system consists of a nuclear counting system and mechanical system that totally inoperable due to its counting system failures. In April 2003, both counting system and the mechanical system were tested. The mechanical component is working properly but needs some readjustment for the bed movement while for the counting system, only detectors can work but with a poor detecting capability. During IAEA expert visits on July 2003, both detectors were verified cannot be use any longer due to poor resolution and aging factor and a single (3 x 5 x 16) inches rectangular NaI(Tl) detector was then purchased in the end of 2004 to replace (3 x 5) inches cylindrical Na(Tl) detectors. The existing shielding cannot accommodate this new (3 x 5 x 16) inches dimension and the (5 x 16) inches detecting area. Therefore, shielding modification has been done based on effective detecting area and positioning test results. A new detector's entrance and detector stage were built at the bottom shielding. A new features, which is a detectors protection also been developed for detector safety. This upgrading task successfully accomplished as from experimental the design of positioning component can make system operated easily and also can give a good results to meets user's requirements. (Author)

  18. Reconstruction of a whole-body counter into a process computer-controlled low-level whole-body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the state of the research project to reconstruct our whole-body counter with solid geometries into a scanning type one. The object is to develop a process computer controlled 'adaptive system'. The self-built scan mechanics are explained and the advantages and problems of applying stepping motors are gone into. A stepping motor coordinates control is presented. As the planned scanner and the process computer form a digital controlled system, all theoretical and actual values as well as the control orders from the process computer must be directly controllable. A CAMAC system was not used for economical reasons, the process periphery was made controllable by self building of interfaces to and from the computer. As example, the available multi-channel analyzers were converted to external controlling. The price-moderate and relatively simple self-built set-up are outlined and an example is given of how a TELETYPE version is reconstructed into a fast electronic interface. A BUS-MULTIPLEX system was developed which generates all necessary DI/DO interfaces out of one DI and DO address of the process computer only. The essential part of this system is given. (orig./LH) [de

  19. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  20. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  1. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  2. Development of the Discrimination Programs between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination of Workers Using a Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    A whole body counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plant (NPP). In domestic NPPs, several whole body counters are in operation to monitor the internal radioactive contamination of workers. All workers take a whole body counting after radiation works if there is high possibility of radioactive contamination or the radioactivity is detected by portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external contamination, it is determined finally as an internal contamination if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes not only the misjudgment of the external contamination as the internal contamination, but also the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to set up the discrimination program between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and a whole body counter. After the analysis of experimental results, we found that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external contamination and the ratio of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was more than about factor 2 for the external contamination

  3. Parameters of a simple whole body counter and thyroid monitor established at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schoenmuth, T [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At the Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. a simple whole body counter and an iodine-thyroid monitor are used for measuring the internal contamination of workers. There is no shielding chamber in both cases. By using the chamber at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory the lower limit of detection could be improved by a factor of about 3 for whole body counting and by a factor of 2,5 for thyroid monitoring (I 131, I 125). Concerning the lower limit of detection the applicability of the German standard DIN 25 482 implemented in the Gamma-Vision software packadge is discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  4. Results of substitution of the Nal by a Ge detector in a simple shadow shield whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T.; Thieme, K.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1976 a whole body counter (WBC) has been used at the Rossendorf Research Centre for measuring the internal contamination of workers. The WBC with the Germanium detector is given schematically and visually. The WBC is a shadow shield type with a tilted chair having only one detector. Table 1 contains the parameters of the WBC. It can be seen that the WBC is a simple counter. Therefore, taking into account the experiences of McCurdy, a lot of improvements were expected form the simple substitution of a HP Germanium detector for a NaI (TI) detector, i.e. despite a decrease in the sensitive detection volume, an enhancement of all quantifiable results (e.g. lower limit of detection and time for analysis of the spectrum) and above all the reliability and automation of nuclide identification were expected. (orig./SR)

  5. Results of substitution of the Nal by a Ge detector in a simple shadow shield whole body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Thieme, K. [Amersham Buchler Ltd. und Co., Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Since 1976 a whole body counter (WBC) has been used at the Rossendorf Research Centre for measuring the internal contamination of workers. The WBC with the Germanium detector is given schematically and visually. The WBC is a shadow shield type with a tilted chair having only one detector. Table 1 contains the parameters of the WBC. It can be seen that the WBC is a simple counter. Therefore, taking into account the experiences of McCurdy, a lot of improvements were expected form the simple substitution of a HP Germanium detector for a NaI (TI) detector, i.e. despite a decrease in the sensitive detection volume, an enhancement of all quantifiable results (e.g. lower limit of detection and time for analysis of the spectrum) and above all the reliability and automation of nuclide identification were expected. (orig./SR)

  6. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Studies of Se-75 labelled bile acid analogue absorption in different forms of gastrointestinal diseases using a whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Sattler, E.L.; Rinkenberger, C.; Bodenmueller, D.; Grebe, S.K.G.; Mueller, K.D.; Mueller, H.; Faengewisch, G.L.; Heckers, H.; Steckenmesser, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is possible to detect disturbances of bile acid absorption using a whole body counter after administration of Se-75 labelled bile acid analogues. We scrutinized the benefit of a modification of the test method. We investigated 77 patients with different forms of a gastrointestinal disease. After application of Se 75 homotaurocholic acid we measured patient-activity up to 7 days later including whole-body profile scans in the first 6 h. The fractional retention after 7 days was between 20 and 67%. In cases of impaired absorption it was below 12%. Patients with liver diseases and afer cholecystectomy (without bile acid resorption disturbance) showed normal values. Patients with Crohn's disease of the ileum or with intestinal ileas by-pass or with colestyramine treatment or with disturbance of vitamin B12-absorption or with cystic fibrosis showed a disturbance of bile acid absorption. The normal whole-body half-life was more than 2.8 days. The 24 and 72 h values were 62 and 31% in cases with normal absorption. Smaller values are signs of bile acid malabsorption. Impulse rates measured with the whole body counter are of an order of magnitude that allows to reduce the usually administered dose of 37 kBq to 9.25 kBq. This is an efficient method to detect disturbances of bile acid absorption. The usually adminstered activity of 37 kBq can be reduced to 9.25 kBq. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Calibration of whole-body counters for transuranic radionuclides by using total-body donations to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Durbin, P.W.; McInroy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    One of the many benefits of the whole-body donation programme of the United States Transuranium Registry is the calibration of whole-body counters by measuring a donated body containing radioactivity before radiochemical analysis of the body occurs. These measurements have provided the best existing calibration factors for measuring 241 Am and 239 Pu in the skeleton of living people. In one case where the body contained an easily measurable quantity of 241 Am, the 241 Am content was found to be the same for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. The bones from the right side of the body and every other vertebrae were radiochemically analysed and the bones from the left side were reserved. These latter have a known quantity of naturally distributed 241 Am based on the analysis of bones from the right side. These reserved bones are being incorporated into tissue equivalent body parts for future calibrations and interlaboratory comparisons. The measurements on the total body and the reserved bones have already been very useful in determining the contribution of skeletal activity to that of lung measurements and determining a calibration factor for measuring 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. In the future it is planned to periodically make in vivo measurements on those people participating in the total-body donation programme so that calibration factors can be obtained for lung and liver content after subsequent analysis of these tissues. (author)

  9. 35 years of existence of a whole-body counter in the Czech Republic - experience and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Foltanova, S.; Cespirova, I.

    1998-01-01

    A whole-body counter was built up in the Czech Republic in 1962, this at the then Institute of the Hygiene of Labour and Occupational Diseases. The shielding was made of steel plates taken from Tiger tanks which remained in the country as aftermath of World War II. The detecting and evaluating parts of the counter were upgraded gradually. The original 4 scintillator detectors (10.16 cm x 12.7 cm in size) were replaced with an HPGe semiconductor detector exhibiting a roughly fifty-fold better resolution, owing to which radionuclide activities can be determined in complex matrices. Currently, the whole-body counter is equipped with a high-purity Ge detector displaying a relative efficiency of 120%, special detectors for low-energy gamma radiation, so-called LEGe detectors which are employed during the determination of radionuclides in the individual organs. The facility is applied to the monitoring of internal contamination in persons handling unsealed sources, monitoring in cases of suspect accidents associated with internal contamination of humans, as well as to the determination of internal contamination in epidemiological studies. In the past, a group of persons contaminated with radioactive fluorescent dyes which contained 226 Ra and 90 Sr, and a group of patients with applied thorotrast were also examined. Currently, methods which are under development are aimed at the determination of 210 Pb in the skulls of people who have been exposed to elevated radon concentrations in dwellings for a long time, and the determination of 241 Am in human bodies and their individual organs

  10. Study of vitamin B/sub 12/ absorption by a whole-body counter (plastic). I. The fundamental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, R; Furumatsu, C [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-08-01

    An absorption test of vitamin B/sub 12/ was studied by using the whole body spectrometer (plastic) in a low background room. Four plastic scintillation probes were set under the bed. Each plastic scintillation probe contains a 50x50x15 cm/sup 3/ scintillator and four photomultiplier tubes. Each subject was measured in supine and prone positions and the mean was used. Measurement was made before (body background), 35 minutes after (100%), and again 7 days after the oral administration of 0.17 to 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.16 ..mu..Ci) /sup 60/Co-B/sub 12/ or of 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.4 ..mu..Ci) /sup 58/Co-B/sub 12/. No meal or medicine was given at least 2 hours after the oral uptake of radioactive B/sub 12/. To correct for the radioactive decay and any counter instability, all measurements were corrected using a standard source. The results of B/sub 12/ absorption were expressed as the retention percentage of the labeled B/sub 12/ within the body on the seventh day. Present methods of measuring intestinal absorption of radioactive B/sub 12/ include measurements of the radioactivity (1) in the feces, (2) in the urine, (3) in the serum, or over the liver projection. While all these methods give clinically valuable results, B/sub 12/ absorption is determined most accurately by direct measurement of the amount remaining in the body with a whole-body counter after the unabsorbed radio-B/sub 12/ is excreted in the feces. It is more quantitative and simpler than the Schilling test and permits the measurement ofradioactive B/sub 12/ at a considerably lower level than the maximum permissible body burdens.

  11. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV has been suggested to be particularly effective on the stretch-shortening cycle-based movements, such as the counter movement jump (CMJ test (Issurin, 2005. Nevertheless, the literature on short-term vibration exposure and lower limb explosive performance (measured by CMJ test is contradictory. Either transient improvements (Bosco et al., 2000; Cochrane and Stannard, 2005; Torvinen et al., 2002a or no effects (Torvinen et al., 2002b; Rittweger et al., 2003; Cormie et al., 2006 have been reported after a single WBV exposure ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The present study aimed at better characterizing the use of a single short bout of WBV as a mode of warming up before a CMJ test.A total of 114 university students (37 men, 77 women, aged 19.6 ± 2.0 years signed an informed consent form and volunteered to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of our center. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in three occasions three days apart. First visit: familiarization session aiming to learn the CMJ technique and to experience the vibration stimulus. Second visit: the participants performed three consecutive CMJ with one min rest interval. No significant differences were observed among the jumps, and the highest score was retained. Third visit: the participants were exposed to a single short bout of WBV and immediately after they performed three CMJ with one min rest interval.An infrared contact timing platform (ERGO JUMP Plus - BOSCO SYSTEM, Byomedic, S.C.P., Barcelona, Spain was used to measure "flight" time (t during the vertical jump (accuracy 0.001 s. Maximum height achieved by the body centre of gravity (h was then estimated, i.e. h = g · t2 / 8, where g = 9.81 m/s2. In all occasions, the participants were instructed to abstain from strenuous exercise for the preceding 24 hours.Whole-body vibration was carried out on an oscillating

  12. Practical methods for the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M. M.; Ramirez J, F. J.; Mondragon C, L.

    2013-10-01

    The whole body counter system Accuscan II of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), was designed and built to quantify and to measure radionuclides fission product as well as gamma emitters, with a maximum sensibility of less than 10 n Ci for cobalt 60 at one time of counting of 5 minutes. The system has two detectors of Ge(Hp) with Beryllium window to a relative efficiency of 25% in a counting configuration of vertical scanning, this configuration gives a plane response of constant efficiency. In this work some practical methods developed in the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory to carry out the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ are described. With the obtained results of this evaluation we can decide fine adjustments will be necessary for the optimization of the equipment operation. The evaluation of this equipment was especially necessary, due to its 21 years-old antiquity and for the gradual changes that has in its functioning. The equipment is intrinsically a gamma spectrometry system and some described experiences could be applied too in other gamma spectrometry systems. (Author)

  13. Results of the internal contamination measurements performed after Chernobyl accident by means of Casaccia whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampa, E.; Santoni, G.; Di Pietro, S.

    1987-01-01

    Direct measurements of internal contamination were carried out in human subjects following the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. The Whole Body Counter facility operated by Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell'Uomo, Divisione Scienze Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Energia - C.R.E. - Casaccia (Rome) was utilized. This investigation was continued until December 31, 1986. The subjects were either resident of the Rome metropolitan area or Italian citizens returning from East European Countries. The report present the data regarding 131 I in the thyroid and 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the whole body. An ingestion or inhalation of these radionuclides is also calculated. The results of this study should contribute to a better evaluation of the theoretical models for the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to man

  14. A Study on the Method to Discriminate Between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination Using Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Yang, H. Y.; Kang, D. W.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plants (NPPs). In domestic NPPs, it is prescribed that all workers should take a whole body counting after radiation works if the possibilities of radioactive contamination exist or the radioactivity is detected by a portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external skin contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker assumed to be detected is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external skin contamination, it is determined finally as an internal exposure if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes the misjudgment of the external skin contamination as well as the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to discriminate between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and WBC. Preliminary experimental results indicated that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external skin contamination and the difference of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was less than about factor 2 for the internal contamination

  15. Monitoring of the general population with an installed whole body counter at West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Francis, R.A.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-03-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 395 volunteers in the Whitehaven area, using a whole-body monitor at West Cumberland Hospital. Between October 1986 and October 1987, estimates of total body radiocaesium in 240 volunteers ranged from below detection level to 1844 Bq with a mean of 415 Bq. From October 1987 until May 1988, a further 155 volunteers were monitored, and radiation levels ranged from 34 Bq to 685 Bq, with a mean of 257 Bq. In all volunteers, the ratio of body radiocaesium to body potassium, was well below unity. The average ratio of caesium-137 to caesium-134 from October 1987 to May 1988 was 3.28, corresponding to a ratio of 1.99 at the date of Chernobyl accident. This is consistent with a Chernobyl origin as the primary source for the radiocaesium. There were discernible, but not marked, trends of increasing body radiocaesium with milk and meat/fish consumption. (author)

  16. Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K is used. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R J; Ellis, K J

    2011-01-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40 K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  18. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low "1"3"4"/"1"3"7Cs MDA of <50 Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be ≲1 Bq/day for "1"3"7Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden. (author)

  19. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low $^{134/137}$Cs MDA of $< 50$ Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be <1 Bq/day for $^{137}$Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden.

  20. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prezelj Iztok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners. The paper’s results show that the concept of human security usefully integrates the care for human rights and security of individuals. The debate on the potential introduction of body scanners on the European airports was actually a debate on the ways of providing individual human security on the airports with simultaneous concern for other human rights. The output of this debate was a compromise: body scanners can be used at the discretion of individual airports and member states, but are not an obligatory measure on all European airports.

  1. Calibration of a whole body counter and 'In Vivo' measurements for internal dosimetry evaluation in Chile, two years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, Osvaldo; Sanhueza M, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    In Chile the internal Dosimetry evaluation have been doing for more than 20 years ago by 'in vitro' measurements, however the 'in vivo' measurements just have available for 2 years due to the installation, calibration and completion of a Whole Body Counter. The Whole Body Counter of the CCHEN, corresponds to the shielded room type (4.2 x 3.3 x 2.0 m), is located in the second subterranean of the North Wing of the building of Laboratories of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Santiago City, (3 meters under the ground). It is composed by 12 cm thickness walls of concrete, then successive layers of 2 mm of thickness with: lead, cadmium and copper, 1 cm of acrylic and finally 2 mm of wood. The measurement system is composed by: 2 detectors of NaI (Tl) of 8 x 3 inches (BICRON) that operate to 800 volts (+) and allow the detection of gamma emitters of high energy (>100 keV). It has the possibility of measurement fixes (thyroid) and route (whole body) using for it a pneumatic system that allows the displacement of the detectors on a central axis. It has two positions of location of the detectors, one of 90 degrees with respect to the central axis when the system is in rest or entrance retirement of patient and one of 45 degrees approximately when the measurement is made. For the calibration, two simulators were used: Thyroid simulator from the IRD (Brazil), and Whole Body, BOMAB simulator ( 133 Ba, 137 Cs and 60 Co) from the IAEA. 10 measurements of 300 seconds each one per geometry and different detector-patient distances were done: 20.0; 25.0; 30.0; 37.7 and 101.1 cm (considering high level incorporations). For the analysis of spectrum, software 'Genie 2000' and for the calculation of dose, program 'AIDE' obtained through ARCAL RLA/9/049 'Harmonization of Procedures of Internal Dosimetry', were used. To date, 300 measurements have been made and the results were used for the evaluation of the internal Dosimetry of the Professional Exposed Workers (PEW), but also to improve

  2. Quantitative determination of blood losses by a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Garreta, A.C. de; Soria, N.; Blanco, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method to quantitate blood losses by determination of the 51 Cr whole body retention (WBR) was developed. Autologous red cells labelled with Na 2 O 4 51 Cr were given intravenously. Blood losses were simulated by withdrawing blood samples. Percent relative variation (PRV) between real blood losses (blood withdrawal) and blood losses calculated by determining the WBR, were found. Withdrawal of 60 ml blood gave a PRV lower than 10.0%. 51 Cr body loss due to elution and red cell death was found to be 0.017 day -1 . The method allows the accurate detection of total blood losses of 60 ml or more, and it can be used to quantitate gastrointestinal or gynecological hemorrhages, avoiding the inconveniences involved by the complete recolection of faeces or of towels and tampons. (author) [es

  3. Conversion of a whole-body counter into a low-level whole-body scanning system controlled by a process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The report outlines the status of a research project in which a whole body counter with fixed geometries is converted into a scanning type system. The purpose of the project is the development of an adaptive system controlled by a process computer. The home-made scanning mechanics is explained, and a description is given of the advantages and the problems inherent in the application of step motors. For economic reasons no CAMAC system was purchased; instead, interfaces from and to the computer were designed which allowed the process periphery to be connected and operated. The inexpensive and relatively simple home-made designs are outlined; the example quoted refers to the conversion of a teletype output into a fast electronic data interface. (orig./ORU) [de

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of a stand-up type whole body counter using different sized BOMAB phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Minjung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Seyoung; Ha, Wiho; Lee, Seungsook; Park, Minjung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Kim, Kwangpyo

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to assess internal contamination level to determine the need for medical intervention. Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to measure incorporated radioactive materials inside the human body. Also, WBC is standard in vivo method and used for preparedness of response to radiological emergencies. To operate this equipment correctly, proper energy and efficiency calibrations must be performed. WBC is usually calibrated using a Bottle Manikin ABsorber (BOMAB) Phantom, which is the industrial standard. The problem occurs when the subjects to be measured have different physical characteristics (height or weight) from a phantom used in calibration. In radiation emergency situations, this problem is expected to worsen because there are special populations whose physical characteristics are different from reference male, for example children and women. The aim of this study is to resolve this problem by simulating counting efficiency of different sized BOMAB phantoms using Monte Carlo techniques. The counting efficiency response of the WBC has been modeled for different sized four BOMAB phantoms using MCNPX. The stand-up type WBC has different efficiency response on phantom size since this WBC has different geometry from other scanning-type or non-linear geometry WBC. In emergency monitoring situations, it is important to estimate activity of various sized persons. Therefore, it is necessary to apply appropriate counting efficiency according to person size. Further investigations are needed to optimize methodology for measuring small object in the stand-up type WBC

  5. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  6. The EURADOS-KIT training course on Monte Carlo methods for the calibration of body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Broggio, D.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.; Lopez, M.A.; Leone, D.; Poelz, S.; Marzocchi, O.; Shutt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are numerical simulation techniques that can be used to extend the scope of calibrations performed in in vivo monitoring laboratories. These methods allow calibrations to be carried out for a much wider range of body shapes and sizes than would be feasible using physical phantoms. Unfortunately, nowadays, this powerful technique is still used mainly in research institutions only. In 2013, EURADOS and the in vivo monitoring laboratory of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) organized a 3-d training course to disseminate knowledge on the application of MC methods for in vivo monitoring. It was intended as a hands-on course centered around an exercise which guided the participants step by step through the calibration process using a simplified version of KIT's equipment. Only introductory lectures on in vivo monitoring and voxel models were given. The course was based on MC codes of the MCNP family, widespread in the community. The strong involvement of the participants and the working atmosphere in the classroom as well as the formal evaluation of the course showed that the approach chosen was appropriate. Participants liked the hands-on approach and the extensive course materials on the exercise. (authors)

  7. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report; Hochaufloesende Gamma-Spektrometrie an Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern. Erfahrungen, Empfehlungen. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` of the association ``Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.`` to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der hochaufloesenden Gammaspektroskopie in Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Der ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` des Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. hat darum bisherige Erfahrungen zusammengetragen und Empfehlungen fuer den Einsatz dieser Messtechnik erarbeitet. Der Schwerpunkt der Tagung lag beim Vergleich von Germaniumhalbleiter- mit Natriumjodid-Festszintillationsdetektoren.Tl-Detektoren eignen sich v.a. beim Vorhandensein bekannter und zeitlich konstanter Nuklidvektoren (Kernkraftwerke, Nuklearmedizin). Bei unbekanntem bzw. variablem Nuklidvektor (Stoerfall, Unfall, Forschung) sollen Ge-Detektoren benutzt werden (orig./ABI)

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of lung counting efficiency using a whole-body counter at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongming, L.; Shuhai, J.; Houwen, L.

    2016-01-01

    In order to routinely evaluate workers' internal exposure due to intake of radionuclides, a whole-body counter (WBC) at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (TQNPC) is used. Counting would typically occur immediately after a confirmed or suspected inhalation exposure. The counting geometry would differ as a result of the height of the individual being counted, which would result in over- or underestimated intake(s). In this study, Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the counting efficiency when performing a lung count using the WBC at the TQNPC. In order to validate the simulated efficiencies for lung counting, the WBC was benchmarked for various lung positions using a 137 Cs source. The results show that the simulated efficiencies are fairly consistent with the measured ones for 137 Cs, with a relative error of 0.289%. For a lung organ simulation, the discrepancy between the calibration phantom and the Chinese reference adult person (170 cm) was within 6% for peak energies ranging from 59.5 keV to 2000 keV. The relative errors vary from 4.63% to 8.41% depending on the person's height and photon energy. Therefore, the simulation technique is effective and practical for lung counting, which is difficult to calibrate using a physical phantom. (authors)

  9. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuzo

    1977-01-01

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. A whole body counter for the detection, identification and localization of incorporated radionuclides over a wide range of energies and intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, R.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A shadow-shielded whole body counter has been designed and installed at the German Cancer Research Centre. It is equipped with special focussing collimators, four detectors and a supplementary Ge(Li) detector, and is used for the detection, identification and localization of incorporated radionuclides over a range of intensities from a few nCi to several mCi and a range of gamma energies from 100 keV to several MeV. The system has been tested since 1976 in medical research and diagnosis and for staff monitoring. (orig.) [de

  11. In-vivo radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes a radiation counter utilizing at least one detector for sensing radiation from a living body. The radiation counter also includes an aperture for forming a corridor between the body and the detector. A shield outside the corridor prevents passage of background radiation through the corridor and gaining access to the detector. The counter also includes a device for isolating a selected portion of the body from the corridor such that radiation counting is restricted to a region of the body through a separate detector. The corridor formation permits a user to stand in an upright position while the detector and detectors are able to separately monitor different sections of the body. The radiation counter overcomes the problem of obtaining accurate and quick measurements or radiation doses sustained by a large group of persons. (author)

  12. The development of a specialized in-vivo body counter for radiation monitoring in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction, calibration and testing of a prototype mobile counting system to measure natural uranium in the lungs of workers in the nuclear fuel industry is described. The measurement method is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted during the decay of the daughters of uranium. The mobile facility consisted of a shadow shield and phoswich detector system mounted in a medium-sized trunk. Care was taken to ensure undistorted visual and verbal contact between the subject and the operator. Tests were made to optimize the location and thickness of the lead shielding. A single axle truck was insulated and a heater was installed for winter operation. There was sufficient room in the box to include a change room and waiting area as well as the shadow shield and electronics rack. An extensive series of test measurements was made at a number of locations. Control group studies of males were carried out and a model was developed which correctly predicted the subject background in the uranium region of the gamma spectrum when no uranium was present. The mobile counter was calibrated using the Rando Phantom. On a field trip to Bancroft In February 1981 the shadow shield configuration was shown to provide adequate background reduction for accurate uranium-in-lung measurements. With repeated measurements, changes in an individual's lung burden as small as 2 mg uranium could be detected. The minimum detectable amount of uranium on the basis of one measurement was 5.4 mg

  13. Whole-body counter survey results 4 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Minamisoma City, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Nomura, Shuhei; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hanai, Tatsuo; Kumemoto, Yuki; Kowata, Satoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Using the first WBC unit installed in Fukushima Prefecture after the accident, the radiocesium body burdens of 566 high-risk residents of Minamisoma city were measured in July 2011 at the Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital. The analysis of the data was challenging because this chair-type, WBC unit, did not have sufficient shielding against background gamma rays and methods had to be developed to reliably compensate for the body-attenuated background radiation. Fortunately, data for repeated tests of hospital staff members using both the chair-type and well-shielded FASTSCAN WBC units, installed in September 2011, were available and could be used to check the validity of the analysis. The CEDs of all subjects, estimated under the assumption of acute inhalation in March 2011, were found to be less than 1 mSv. (paper)

  14. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for "1"3"7Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg"-"1 for ages 0-1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg"-"1 for ages 10-11. Including the "1"3"4Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 μSv y"-"1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children's body burdens. (author)

  15. Radioiostope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical application of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Price, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The main emphasis of these studies is the development of methods (hardware and software) for the quantitation of body and specific organ burdens of radioactivity. Current work is directed toward the evaluation of radiation dose distributions in human beings from new radioactive tracers and new procedures used in nuclear medicine. Dosimetry and clinical studies will be carried out on patients using new radiopharmaceuticals where dosimetry data are lacking. Future efforts will be directed toward the development of systems that will facilitate the collection of dosimetry data using less specialized facilities. The availability of instrumentation and analytic techniques that provide clinical images as well as dosimetry data should enhance the rate of collection of data on human exposures in medicine and assist in the optimization of diagnostic strategies. In parallel with these efforts, we are developing a new computer assisted technique for diagnostic decision making. The basic aim is to utilize efficiently all the available data to maximize information gain while minimizing cost factors

  16. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Design modifications in radioisotope scanners are discussed. Studies on the radiation dose distribution in patients from /sup 90m/Tc-albumin microspheres in the lungs, 59 Fe-citrate, 131 I-hippuran in kidney transplants, and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphates are reported. Data on the levels of fallout 137 Co in normal individuals during 1975, as measured by whole-body counting, are reported. Results of studies on iodine metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism and with T 3 -thyrotoxicosis during 131 I therapy with activities up to 17 mCi showed that the apparent volumes of distribution for different iodine compounds do not change appreciably during therapy in this dose range. Methods are described for measuring the content of Ca alone and Ca and P in bone tissues by transmission scanning using a 252 Cf neutron source for activation of Ca and P

  17. Measurements of Cs 137 and Cs 134 internal contamination during 1987 by the Bologna Enea PAS whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Internal contamination data obtained during 1987 at the ENEA PAS-FIBI- AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna, following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. The data are referred to person living in the Bologna area, in other Italian regions and to individuals returned from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe countries. Trend of Cs-137 and Cs-134 internal body burden in adult men resident in Bologna are given together with values of mean daily intake by ingestion and evaluation of the commited dose equivalents up to decembre 1987. Measurement campaigns, specifically projected in order to evaluate the men/women activity differences and the distribution of the internal contamination in various Italian regions, have been performed

  18. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  19. Research on internal dosimetry for some of gamma emitting nuclides for radiation workers by direct method (in-vivo) with using a chair-type whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Hung Thai

    2003-01-01

    This research objective is to establish a chair-type whole-body counter with using NaI(Ti) detector in large sizes and whole-body standard phantoms as well as to apply the computational program of LUDEP 2.0. Steel holder with a lead collimator, two whole-body standard phantoms in Vietnamese adults (one for male and another for female) by plastic material, electronic blocks of ADC and MCD (8K), MCA program for measuring gamma spectrum by VB6 language in Windows are established and made. In addition, applied research for the program of LUDEP 2.0 in order to calculate and evaluated internal doses for radiation workers is carried out. (author)

  20. Implementation of ISO 28218 quality system in the laboratory of body radioactivity counter CIEMAT; Implementacion de la norma ISO 28218 en el sistema de calidad del laboratorio del contador de radiactividad corporal del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Perez Jimenez, C.

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory of body radioactivity counter has implemented IS0 28218 standard Performance Criteria for Radio bioassay in all measured in vivo techniques of internal contamination in the human organism in monitoring programs defined by the Personal Dosimetry Service Internal CIEMAT. The application of this rule in the laboratory's quality system is essential to meet the technical requirements of the standard IS0/IEC 17025 with the purpose of obtaining ENAC accreditation as a testing laboratory and calibration within the framework of the accreditation of Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry. (Author)

  1. Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Cherenkov counter described for use at Isabelle is a threshold counter in which light is focussed on phototubes. The counter is applicable in large-angle, small-aperture magnetic spectrometers for measurement of particle yields at large p/sub T/. Three of these counters will provide complete π-K-p separation in the range of 7-20 GeV/c. Other Cherenkov counters are discussed and a bibliography of relevant literature on the counters utilizing photoionization is included

  2. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  3. Practical methods for the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ; Metodos practicos para la evaluacion del comportamiento del sistema contador de cuerpo entero Accuscan II del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. M.; Ramirez J, F. J.; Mondragon C, L., E-mail: mercedes.alfaro@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The whole body counter system Accuscan II of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), was designed and built to quantify and to measure radionuclides fission product as well as gamma emitters, with a maximum sensibility of less than 10 n Ci for cobalt 60 at one time of counting of 5 minutes. The system has two detectors of Ge(Hp) with Beryllium window to a relative efficiency of 25% in a counting configuration of vertical scanning, this configuration gives a plane response of constant efficiency. In this work some practical methods developed in the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory to carry out the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ are described. With the obtained results of this evaluation we can decide fine adjustments will be necessary for the optimization of the equipment operation. The evaluation of this equipment was especially necessary, due to its 21 years-old antiquity and for the gradual changes that has in its functioning. The equipment is intrinsically a gamma spectrometry system and some described experiences could be applied too in other gamma spectrometry systems. (Author)

  4. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  5. Making snacking less sinful : (Counter-)moralizing obesity in the public discourse differentially affects food choices of individuals with high and low perceived body mass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia; Rupp, Deborah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As public discourse surrounding obesity highlights the societal costs of obesity and individual's own responsibility for their weight, being overweight is often framed as immoral. Such 'moralizing' messages about being overweight may be a psychological threat for those with high body

  6. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  7. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.; Rampa, E.; Ticconi, R.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 1 37 Cs and 1 34 Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  8. The counter ion: expanding excipient functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excipients have increasingly become 'enablers' of drug delivery and efficacy rather than passive bystanders. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have enabled the ability to deliver specific counter ions (in the form of the counter ion containing excipient and the API simultaneously to preselected targets in the body. This, coupled with a near universal mechanism of columbic interactions that determine the [API- counter ion] efficacy, can be harnessed to exploit this hitherto unavailable or unrecognized enabling mechanism. New excipients may be assembled by a near inexhaustible supply of different permutations of counter ions and their judicious use in specific situations could potentially drive a renaissance in excipient innovation (and drug delivery and efficacy despite regulatory stagnation.

  9. INTRODUCING OVER THE COUNTER COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacist in today’s world has a great responsibility – to help and educate patients about diverse ways for effective self-treatment. Whereas self-care is becoming increasingly popular among patients today the availability of over-the-counter medications makes it possible for patients to treat numerous conditions on their own but still under the supervision of a healthcare provider. During the pharmacist-patient encounter, the pharmacist’s obligation is to evaluate the patient’s medical condition, provide proper advice and counsel the patient on the proper course of treatment to be taken. Also by employing effective over the counter (OTC counseling as the most proper means in a pharmacist/patient communication process and, accordingly, rapport building in the OTC area, the pharmacist needs to demonstrate high energy, enthusiasm, respect, empathy, know-how of sensitive intercultural issues alongside personal appearance, body language, eye contact that all together make his/her personal “signature”. Accordingly, apart from patient education, the primary objective of OTC counseling becomes to educate pharmacists on basic principles used in assisting patients in the selection of over-the-counter (OTC products, provide examples of proper communication techniques for effective patient counseling concerning the OTC products (i.e. dosage, administration technique, storage, food and beverage interaction, monitoring etc where the pharmacist plays the key role in helping patients maximize their pharmaceutical care.

  10. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''2 sup 4 sup 1 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    CERN Document Server

    Moraleda, M; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in det...

  11. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report. [Nuclear medicine research studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A.B.

    1976-04-30

    Design modifications in radioisotope scanners are discussed. Studies on the radiation dose distribution in patients from /sup 90m/Tc-albumin microspheres in the lungs, /sup 59/Fe-citrate, /sup 131/I-hippuran in kidney transplants, and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphates are reported. Data on the levels of fallout /sup 137/Co in normal individuals during 1975, as measured by whole-body counting, are reported. Results of studies on iodine metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism and with T/sub 3/-thyrotoxicosis during /sup 131/I therapy with activities up to 17 mCi showed that the apparent volumes of distribution for different iodine compounds do not change appreciably during therapy in this dose range. Methods are described for measuring the content of Ca alone and Ca and P in bone tissues by transmission scanning using a /sup 252/Cf neutron source for activation of Ca and P. (CH)

  12. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best counting geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-07-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best countring geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  15. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  16. In Vivo Measurements of Caesium-137 with a Human Body Counter; Dosage du Cesium 137 In Vivo au Moyen d'un Anthropogammametre; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Medidas de Cesio-137 In Vivo con un Antropogammametro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, C. [C.N.E.N., Divisione di Biologia e Protezione Sanitaria, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, O. [Istituto di Fisica Dell' Universita di Bologna (Italy)

    1964-11-15

    Data are given of the first measurements of human body radioactivity made in Italy with the whole-body counter built by the authors in 1962. The counter shielding is made of iron bricks 16 cm thick. Measurements inside are 270 cm x 200 cm x 200 cm. The detectors are a 9 in x 4 in Nal (Tl) crystal and three 30 cm x 20 cm x 17 cm plastic scintillators which can be used separately, in parallel, or in anticoincidence and in coincidence with the crystal. The counter has been used for determining the behaviour of the caesium-137 body content from fall-out in the whole population and for estimating the caesium-137 retention in a subject accidentally contaminated. The first measurements of caesium-137 body content from fall-out were taken on 13 subjects in December 1962 and continued regularly at three-month intervals. A gradual increase was noted in the average caesium-137 content of the population throughout the whole of 1963 up to the value of 124 pc/g of potassium in September. In a case of accidental contamination from caesium-137 (about two years before the counter was built) measurements were made in order to determine both the effective half-life of the long-term component and the initial intake of the radioelement. (author) [French] Le memoire donne des renseignements sur les premiers dosages de l'activite du corps humain qui ont ete faits en Italie au moyen de l'anthropogammametre construit par les auteurs en 1962. La protection est en briques de fer de 16cmd'eDaisseur: ses dimensions interieures sont de 270 x 200 x 200 cm. L'appareil comporte comme detecteurs un cristal de Nal (Tl) de 22, 5 x 10 cm et trois scintillateurs en matiere plastique de 30 x 20 x 17 cm qui peuvent etre utilises separement, en parallele, ou en anticoincidence et en coincidence avec le cristal. Les auteurs ont employe l'appareil pour determiner comment varie la charge corporelle de cesium 137 due aux retombees dans l'ensemble de la population, et pour estimer la retention de cesium 137

  17. Nuclear timer/counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthayavanich, S.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis represents the development of a Timer/COUNTER compatible to the standard Nuclear Instrument Module Specifications. The unit exhibits high accuracy, light weight and ease of maintenance. The unit also has a built-in precision discriminator to discriminate unwanted signals that may cause interference in counting. With line frequency time base the timer can be preset in steps from 0.1 sec. to 9 x 10 5 min. The counter with six digits miniature display and an overflow output has a maximum counting rate of 10 MHz. The accumulated counting data can be transferred to a teletype or printer for hard copy printout with the aid of ORTEC 777 Line Printer or 432 A Print-out Control or any print out interface with input compatible to the print output of the Timer/Counter. Owing to its NIM compatibility the unit is directly powered by the NIM power supply

  18. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  19. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  20. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  1. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  2. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  3. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  4. A solution for 40K interference from K internal to the human body, in an underground high sensitivity whole body counter at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pillalamarri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to find a solution for the interference arising from 1461 keV photons emitted by 40K in natural K internal to the human body in the detection of 241Am and 210Pb activities at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi. The response of a broad energy Ge (BEGe reference crystal to 1461 keV photons was simulated using GEANT4 code. Simulations were performed for a point source without and with shielding, as well as for a Bottle Manikin Absorption (BOMAB phantom in the shielded whole-body counting chamber (WBC. The WBC facility is located underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA. The simulation results were discussed with regards to the interference in detecting the 241Am and 210 Pb at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi. The specific conclusion is that the interference counts from 40K activity at the natural levels present in the human body in typical clinical settings were found to be greater than the 210Pb and 241Am signal counts from 37 mBq (1 pCi, when a 38.1 mm diameter, 25.4 mm thick BEGe reference crystal was used. Our solution for minimizing the interference to the desired precision at the specified levels was found by sacrificing the broad energy response of the counting system.

  5. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    The average human exposure per year is about 240mrem which is come from Radon and human body and terrestrial and cosmic radiation and man-made source. Specially radiation exposure through air from environmental radiation sources is 80mrem/yr(= 0.01mR/hr) which come from Terrestrial and cosmic radiation. Radiation dose is defined as energy deposit/mass. There are two major methods to detect radiation. First method is the energy integration using Air equivalent material like GM counter wall material. Second method is the spectrum to dose conversion method using NaI(Tl), HPGe. These two methods are using generally to detect radiation. But these methods are expensive. So we need new radiation detection method. The research purpose is the development of economical environmental radiation dosimeter. This system consists of Plastic/Inorganic scintillator and Si photo-diode based detector and counting based circuitry. So count rate(cps) can be convert to air exposure rate(R/hr). There are three major advantages in this system. First advantages is no high voltage power supply like GM counter. Second advantage is simple electronics. Simple electronics system can be achieved by Air-equivalent scintillation detector with Al filter for the same detection efficiency vs E curve. From former two advantages, we can know the most important advantages of the this system. Third advantage is economical system. The price of typical GM counter is about $1000. But the price of our system is below $100 because of plastic scintillator and simple electronics. The role of scintillation material is emitting scintillation which is the flash of light produced in certain materials when they absorb ionizing radiation. Plastic scintillator is organic scintillator which is kind of hydrocarbons. The special point are cheap price, large size production(∼ton), moderate light output, fast light emission(ns). And the role of Al filter is equalizing counting efficiency of air and scintillator for

  6. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  7. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  8. Polymorphe Männerkörper in Bohumil Hrabals Werk Obsluhoval jsem anglického krále als Gegenentwurf zum Sozialistischen Realismus // The Polymorph Male Body in Bohumil Hrabal’s I Served the King of England as a Counter-Concept to Socialist Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay inquires into the literary presentation of the male body of selected protagonists of Bohumil Hrabalʼs Obsluhoval jsem anglického krále (I Served the King of England. Concentrating on the cultural-political situation especially at the time of the genesis of the novel and on the postulates of Socialist Realism regarding the male body, the analysis illustrates how the literary constructed male body of Hrabal works as a counter-concept to the aesthetics of Socialist Realism. Measured against the normally healthy and normalised male body in Socialist-Realist art, the bodies of Hrabalʼs male protagonists appear not merely deficient and grotesque but rather polymorphous. The immoral behaviour, erotic gestures and physical ineligibility of Hrabalʼs figures reduces the model of the hero of Socialist work effort to an absurdity.

  9. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  10. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  11. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  12. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.

    1984-03-01

    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  13. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  14. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  15. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  16. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  18. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    OpenAIRE

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlight...

  19. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  20. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  1. Portable microcomputer controlled radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Weber, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A portable microcomputer controlled counter for use as a radiation counter is described. The counter uses digital processing of input pulses from a radiation detector. The number of counts received by the microcomputer per unit time is used to calculate a value for display using a calibration factor obtained during physical calibration of the instrument with a radiation source or with a pulse generator. The keyboard is used to enter calibration points. The number of calibration points which may be entered depends on the degree of accuracy desired by the user. The high voltage generator which drives the detector is triggered by pulses from the microcomputer in relation to the count rate. After processing the count, the resulting count rate or dose rate is displayed on the liquid crystal display. The counter is autoranging in which the decimal point is shifted as necessary by the microcomputer. The units displayed are determined by the user by means of a multiposition switch. Low battery and an overrange condition are displayed. An interface is provided via a connector to allow parallel transmission of data to peripheral devices. Low battery power consumption is featured. The counter is capable of providing more accurate readings than currently available counters

  2. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  3. Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.; Kaipainen, Kirsikka

    2016-01-01

    Background: The home is one place where people can control what foods are available and how the environment is arranged. Given the impact of environments on health, the objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of foods on a person's kitchen counter are associated with their body mass index (BMI). Method: In Study 1, a…

  4. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlightenment.  In the process, they defined the main terms of an enduring vision of the world that we now associate with the Right.

  5. Plea and counter-plea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The bulk of papers written during the hearing 'Plea and counter-plea', the so-called 'Gorleben hearing', which was held from 28th March until 3rd April 1979, comprises ca. 4,200 pages. It consists of the written comments put forward by the critics of nuclear energy, the minutes of the hearing as well as the supplementary statements of the counter-critics. This report is trying to confront those essential objections made by the critics which put in doubt the feasibility of a fuel-cycle centre with regard to safety engineering with the facts which are considered correct from the view of the DWK. The oral and written explanations of the counter-critics are particularly referred to in this debate. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  7. ''Conventional'' Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Cherenkov counters to be used with ISABELLE are described. The three counters used in the Hadron Spectrometer can be used to identify particles in the range 10 to 40 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 3 GeV/c. A longer spectrometer for 400 x 400 GeV operation should also be used. The spectrometers may be used with CO 2 and H 2 . The range of particle identification of 8 to 60 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 5 GeV/c is possible

  8. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  9. Dimensions of Counter-Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...

  10. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  11. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  12. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  13. An introduction to automatic radioactive sample counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; the detection of radiation in sample counters; nucleonic equipment; liquid scintillation counting; basic features of automatic sample counters; statistics of counting; data analysis; purchase, installation, calibration and maintenance of automatic sample counters. (U.K.)

  14. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  15. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  16. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  17. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  18. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  19. Improvements to well scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farukhi, M.R.; Mataraza, G.A.; Wimer, O.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of ionising radiation detection. It concerns in particular scintillation detectors of the type that is commonly used in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube and that is used for monitoring radiation, for instance in the clinical measurements of isotopes. This invention enables well scintillation counters to be made, characterised by a high efficiency in measuring the thindown rate of radio-pharmaceutical solutions and to resolve the distribution of energy emanating from the radioactive source. It particularly consists in improving the uniformity of the luminous efficiency, the quality of the resolution and the efficiency whilst improving the reception of light [fr

  20. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.E.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Vorobjev, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  1. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  2. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  3. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  4. Proposal of a methodology to evaluate occupational internal exposure to Fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of 18 F for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine through PET technology leads to the growth in the number of occupationally exposed workers to this radionuclide. The external and internal exposures may occur both in the production of the radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and during its clinical use in nuclear medicine departments. Workers involved in such activities are usually monitored routinely for the control of external exposure. However it is important provide methods for internal monitoring promptly after a suspicion of incorporation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedures for internal monitoring of 18 F to be applied in cases of possible incorporation of fluoride and 18 FDG, using in vivo and in vitro methods of measurements. The NaI(Tl) 8x4 scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a whole body anthropomorphic phantom, simulating homogeneous distribution of 18 F in the body. The NaI(Tl) 3x3 scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a brain phantom inserted in an artificial skull, simulating 18 FDG incorporation. The HPGe detection system of the IRD-Bioassay Laboratory was calibrated for in vitro measurements of urine samples with 1 liter plastic bottles containing standard liquid source. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP models edited with the software AIDE-version 6, was established. It is concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of 18 F in the forms of fluoride and 18 FDG. The use of both in vitro and in vivo bioassay data can provide useful information for the interpretation of bioassay data in cases of accidental incorporation in order to identify the most likely route of intake, chemical form of 18 F incorporated and time of intake. (author)

  5. The 'miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Bellettini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Muon detection is fundamental to many of the interesting analyses at CDF II. For more efficient muon registration in Run II it was decided to increase geometrical coverage. The so-called 'miniskirt' counters are part of this upgrade. The original design parameters of the 'miniskirt' and mixed 'miniskirt' scintillation counters for the CDF Muon System are presented. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of mixed 'miniskirt' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns

  6. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  7. Evaluation of waste crate counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Shaw, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel nondestructive measurement system has been developed to perform combined gamma-ray, passive neutron, and active neutron analyses of radioactive waste packaged in large crates. The system will be used to examine low level and transuranic waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing facility at Westinghouse-Hanford Corp. Prior to delivery of the system, an extensive evaluation of its performance characteristics will be conducted. The evaluation is to include an assessment of the mechanical properties of the system, gamma-ray attenuation correction algorithms, instrument response as a function of source positions, performance of the high resolution gamma-ray detector for ''hot spot'' and isotopic analyses, active and passive neutron counter response, instrument sensitivity, matrix effects, and packaging effects. This report will discuss the findings of the evaluation program, to date, and indicate future directions for the program

  8. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  9. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  10. Efeito da fisioterapia contra-resistida com relação à massa corporal magra em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica Effect of counter resisted physiotherapy in relationship to the lean body mass after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Serpa Bopp Nassif

    2011-09-01

    weight strength and flexibility and can be applied in the patients recovery. AIM: In patients undergoing surgical treatment for morbid obesity are the objectives: 1 to evaluate the effect of physiotherapy counter resisted in lean mass; 2 to assess the factors associated with variations in lean body mass with physical therapy; 3 to compare the group of patients who lost lean mass to the one who won using physical therapy, analyzing the co-morbidities that interfered with these results. METHOD: The study included 100 patients operated on by Fobi-Capella technique divided into group A, patients who lost lean body mass measured in two periods (between 30 days and three months between three months and six months and group B by the patients that gained lean body mass in at least period. Data collection was performed using the Electronic Multiprofessional Protocol of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery with emphasis in Physical Therapy, identified as SINPE© (Integrated Electronic Protocols. The patients were evaluated pre-operatively and followed in the postoperative period in four phases: in the hospital, 30 days, three months and six months after the operation. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the three assessments (p <0.001. By comparing the 30 days to three months, there was loss of lean body mass with statistical significance (p <0.001. Similarly, between 30 days and six months (p <0.001. However, the period between three months and six months did not show results with significance level (p <0.612, showing a tendency to maintain lean body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Physical therapy counter resisted helped in maintaining lean body mass between the periods of three months and six months; 2 elderly men, diabetic and dyslipidemic lost more lean mass; duration of obesity, cardiovascular and orthopedic disease not changed the lean mass; 3 groups A and B showed no significant differences for both gain and loss lean mass in relation to cardiovascular and orthopedic

  11. Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaj, Ladislav

    2013-09-01

    For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

  12. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  13. Charged particle identification: Cherenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary is given of a study of Cherenkov counters for ISABELLE. The study was certainy not exhaustive and was meant primarily to suggest future detector development. A substantial research effort is needed in order to insure that Cherenkov counters utilizing photoionization are fully exploited

  14. Development of photocathodes for gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    A lot of ways of physics needs the development of high sensibility imaging devices with large sensitive surface. The problems brought by the building of such devices may be solved by the use of gaz counters. But we must sensitize these counters to low energy photons ( [fr

  15. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, A C; Hasheminejad, S M; Nadesan, T; Tandiono; Low, H T; Lee, T S

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  16. Monte Carlo modeling of the Fastscan whole body counter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, H.R.; Waller, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) was used to make a model of the Fastscan for the purpose of calibration. Two models were made one for the Pickering Nuclear Site, and one for the Darlington Nuclear Site. Once these models were benchmarked and found to be in good agreement, simulations were run to study the effect different sized phantoms had on the detected response, and the shielding effect of torso fat was not negligible. Simulations into the nature of a source being positioned externally on the anterior or posterior of a person were also conducted to determine a ratio that could be used to determine if a source is externally or internally placed. (author)

  17. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutmann, A.; Ebert, S.; Kaden, M.; Loehnert, D.; Doerfel, H.R.; Schreiber, W.; Helbig, S.

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the relocation of the incorporation measurement point operated by the VKTA, a new shielding chamber was designed. The development of the new shielding chamber will be shown based on the design study by IDEA System and the inquiries for material availability, procurement of material and assembly technology up to fabrication, assembly and completion of the chamber. The accompanying background measurements through In-situ gamma spectrometry and first experiences with incorporation measurements at the new In-Vivo measurement facility are shown.

  18. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  19. Aerogel Cherenkov Counters of the KEDR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ovtin, I V; Barnyakov, M Y; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Danilyuk, A F; Katcin, A A; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Rodiakin, V A

    2017-01-01

    The particle identification system of the KEDR detector is based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters called ASHIPH counters. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers. An event reconstruction program for the ASHIPH system was developed. The position of each counter relative to the tracking system was determined using cosmic muons and Bhabha events. The geometric efficiency of the ASHIPH system was verified with Bhabha events. The efficiency of relativistic particle detection was measured with cosmic muons. A π/K separation of 4δ in the momentum range 0.95 −1.45 GeV/c was confirmed. A simulation program for the ASHIPH counters has been developed.

  20. Aerogel Cerenkov counters at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelz, G.

    1984-11-01

    In high energy physics it is common to identify a charged particle and its kinematical parameters by the measurement of its momentum and its velocity. Cerenkov detectors have developed into a standard tool because they operate in the γ = (1-β 2 )sup(-1/2) range from about 1 to 100 which is not easily accessible by other devices. Pions, kaons and protons in present high energy experiments reach energies of several GeV. Threshold Cerenkov detectors for these particles need indices of refraction below 1.1 which are often produced with gases under high pressure. The design for chambers operating in this region was drasticly simplified when porous materials serving as Cerenkov radiators were invented. These chambers complement the time-of-flight counters, which cover the low energy region. Aerogel of silica is up to now the only porous substance with sufficient optical transparency. Its quality has been improved substantially in recent times so that large size detectors can be constructed. (orig.)

  1. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  2. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  3. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  4. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  5. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  6. Countering North Korean Special Purpose Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Troy

    1999-01-01

    As United States and Republic of Korea forces stand to defend against a DPRK attack, one of the most formidable tasks is how to counter a second front in the Joint Rear Security Area of the Republic of Korea...

  7. Tests of BF3 counters with getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.

    1968-01-01

    BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented

  8. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  9. Counter - Drug: Mandate for the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding to new missions assigned...observations for determining the short-, mid-, and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide...and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding

  10. Lifetime characteristics of Gaiger-Muller counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of functional aging of Geiger-Muller counters. Two types of Geiger-Muller counter chambers were characterized in an experiment using a combined constant voltage. Chamber A had a coaxial geometry and chamber B had a plan-parallel geometry. The experimental results indicate that the aging process was faster in the case of chambers with a coaxial geometry. The results are explained based on the process of electrical discharges in gasses.

  11. Quality control and the multicrystal counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, G.C.; Davis, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of multicrystal counters for use in counting large numbers of radioimmunoassay samples is studied. In particular, the dependencies of the outputs from the array of detectors, and hence their degree of matching, on the count rate and volume of the samples being counted are investigated. Quality control procedures are described to assist in the assurance of consistent performance of the counter in the clinical situation. (U.K.)

  12. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  13. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  14. The emerging counter-defamation of religion discourse: a critical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temperman, J.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging counter-defamation discourse is a morally but above all legally flawed development. The concept has stirred politicians and academics alike. In the political bodies of the UN, it has divided state representatives into two vehemently opposing camps. In academia, it has largely resulted

  15. Measuring radioactivity in the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    Techniques of measuring the total amount of radioactivity in the body of a living person as well as the principal applications of such measurements were reviewed at a Symposium on Whole Body Counting held in Vienna from 12 to 16 June 1961. The whole body counters can be divided into two broad groups: (a) counters for the radiation protection surveillance of the general public and radiation workers, capable of detecting extremely low levels of radioactivity in the human body, and (b) counters for medical research and diagnosis, designed to check the retention and excretion of radioactive substances administered to patients for metabolic and pathological studies. In both cases, the primary requirement is that the counter must be able to measure the total activity in the body. In recent years, there has been a remarkable development of the instruments and techniques for such measurements. One of the main purposes of the symposium in Vienna was to discuss how best to use these highly sophisticated instruments.

  16. Stability and linearity control of spectrometric channels of the Cherenkov counters using controllable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, D.; Kollarova, L.; Khorvat, P.

    1976-01-01

    A system is elaborated to control stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels in an experiment on a magnetic monopole search. Linearity of a light characteristic of a photoelectric multiplier is checked with the help of the calibrated light-strikings of light emitting diodes with flare intensity adjusted by controlling generator voltage across the mercury body. A program algorithm is presented for checking stability and linearity of the Cherenkov counter spectrometric channels which helps to consider the fatigue effects of the photoelectric multiplier resulting from the considerable loads

  17. The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolache Rada

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.

  18. CORNELL: CLEO's counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Particle identification by measuring ionization is complicated by the fact that the energy lost to ionization in passing through matter has large fluctuations, first calculated by Landau. These large fluctuations imply that many measurements must be made in order to determine the most probable ionization value that is characteristic of the particle type. The JADE chamber at PETRA and the TPC chamber at PEP measure both the ionization and the momenta of tracks in the same device. In the CLEO experiment at Cornell's CESR ring, ionization is measured in dedicated energy loss counters contained in each of the eight octants surrounding the drift chamber and superconducting coil. The last of these were installed in the summer of 1981, replacing Cherenkov counters that were used while the energy loss counters were being developed and built

  19. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  20. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  1. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  2. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  3. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  4. Measurements of Caesium-137 in Finnish Lapps in 1962-1964 by a Mobile Whole-Body Counter; Dosages de Cesium 137 chez les Lapons de Finlande en 1962-1964, au Moyen d'un Anthro- Pogammametre Mobile; 0418 0417 041c 0415 0420 0414 ; Determinacion del Cesio-137 en Lapones Finlandeses, en 1962-1964, Mediante un Antropogammametro Movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J. K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    1964-11-15

    The construction, calibration and use in-field investigations of a mobile whole-body counter of the type developed by K. Liden et al, in Sweden are described. The lead shield of the present system (2 t) is located)in-the middle of a covered heavy truck. The subject is surrounded by a 4-cm thick lead coffin, the Nal(Tl) crystal (5 an-diam. x 3 in) being protected from the other directions than the coffin by 8 cm of lead. The instrumentation consists of a 512-channel analyser, printer, x, y-recorder, and stabilizer, which are kept in shock- and dust-proof boxes during transport. The truck is provided with a thermostated heating system and contains two dressing cubicles. The system was calibrated for caesium-137 by two methods: (1) By administering per os a precisely known amount (200 to 300 nc) caesium-137 to several subjects and determining the counting efficiency after 3 to 6 d. The excreted portion of caesium-137 was determined by collecting and analysing the faeces and urine. (2) By counting a plastic phantom filled with 70.kg of a solution containing 1552 nc caesium-137. The first method gave a 4,6% higher efficiency than the second. The efficiency obtained by the first method was adopted as, the true calibration. This was also checked by three inter-calibration measurements with two other whole-body counting laboratories. The agreement was good (within 1 to 4%). For potassium a preliminary calibration was made by the use of the phantom. The efficiency is 2.51 cpm/nc caesium-137 (0.60- 0.72 MeV, 20 channels), and 0.145 cpm/g K (1.38- 1.55 MeV, 30 channels). When the truck is parked on rock, the corresponding background counts with a 70 kg sugar phantom-are 77 cpm and, 58 cpm, respectively. On sandy soil the background is about half of that on rock. With this mobile counter three field investigations were carried out in Finnish Lapland. In May 1962 218 Lapps statistically representative groups from the three Finnish Lapp countries, Inari, Karesuanto and Utsjoki

  5. 'Miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Artikov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Muon detection is fundamental for the most of the interesting analyses at CDF. At the course of Run II, the collaboration expects to collect hundreds of t t-bar decays yielding a muon as well as several million B-hadron events involving J/ψ → μ + μ - decays. Muon detection is also of fundamental importance in the study of W-boson properties and in the search for Higgs production associated with W or Z bosons. Considerable effort therefore went into extending the muon detector coverage for Run II, which started in March 2001. The CDF II muon detector system consists of multiple layers of drift chambers and scintillation counters, which span the pseudorapidity (|η|) range between 0 and 1.5. Detectors spanning different ranges have different geometries, and the muon scintillation counter system includes subsystems in the regions that have come to be known as the 'central' (0 pe for WLS fiber readout is smaller than for conventional readout, we can also expect an increase in the statistical contribution to the overall uncertainty. Our first concern, before adopting this solution, was therefore to ascertain that the mean timing resolution obtained under these conditions was adequate. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of MSX' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns. (author)

  6. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  7. A gridded air counter for measuring exoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Chiba, Yoshiya; Kirihata, Humiaki.

    1980-01-01

    A gridded air counter with a quenching circuit is described, which serves to detect low-energy electrons such as thermionic electrons, photoelectrons and exoelectrons emitted into the atmospheric air. The air counter consists of a loop-shaped anode and two grids provided for quenching the gas discharge and for protecting the electron emitter from the positive ion bombardment. The quenching circuit with a high input sensitivity of 5 mV detects the initiation gas discharge caused by an incident electron and immediately supplies a rectangular wave pulse of 300 V in amplitude and of more than 3 msec in width to the quenching grid near the anode. Simultaneously, the voltage of the suppressor grid is brought down and kept at -30 V against the earthed sample for the same period of time. Performance of the gridded air counter was examined by use of photoelectrons emitted from an abraded aluminum plate. The quenching action was successfully accomplished in the anode voltage range from 3.65 to 3.95 kV. The photoelectrons emitted into the atmosphere could be counted stably by use of this counter. (author)

  8. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  9. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  10. Micropipette as Coulter counter for submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzevich, Yauheni; Ordonez, Tony; Evans, Grant; Chow, Lee

    2011-03-01

    Coulter counter based on micropipette has been around for several decades. Typical commercial Coulter counter has a pore size of 20 μ m, and is designed to detect micron-size blood cells. In recent years, there are a lot of interests in using nanometer pore size Coulter counter to detect single molecule and to sequence DNA. Here we describe a simple nanoparticle counter based on pulled micropipettes with a diameter of 50 -- 500 nm. Borosilicate micropipettes with an initial outer diameter of 1.00 mm and inner diameter of 0.5 mm are used. After pulling, the micropipettes are fire polished and ultrasound cleaned. Chlorinated Ag/AgCl electrodes and 0.1 M of KCl solution are used. The ionic currents are measured using an Axopatch 200B amplifier in the voltage-clamp mode. Several types and sizes of nanoparticles are measured, including plain silica and polystyrene nanospheres. The results will be discussed in terms of pH values of the solution and concentrations of the nanoparticles. Financial support from National Science Foundation (NSF-0901361) is acknowledged.

  11. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  12. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  13. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  14. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  15. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  16. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)

  17. FB-line neutron multiplicity counter operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Sweet, M.R.; Salazar, S.D.; Kroncke, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the design features, performance, and operating characteristics for the FB-Line Neutron Multiplicity Counter (FBLNMC). The FBLNMC counts neutron multiplicities to quantitatively assay plutonium in many forms, including impure scrap and waste. Monte Carlo neutronic calculations were used to design the high-efficiency (57%) detector that has 113 3 H tubes in a high-density polyethylene body. The new derandomizer circuit is included in the design to reduce deadtime. The FBLNMC can be applied to plutonium masses in the range from a few tens of grams to 5 kg; both conventional coincidence counting and multiplicity counting can be used as appropriate. This manual gives the performance data and preliminary calibration parameters for the FBLNMC

  18. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  20. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  1. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  2. Counter-responses as organizers in adolescent analysis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, M Barrie

    2004-01-01

    The author introduces Counter-response as a phenomological term to replace theory-burdened terms like counter-transference, counter-identification, and counter-resistance. He discusses the analyst's use of self (drawing on the comparison with Winnicott's use of the object) in processing the expectable destabilizing counter-reactions that occur in working therapeutically with disturbed adolescents and their parents. Further; he discusses the counter-reaction to the patient's narrative, acting-out, and how re-enactments can serve as an organizer for understanding the patient's inner life when the analyst formulates his/her counter-response. Emphasis is placed on the therapist forming his or her own narrative with the adolescent that takes into account the evoked counter-reaction. For this purpose, the author recommends the use of a combined counter-response and metaphor-orienting perspective to acknowledge and work with the denial, illusions, reversal of perspective, and catastrophic anxieties experienced with these adolescents. The counter-response perspective permits the emergence of the disturbed adolescent's novel narrative; however, since these experiences can be destabilizing or disruptive, the author also recommends the use of a personal metaphor to anticipate the reluctance to examining, processing, and formulating the analyst's dysphoric counter-reaction. With the use of the counter-response, the analyst's therapeutic ideal is to achieve a more optimal balance between using accepted narrative theories and exploring novel enactment experiences. His swimming metaphor stratagem is designed to keep the analyst in these difficult encounters.

  3. Generalization of the development of liquid-sparkling counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Zhengzhu; Zhang Jue; Zhang Jinwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper includes five parts. It not only reviews the development history of liquid-sparkling counter but refers that the appearance of coincident circuit is its milestone. The paper summarizes the resembled hard ware and soft ware and soft ware of liquid-sparkling counter of indoor and overseas, and prospects the development of liquid-sparkling counter in our country. (authors)

  4. A new neutron counter for fission research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B., E-mail: benoit.laurent@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A new neutron counter for research experiments on nuclear fission has been developed. This instrument is designed for the detection of prompt fission neutrons within relatively high levels of gamma and neutron background. It is composed of a set of {sup 3}He proportional counters arranged within a block of polyethylene which serves as moderator. The detection properties have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments with radioactive sources. These properties are confirmed by an experiment on neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U at the WNR facility of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during which the mean prompt fission neutron multiplicity, or ν{sup ¯} has been measured from 1 to 20 MeV of incident neutron energy.

  5. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  6. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  7. Sources of Brazil's Counter-Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been two key initiatives taken in the last two decades in Brazil to create a counter-hegemonic project for the country. One initiative resulted from Brazil's business community and high-level State bureaucracy and aimed at forming a regional economic and political bloc that would guarantee and enlarge a relative independence from the hegemonic powers. The other resulted from the emergence of the new unionist movement in São Paulo and from the formation of Partido dos Trabalhadores and aimed at promoting radical democratization and reducing social exclusion. Both initiatives have created policies and changes that have converged to enhance Brazil's counter-hegemonic position as a regional and emerging power.

  8. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  9. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  10. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  11. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  12. Fast differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelevoj, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The flowsheet of a differential pulse discriminator counter is described; the result of discrimination here is independent from the shape of the input pulse. Rate of the analysis of input pulses with minimum amplitude up to 0.3 mV coming out from the photomultiplier makes up 220 MHz. The flowsheet of the discriminator used in the system of photon counting for atmosphere probing is presented

  13. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, M.; Tan Jilian; Potenza, R.; D'amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter with a distributed constant delay-line-cathode (PSAC) is described. The strips formed on the printed board were served as the cathode and the delay line for readout of signals. The detector (PSAC) was operated in isobutane gas at the pressure range from 10 to 20 torr. The position resolution is better than 1 mm and the time resolution is about 350 ps, for 252 Cf fission-spectrum source

  14. Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    strategy is actually addressing those critical capabilities and vulnerabilities. Finally, it explores alternative, whole-of-government strategies that...Counterterrorism Strategies as an Illustration. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation , 2009. Enduring Leadership in a Dynamic World. Quadrennial Diplomacy...Evaluating the US Counter-ISIL Strategy A Monograph by LTC Jason A. Curl U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army

  15. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  16. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  17. Development of aerogel Cherenkov counters at Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baehr, J.; Bellunato, T.; Beloborodov, K.I.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Calvi, M.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Djordjadze, V.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Lipka, D.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Onuchin, A.P.; Perego, D.; Rodiakin, V.A.; Savinov, G.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shamov, A.G.; Stephan, F.; Tayursky, V.A.; Vorobiov, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    The work on aerogel Cherenkov counters was started in Novosibirsk in 1986. Production of aerogels with refractive indices of 1.006-1.13 and thicknesses of blocks up to 50mm was developed. The light absorption length at 400nm is 5-7m, the scattering length is 4-5cm. By these parameters, the Novosibirsk aerogel is one of the best in the world. The ASHIPH Cherenkov counters with light collection on wavelength shifters have been developed. The ASHIPH system of the KEDR detector contains 1000l of aerogel. The π/K separation is 4.5σ. A project of ASHIPH counters for the SND detector has been developed. Aerogel RICH for LHCb gives a possibility to identify hadrons in the momentum range of 2-10GeV/c. The Novosibirsk group is developing an aerogel RICH for the endcap for the SuperBaBar project. Calculations performed by a group of physicists from Novosibirsk and DESY-Zeuthen have shown that aerogel radiators enable to achieve time resolution up to 20fs

  18. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  19. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  20. Consumer Preferences for High Welfare Meat in Germany: Self-service Counter or Service Counter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.

  1. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.

  2. Taxing Junk Food to Counter Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity. PMID:24028245

  3. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  4. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  5. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity.

  6. Cerenkov counter for the experiment NA3

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The program of the NA3 experiment included the study of hadronic interactions with a large transverse momentum pT, thus the inclusion in the set-up of three gas threshold Cerenkov counters of large acceptance. The photo shows the downstream part of the second Cerenkov (located at the output of the magnet). The yellow membrane is a temporary protection for the optics (shown in photo 7810540X) to be taken away when fixing this part to the gas tank (entering the magnet and not shown). The photomultipliers all around are heavily shielded.

  7. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of investigation of using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes, parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economic new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t>900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, an effective coding matrix has been created which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. 23 refs.; 21 figs

  8. High use of over-the-counter analgesic; possible warnings of reduced quality of life in adolescents - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Siv; Lagerløv, Per; Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Helseth, Sølvi

    2016-01-01

    Use of over-the-counter analgesics among adolescents has increased markedly. High consumption of over-the-counter analgesics among adolescents is associated with frequent pain, lower self-esteem, reduced sleep, lower educational ambition, binge drinking, higher caffeine consumption, and part-time employment. Knowledge about life experiences of adolescents who frequently use over-the-counter analgesics may be useful to prevent health problems. The purpose of the study was to increase knowledge about adolescents who suffer from frequent pain and have a high consumption of over-the-counter analgesics. A qualitative study, employing one-on-one, in-depth interviews using a thematic interview guide. Data were collected in Norway in 2013-2014. Three boys and sixteen girls; aged 14-16 years, who continuously consumed over-the-counter analgesics were recruited from ten high schools in urban and suburban districts. Candidate participants were excluded if they were medically diagnosed with an acute or chronic illness, requiring extended use of over-the-counter analgesics within the last year. The interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed as text according to Kvale's three contexts of interpretation: self-understanding, common sense and theory. All participants disclosed unresolved physical and psychosocial distress characterized as pain. Frequent pain from various body parts made everyday life challenging. Methods of pain self-appraisal and over-the-counter analgesics use often mimicked maternal patterns. Participants reported being raised under unpredictable circumstances that contributed to long lasting family conflicts and peer-group problems. Participants wanted to feel appreciated and to be socially and academically successful. However, pain reduced their ability to manage everyday life, hampered experienced possibilities for success, and made social settings difficult. Childhood experiences influence how adolescents experience pain and use over-the-counter

  9. Governmentality, Counter-conduct and Prefigurative Demonstrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest demonstra......This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest...... demonstration are examined using video recordings that were made of a theatrical protest event called “United Nathans weapons inspections” in February 2003. The chapter draws upon Mitchell Dean’s analytics of government and Carl Death’s analytics of protest. A first step in an analytics of protest is to uncover...... how fields of visibility, forms of knowledge, technologies and apparatuses, and subjectivities and identities are negotiated and accomplished collaboratively. Specific tools and methods that are well suited to investigating the situated practices, procedures and technologies of governmentality...

  10. Silicon photomultipliers in AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Ana Martina [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (ITeDA) (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The project AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) aims to extend the energy range at the Pierre Auger Observatory to observe cosmic rays of lower energies (down to ∝10{sup 17} eV) and to study the transition from extragalactic to galactic cosmic rays. AMIGA is compounded by an infill of surface detectors (employing Cherenkov radiation detection in water) and muon counters. The AMIGA muon counters consist of an array of buried modules composed of 64 scintillator bars, a multi-pixel Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and the corresponding electronic of acquisition which works along with the surface detector. Currently, ITeDA is evaluating the feasibility of replacing PMTs with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) without performing any substantial modification in the digital readout nor in the mechanical design. I present calibration results of a prototype module associated to the surface detector Toune of the Pierre Auger Observatory using a SiPM Hamamatsu S1257-100C plugged to the standard AMIGA front-end electronics. In addition, a study concerning gain stability and temperature variation has also been performed and is reported. I finally discuss a comparison between traces measured by both photodetectors (PMT and SiPM) for modules associated to the surface detector Toune.

  11. 300-MHz optical discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    The prediction of future CO 2 content in the atmosphere is not completely credible because the oceanographers and terrestrial ecologists do not agree on the global CO 2 balance. Very precise measurements of O 2 /N 2 ratio using Raman scattering over a few years' period could provide important information and lead to the explanation of the disparity in the atmospheric CO 2 balance. An optical discriminator-counter has been developed to count closely spaced optical events in the few photon level. Simulated optical events as close as 2.5 ns apart had been positively detected by using selected photomultipliers and optimized discriminators. Testing of the optical discriminator-counter was done by using an electrical pulse pair spaced 3 ns apart and also by a similar optical pulse pair generated by fast light-emitting diode. The photomultiplier is capable of counting an average single photoelectron pulse frequency of 50 MHz and has a sensitive detecting area of 50 mm in diameter. The discriminator performance is discussed

  12. Reduction of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R.; Kirsten, T. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A method to reduce the number of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters is described. A shaping of the outer cathode leads to a more uniform gas gain along the counter axis. The method is useful in situations in which the total number of decay events is very low. The effects leading to degraded events are studied theoretically and experimentally. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by using it for the proportional counter of the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment. (orig.).

  13. Construction and calibration studies of the SAPHIR scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrewa, D.

    1988-03-01

    For the scintillation counter system of the SAPHIR detector at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn 50 time of flight counters and 12 trigger counters have been built. Each of them has two photomultipliers, one at each side. A laser calibration system with a pulsed nitrogen laser as central light source to monitor these photomultipliers has been optimized. It was used to adjust the photomultipliers and to test their long and short time instabilities. (orig.)

  14. Criticism and Counter-Criticism of Public Management: Strategy Models

    OpenAIRE

    Luis C. Ortigueira

    2007-01-01

    Critical control is very important in scientific management. This paper presents models of critical and counter-critical public-management strategies, focusing on the types of criticism and counter-criticism manifested in parliamentary political debates. The paper includes: (i) a normative model showing how rational criticism can be carried out; (ii) a normative model for oral critical intervention; and (iii) a general motivational strategy model for criticisms and counter-criticisms. The pap...

  15. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  16. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviller, H. de

    1965-01-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr

  17. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis For A Cargo Container Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W.H.; Lestone, J.P.; Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.

  18. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  19. Mass transfer in counter current flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, Maria D.; Popova, Petya G.; Boyadjiev, Christo B. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical analysis of gas-liquid counter-current flow in laminar boundary layers with flat phase boundary based on similarity variables method has been done. The obtained numerical results for the energy dissipation, mass transfer rate and their ratio are compared with analogous results for concurrent flows. A diffusion type of model is proposed for modeling of the mass transfer with chemical reaction in the column apparatuses in the cases of circulation zones. The presence of rising and descending flows (the change of the velocity direction) leads to using three coordinate systems. An iterative algorithm for the concentration distribution calculation is proposed. The influence of the zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column is investigated. Key words: efficiency, mass transfer, velocity distribution, column apparatuses, circulation zones.

  20. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  1. CWRU multiwire proportional counter readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevington, P.R.; Leskovec, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic system is described which translates pulses from individual wires of multiwire proportional counters into binary addresses indicating the location of the wires in the chambers. The system combines a fast (<100 ns) serial scan of an event buffer with parallel encoding to provide fast transfer of addresses (250 ns per hit). The buffer has provision for disabling the input less than 40 ns after detection of an event to suppress recording of multiple hits caused by individual events. The encoder can digitize the address of every hit encountered or just the first addresses of contiguous hits. The system includes a coincidence trigger for determining whether timing criteria have been satisfied between chambers and with external devices. Events which do not meet the coincidence criteria are typically reset within 400 ns. The addresses are transferred to a computer interface through CAMAC modules. Multiple buffering permits further data acquisition during CAMAC transfer cycles. (Auth.)

  2. Fabrication of preamplifier for proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Talebi, B.; Mohammadi, A.; Etaati, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    We have tried to describe techniques of preamplifier fabrication for proportional counter. At first electronic circuit of preamplifier has been analyzed by means of Or cad 9.1. Then we assembled the circuit. Thereafter essential and standard parameters of preamplifier has been measured and compared with foreign made one, according to IEEE standard method. (IEEE Std 301-1988) Specification for our preamplifier is: 1. Rise time of output plus: 25 nsec. 2. Fall time of output pulse: 50μ sec. 3. Charge sensitive: 46.3 mV/pc. 4. Average noise: 500 ion pair (rms) 5. Count R ate L imit: 9.14*10 10 Count/sec. 6. Resolution: %1.3 7. Spectrum of Bf3 detector to 300μ Ci Am-Be source for this preamplifier is the same as foreign one. On the Whole comparison of this preamplifier with the foreign one shows that their parameters similarity is about %95

  3. Efficiency simulation of long neutron counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qingyuan; Li Bojun; Zhang De; Guo Hongsheng; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Si Fenni; Liu Jian

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve the high efficiency and uniform sensitivity for neutrons with widely different energies, the efficiency of long boron trifluoride proportional counter imbedded in polyethylene moderator was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows that detective efficiency would increase with increasing moderator radius and response curve at higher energy would be ameliorated through adjusting the thickness of front moderator. Also we calculated the relative efficiencies for different energy of a detector whose efficiencies were calibrated on an accelerator. The simulated efficiency for D-D neutrons (2.4 MeV) is 75% of the efficiency for D-T neutrons (14.1 MeV), which is approximately agreed with experimental data, 61%. The validity of the simulated model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experiment data. (authors)

  4. Fast-neutron coincidence-counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.L.; Lee, D.M.; Erkkila, B.; Marshall, R.S.; Morgan, A.; Shonrock, C.; Tippens, B.; Van Lyssel, T.

    1982-03-01

    The fast neutron counter (FNC) described in this report is a computer-based assay system employing fast-pulse counting instrumentation. It is installed below a glove box in the metal electrorefining area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed to assay plutonium salts and residues from this process and to verify the mass of electrorefined metal. Los Alamos National Laboratory Groups Q-1, Q-3, and CMB-11 carried out a joint test and evaluation plan of this instrument between May 1978 and May 1979. The results of that evaluation, a description of the FNC, and operating instructions for further use are given in this report

  5. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    The continuous interest in and concern with business communication can be detected in the way critical aspects of this kind of communication are represented and debated in a wide range of discourses in a wide range of contexts. Drawing upon a social semiotic perspective, this paper explores...... the persuasive counter discourse of Media Bites videos: http://griid.org/category/media-bites/. The videos are a part of GRIID organization’s efforts directed at revealing misleading communicative strategies employed in various business contexts. In these instructive videos, the viewers are made familiar...... the misleading strategies employed. The viewers are also instructed where else they can find information about these strategies and the consequences of misleading advertising discourse. The argumentation framework of the Media Bites videos is also persuasively articulated for engaging the viewers as active...

  6. CAMAC differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselikov, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Differential pulse discriminator-counter for Moessbauer spectrometer is described. Input pulse setting into the channel is performed according to the following algorithm: the pulse is transmitted to the channel depending on the fact whether the preceding pulse has got to the discrimination window or not. The circuit does not contain delay lines, taking into account the delay of a signal from the upper level discriminator in relation to the lower level discriminator signal, which is connected with input pulse rise finite time, which in turn allows one to reduce the discriminator dead time up to the operation time of threshold circuits. The pulse counting rate is 150 MHz, input signal amplitude is ±3 V, dead time is 6 ns, delay time from input to output is 14 ns. The unit is made in CAMAC system

  7. Quality measurement by proportional counter with B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry of air and the tissue-equivalent phantom made of acryl are carried out by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and TEPC with wall contained B, and both results were compared. The changes of quality with distance from the beam center are determined by the frequency mean renewal energy y F (y)and the dose mean renewal energy y D (y) as indicators of quality. Both y F (y)and y D (y) of tissue-equivalent phantom are larger than air, but very large change was not observed in all distance. The dose rate is determined by y D (y), the number of events and measurement time. Change of dose rate was larger than the change of quality. The maximum value of dose rate depended on γray and neutron beam showed at the point 2 cm away from the center. (S.Y.)

  8. China's Cyber Initiatives Counter International Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior to its historic 2015 “no hack” pact for commercial advantage with the United States, Beijing has been engaged drafting and passing legislation, most with specific cyber components, to enhance its security posture while protecting its economic interests. This approach is in stark contrast to United States efforts that have demonstrated a focus on “acting globally, thinking locally” philosophy wherein most of its cyber efforts have been outwardly facing and are distinct from other security considerations. This paper suggests that by strengthening its domestic front with a legal framework, Beijing is preparing itself to counter any foreign initiative contrary to Beijing’s plans (e.g., cyber norms of behavior, cyber sanctions, etc. by being able to exert legal measures against foreign interests in country, thereby preserving its cyber sovereignty.

  9. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  10. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  11. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  12. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M

    1997-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Proposal of a methodology for evaluation of internal occupational exposure by Fluorine-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of 18 F for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine through PET technology leads to the growth in the number of occupationally exposed workers to this radionuclide, and consequently, increases up the probability of incorporation of this radionuclide. The external and internal exposures may occur during its clinical application 18 FDG and mainly during its production. Workers involved in such activities are usually monitored routinely for the control of external exposure. However it is important to provide methods for internal monitoring promptly after a suspicion of incorporation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedures for internal monitoring of 18 F to be applied in cases of possible incorporation of ions fluoride and 18 FDG radiopharmaceutical, using in vivo and in vitro methods of measurements. The NaI(Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a whole body anthropomorphic phantom simulating incorporation by 18 F in the form of fluoride ions due to the homogeneous distribution of this substance in the body. The Nal(Tl) 3'' x 3'' scintillation detector of the IRD-Whole Body Counter was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a brain phantom inserted in an artificial skull simulating incorporation by 18 F in the form 18FDG due to the high absorption of this substance by brain. HPGe detection system of the IRD-Bioassay Laboratory was calibrated for in vitro measurements of urine samples. It was used 1 liter plastic bottles containing standardized radioactive source. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation based on standard ICRP models edited with the software AIDE-version 6 was established. It is concluded that in vivo measurements for the evaluation of incorporation of 18 F in the form of fluoride and 18 FDG have sufficient sensitivity to detect effective doses of 4,4 x 10 -6 and 1,55 x 10 5 mSv, respectively, i.e., below the recording level of

  15. X-ray proportional counter for the Viking Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesius, F.L.; Kroon, J.C.; Castro, A.J.; Clark, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    A set of four sealed proportional counters with optimized energy response is employed in the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer units aboard the two Viking Landers. The instruments have provided quantitative elemental analyses of soil samples taken from the Martian surface. This paper discusses the design and development of these miniature proportional counters, and describes their performance on Mars

  16. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  17. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  18. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  19. Analysis of Cherenkov counter efficiencies for E691

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremaldi, L.; Elliott, J.; Gibney, M.; Nauenberg, U.

    1985-01-01

    A program is outlined which simulates Cherenkov counters. The program can compute the effect of the magnetic field on the efficiencies of Cherenkov counters. It also tells what cone to mirror distance gives the highest collection efficiency and at which target position should the laser be placed to represent the direction of the actual Cherenkov light the mirror sees

  20. Presettable up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Meyer, U.; Weidhase, F.

    1976-01-01

    A module containing a presettable binary up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit is described. The use of dataway is discussed. As an example for application in nuclear physics, control of beam position by the up-down counter is illustrated

  1. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  2. Counter-Buffing: A Visual Criticism of Guerrilla Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Robb Conrad; Cooke, Laquana

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses and explores hip-hop's reclamation of space using transit as a public bulletin. It is situated within counter-publics discourse and couched in the theoretical frameworks offered by visual rhetorical theory. This article also discusses hip-hop counter-publics through guerrilla advertising by former graffiti artists, SKI and…

  3. Counter diffusion of zinc and iron in alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Half cell technique showed that an increase in moisture tension and CaCO 3 content caused reduction in the counter diffusion coefficients of zinc and iron in an alluvial soil. Increases in bulk density, ambient temperature and concentration of synthetic chelating agents e.g. EDTA and DTPA increased the counter diffusion coefficients of both zinc and iron. (author)

  4. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Razdolescu, AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available at IFIN-HH using a 3 H standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A set of ready-to-measure Ni-63 sources in liquid...

  5. Beam test of Cherenkov counter prototype for ZDF setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacharava, A.K.; Macharashvili, G.G.; Nioradze, M.S.; Komarov, V.I.; Sopov, V.S.; Chernyshev, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a Cherenkov counter of total internal reflection for particle separation in the momentum range where all types of particles radiate Cherenkov light. The Cherenkov counter prototype with the lucite radiator was tested on the secondary beam of the ITEP (Moscow) accelerator. Dependence of the photomultiplier pulse height on the particle entrance angle was clearly observed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. A proportional counter for efficient backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Cudny, W.; Holnicka, J.; Walentek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a novel gas-tight proportional counter with flat beryllium windows for backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy. The krypton-filled counter has a geometry that approaches 2π and a resolution of 12% fwhm for the 14.4 keV line of 57 Fe, and is easy to manufacture. (Auth.)

  7. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  8. Influence of tube volume on measurement uncertainty of GM counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GM counters are often used in radiation detection since they generate a strong signal which can be easily detected. The working principal of a GM counter is based on the interaction of ionizing radiation with the atoms and molecules of the gas present in the counter's tube. Free electrons created as a result of this interaction become initial electrons, i. e. start an avalanche process which is detected as a pulse of current. This current pulse is independent of the energy imparted on the gas, that being the main difference between a GM counter and the majority of other radiation detectors. In literature, the dependence on the incidence of radiation energy, tube's orientation and characteristics of the reading system are quoted as the main sources of measurement uncertainty of GM counters. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of measurement uncertainty of a GM counter on the volume of its counter's tube. The dependence of the pulse current on the size of the counter's tube has, therefore, been considered here, both in radial and parallel geometry. The initiation and expansion of the current pulse have been examined by means of elementary processes of electrical discharge such as the Markov processes, while the changes in the counter's tube volume were put to test by the space - time enlargement law. The random variable known as the 'current pulse in the counter's tube' (i. e. electrical breakdown of the electrode configuration has also been taken into account and an appropriate theoretical distribution statistically determined. Thus obtained theoretical results were then compared to corresponding experimental results established in controlled laboratory conditions.

  9. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  10. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I

    1960-12-15

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere.

  11. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Nilsson, I.

    1960-12-01

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 μμc per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 μμc per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere

  12. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  13. Dynamic Imbalance Would Counter Offcenter Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccanna, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance generated by offcenter thrust on rotating body eliminated by shifting some of mass of body to generate opposing dynamic imbalance. Technique proposed originally for spacecraft including massive crew module connected via long, lightweight intermediate structure to massive engine module, such that artificial gravitation in crew module generated by rotating spacecraft around axis parallel to thrust generated by engine. Also applicable to dynamic balancing of rotating terrestrial equipment to which offcenter forces applied.

  14. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  15. Sexual revolution and counter-revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents of today inherit the conflicting legacies of the sexual reformation of the 1960s and the counter-reformation of the 1980s/1990s. Sexual mores are influenced by a younger age of puberty than in earlier generations and by the availability of effective contraception and antibiotics to combat sexually transmitted diseases. In the era of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, however, absolutely safe sex cannot be guaranteed, only relative degrees of safety and risk. Masturbation may be one way of achieving safe sex. Advancing technology also allows greater equality of opportunity and economic emancipation for women, enabling men and women to share equally in the care of older infants and children, also influencing sexual roles. Sex education for adolescents is provided sporadically and inconsistently, being seen by opposing factions as either encouragement to early pregnancy or a means of preventing it. In particular, the images delivered by the mass media are blatantly contradictory, ranging from endorsement of teenage sexual expression to condemnation of abortion and teenage pregnancy. Cultural traditions have strong influences on the acceptability of early pregnancy and on family structure. Black American culture is based on the three-generational family as opposed to the white tradition of the nuclear, two-generational family. It is important to realize a social policy that will respect not only the sexual rights of young people, but also the sexual health of the community.

  16. Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: a framing analysis of media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorp, Baldwin; Vercruysse, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Media tend to reinforce the stigmatization of dementia as one of the most dreaded diseases in western society, which may have repercussions on the quality of life of those with the illness. The persons with dementia, but also those around them become imbued with the idea that life comes to an end as soon as the diagnosis is pronounced. The aim of this paper is to understand the dominant images related to dementia by means of an inductive framing analysis. The sample is composed of newspaper articles from six Belgian newspapers (2008-2010) and a convenience sample of popular images of the condition in movies, documentaries, literature and health care communications. The results demonstrate that the most dominant frame postulates that a human being is composed of two distinct parts: a material body and an immaterial mind. If this frame is used, the person with dementia ends up with no identity, which is in opposition to the Western ideals of personal self-fulfilment and individualism. For each dominant frame an alternative counter-frame is defined. It is concluded that the relative absence of counter-frames confirms the negative image of dementia. The inventory might be a help for caregivers and other professionals who want to evaluate their communication strategy. It is discussed that a more resolute use of counter-frames in communication about dementia might mitigate the stigma that surrounds dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The research on the failure regularity of GM counter tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiyuan; Huai Guangli; Xie Bo; Zhang Hao

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of GM counter tubes should be described by useful time before failure-life and failure rate during life. A new method to study the failure regularity of GM counter tubes is advanced and adopted. The essential point of the method is that after the GM counter tubes of the instruments in use is tested, both the performance parameters and other information of the GM counter tubes and the instruments collected are recorded. Then database is created. Failure criterion is ascertained. The GM counter tubes are inspected to determine whether they are failure. Failure mode should be decided if the GM counter tubes failure. The GM counter tubes with the same useful year come together to make up a subsample. According to the relevant information, the number of the subsample is restored to the number of the sample that initially put into use. Then the number of failure sample is counted and at the same time the distribution of failure mode is got. The parameter m, γ, t 0 of Weibull distribution function are calculated with method of linear fit. Thus mean life, failure rate and other character values are obtained. Using this method, useful life and failure rate are determined. The conclusion is that the useful life is 18-20 years and the failure rate is 5 x 10 -6 and 4 x 10 -6 /h respectively during the course

  18. COUNTER-PUNISHMENT, COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION AMONG PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over thirty rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members’ behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punishment. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities.

  19. Countering the ‘Natural’ Organizational Self on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Trine Susanne

    2017-01-01

    , challenge and contradict organizational self-narration in light of market place skepticism and cynicism. The study identifies three strategies of counter-narrativizing (authenticity, legitimacy and irony) based on juxtaposing pairs of opposites. Moreover, it suggests counter-narration to be a natural......Using narrative as a theoretical and methodological lens, this study explores digital processes of organizational identity construction in the intersection between organization and market.The purpose is to understand the ways in which online interactions produce counter-narratives that contrast...

  20. Multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Rossi, H.H.; Johnson, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses design modifications of a multi-element proportional counter. The original counter exhibited poor resolution, as measured by the width of the event-size spectrum for low-energy photons. It was also suspected that the field inside each volume was not sufficiently symmetric. Results of the modifications showed that a dramatic improvement in resolution could be obtained in the chamber with tissue-equivalent septa if their potentials were adjusted to obtain optimal resolution. The full width at half maximum then approached, although it did not equal, that of a standard spherical counter

  1. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  2. Numerical modelling of tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segur, P.; Colautti, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a survey is given of the various numerical techniques employed to study the transport of ionising particles inside a TEPC. The first part is devoted to the description of the general concept of particle transport calculations. Thereafter, the different methods available to study transport phenomena and energy deposition in the sensitive volume and in counter walls are described. Finally, the basic ionisation mechanisms which may occur in a counter are described, and the non-equilibrium phenomena which play an important role mainly for counters that are to be used in measurements at the nanodosemeter level are studied. (author)

  3. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ..., with little or no warning. Success in defending our nation, our military forces, and partners and allies depends on how effectively we apply air, space, and cyberspace power to counter this threat...

  4. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  5. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is to help protect consumers against possible criminal tampering. Drug products with tamper-evident packaging have ... Medicines Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) The Over-the- ...

  6. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  7. Discrimination capability of avalanche counters detecting different ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prete, G.; Viesti, G.; Padua Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The discrimination capability of avalanche counters to detect different ionizing particles has been studied using a 252 Cf source. Pulse height, pulse-height resolution and timing properties have been measured as a function of the reduced applied voltage for parallel-plate and parallel-grid avalanche counters. At the highest applied voltages, space charge effects shift the pulse-height signal of the avalanche counter away from being linearly proportional to the stopping power of the detected particles and cause the pulse-height resolution to deteriorate. To optimize the avalanche counter capability, without loss of time resolution, it appears better to operate the detector at voltages well below the breakdown threshold. Measurements with 32 S ions are also reported. (orig.)

  8. Calibration and Monte Carlo modelling of neutron long counters

    CERN Document Server

    Tagziria, H

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique has become a very powerful tool in radiation transport as full advantage is taken of enhanced cross-section data, more powerful computers and statistical techniques, together with better characterisation of neutron and photon source spectra. At the National Physical Laboratory, calculations using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4B have been combined with accurate measurements to characterise two long counters routinely used to standardise monoenergetic neutron fields. New and more accurate response function curves have been produced for both long counters. A novel approach using Monte Carlo methods has been developed, validated and used to model the response function of the counters and determine more accurately their effective centres, which have always been difficult to establish experimentally. Calculations and measurements agree well, especially for the De Pangher long counter for which details of the design and constructional material are well known. The sensitivit...

  9. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  10. The scintillation counter system at the SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, D.

    1989-10-01

    The scintillation-counters system of the SAPHIR-detector at the stretcher accelerator ELSA in Bonn consists of 64 counters. It supplies a fast hadronic trigger and is utilizised for the particle identification by time of flight measurements. Prototypes of the counters (340x21.25 x 6.0 cm 3 ) had been tested. The contribution to the resolution of the time of flight measurement was measured to σ=125 ps, the effective light velocity to 17.5 ns/cm and the attenuation length of 7.8 m. A pion kaon separation is possible up to a momentum of 1 GeV/c with time of flight measurement. With the first photon-beam at SAPHIR the counters were tested, first triggers were obtained and evaluated. (orig.) [de

  11. New proportional counter assembly in Gliwice 14C laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, W.; Zastawny, A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and parameters are described of a proportional counter for low level counting. The cathode tube 80 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length is made of pure copper. The anode is a tungsten wire 0.05 mm in diameter. The cathode tube is surrounded by a cylindrical ring container with mercury. The total volume of the counter is 1.5 l and it is filled with carbon dioxide. At a pressure of 1 at of CO 2 the counter background is 4.20+-0.05 cpm and contemporary 14 C net effect 10.22+-0.10 cpm; at a pressure of 2 at of CO 2 the background is 4.40+-0.05 cpm and the contemporary 14 C net effect 20.53+-10 cpm. The efficiency of the proportional counter is 88% in both cases. (J.B.)

  12. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Oktoriyana; Ujang Sumarwan; Hartoyo Hartoyo

    2014-01-01

    This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected...

  13. Test of long scintillating counter prototypes for CDF-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Pukhov, O.; Incagli, M.; Leone, S.; Menzione, A.; Pauletta, G.; Tokar, S.

    2000-01-01

    New type long (up to 3 m) scintillating counter prototypes, developed for CDF-II, have been tested. The shift-spectrum fiber ribbons were used for light collection, and modern ultra compact photomultipliers R5600 were used for light detection. The efficiency for m.i.p. was excellent for all prototypes. The light yield from the far end of the counters was found to be more than 20 photoelectrons

  14. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1979-06-01

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240 Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  15. A Bayesian statistical method for particle identification in shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashimizu, N.; Kimura, A.; Shibata, A.; Sasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt on identifying particles using a Bayesian statistical method. We have developed the mathematical model and software for this purpose. We tried to identify electrons and charged pions in shower counters using this method. We designed an ideal shower counter and studied the efficiency of identification using Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. Without having any other information, e.g. charges of particles which are given by tracking detectors, we have achieved 95% identifications of both particles

  16. Design and Implementation of MOD-6 Synchronous Counter using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Dibal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a MOD-6 synchronous counter using VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The VHSIC stands for Very High Speed Integrated Circuit. Using this approach, the behaviour of the counter is the most important aspect of the design. In the first section, the paper introduced counters in general, and their areas of specialization, like frequency synthesizers. The synchronous counter was then introduced, stating the behaviour of the flip-flops that make the counter. The modulus of a counter was defined. In the second section, the Xilinx ISE (Integrated Simulation Environment and the ISIM (Integrated Simulator were presented and briefly described with their respective snapshots. The structure of a typical VHDL code was presented, which included LIBRARY, ENTITY, and ARCHITECTURE. Each of these structures was then briefly described. The main work in this paper was then presented. The count sequence steps were stated as . VHDL was used to model the counter to count through six steps, outputting count values according to desired steps. The hardware implementation of the design was presented, where the implementation process was described, with a supporting diagram, followed by the floor-planning technique, in which the PORTS described in the VHDL design were assigned to the physical pins of the XC3S1000 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array chip. The final steps of the hardware implementation process were then presented. These include bitstream generation and download to target device. The third section of the paper presented the results obtained. Simulation/timing results of the design were presented, showing the output of the counter at each state with respect to the clock signal. The result of the synthesis of the design was presented, which showed the FPGA area with the exact location of the pins on the FPGA chip. Finally, the fourth section presented the conclusion arrived at, in respect of the design that was carried

  17. A comprehensive test specification for pulse fission counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D L [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The following test specification is based on the memorandum AERE - M 728 which it now replaces It contains a standard acceptance test procedure for the many U.K.A.E.A, designed pulse fission counters now commercially available. This test specification may be used for any pulse fission counter provided a specification sheet as shown in Appendix 3 is supplied to the contractor quoting this report and including specified values for the measured quantities. (author)

  18. Recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-12-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  19. Recoil-proton fast-neutron-counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A proton-recoil neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time-of-flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV, presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  20. A recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV. (author)

  1. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  2. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  3. Case study for co and counter swirling domestic burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kotb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, the influence of equivalence ratio for co and counter-swirl domestic burners compared with non-swirl design on the thermal efficiency as well as CO emissions has been studied using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. Also, the flame stability, and pot height, which is defined as the burner-to-pot distance (H, of the co and counter domestic burners were compared. The analysis of the results showed that, for both swirl burners co and counter one the thermal efficiency under all operation conditions tested is higher than the non-swirled burner (base burner. For example, the thermal efficiency increased by 8.8%, and 5.8% than base burner for co and counter swirl, respectively at Reynolds number equal 2000 and equivalence ratio 1. The co and counter swirl burners show lower CO emission than the base burner. The co swirl burner has wider operation range than counter swirl. With the increase of pot height, the thermal efficiency of all burners decreases because the flame and combustion gases are cooled due to mixing with ambient air. As a result, the heat transfer is decreased due to atmospheric loss, which decrease the thermal efficiency.

  4. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  5. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  6. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Ideal response function of a 3He proportional counter to thermal neutrons determined by different length counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Naoto; Kudo, Katsuhisa; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yoshimoto, Takaaki

    2000-01-01

    The relative gas multiplication along the cylindrical axis of three 3 He proportional counters with different length were measured by using a thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor and an ideal response function by taking into account the difference of pulse height spectra were measured by different length counters. The three 3 He proportional counters (model type of P4-0806, P4-0806 and P4-0808 manufactured by Reuter-Stokes) prepared for relative gas multiplication measurements had identical structure having cylindrical outer shells of 304 stainless steel except for different sensitive lengths of 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm, respectively. All counters were filled with 400 kPa of 3 He gas and 200 kPa of Ar gas. The pulse height distributions were measured by moving the counter in the direction of it's cylindrical axis perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. The measured pulse heights corresponding to the full energy peaks at various entrance points were normalized to that of the whole counter irradiation. The results as a function of the distance from the bottom edge of the stainless steel cylinder are shown. The total transition region of gas gain corresponded to about 23 %, 15 % and 10 % of each nominal sensitive region corresponding to shot, middle and long counters. The ideal pulse height spectrum (dots) obtained by using proportional counters of 10 cm and 20 cm in nominal sensitive length to thermal neutron beam is shown in the paper in comparison to simulated one which was calculated assuming the constant gain within the sensitive region and zero gas gain outside the sensitive regions. The simulation realized the ideal response function fairly well. (S.Y.)

  8. Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Who is in control of the narrative?” is the mantra that now echoes in the hallways of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels. Spurred in part by large-scale jihadist propaganda, approximately 20,000 people from 50 countries have joined the fight in Iraq and Syria. So far, authorities in their countries of origin have not been able to address the jihadist radicalisation messages transmitted via the internet and social media. Many new initiatives were recently announced, however, including the establishment of a European counter-narrative centre in Brussels. Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation. It offers an outline of the various aspects of the jihadist narrative, in order better to understand what message needs to be countered. The counter-actions against this cyber jihad can take different forms. Parallel to the way in which advertisement campaigns are tailored to sell products to a certain target group, strategic communication should take into account how a number of recurring elements play a role in the counter-messaging. The understanding of who the target group is, what jihadist narrative is used and how that message can be countered, who the credible messenger should be, and what medium can best be used to deliver the message are all relevant questions that can only be answered in a context-specific manner. The Research Paper concludes with several recommendations on how the recently announced new European counter-narrative centre can effectively contribute to the already diverse landscape of counter-narrative initiatives.

  9. On timing properties of the SRPO-304 proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Pugacheva, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Data of measurements of the signal delay time and the time of development of the discharge in a proportional counter filled with 90% Xe + 10% CH 4 mixture at 0.3 atm are presented. The measurements were carried out on muons of cosmic rays. Signal delay distribution for the proportional counter are given relative to the time of passage through it of a charged particle. The data obtained shows that the average delay time is 0.8 μs when a particle passes near the counter centre, whereas when it passes near its side wall the average delay time is 1.5 μs. The investigation of the discharge development time distribution was carried out for two values of the discriminator threshold: 6 and 20 keV. It was determined that the discharge development time distribution depends but little on the place of particle passage in a counter. The average discharge development time is 1.5 μs, with the maximum time beina 4.3 μs. It is shown that the resolution time of logical circuits will be near 4 μs when the counter is combined with scintillation detectors

  10. Picosecond-precision multichannel autonomous time and frequency counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szplet, R.; Kwiatkowski, P.; RóŻyc, K.; Jachna, Z.; Sondej, T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and test results of a multichannel time interval and frequency counter developed as a desktop instrument. The counter contains four main functional modules for (1) performing precise measurements, (2) controlling and fast data processing, (3) low-noise power suppling, and (4) supplying a stable reference clock (optional rubidium standard). A fundamental for the counter, the time interval measurement is based on time stamping combined with a period counting and in-period two-stage time interpolation that allows us to achieve wide measurement range (above 1 h), high precision (even better than 4.5 ps), and high measurement speed (up to 91.2 × 106 timestamps/s). The frequency is measured up to 3.0 GHz with the use of the reciprocal method. Wide functionality of the counter includes also the evaluation of frequency stability of clocks and oscillators (Allan deviation) and phase variation (time interval error, maximum time interval error, time deviation). The 8-channel measurement module is based on a field programmable gate array device, while the control unit involves a microcontroller with a high performance ARM-Cortex core. An efficient and user-friendly control of the counter is provided either locally, through the built-in keypad or/and color touch panel, or remotely, with the aid of USB, Ethernet, RS232C, or RS485 interfaces.

  11. Development and evaluation of in vivo monitoring techniques of high energy radionuclides in the lungs in emergency situations; Desenvolvimento e avaliação de técnicas de monitoração in vivo de radionuclídeos de alta energia nos pulmões em situações de emergência

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J.Q.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: jquince@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Dosimetria. Laboratório de Monitoração in vivo

    2017-07-01

    Emergency situations in nuclear power plants involving the release of radioactive materials require the use of monitoring techniques for individuals exposed to risks of radionuclide incorporation. Such techniques should provide rapid results and provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection of activities that result in internal doses consistent with exposure limits. A wide variety of radionuclides can be identified and quantified by means of in vivo monitoring techniques in the human body and their availability is of great importance in remediation actions. This work presents the development and validation of an in vivo monitoring method for the evaluation of inhaled radionuclide incorporation. The monitoring system, consisting of an 8 x 4 NaI (Tl) detector installed on the IRD Whole-Body Counter, was calibrated with a chest and lung simulator type LLNL containing {sup 152}Eu. The detection efficiencies corresponding to the most intense photon energies of {sup 152}Eu were calculated and a calibration curve in the range of 100 to 1400 keV was obtained. From this curve, the detection efficiencies, the minimum detectable activities and the detectable minimum effective doses corresponding to the most relevant radionuclides in the case of a radioactive pen-releasing accident were calculated. The technique presents adequate sensitivity for in vivo monitoring in such situations, being able to detect activities that result in effective doses committed below 1 mSv, considering the most probable scenarios of internal exposure.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron counters for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looman, Marc; Peerani, Paolo; Tagziria, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    MCNP-PTA is a new Monte Carlo code for the simulation of neutron counters for nuclear safeguards applications developed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). After some preliminary considerations outlining the general aspects involved in the computational modelling of neutron counters, this paper describes the specific details and approximations which make up the basis of the model implemented in the code. One of the major improvements allowed by the use of Monte Carlo simulation is a considerable reduction in both the experimental work and in the reference materials required for the calibration of the instruments. This new approach to the calibration of counters using Monte Carlo simulation techniques is also discussed.

  13. Lessons from History for Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of interrelated macro-, mezzo- and micro-level considerations for maximizing the efficacy of not just a strategic communications campaign but message design. Historical examples are drawn upon to illustrate their practical application. The Policy Brief concludes by analysing four key strategic-policy principles arguing that a counter-terrorism strategic communications campaign is more likely to be successful if it is based on the cumulative effects of a multidimensional messaging strategy.

  14. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  15. Development of failure-detecting device for γ radioimmunoassay counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xianzhi; Zhang Bingfeng

    1997-01-01

    A failures-detecting device based on single chip microcomputer technique for detecting of failures of γ radioimmunoassay counter is developed. The device can output signals of variable amplitude and frequency similar to the pulse of γ particle for shooting problem parts of γ counter's detecting system. By automatically comparing the shapes and amplitudes of the two signals to and from an amplifier unit, the device can distinguish if the amplifier unit works normally. The differential-input amplifier circuit gives 0.1% accuracy for the measurement of the stability of high voltage. The pulse widen circuit of this device allows for middle speed A/D detecting of periodical low-frequency pulse waves of micro-second width. This device is used specifically for the maintaining and failure-detecting of γ radioimmunoassay counter

  16. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  17. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  18. A semiconductor counter telescope for neutron reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalovic, B I; Ajdacic, V S [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1963-12-15

    A counter telescope consisting of two or three semiconductor counters for {delta}E/{delta}x vs. E analysis was made for studying nuclear reactions induced by 14.4 MeV neutrons. Various factors important for the telescope performance are discussed in details and some solutions for getting an optimum resolution and a low background are given. Protons, deuterons and alpha particles resulting from scattering and reactions of 14.4 MeV neutrons on deuterium, tritium, praseodymium and niobium were detected, and pulses from the counters recorded on a two-dimensional analyzer. These experiments have shown that the telescope compares favorably with other types of telescopes with regards to the upper limit of neutron flux which can be used, (DELTADELTA)x and E resolution, versatility and compactness (author)

  19. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Montvila, D.; Flynn, D.; Brennan, C.; D'Errico, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons. (authors)

  20. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris; Montvila, Darius; Flynn, David; Brennan, Christopher; d'Errico, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons.

  1. A high-efficiency neutron coincidence counter for small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Russo, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The inventory sample coincidence counter (INVS) has been modified to enhance its performance. The new design is suitable for use with a glove box sample-well (in-line application) as well as for use in the standard at-line mode. The counter has been redesigned to count more efficiently and be less sensitive to variations in sample position. These factors lead to a higher degree of precision and accuracy in a given counting period and allow for the practical use of the INVS counter with gamma-ray isotopics to obtain a plutonium assay independent of operator declarations and time-consuming chemicals analysis. A calculation study was performed using the Los Alamos transport code MCNP to optimize the design parameters. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  2. A miniature spark counter for public communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, C.H.; Weng, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of a miniature spark counter for public communication and education using naturally occurring radon as a radioactive source without involving any man-made radioactivity is described. The battery-powered miniature spark counter weighs 2.07 kg with a volume of 4.844 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 3/. The circuitry consists of seven major components: timer, high-voltage power supply, attenuator, noninverting amplifier, low-pass filter, one-shot generator, and counter. Cellulose nitrate films irradiated with alpha particles from radon emanating from soil were etched and counted. The visible sparks during counting are rather heuristic, which can be used to demonstrate naturally occurring radioactivity in classrooms or showplaces

  3. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  4. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR NEUTRON DOSIMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Faezeh; Waker, Anthony J

    2018-01-10

    The use of a custom-made cylindrical graphite proportional counter (Cy-GPC) along with a cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) for neutron-gamma mixed-field dosimetry has been studied in the following steps: first, the consistency of the gamma dose measurement between the Cy-TEPC and the Cy-GPC was investigated over a range of 20 keV (X-ray) to 0.661 MeV (Cs-137 gamma ray). Then, with both the counters used simultaneously, the neutron and gamma ray doses produced by a P385 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific) together with a Cs-137 gamma source were determined. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  7. Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training

  8. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  9. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  10. About the distribution of delays in G.M counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, E.; Rogozinski, A.

    1954-01-01

    We measure, with an oscillograph method the global time that pass between the time that a particle in a determined region of the studied counter and the answer of the amplifier associated to the counter. This delay is composed of the latency time T l and the T q delay, that result from the rise time finished of the impulse and whose value depends of the sensitivity threshold of the amplifier. The selection of (cosmic) particles generating discharge in the studied counter is obtained thanks to a telescope of two meters in coincidence whose opening is limited by a group of four counters in anti-coincidence with the first. The meter is arranged so that the median plan of the telescope crosses to a variable distance d of his axial thread. The measures have been done for different securities of the distance d and of the over-voltage V s applied to the counter. The results show that the statistical distribution of the delays is more spread especially when d is bigger and V s more reduced. The average values of the observed delays vary of 7.10 -8 s for d = 0 and V s es = 200 V, to 90.10 -8 s for d = 1,9 cm and V s = 50 V. The mobility of an free electron within the gaseous mixture filling the counter under a pressure of 10 cm.Hg was found equal: (2,1 ±0,2).10 4 cm 2 .s -1 .V -1 . (author) [fr

  11. A large multi-cell threshold gas Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declais, Y.; Aubert, J.J.; Bassompierre, G.; Payre, P.; Thenard, J.M.; Urban, L.

    1980-08-01

    A large multi-cell threshold gas Cerenkov counter consisting of 78 cells has been built for use in a high energy muon scattering experiment at CERN (European Muon Collaboration). It is used with neon, nitrogen or a mixture of those two gases, allowing the pion threshold to be varied between 6 and 20 GeV/c. The sensitive region of the counter has a length of 4.0 m and entrance and exit windows of 1.1 x 2.4 m 2 and 2.4 x 5.0 m 2 , respectively

  12. Geiger counters of gamma rays with a bismuth cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, R.; Legrand, J.P.

    1953-01-01

    Geiger Muller counters present a lake of efficiency of some per cent, for the γ radiations. In the region 0,3 - 1 MeV, a substantial growth of their output can be obtained by a special construction of their cathode. In accordance with previous works, we constructed some counter of formed cathode by a pleated copper wire fencing covered of Bi by electrolysis. The successive modifications brought to a cylindrical conventional cathode in sheet metal of copper, that succeeds to this type of cathode, drive to an improvement of the output. (M.B.) [fr

  13. Proportional counter response calculations for gallium solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Reynolds, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium bases solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to the primary pp reaction in the sun. Two experiments using gallium, SAGE in the Soviet Union and GALLEX in Europe, are under construction and will produce data by 1989. The radioactive /sup 71/Ge produced by neutrinos interacting with the gallium detector material, is chemically extracted and counted in miniature proportional counters. A number of calculations have been carried out to simulate the response of these counters to the decay of /sup 71/Ge and to background events

  14. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  15. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  16. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  17. An integrated photosensor readout for gas proportional scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A xenon gas proportional scintillation counter has been instrumented with a novel photosensor that replaces the photomultiplier tube normally used to detect the VUV secondary scintillation light. In this implementation, the collection grid of a planar gas proportional scintillation counter also functions as a multiwire proportional chamber to amplify and detect the photoelectrons emitted by a reflective CsI photocathode in direct contact with the xenon gas. This integrated concept combines greater simplicity, compactness, and ruggedness (no optical window is used) with low power consumption. An energy resolution of 12% was obtained for 59.6 keV x-rays

  18. Counter-transference reactions contributing to completed suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, J

    1987-12-01

    Counter-transference reactions are frequently elicited while treating suicidal patients and they may contribute to the patient's committing suicide. Therapeutic constellations including the failure of the therapist to (1) cope with the patient's aggressiveness, (2) tolerate the patient's dependency, (3) handle the erotic transference adequately and (4) preserve loyalty towards the patient; they have all been identified as being responsible for a therapeutic impasse with fatal consequences. Knowledge of the therapeutic constellations especially prone to facilitate negative counter-transference reactions may help the therapist to master them effectively.

  19. Proportional counter with uniform electric field with Penning's mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some calculations are given and the design of proportional counters with a homogeneous electric field filled with Penning's mixtures, which ensure the best energy resolution is described. The counters with mixtures of Ne+Ar, Ne+CH 4 , Ne+CO 2 and Ar+C 2 H 2 have been checked. The admixtures (Ar, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 2 ) constitute from 0.1 to 2%, with pressure from 125 Tr to 760 Torr. The best energy resolution has been obtained for the mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 at the pressure of 190 Torr

  20. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  1. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  2. The parallel plate avalanche counter: a simple, rugged, imaging X-ray counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensen, K.D.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Bahnsen, A.; Madsen, M.M.; Olesen, C.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional parallel gap proportional counter has been developed at the Danish Space Research Institute. Imaging over the 120 mm diameter active area is obtained using the positive ion component of the avalanche signals as recorded by a system of wedge- and strip-electrodes. An electronically simple, but very effective background rejection is obtained by using the fast electron component of the avalanche signal. Gas gains up to 8x10 5 have been achieved. An energy-resolution of 16% and a sub-millimeter spatial resolution have been measured at 5.9 keV for an operating gas gain of 10 5 . In principle, the position coordinates are linear functions of electronic readouts. The present model, however, exhibits non-linearities, caused by imperfections in the wedge and strip-electrode pattern. These non-linearities are corrected by using a bilinear correction algorithm. We conclude that the rugged construction, the simple electronics, the effectiveness of the background rejection and the actual imaging performance makes this a very attractive laboratory detector for low and intermediate count rate imaging applications. ((orig.))

  3. Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Sumpter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experimented with initiatives aimed at countering violent extremism (CVE since the wave of arrests following the first Bali bombing attack in 2002. Initial efforts involved police attempting to develop relationships of trust with terrorists in custody. Today, a broader range of strategies are employed, from promoting peace among youth and thwarting the allure of extremist narratives, to managing prisoners and assisting former terrorists reintegrate with society. The lead government body since 2010 has been the national counterterrorism agency, Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (BNPT, which is tasked with coordinating stakeholders in Indonesia’s struggle with domestic terrorism. But managing the divergent and sometimes competing interests of Indonesia’s large state institutions has not been straightforward, and effective collaboration between relevant state agencies remains an obstacle to the success of CVE initiatives. Where government has fallen short, civil society organisations (CSOs often fill the gaps, and a number of dedicated practitioners now have invaluable experience, local contacts, and the specific knowledge required for countering extremism in the Indonesian context. CSOs also possess greater levels of trust among the communities they engage than security-centric state agencies could possibly hope to achieve. Yet instead of exploiting these civil society resources, the BNPT has largely preferred an independent (and top-down approach to CVE initiatives, collaborating if and when assistance is required. The Indonesian government should make better use of the unique legitimacy and expertise of civil society organisations.

  4. Reactance and Coping Responses to Tobacco Counter-Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Michelle S; Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco prevention messages generally take one of three tactics: They can be educational, attack the tobacco industry, or attack particular brands. Being a smoker and smoking a particular brand may form an essential part of a person's self-identity. As such, reactance theory suggests that attack messages can unintentionally attack smokers' self-image. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 experiment using six different messages and 260 respondents tested whether smokers have different reactions to tobacco counter-advertisements than nonsmokers. It also examined whether attacking a smoker's brand leads to greater reactance and other maladaptive responses compared to attacking other brands. Consistent with predictions, smokers reported more maladaptive coping responses and fewer adaptive coping responses to tobacco counter-ads than nonsmokers. The study also reveals differences attributable to brand identification. These findings suggest that interventions should consider different counter-advertising tactics for smokers and nonsmokers. Similar admonitions may apply to counter-advertising strategies on other health issues.

  5. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  6. Losing the Plot: Narrative, Counter-Narrative and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glazzard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.

  7. BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: THE NOTION, ESSENCE AND MAIN AREAS OF COUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sarankina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article issued theoretical and practice problems of combating terrorism in current conditions, in particular, analyzes the concept of bio-terrorism as a form of terrorism, we investigate its nature, characteristics, and also referred to the major directions of countering.

  8. Stress and use of over-the-counter analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke Jenny; Ekholm, Ola; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use and perceived stress among 25 to 44-year-old men and women from 1994 to 2005; to examine the association between stress and OTCA use over time, and to explore whether the association attenuates when controlled by stress...

  9. Quality analysis during production of car counter cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jagusiak-Kocik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter the company operating in the plastic industry was presented. The car counter case to Fiat was the main subject. The production process of the research product depicted technologically was presented. Hierarchy of the nonconformities with use of ParetoLorenz diagram was made.

  10. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  11. Response of horizontal magnetic field variation to partial counter electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukunda Rao, M.; Alamelu, V.

    1985-01-01

    The partial counter electrojet events seen through backscatter observations are examined in terms of the parameter ΔH'sub(CEJ)=(Hsub(equator)-Hsub(low lat.))sub(CEJday)-(Hsub(equator)-Hsub(low lat.))sub(mean 1Qday). It is found that the parameter indicates most of the changes in the electrojet observed through the backscatter observations. (author)

  12. The Tax Evasion in Ukraine: Causes and Methods of Countering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfentii Liudmyla A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept of tax evasion is researched; reasons of occurrence and development of this phenomenon are analyzed; proposals on the main directions of prevention and countering tax evasion have been developed. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific works of many scholars, it was found that there is no unified approach to interpretation of the essence of this phenomenon in the context of legality and awareness of relevant actions in the scientific literature. As a result of the research the factors of tax evasion with the allocation of moral, political, economic, technical, and legal reasons have been systematized. The preconditions of tax evasion in Ukraine are analyzed, the most common schemes are indicated, resulting from which the budget of Ukraine suffers the greatest losses. Methods of countering tax offenses have been researched and necessity of development and implementation of measures on prevention and countering tax evasion at the State level has been substantiated. Prospects for further researches in this direction are studying of foreign experience of countering tax evasion and detailed analyzing of the tax minimization schemes prevalent in Ukraine with the purpose of identifying ways of elimination of possibility of their use.

  13. Digital signal processing for 3He proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    Numerical analysis of individual pulses from 3 He proportional counters has been performed. A parametric approach has been used for the identification of a charge particle track direction. Using area parameters, a clear separation of events was observed for the wall effect on a triton and a proton, respectively. ((orig.))

  14. Refiguring the African Image in the Counter Hegemonic Discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different stylistic strategies thereby connecting, sharing and responding to the overall. African colonial experience. This paper discusses the strategies adopted by McKay and Hughes in their poetic counter-rhetoric as a way of forging the African image, a major motif in colonial and post-colonial literary articulation in Africa.

  15. Bargaining Theory and Building Strategies for Countering Armed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    actions previously labeled counter-insurgency, -terrorism, -drug, or - gang operations; irregular, unconventional, small guerilla, asymmetrical, or 4th...field of wheat, which, without regard to the individual stalk , may be mown down more or less efficiently depending on the quality of the scythe; it

  16. Test of a large size acrylic scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertino, M.; De Zorzi, G.; Zanello, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have tested the behaviour of an acrylic scintillator measuring the attenuation length and the time resolution of a 7.8 m long counter. On a small sample the photon yield relative to the NE 110 plastic has been measured. (orig.)

  17. Countering the Cyber-Attack, a case-study [video

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Squires; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-criminal organization electronically diverts funds, a hacking group uses their prowess to try to influence politics, these are examples of the evolving world of cyber crime. Keith Squires, Commissioner of Public Safety and Homeland Security Advisor for the State of Utah talks about his experience in building a cyber security program to counter such cyber criminals.

  18. Insubordinate Spaces for Intemperate Times: Countering the Pedagogies of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Lipsitz, George

    2013-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux argues that countering the disasters of neoliberalism requires facing "the challenge of developing a politics and pedagogy that can serve and actualize a democratic notion of the social" (2011). The authors suggest that Immanuel Wallerstein's notion of "middle-run" temporality (2008) and Stuart Hall's discussion of "middle-level"…

  19. TiO 2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2 ... The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV ... as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain ...

  20. Counter terms for low momentum nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Jason D.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Brown, G.E.; Bogner, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    There is much current interest in treating low energy nuclear physics using the renormalization group (RG) and effective field theory (EFT). Inspired by this RG-EFT approach, we study a low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, V low-k , obtained by integrating out the fast modes down to the scale Λ∼2 fm -1 . Since NN experiments can only determine the effective interaction in this low momentum region, our chief purpose is to find such an interaction for complex nuclei whose typical momenta lie below this scale. In this paper we find that V low-k can be highly satisfactorily accounted for by the counter terms corresponding to a short range effective interaction. The coefficients C n of the power series expansion ΣC n q n for the counter terms have been accurately determined, and results derived from several meson-exchange NN interaction models are compared. The counter terms are found to be important only for the S, P and D partial waves. Scaling behavior of the counter terms is studied. Finally we discuss the use of these methods for computing shell model matrix elements

  1. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Blazquez, J.B.; Barrado, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hidrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Montecarlo application and the other one analytical at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (author) [es

  2. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno Casado, J.L.; Blazquez Martinez, J.B.; Barrado Menendez, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)

  3. Pulse-shape discrimination in IAEA tritium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two systems of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for the reduction of background in low-level proportional counters were tested. A tentative conclusion is drawn that both PSD systems, although they decrease slightly the meson background, do not bring improvement in the analytical accuracy

  4. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  5. 21 CFR 864.5220 - Automated differential cell counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated differential cell counter. 864.5220 Section 864.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  6. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  7. Organizational Identity Negotiations through Dominant and Counter Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde; Frandsen, Sanne

    of a highly contested organization, E-rail, we examine ticket inspectors’ story work to demonstrate how counter-narratives make room for multiple – and sometimes even opposing - understandings of organizational identity to co-exist. Our analysis shows that ticket inspectors in their story work draw explicitly...

  8. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  9. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  10. Helium-air counter flow in rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Tanaka, Gaku; Zhao, Hong; Hishida, Makoto; Shiina, Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical analysis of helium-air counter flow in a rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of 10. The channel has a cross sectional area of 5-50 mm and a length of 200 mm. The inclination angle was varied from 0 to 90 degree. The velocity profiles and concentration profiles were analyzed with a computer program [FLUENT]. Following main features of the counter flow are discussed based on the calculated results. (1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state counter flow. (2) The relationship between the inclination angle and the flow patterns of the counter flow. (3) The developing process of velocity profiles and concentration profiles. (4) The relationship between the inclination angle of the channel and the velocity profiles of upward flow and the downward flow. (5) The relationship between the concentration profile and the inclination angle. (6) The relationship between the net in-flow rate and the inclination angle. We compared the computed velocity profile and the net in-flow rate with experimental data. A good agreement was obtained between the calculation results and the experimental results. (author)

  11. People, places and infrastructure: Countering urban violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People, Places, and Infrastructure: Countering Urban Violence and Promoting Justice in Mumbai, Rio, and Durban. In today's rapidly urbanizing world, cities offer economic opportunity and social mobility, yet they are also places of violence for increasingly large numbers of residents. As urbanization spreads, new sites are ...

  12. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  13. Radar observation of the equatorial counter-electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.; Gouin, P.; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan

    1979-01-01

    Electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet has been measured for a few years by coherent radar techniques in Africa. For the first time such measurements were performed during a strong reversal of the ionospheric current dubbed 'counter-electrojet'. These observations agree with the theories of the plasma instabilities at the origin of the electron density irregularities giving the radar echoes

  14. Real-time aerosol photometer and optical particle counter comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, E.; Belosi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Prodi, F.; Berico, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison exercise among real-time aerosol samplers, based on different light scattering techniques. The comparison was carried out near to the ISAC institute in a box positioned inside the CNR research area in Bologna. Two nephelometers (Dust Trak from TSI, and Air Genius from Unitec) and an optical particle counter (ENVIRO-check from Grimm) were used for P M1 and P M10 fraction assessment. In the case of the optical particle counter, the particle number concentration in each size bin was also used. In parallel, two manual sampling lines were employed for reference (gravimetric) measurements. The results highlight different factor scales for the dust monitors, in comparison with gravimetric assessment, underlining the importance of a user calibration of such monitors as a function of the specific aerosol sampled. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the hourly P M 10 and P M1 concentrations, against daily average concentrations, were studied in order to compare the ability of each sampler to follow changes in the aerosol size distribution. It was found that the photometers and optical particle counter revealed different behaviours. In the latter, a small increase in the particle concentration number in the coarse fraction gave a relatively high increase in the mass concentration that was not measured by the photometers. The explanation could be the relatively slight influence of a small particle number variation on the total scattered light for the photometers, unlike the case of the optical particle counter, where each particle contributes to the mass concentration. This aspect merits future research in order to better understand optical particle counter output used in P Mx monitoring activities.

  15. Solidarity and Recognition: Geographies of Counter-globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Goodman

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalism is a contested concept, but perhaps best understood as a spatial strategy, which disempowers those unable to transcend the fixity of place and social context. Under globalism fluidity becomes a key source of power, enabling the powerful to liquefy assets, to disembed, and thereby displace, political, social or ecological impacts. The infrastructures of globalism enable the disembodied extension of power across territory, to the extent that one model, universally applicable for all societies, is positioned as supreme. The only possible challenge to globalism perhaps, is through a similarly disembedded counter-movement, that mirrors the global reach and power of mainstream globalism. The praxis of counter-globalist movements suggests a different tendency, one that centres on the assertion of particularity against universality. Expressed in the legitimacy of ‘many worlds’ against ‘one world’ globalism, such resistance centres on exposing the material effects and foregrounding concrete and material experiences of globalism. Movements mobilise against the disembodied logic of globalism on the basis of co-presence and inter-subjectivity, and are embedded in relational concepts of selfhood. They are often intensely embodied and are radically emplaced through militant localism and trans-local dialogue. Counter-globalism thus does not seek to defeat geography; rather it embraces it, as the starting-point of mobilisation. The starting point of this article is thus to analyse globalism as a spatial strategy, a strategy of displacement grounded in material power. Globalism thus signifies the capacity to exploit and dominate at distance, from the sanctity of corporate boardrooms, military briefings and media cutting rooms. The claim is to universal market, military and normative power, but the impact is of extended and deepened division. Centres of power appear more as islands, or enclaves, defined against the backwash effects of counter

  16. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  17. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutmann, A.; Ebert, S.; Kaden, M.; Loehnert, D. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Doerfel, H.R. [IDEA System GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schreiber, W. [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Grosserkmannsdorf (Germany); Helbig, S.

    2016-07-01

    In connection with the relocation of the incorporation measurement point operated by the VKTA, a new shielding chamber was designed. The development of the new shielding chamber will be shown based on the design study by IDEA System and the inquiries for material availability, procurement of material and assembly technology up to fabrication, assembly and completion of the chamber. The accompanying background measurements through In-situ gamma spectrometry and first experiences with incorporation measurements at the new In-Vivo measurement facility are shown.

  18. Calibration of whole-body counters for accident in vivo monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper points out the importance of implementing transportable in vivo measurements laboratories in countries like Brazil where there is a large number of people directly and indirectly exposed to radionuclides. These units should be used mainly in emergency situations involving internal and external contamination of workers and public. Nevertheless such laboratories may also be used for simultaneously collecting and processing a great variety of biological and environmental samples not only for emergency purposes but also as part of a more comprehensive radiological survey of working and environmental conditions. The development of new techniques for calibrating the detection systems, i.e., physical and mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms, increases the range of applications for such laboratories and allows the obtention of quick results when and where it is necessary. (author)

  19. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  20. Simulation of scanning geometry for Shadow Shield counter using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepu, R.; Manohari, M.; Mathiyarasu, R.

    2018-01-01

    The whole body counting facility at RSD, IGCAR employs a Shadow Shield Counter (SSC) for the assessment of internal exposure of radiation workers from fission and activation products. The SSC system is routinely calibrated using an in-house built Masonite cut sheet phantom, loaded with standard point sources, in scanning mode. The system is capable of measuring gamma energy from 200 keV to 3 MeV. The standard sources available have energies in the range of 300 - 1500 keV. In order to extend the energy range, numerical simulation can be carried out. As, numerical methods cannot simulate scanning mode directly, a novel scheme is attempted to generate the efficiency value for scanning mode through the use of multiple static mode. The same method was also verified through measurement. The efficiency values of the simulation as well two measurements techniques were compared

  1. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  2. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  3. Description of the manufacture of a Geiger-Muller counter with window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.

    1959-01-01

    Total details about the manufacture elements in counter fabrication and the way of obtention are described as well as total indications useful in the installation process and filling of the counter. The appropriate materials and precautions that might be adopted in order to obtain counters with uniform operation and good characteristics, are described. Counters are of brass, with thin mica or aluminium windows and operate at 1100 V approximately with a slope lower than 5 % 1100 V. (Author)

  4. Neutron coincidence counter for MOX fuel pins in storage trays: users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.; Menlove, H.

    1982-08-01

    The neutron coincidence counter for measurement of mixed-oxide fuel pins in storage trays is described. The special detector head has been designed so that the detectors, high-voltage junction boxes, and electronics are interchangeable with those of the high-level neutron coincidence counter system. This manual describes the system components and the operation and maintenance of the counter. The counter was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in-plant inspection applications by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  7. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  8. Body composition in acromegaly - before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Bengtsson, B.A.; Isaksson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disease caused by a benign pituitary tumor producing excess amount of growth hormone. A changed body composition can be a functional parameter of the disorder. The aim of this study is to describe body composition in acromegaly before and after therapy. Total body potassium (TBK) was measured as total exchangeable potassium using 42 K by dilution technique or by counting gamma radiation from the naturally present 40 K in a high sensitivity 3π whole body counter. Total body water (TBW) was determined with an isotope dilution technique using tritiated water as a tracer. The specific activity was measured in urine or plasma. The predicted values for TBK, TBW, and body fat (BF) were calculated by equations using body weight (BW), body height, age and sex as independent variables. The normal values for BW were calculated by using body height and sex as independent variables

  9. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seyoung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  10. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials(KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  11. The background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of external γ radiation on the process of 71 Ge-decay counting in proportional counters in SAGE experiment of solar neutrino flux measurement is examined. One determines the systematic error of SAGE result, connected with radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters, and the background counting rate of proportional counters from γ radiation of passive and active shield [ru

  12. Identification of irradiated spices with aid of scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusheimo, K.

    1989-08-01

    The aim off the work was to determine how one can identify gamma-irradiated spices with aid of a scintillation counter (LKB/Wallac 1219 RackBeta Spectral) by chemiluminescence measurements. Even though scintillation counters are more sensitive than real luminometers they have not been capable in identifying the irradiated spices after contact with photosensitizer like luminol, isoluminol and lucigenin presumably because the actual chemiluminescence reaction took place before the sample vial reached the measuring range. Whereas it was noticed that the identification of pure, dry allspice, black pepper, white peppar and cardemom was possible without any solutions when there were also present similar unirradiated spices. The identification was possible even after 23 weeks duration depending on the dose of the irradiation (10 kGy or 50 kGy) and the weight of the samples (1 g or 9 g). The duration of the investigation was 23 weeks

  13. Uraniferous minerals heap leaching process by counter techique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes G, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was made at laboratory level with respect to a process for the treatment of an uranium ore by counter current acid heap leaching with maturity periods and washing. This mineral with an average grade of 0.24% of U 3 O 8 from the levels zero-fourty of the El Nopal uraniferous deposit, located in the Sierra of Pena Blanca, State of Chihuahua (Mexico). The process which is proposed consist of 4 consecutive stages: a) The prehumectation with a fertile solution of a 0.0034 g U 3 O 8 /1 and 3 g H 2 SO 4 /l concentration, b) The counter current acid attack, c) The maturity or hardening, d) The washing with current water. The relaton liquid-solid in the stages of prehumectation, acid attack, as well as washing stage was of 0.3 m 3 /t. The average efficiency was of 77% of recovered *uranium. (author)

  14. Programmable automatic alpha--beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed for routine sample counting by operational health physics personnel. The system is composed of an automatic sample changer utilizing a large silicon diode detector, an electronic counting system with energy analysis capability, an automatic data acquisition controller, an interface module, and a teletypewriter with paper tape punch and paper tape reader. The system is operated through the teletypewriter keyboard and the paper tape reader, which are used to instruct the automatic data acquisition controller. Paper tape programs are provided for background counting, Chi 2 test, and sample counting. Output data are printed by the teletypewriter on standard continuous roll or multifold paper. Data are automatically corrected for background and counter efficiency

  15. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  16. Tribological behaviors of UHMWPE composites with different counter surface morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhen; Yin, Zhongwei; Li, Hulin; Gao, Gengyuan

    2017-12-01

    The influence of counter surface morphologies on hybrid glass fiber (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) filled ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied under various contact pressure and sliding speed against GCr15 steel in dry condition. The goals were to investigate the tribological behavior of GF/CF/UHMWPE composite as a kind of water lubricated journal bearing material. The friction and wear behavior of composites were examined using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The morphologies of the worn surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser 3D micro-imaging and profile measurement. Generally, the wear rate and friction coefficient of composites increase as the increment of counter surface roughness. The friction coefficient increases firstly and then decrease with an increase in sliding speed and contact pressure for counterface with Ra=0.2 and 3.5 μm, while the friction coefficient decreased for counterface with Ra=0.6 μm.

  17. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  19. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  20. The design of the DUPIC spent fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.; Kroncke, K.E.; Lee, Y.G.

    1997-05-01

    A neutron coincidence detector had been designed to measure the amount of curium in the fuel bundles and associated process samples used in the direct use of plutonium in Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) fuel cycle. All of the sample categories are highly radioactive from the fission products contained in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel feed stock. Substantial shielding is required to protect the He-3 detectors from the intense gamma rays. The Monte Carlo neutron and photon calculational code has been used to design the counter with a uniform response profile along the length of the CANDU-type fuel bundle. Other samples, including cut PWR rods, process powder, waste, and finished rods, can be measured in the system. This report describes the performance characteristics of the counter and support electronics. 3 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs

  1. A Fear Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka Veldhuis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreading fear is the essence of terrorism. Terrorists exploit fear by terrorising the target audience into concessions. Understanding how feelings of fear influence the way people feel, think and act is therefore an important starting point to explore how individuals and societies can learn how to cope with fear of terrorism. In this Policy Brief, Research Fellows Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Dr. Tinka Veldhuis explore the dynamics of fear in response to terrorism, and emphasise the importance of integrating initiatives to manage fear of terrorism and reduce its negative consequences into overarching counter-terrorism strategies. It argues that societies can benefit greatly from promoting resilience and a fear management approach to counter-terrorism.

  2. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  3. An annular BF3 counter of large sensitive volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    An annular neutron counter having a large sensitive volume with inner and outer diameter 31 cms with multiple electrode system fabricated especially to measure the neutron output from fissile region of standard fast reactor fuel of length nearly equivalent to 500 cms is described. The counter efficiency is nearly 0.3% for neutron and sensitivity 0.0018 counts/neutron for (alpha, neutron) and spontaneous fission source. Its other potential applications which are indicated are : (1) quality control of fast reactor fuel pins (2) fuel inventory (3) assessing radioactivity of solid waste packets containing PuO 2 (4) uniformity of fuel loading of a reactor and (5) neutron monitoring in a fuel plant. (M.G.B.)

  4. Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs

  5. Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (α,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (α,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the 240 Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (α,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride

  6. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  7. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  8. Hardware accuracy counters for application precision and quality feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Rosa Piga, Leonardo; Majumdar, Abhinandan; Paul, Indrani; Huang, Wei; Arora, Manish; Greathouse, Joseph L.

    2018-06-05

    Methods, devices, and systems for capturing an accuracy of an instruction executing on a processor. An instruction may be executed on the processor, and the accuracy of the instruction may be captured using a hardware counter circuit. The accuracy of the instruction may be captured by analyzing bits of at least one value of the instruction to determine a minimum or maximum precision datatype for representing the field, and determining whether to adjust a value of the hardware counter circuit accordingly. The representation may be output to a debugger or logfile for use by a developer, or may be output to a runtime or virtual machine to automatically adjust instruction precision or gating of portions of the processor datapath.

  9. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are ......A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects...... that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model...

  10. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  11. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  12. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  13. Catching Seriously Bad Dudes: US Counter-terrorism strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardyová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 34-38 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : terrorism * counter- terrorism * US * 9/11 Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/156_socioweb_7_08.pdf

  14. Enantioseparations in counter-current chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, A P

    2001-01-12

    Examples of chiral separations in counter-current chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) are not numerous, due to the difficulty of finding chiral selectors highly selective in the liquid phase as well as a combination of solvents that does not destroy the selectivity and retains the capacity to elute chiral isomers of interest. New ideas and new chiral selectors generally come from other separation techniques, as will be highlighted in this review.

  15. Charged particle counters in the pre-modern period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beringer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The history of nuclear particle and radiation counting techniques divides itself naturally into three epochs that may be labeled: Early, Pre-Modern, and Modern. The Pre-Modern era is designated as the period starting in the 1930's during which the several types of gas-ionization counters of the Early period were perfected and coupled to vacuum tube circuits and recording apparatus. These developments are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Negative probabilities and counter-factual reasoning in quantum cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Acacio de Barros; G Oas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss quantum-like decision-making experiments using negative probabilities. We do so by showing how the two-slit experiment, in the simplified version of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, can be described by this formalism. We show that negative probabilities impose constraints to what types of counter-factual reasoning we can make with respect to (quantum) internal representations of the decision maker. (paper)

  17. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  18. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  19. The time response function of spark counters and RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, A.; Mangiarotti, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the avalanche growth with and without space charge effects is briefly summarized and compared to a broad field of applications. These include spark counters as well as timing and trigger RPCs operated in avalanche mode. A large domain in electrical field strength, pressure, gap size and gas mixture type is covered. A reasonable agreement with the experiment is observed, giving confidence on the validity of both assumptions and treatment of the theory

  20. Atomic Interferometry with Detuned Counter-Propagating Electromagnetic Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ming -Yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Atomic fountain interferometry uses atoms cooled with optical molasses to 1 μK, which are then launched in a fountain mode. The interferometer relies on the nonlinear Raman interaction of counter-propagating visible light pulses. We present models of these key transitions through a series of Hamiltonians. Our models, which have been verified against special cases with known solutions, allow us to incorporate the effects of non-ideal pulse shapes and realistic laser frequency or wavevector jitter.

  1. Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; McMahon, T.A.; Espinosa, G.

    1983-01-01

    Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Lanthanides separation by counter - current electrophoretic using α - hydroxyisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleluia, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    Studies about counter-current electrophoretic separation of rare earth metal ions using α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as complexing electrolyte are discussed. La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu were separated and fractions with purities better than 99,9% were obtained, using neutron activation analysis. A relation between the first stability constant of the α-hydroxyisobutyrate/lanthanide complexes and their migration velocities were observed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. Performance and development of dE/dx counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1980-09-01

    The performance of existing or nearly completed detectors for particle identification by using the relativistic rise of energy loss will be discussed. Detailed analysis of systematic errors leads finally to large detector systems approaching the ultimate resolution as measured in small test devices. New methods for extracting the information from the counter with the potential of better particles separation than standard dE/dx will be presented. It includes very fine sampling, delta-ray clipping, and cluster counting

  4. Performance and development of dE/dx counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of existing or nearly completed detectors for particle identification by using the relativistic rise of energy loss is discussed. Detailed analysis of systematic errors leads finally to large detector systems approaching the ultimate resolution as measured in small test devices. New methods for extracting the information from the counter with the potential of better particle separation than standard dE/dx are presented. It includes very fine sampling, delta-ray clipping, and cluster counting. (Auth.)

  5. Introduction of Counter-Proliferation Capabilities in Development States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulfield, P.; Edwards, T.; Witkin, A.; Elgebaly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent history we have seen a number of States develop their indigenous industrial skills to a point suitable for the manufacture of nuclear components. Private individuals unbeknown to the State have then utilized this capability to supply directly into proliferation networks - potentially reducing international confidence in such a State. To combat this possibility, a developing State must recognize the challenges that are raised by its emerging skills and take action to introduce measures that not only help the State identify proliferation activities but also ensure the national security of the State. One of those measures might be to develop a capability within the State to recognize and counter the activities of would-be-proliferators. In many States this capability is managed and applied through a dedicated counter-proliferation unit that has strong links with border controls and customs organizations. A counter-proliferation unit, once established could show dramatic returns for a modest investment. The activities of such a Unit could save the State political embarrassment by hindering and narrowing the chances of unintentional proliferation activities. The Unit should not be introduced as part of a Safeguards agreement or as part of a non proliferation treaty. It should rather be established as an act by the State to protect and control its emerging technologies from being involved, willingly or unwittingly, in proliferation activities. This is a sovereign act of the State - solely for its benefit and should not be imposed by any external power. Today's would-be-proliferators around the world cooperate and act together; similarly emerging counter-proliferation units should act and work together in order to be a step ahead of the proliferators. Improved world-wide cooperation should increase the detection rate of proliferation incidents which will in turn curtail the spread of nuclear weapons - for the benefit of all. (author)

  6. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  7. Secondary emission scintillation counter for microdosimetry at the nanometer level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The secondary emission scintillation (SES) counter is a device designed to count the positive ions of charged-particle tracks in gas volumes simulating sites in tissue with diameters of the order of 1 nanometer. Based on suggestions by H.H. Rossi and A.M. Kellerer, the basic idea of the device was developed by A. Kosiara, M. Biavati, and R.D. Colvett in the late 1970s. The device was substantially modified in 1982, but work on it was suspended before the new version could be tested, in order to devote full-time effort to rebuilding RARAF. Work resumed on the SES counter in 1986. A diagram of the prototype SES counter now being tested is shown. A weak electric field in the cylindrical collection region of the device drifts ions from a track to a small region (less than 1 mm) of high electric field where they are accelerated by several kilovolts onto a dynode, producing secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated onto a plastic scintillator, and the resulting light is detected by a photomultiplier. The passage of a charged particle is established by a solid state detector, which triggers electronics detecting coincidences and measuring the timing and amplitude of pulses from the photomultiplier

  8. Counter-intuitive moral judgement following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-02-07

    Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e.g., do not lie), moral judgements demonstrate sensitivity to the psychological intuitiveness of the judgements, rather than their deontological or utilitarian content (Kahane et al., Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 2011, 393). We sought the moral judgements of 30 TBI participants and 30 controls on moral dilemmas where content (utilitarian/deontological) and intuition (intuitive/counter-intuitive) were measured concurrently. Overall TBI participants made utilitarian judgements in equal proportions to controls; disproportionately favouring utilitarian judgements only when they were counter-intuitive, and deontological judgements only when they were counter-intuitive. These results speak against the view that TBI causes a specific utilitarian bias, suggesting instead that moral intuition is broadly disrupted following TBI. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Using culture and psychology to counter the Taliban's violent narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2017-08-01

    Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation. Key themes emerge from the Taliban's narratives: potential ingroup members are defined as Sunni Muslims who are committed to jihad; deviant Muslims must become Sunnis; non-Muslims must be converted and humiliated; and Taliban leaders should emulate Maḥmūd of Ghaznī's attributes. Contrasting the Taliban's narratives of Maḥmūd of Ghaznī with the historical record reveals themes that are culled empirically around which counter-narratives could be constructed.

  10. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  11. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2018-04-30

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are mutually confusable and hard to see. The model assumes that the visual system's initial sensory response consists in tentative visual categorizations, which are accumulated by leaky integration of both transient and sustained components comparable with those found in spike density patterns of early sensory neurons. The sensory response (tentative categorizations) feeds independent Poisson counters, each of which accumulates tentative object categorizations of a particular type to guide overt identification performance. We tested the model's ability to predict the effect of stimulus duration on observed distributions of responses in a nonspeeded (pure accuracy) identification task with eight response alternatives. The time courses of correct and erroneous categorizations were well accounted for when the event-rates of competing Poisson counters were allowed to vary independently over time in a way that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model provided an explanation for Bloch's law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. First Townsend coefficient of organic vapour in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept is presented in the paper for implementing the proven method of determining the first Townsend coefficient (α) of gases using an avalanche counter. The A and B gas constants, interrelated by the expression α/p=A exp[-B/(K/p)], are analyzed. Parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) with an electrode spacing d from 0.1 to 0.4 cm have been employed for the investigation, arranged to register low-energy alpha particles at n-heptane vapour pressures of p≥5 Torr. An in-depth discussion is given, covering the veracity and the behaviour vs K/p, of the n-heptane A and B constants determined at reduced electric-field intensity values ranging from 173.5 to 940 V/cm Torr; the constants have been found to depend upon d. The results of the investigation are compared to available data of the α coefficient of organic vapours used in avalanche counters. The PPAC method of determining α reveals some imperfections at very low values of the pd product. (orig.)

  13. Countering violent extremism via de-securitisation on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Warrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a civil society actor on Twitter entering a securitized discourse on terrorism illustrates the transformative theoretical potential that emerges from new forms of communication online. Through a qualitative analysis of tweets from the Average Mohamed profile, the potential to change a negative narrative of violent extremism operating within a securitised discourse of Islamic terrorism, is discussed in an online context. The arguments forming from this analysis offers a new approach to studying online counter narratives by linking a theoretical framework of securitisation and de-securitisation to recent political efforts Countering Violent Extremism (CVE and Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE. Through the inclusion of a civil society Twitter account as an illustrative case, this paper explores how social media can challenge existing assumptions of who can be a de-securitising actor within security theory by blurring the lines between political and societal sectors in a securitised threat from Islamic terrorism. If and how a civil society actor can loosen the dichotomous discursive relationship between Self/Other relations within a contemporary discourse on terrorism becomes relevant for a theoretical discussion by presenting an argument suggesting that online CVE polices are more effective within the sphere of ‘normal’ politics rather than within the realm of securitization. This theoretical perspective offers an analytical framework including a wide range of actors involved in counter narratives policies which is useful for further CVE research.

  14. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma through whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenario, H.S.; Pascacio, F.M.; Cruz, Benjamin de la; Anden, A.B.

    Whole body counters are not only used in measuring radioactivity in the body for radiation protection purposes but also in the measurement of iron absorption, body potassium and cesium, chronic blood loss, and also in the determination of the effectiveness of surgery, thyroid hormone and radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid carcinoma. This report deals with our experience in the use of a shadow-shield whole body counter in the determination of I-131 uptake by metastatic lesions of cancer of thyroid after total thyroidectomy and ablation therapy with I-131. This study was undertaken jointly by the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans Memorial Hospital and the Biomedical Research Division of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Preliminary results indicate that the 22 patients who underwent whole body counting after total thyroidectomy I-131 ablation therapy, 9 patients had elevated percentage retention of I-131, 10 patients with normal values and 3 patients with rising values. Foci of I-131 concentration in those with elevated and rising percentage concentration values were seen in the thyroidal bed scintiscans, while the 10 patients with normal values had negative scintiscans. The results of our observations confirm the results obtained by other workers abroad. Our preliminary results indicate that with the use of whole body counters a sensitive method of assessing whether functioning metastatic lesion of cancer of the thyroid still exist after total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy can be provided. (author)

  15. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  16. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  17. Body-surface contamination monitoring preparatory to monitoring for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.; Klucke, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the whole-body counter of the SAAS are routinely preceded by a thorough inspection of the patients for body-surface contamination to protect the sensitive counting equipment against becoming contaminated and to avoid a falsified indication of incorporated radionuclides. The measuring system employed for these examinations is described. (author)

  18. Counteracting media’s thin body ideal in adolescent girls: informing is more effective than warning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, J.; Konijn, E.A.; Seidell, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether information or warnings about depictions of the thin-body ideal in mass media are effective in counteracting media-induced negative body perceptions of adolescent girls. Based on counter-advertising and reactance theories, our hypotheses were tested in a 3

  19. Tobacco counter-advertising: a review of the literature and a conceptual model for understanding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2003-01-01

    The tobacco counter-advertising literature is reviewed as it relates to basic process questions concerning what makes counter-advertisements effective. Limitations in addressing (a) counter-advertisement content and the psychological mediators targeted, (b) counter-advertisement style and the affective reactions targeted, (c) prior smoking experience, and (d) other audience factors are enumerated. A theoretical model based on alcohol advertising research is presented to address those limitations. The model addresses the practical research question of predicting when tobacco counter-advertising will work by examining the independent influence of each of these enumerated factors, as well as how these factors operate in concert, qualifying each other. The model also addresses the process question of explaining how counter-advertising works by identifying affective and cognitive processes as mediators. By understanding the processes that underlie the qualified findings, one can better advise the designers of tobacco counter-advertisements how to be more effective.

  20. MUSE observations of the counter-rotating nuclear ring in NGC 7742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Sarzi, Marc; Knapen, Johan H.; Coccato, Lodovico; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Aims: We present results from MUSE observations of the nearly face-on disk galaxy NGC 7742. This galaxy hosts a spectacular nuclear ring of enhanced star formation, which is unusual in that it is hosted by a non-barred galaxy, and because this star formation is most likely fuelled by externally accreted gas that counter-rotates with respect to its main stellar body. Methods: We used the MUSE data to derive the star-formation history (SFH) and accurately measure the stellar and ionized-gas kinematics of NGC 7742 in its nuclear, bulge, ring, and disk regions. Results: We have mapped the previously known gas counter-rotation well outside the ring region and deduce the presence of a slightly warped inner disk, which is inclined at approximately 6° compared to the outer disk. The gas-disk inclination is well constrained from the kinematics; the derived inclination 13.7° ± 0.4° agrees well with that derived from photometry and from what one expects using the inverse Tully-Fisher relation. We find a prolonged SFH in the ring with stellar populations as old as 2-3 Gyr and an indication that the star formation triggered by the minor merger event was delayed in the disk compared to the ring. There are two separate stellar components: an old population that counter-rotates with the gas, and a young one, concentrated to the ring, that co-rotates with the gas. We recover the kinematics of the old stars from a two-component fit, and show that combining the old and young stellar populations results in the erroneous average velocity of nearly zero found from a one-component fit. Conclusions: The spatial resolution and field of view of MUSE allow us to establish the kinematics and SFH of the nuclear ring in NGC 7742. We show further evidence that this ring has its origin in a minor merger event, possibly 2-3 Gyr ago. Data used for the flux and kinematic maps (Figs. 1 and 3-5) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  1. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  2. Ocular Counter Rolling in Astronauts After Short- and Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F; Wood, Scott J; Clément, Gilles

    2018-05-17

    Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is a reflex generated by the activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear that stabilizes gaze and posture during head tilt. We compared the OCR measures that were obtained in 6 astronauts before, during, and after a spaceflight lasting 4-6 days with the OCR measures obtained from 6 astronauts before and after a spaceflight lasting 4-9 months. OCR in the short-duration fliers was measured using the afterimage method during head tilt at 15°, 30°, and 45°. OCR in the long-duration fliers was measured using video-oculography during whole body tilt at 25°. A control group of 7 subjects was used to compare OCR measures during head tilt and whole body tilt. No OCR occurred during head tilt in microgravity, and the response returned to normal within 2 hours of return from short-duration spaceflight. However, the amplitude of OCR was reduced for several days after return from long-duration spaceflight. This decrease in amplitude was not accompanied by changes in the asymmetry of OCR between right and left head tilt. These results indicate that the adaptation  of otolith-driven reflexes to microgravity is a long-duration process.

  3. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  5. A versatile gas-flow proportional counter for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibicu, I., E-mail: bibicu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics (Romania); Nicolescu, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cretu, C. [Transylvania University, Physics Department (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    This article presents a versatile gas-flow proportional counter for surface and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, suitable for studies with {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 151}Eu isotopes. The main advantages obtained by new design are: (1) the height of the detection volume can be changed in large limits from 0 to 38 mm, (2) the detection volume can be choose symmetrical or not in respect with anode plan, (3) the anode replacement is easily (4) and different anode configuration can be used. The characteristics of the detector, operating at room temperature, are reported.

  6. Variable dead time counters: 2. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, B.W.; Lees, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A computer model has been developed to give a pulse train which simulates that generated by a variable dead time counter (VDC) used in safeguards determination of Pu mass. The model is applied to two algorithms generally used for VDC analysis. It is used to determine their limitations at high counting rates and to investigate the effects of random neutrons from (α,n) reactions. Both algorithms are found to be deficient for use with masses of 240 Pu greater than 100g and one commonly used algorithm is shown, by use of the model and also by theory, to yield a result which is dependent on the random neutron intensity. (author)

  7. Why Communication and Performance are Key in Countering Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf emphasises the importance of effective communication and performance in the fight against terrorism and the fear it aims to induce. Essentially, terrorists and states are conducting “influence warfare”, a battle to convince and persuade the different target audiences to rally behind them. In this battle of perceptions, the different government agencies need to be aware of the often implicit and unwittingly produced “stories” they tell to counter those narrated by the terrorists. It is crucial to take in consideration the fact that combating terrorism is a form of communication, as much as terrorism is itself.

  8. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  9. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P.; Tamura, E.; Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B.

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10 6 counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10 7 events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author)

  10. Stabilization of the photomultiplier gain of a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, I.D.; Dmitriev, V.D.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Malkin, L.Z.; Petrov, B.F.; Sheremet'ev, A.K.; Shpakov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A stabilization system of photomultiplier gain, where light-emitting diode flashes have been used to obtain a reference signal, is described. The diode is placed just in the liquid scintilllator volume. The stabilization system contains several (according to the number of photomultipliers) identical channels, which of them consists of a colorimeter, a control trigger and an integrator with an operational amplifier. Increase of photomultiplier stability is reached by changing voltage of photomultiplier power according to the reference signal amplitude. The level of background and efficiency of neutron detection by a scintillation counter are unchanged when using the stabilization system for 10 days of measurements

  11. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included

  12. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A F; Guedes, G P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I M; Oliveira, N B [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Space charge effect in SQS transition in a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki; Kametani, Hitoshi; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Uozumi, Yuusuke; Ijiri, Hidenobu; Matoba, Masaru; Sakae, Takeji; Koori, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the gas multiplication characteristics in the transition region from proportional to SQS mode in a cylindrical proportional counter has been performed. The property of saturation of the gas multiplication factor can be reproduced using the effective electric field which is corrected for the space charge related to the positive ion density in the avalanche. Photon-mediated gas multiplication can explain the large jump phenomenon of the SQS transition. It is shown that the effective electric field in the avalanche becomes almost zero near the anode surface (Meek's streamer condition) at the 50% transition voltage and the region of its maximum moves slightly away from the anode surface. (orig.)

  14. Avalanche localization and its effects in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Okuno, H.; Walenta, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    Avalanche development around the anode wire in a gas proportional counter is investigated. In the region of proportional gas amplification, the avalanche is found to be well localized on one side of the anode wire, where the electrons arrive along the field lines from the point of primary ionization. Induced signals on electrodes surrounding the anode wire are used to measure the azimuthal position of the avalanche on the anode wire. Practical applications of the phenomena such as left-right assignment in drift chambers and measurement of the angular direction of the primary ionization electrons drifting towards the anode wire are discussed

  15. Real-time reconfigurable counter-propagating beam-traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauro, Sandeep; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We present a versatile technique that enhances the axial stability and range in counter-propagating (CP) beam-geometry optical traps. It is based on computer vision to track objects in unison with software implementation of feedback to stabilize particles. In this paper, we experimentally...... which simulates biosamples. By working on differences rather than absolute values, this feedback based technique makes CPtrapping nullify many of the commonly encountered pertubations such as fluctuations in the laser power, vibrations due to mechanical instabilities and other distortions emphasizing...

  16. Computer simulation of gain fluctuations in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Nelgun; Tapan, . Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    A computer simulation code has been developed in order to examine the fluctuation in gas amplification in wire proportional counters which are common in detector applications in particle physics experiments. The magnitude of the variance in the gain dominates the statistical portion of the energy resolution. In order to compare simulation and experimental results, the gain and its variation has been calculated numerically for the well known Aleph Inner Tracking Detector geometry. The results show that the bias voltage has a strong influence on the variance in the gain. The simulation calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (authors)

  17. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. An experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit is described. For a 2 1 / 2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1 percent. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data. (auth)

  18. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  19. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  20. Are 'counter-intuitive' deontological judgments really counter-intuitive? An empirical reply to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M; Bruni, Tommaso; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-09-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that utilitarian judgments (favoring the greater good) made in response to difficult moral dilemmas are preferentially supported by controlled, reflective processes, whereas deontological judgments (favoring rights/duties) in such cases are preferentially supported by automatic, intuitive processes. A recent neuroimaging study by Kahane et al. challenges this claim, using a new set of moral dilemmas that allegedly reverse the previously observed association. We report on a study in which we both induced and measured reflective responding to one of Greene et al.'s original dilemmas and one of Kahane et al.'s new dilemmas. For the original dilemma, induced reflection led to more utilitarian responding, replicating previous findings using the same methods. There was no overall effect of induced reflection for the new dilemma. However, for both dilemmas, the degree to which an individual engaged in prior reflection predicted the subsequent degree of utilitarian responding, with more reflective subjects providing more utilitarian judgments. These results cast doubt on Kahane et al.'s conclusions and buttress the original claim linking controlled, reflective processes to utilitarian judgment and automatic, intuitive processes to deontological judgment. Importantly, these results also speak to the generality of the underlying theory, indicating that what holds for cases involving utilitarian physical harms also holds for cases involving utilitarian lies. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  2. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  3. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  4. Neutron activation probe for measuring the presence of uranium in ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Smith, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron activation proble comprises a pulsed neutron source in series with a plurality of delayed neutron detectors for measuring radioactivity in a well borehole together with a NaI (Tl) counter for measuring the high energy 2.62 MeV gamma line from thorium. The neutron source emits neutrons which produce fission in uranium and thorium in the ore body and the delayed neutron detectors measure the delayed neutrons produced from such fission while the NaI (Tl) counter measures the 2.62 MeV gamma line from the undisturbed thorium in the ore body. The signal from the NaI (Tl) counter is processed and subtracted from the signal from the delayed neutron detectors with the result being indicative of the amount of uranium present in the ore body

  5. A review of whole-body counting techniques appropriate to the study of gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1976-01-01

    The wide range of whole-body counters in use for, or applicable to, the study of gastrointestinal absorption is reviewed. Shielded-room or high-sensitivity shadow-shield counters will generally be required only when there is a separate need to measure total body potassium or in studies involving pregnancy or children. For measuring gastrointestinal absorption per se, it is concluded that very simple whole-body counters of the shadow-shield or partial-shield type are usually satisfactory. These systems are of lower cost, and an economic justification for their use is derived by comparing their costs with those of hospitalizing patients for alternative investigations of gastrointestinal absorption. A resume of the general methodology is presented and some operational features and precautions are described. (author)

  6. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC 2 shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using μ-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 (micro)m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  7. High speed non-latching squid binary ripple counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.H.; Phillips, R.R.; Sandell, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    High speed, single flux quantum (SFQ) binary scalers are important components in superconducting analog-to-digital converters (ADC). This paper reviews the concept for a SQUID ADC and the design of an SFQ binary ripple counter, and reports the simulation of key components, and fabrication and performance of non-latching SQUID scalers and SFQ binary ripple counters. The SQUIDs were fabricated with Nb/Nb 2 O 5 /PbIn junctions and interconnected by monolithic superconducting transmission lines and isolation resistors. Each SQUID functioned as a bistable flip-flop with the input connected to the center of the device and the output across one junction. All junctions were critically damped to optimize the pulse response. Operation was verified by observing the dc I-V curves of successive SQUIDs driven by a cw pulse train generated on the same chip. Each SQUID exhibited constant-voltage current steps at 1/2 the voltage of the preceding device as expected from the Josephson voltage-to-frequency relation. Steps were observed only for the same voltage polarity of successive devices and for proper phase bias of the SQUID. Binary frequency division was recorded up to 40GHz for devices designed to operate to 28GHz

  8. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  9. A multi purpose 4 π counter spherical ionization chamber type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calin, Marian Romeo; Calin, Adrian Cantemir

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized ionization chamber detector able to measure radioactive sources in internal 2π or 4π geometry was built in order to characterize alpha and beta radioactive sources, i.e. to calibrate these sources by relative method and to test the behavior of gas mixtures in pressurized-gas radiation detectors. The detector we made is of spherical shape and works by collecting in a uniform electric field the ionization charges resulting from the interaction of ionizing radiation with gas in the sensitive volume of the chamber. An ionizing current proportional to the activity of the radioactive source to be measured is obtained. In this paper a gas counter with a spherical symmetry is described. This detector can work in a very satisfactory manner, either as a flow counter or as a ionization chamber reaching in the latter case a good α pulse height resolution, even with large emitting sources. Calculations are made in order to find the dependence of the pulse shape on the direction of emission of an α-particle by a point source in the chamber (finite track). A good agreement is found between these calculations and the experimental tests performed, which show that this dependence can be employed in high efficiency measurements of angular α-γ correlations. (authors)

  10. Absolute measurements with a 4 π-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Kerstin

    1959-06-01

    Measurements on standardized p-emitters have been made in a 4 it proportional flow-counter. The counter efficiency is found to be near 100 %. Absorption curves have been determined with plastic foils and aluminium. A comparison is made between the self-absorption arising in different methods of source preparation which include precipitates and the use of wetting agents The most reliable results have been obtained with sources on aluminium foils, where the foil absorption is calculated from the absorption curves and the self-absorption is supposed to be negligible for isotopes with end point energy above 0.5 MeV. The β-emitters studied have energies ranging from 1.71 MeV ( 32 P) to 0.167 MeV ( 35 S). Most of them have been obtained from National Physical Laboratory and Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England. The agreement between their calibration and our measurements is very good except in the case of Co 60

  11. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, T; Suzuki, T

    2010-01-01

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  12. Absolute measurements with a 4 {pi}-counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Kerstin

    1959-06-15

    Measurements on standardized p-emitters have been made in a 4 it proportional flow-counter. The counter efficiency is found to be near 100 %. Absorption curves have been determined with plastic foils and aluminium. A comparison is made between the self-absorption arising in different methods of source preparation which include precipitates and the use of wetting agents The most reliable results have been obtained with sources on aluminium foils, where the foil absorption is calculated from the absorption curves and the self-absorption is supposed to be negligible for isotopes with end point energy above 0.5 MeV. The {beta}-emitters studied have energies ranging from 1.71 MeV ({sup 32}P) to 0.167 MeV ({sup 35}S). Most of them have been obtained from National Physical Laboratory and Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England. The agreement between their calibration and our measurements is very good except in the case of Co 60.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes as Counter Electrodes for Gratzel Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodive, Hasan; Aliev, Ali; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2006-03-01

    The role of interfaces is very critical for solar cell devices which use nanostructured materials. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are devices which parts are interfacial in character and physico --chemical processes occur at the interface of two distinct media. DSSC are of great interest due to combination of their high efficiency and relatively low cost. An effective counterelectrode with high electrochemical activity is an important component of DSSC to enhance its practical utility. Presently used Pt coated ITO counterelectrode can not be applied in flexible DSSC architectures, while there is a growing need for flexible anodes which are transparent and have desired interface characteristics. In this work in order to search for such materials for counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, newly developed strong and transparent and modified carbon nanotube sheets [1] are used in interfacial counter electrode. To increase the electrochemical activity of the anode the CNT sheets are coated with highly conductive SWCNT and compared with pure multiwall CNT sheets. We show that the transparent sheets of SWCNT/MWCNT perform as a flexible anode and as electrochemical catalyst and also can be used in tandems of dye sensitized solar cells as transparent charge recombination or interconnect layers. [1] M. Zhang, S.Fang, A.Zakhidov, S.B.Lee, A.Aliev et.al., Science, 309,(2005) 1215

  14. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  15. Smaller Counter Cation for Higher Transconductance in Anionic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Martina M.

    2017-12-11

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are a focus of research because combine their inherent electrical conductivity and the ability to interact with ions in aqueous solutions or biological systems. However, it is still not understood to what degree the counter ion in CPEs influences the properties of the CPE itself and the performance of electronic transducers. In order to investigate this, three different conjugated polyelectrolytes, poly(6-(thiophen-3-yl)hexane-1-sulfonate)s (PTHS−X+), are synthesized, which have the same polythiophene backbone but different X+ counter ions: the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+), tetraethylammonium (TEA+), and the smallest tetramethylammonium (TMA+). At the interface with biological systems, thin CPE films have to be stable in an aqueous environment and should allow the inward and outward flow of ions from the electrolyte. Since the studied PTHS−X+ have different solubilities in water, the optical properties of pristine PTHS−X+ as well as of crosslinked PTHS−X+ via UV–vis absorption spectroscopy are investigated additionally. PTHS−TMA+ exhibits better aggregation, fast interdiffusion of ions, and fast recovery from the oxidized state. Additionally, spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric as well as electrochemical capacitance investigations show that PTHS−TMA+ can be oxidized to a higher degree. This leads to a better performance of PTHS−TMA+-based organic electrochemical transistors.

  16. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Le Thanh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [fr

  17. A REVIEW ON COUNTER-ROTATING WIND TURBINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRINA G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On a dynamic energy market characterized by the constant energy demand increase and economic as well as environmental constraints, the study and development of efficient conversion systems of wind’s energy has been approached by a considerable number of researchers. Given the modern economic and environmental challenges regarding the energy production and consumption, an advance in the research of innovative or improved wind energy conversion solutions has been registered. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, but not exhaustive overview of research achievements in counter-rotating wind turbine systems development, characterization and use. The review presents the first theoretical results that led to the counterrotating wind turbines development as well as the related methods used for investigating their performance. Valuable results have been found within various studies, which are carried out for different testing systems and conditions. Furthermore, there is still need of extensive studies, taking into account that the counter-rotating wind turbines have to prove their reliability in real operating conditions.

  18. Counter-Terrorism, Technology and Transparency: Reconsidering State Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Discussion Paper, Dr. Quirine Eijkman discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology used in the fight against terrorism. Although technology is a powerful tool to fight terrorism, it is also a means for increasing social control by the state. Henceforth, there is a risk that panoptic surveillance – where the few view the many – could develop. Therefore accountability in relation to use of technological counter-terrorism measures such as smart surveillance cameras, biometric devices or the tracking of personal data is discussed in this article. The extra powers that both public authorities and private companies gain through new (surveillance technologies should be counterbalanced. In this context the role of the state, because of its monopoly to use force and its duty to protect the rule of law, is crucial. By reconsidering how to enforce accountability by the state, the effects of technological counter-terrorism measures could be checked and balanced.

  19. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na + /K + , K + /Sm +3 , K + /Eu +3 and K + /Sm +3 /Eu +3 using the α-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the α-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  20. Flow characteristics of counter-current flow in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident, a damaged core would form a debris bed consisting of once-molten and fragmented fuel elements. It is necessary to evaluate the dryout heat flux for the judgment of the coolability of the debris bed during the severe accident. The dryout phenomena in the debris bed is dominated by the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in the debris bed. In this study, air-water counter-current flow behavior in the debris bed is experimentally investigated with glass particles simulating the debris beds. In this experiment, falling water flow rate and axial pressure distributions were experimentally measured. As the results, it is clarified that falling water flow rate becomes larger with the debris bed height and the pressure gradient in the upper region of the debris bed is different from that in the lower region of the debris bed. These results indicate that the dominant region for CCFL in the debris bed is identified near the top of the debris bed. Analytical results with annular flow model indicates that interfacial shear stress in the upper region of the debris bed is larger than that in the lower region of the debris bed. (author)