WorldWideScience

Sample records for irb proposal scores

  1. IRB reliance: An informatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Alexander, Randall W; Gentilin, Stephanie M; White, Brigette; Turley, Christine B; Brady, Kathleen T; Lenert, Leslie A

    2016-04-01

    Multi-site Institutional Review Board (IRB) review of clinical research projects is an important but complex and time-consuming activity that is hampered by disparate non-interoperable computer systems for management of IRB applications. This paper describes our work toward harmonizing the workflow and data model of IRB applications through the development of a software-as-a-service shared-IRB platform for five institutions in South Carolina. Several commonalities and differences were recognized across institutions and a core data model that included the data elements necessary for IRB applications across all institutions was identified. We extended and modified the system to support collaborative reviews of IRB proposals within routine workflows of participating IRBs. Overall about 80% of IRB application content was harmonized across all institutions, establishing the foundation for a streamlined cooperative review and reliance. Since going live in 2011, 49 applications that underwent cooperative reviews over a three year period were approved, with the majority involving 2 out of 5 institutions. We believe this effort will inform future work on a common IRB data model that will allow interoperability through a federated approach for sharing IRB reviews and decisions with the goal of promoting reliance across institutions in the translational research community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  3. 40 CFR 26.1115 - IRB records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB records. 26.1115 Section 26.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical...-nursing Adults § 26.1115 IRB records. (a) An IRB shall prepare and maintain adequate documentation of IRB...

  4. Credit concession through credit scoring: Analysis and application proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Amat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study herein develops and tests a credit scoring model which can help financial institutions in assessing credit requests.  Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study has the objective of answering two questions: (1 Which ratios better discriminate the companies based on their being solvent or insolvent? and (2 What is the relative importance of these ratios? To do this, several statistical techniques with a multifactorial focus have been used (Multivariate Analysis of Variance, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logit and Probit Models. Several samples of companies have been used in order to obtain and to test the model.  Findings: Through the application of several statistical techniques, the credit scoring model has been proved to be effective in discriminating between good and bad creditors.  Research limitations:  This study focuses on manufacturing, commercial and services companies of all sizes in Spain; Therefore, the conclusions may differ for other geographical locations. Practical implications:  Because credit is one of the main drivers of growth, a solid credit scoring model can help financial institutions assessing to whom to grant credit and to whom not to grant credit. Social implications: Because of the growing importance of credit for our society and the fear of granting it due to the latest financial turmoil, a solid credit scoring model can strengthen the trust toward the financial institutions assessment’s.  Originality/value: There is already a stream of literature related to credit scoring. However, this paper focuses on Spanish firms and proves the results of our model based on real data. The application of the model to detect the probability of default in loans is original.

  5. IRB Process Improvements: A Machine Learning Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenbill, Kimberly; Song, Yiqiang; Cobb, Nichelle L; Drezner, Marc K; Mendonca, Eneida A

    2017-06-01

    Clinical research involving humans is critically important, but it is a lengthy and expensive process. Most studies require institutional review board (IRB) approval. Our objective is to identify predictors of delays or accelerations in the IRB review process and apply this knowledge to inform process change in an effort to improve IRB efficiency, transparency, consistency and communication. We analyzed timelines of protocol submissions to determine protocol or IRB characteristics associated with different processing times. Our evaluation included single variable analysis to identify significant predictors of IRB processing time and machine learning methods to predict processing times through the IRB review system. Based on initial identified predictors, changes to IRB workflow and staffing procedures were instituted and we repeated our analysis. Our analysis identified several predictors of delays in the IRB review process including type of IRB review to be conducted, whether a protocol falls under Veteran's Administration purview and specific staff in charge of a protocol's review. We have identified several predictors of delays in IRB protocol review processing times using statistical and machine learning methods. Application of this knowledge to process improvement efforts in two IRBs has led to increased efficiency in protocol review. The workflow and system enhancements that are being made support our four-part goal of improving IRB efficiency, consistency, transparency, and communication.

  6. 21 CFR 56.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... professional competence necessary to review the specific research activities, the IRB shall be able to..., applicable law, and standards or professional conduct and practice. The IRB shall therefore include persons... IRB may, in its discretion, invite individuals with competence in special areas to assist in the...

  7. [Cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae. Proposal of new alveolar score by the Alveolar Cleft Score (ACS) classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molé, C; Simon, E

    2015-06-01

    The management of cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae remains problematic today. To optimize it, we tried to establish a new clinical index for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Seven tissue indicators, that we consider to be important in the management of alveolar sequelae, are listed by assigning them individual scores. The final score, obtained by adding together the individual scores, can take a low, high or maximum value. We propose a new classification (ACS: Alveolar Cleft Score) that guides the therapeutic team to a prognosis approach, in terms of the recommended surgical and prosthetic reconstruction, the type of medical care required, and the preventive and supportive therapy to establish. Current studies are often only based on a standard radiological evaluation of the alveolar bone height at the cleft site. However, the gingival, the osseous and the cellular areas bordering the alveolar cleft sequelae induce many clinical parameters, which should be reflected in the morphological diagnosis, to better direct the surgical indications and the future prosthetic requirements, and to best maintain successful long term aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. 45 CFR 46.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have... respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition...

  9. 34 CFR 97.115 - IRB records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.115 IRB records... in sufficient detail to show attendance at the meetings; actions taken by the IRB; the vote on these...

  10. 40 CFR 26.115 - IRB records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.115 IRB records... in sufficient detail to show attendance at the meetings; actions taken by the IRB; the vote on these...)(5). (b) The records required by this policy shall be retained for at least 3 years, and records...

  11. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  12. 14 CFR 1230.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... human subjects. In addition to possessing the professional competence necessary to review specific... institutional commitments and regulations, applicable law, and standards of professional conduct and practice... information requested by the IRB. (f) An IRB may, in its discretion, invite individuals with competence in...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB... promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In... knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every nondiscriminatory effort will be...

  14. AN EXCEL-BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCORING AND RANKING PROPOSED R&D PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE DE PIANTE HENRIKSEN; SUSAN W. PALOCSAY

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of technology management is the selection of research and development (R&D) projects from among a group of proposals. This paper introduces an interactive, user-friendly decision support system for evaluating and ranking R&D projects and demonstrates its application on an example R&D program. It employs the scoring methodology developed by Henriksen and Traynor to provide a practical technique that considers both project merit and project cost in the evalua...

  15. The Harvard Catalyst Common Reciprocal IRB Reliance Agreement: an innovative approach to multisite IRB review and oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sabune J; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Reduction of duplicative Institutional Review Board (IRB) review for multiinstitutional studies is a desirable goal to improve IRB efficiency while enhancing human subject protections. Here we describe the Harvard Catalyst Master Reciprocal Common IRB Reliance Agreement (MRA), a system that provides a legal framework for IRB reliance, with the potential to streamline IRB review processes and reduce administrative burden and barriers to collaborative, multiinstitutional research. The MRA respects the legal autonomy of the signatory institutions while offering a pathway to eliminate duplicative IRB review when appropriate. The Harvard Catalyst MRA provides a robust and flexible model for reciprocal reliance that is both adaptable and scalable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Local IRBs vs. federal agencies: shifting dynamics, systems, and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    How IRBs relate to federal agencies, and the implications of these relationships, have received little, if any, systematic study. I interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members, contacting the leadership of 60 U.S. IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), interviewing IRB leaders from 34 (response rate=55%). IRBs describe complex direct and indirect relationships with federal agencies that affect IRBs through audits, guidance documents, and other communications, and can generate problems and challenges. Researchers often blame IRBs for frustrations, but IRBs often serve as the "local face" of federal regulations and agencies and are "stuck in the middle." These data have critical implications for policy, practice, and research.

  17. 40 CFR 26.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.107 IRB membership..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human...

  18. 34 CFR 97.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.107 IRB..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human...

  19. 45 CFR 46.115 - IRB records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy... injuries to subjects. (2) Minutes of IRB meetings which shall be in sufficient detail to show attendance at... findings provided to subjects, as required by § 46.116(b)(5). (b) The records required by this policy shall...

  20. 32 CFR 219.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing the... subjects, such as children, prisoners, pregnant women, or handicapped or mentally disabled persons... IRB consists entirely of men or entirely of women, including the institution's consideration of...

  1. 10 CFR 745.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing... subjects, such as children, prisoners, pregnant women, or handicapped or mentally disabled persons... IRB consists entirely of men or entirely of women, including the institution's consideration of...

  2. 15 CFR 27.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.107 IRB..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  3. 22 CFR 225.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.107 IRB membership. (a..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  4. 49 CFR 11.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.107 IRB membership. (a..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  5. 16 CFR 1028.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.107 IRB..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  6. 28 CFR 46.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.107 IRB..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  7. Proposing melasma severity index: A new, more practical, office-based scoring system for assessing the severity of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI, for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 l + 0.4 (a × p 2 r + 0.2 (a × p 2 n where "a" stands for area, "p" for pigmentation, "l" for left face, "r" for right face, and "n" for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6 th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955 as compared to MASI (0.816. Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman′s correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma.

  8. Telerobotics: through-the-Internet teleoperation of the ABB IRB 2000 industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Alberto J.; Caribe de Carvalho, Guilherme; Paulinyi, Luis F. d. A.; Alfaro, Sadek C. A.

    1999-11-01

    Robotic systems can be controlled remotely through the use of telerobotics. This work presents a through-the-internet teleoperation system for remotely operating the IRB2000 industrial robot. The IRB2000 controller allows external access through a RS232 serial communication link, which is based on a 42 function proprietary communication protocol. The proposed teleoperation system uses this communication capability by connecting it to a local area network based on TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The system was implemented using a Client/Server architecture, having as server a UNIX (LINUX) platform.

  9. Psychometric challenges and proposed solutions when scoring facial emotion expression codes

    OpenAIRE

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Pinkpank, Thomas; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Coding of facial emotion expressions is increasingly performed by automated emotion expression scoring software; however, there is limited discussion on how best to score the resulting codes. We present a discussion of facial emotion expression theories and a review of contemporary emotion expression coding methodology. We highlight methodological challenges pertinent to scoring software-coded facial emotion expression codes and present important psychometric research questions centered on co...

  10. Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Dalili

    Full Text Available To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes.This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, and neonatal seizure.The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97% and specificity (99% in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95% and specific (97%. The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95% but not sensitive (67% and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81% and low specificity (81% in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02 and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01.The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.

  11. Proposal of a CT scoring system of the paranasal sinuses in diagnosing cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Soevik, S.; Doelvik, S.; Eiklid, K.; Kolmannskog, F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a paranasal sinus CT scoring system that could be used as a diagnostic tool to discriminate cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from control patients examined for sinonasal disease. The model should include as few and easily applicable criteria as possible, supported by statistical analyses and clinical judgement. We used data from 116 CF and 136 control patients. The CF patients were grouped according to the number of confirmed CF mutations: genetically verified (CF-2), or based on sweat testing and clinical findings alone (CF-1, CF-0). Nine paranasal sinus CT criteria, including development, pneumatisation variants and inflammatory patterns, were evaluated. The final model included three criteria: (a) frontal and (b) sphenoid sinus development, and (c) absence of three pneumatisation variants. This model discriminated CF-2 from controls with overlap of summed scores in only 8 of 206 patients. When this model was applied in the CF-1 and CF-0 groups, two populations seemed to exist. A larger group with summed scores overlapping that of the CF-2 group and a smaller group with summed scores overlapping that of the control group. We conclude that this CT scoring system may support, as well as exclude, a CF diagnosis in cases of diagnostic uncertainty. (orig.)

  12. Proposing a Balance Scored Card to Communicate and Follow a NKM Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, C. L.; Gomiz, P. R.; Caballero, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The balance scored card (BSC) is a tool developed to link strategies to the organizational key objectives and results, and a useful method to show and communicate the strategy, to follow its development and obtain feedback to learn about the implementation of a nuclear knowledge management domain. This report gives a brief summary of the method adopted for developing a BSC linked to a certain nuclear knowledge domain in the CNEA and it provides an example of its application to the radioactive waste management knowledge area. (author

  13. Proposal of a score to detect the need for postoperative intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. Nofal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We developed a multi-dimensional score which may help in predicting those patients, undergoing bariatric surgery, who may be in need for postoperative ICU admission and which may also help in avoiding unnecessary admission to the critical care units after bariatric surgery. Methods: We collected the data of 111patients who underwent either laparoscopic gastric sleeve or bypass and studied the association between some risk factors related to obesity and their postoperative ICU admission. Those factors found to be statistically significant are included in the final score. The cutoff value of our scoring system is determined by running a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC analysis. Results: Forty patients (36% were admitted to the ICU postoperatively. Our final score includes 7 independent variables; 6 found to be significantly related to post-bariatric surgery ICU admission; these are age, gender, BMI, ASA, obstructive sleep apnea and spirometry results, and the seventh is the history of venous thrombo-embolism. According to the ROC curve analysis, we set the score value of 10 as our cut-off value for the need of postoperative ICU admission. The score median value is 9. Males’ odds to be admitted to the ICU after bariatric surgery are 11.9 times higher than females. Also, those with BMI above 50 kg m−2 have odds of 29.8 times higher than those below 50 kg m−2. Conclusions: We propose a scoring system for risk stratification, in which some of the well-known predictor risk factors are included in a simple way to help identify those high-risk patients undergoing bariatric surgery.Trial registry number: NCT02976649. Keywords: Bariatric surgery, Postoperative ICU admission, Score

  14. 34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review... subjects when in the IRB's judgment the information would meaningfully add to the protection of the rights...

  15. 40 CFR 26.109 - IRB review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 26.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.109 IRB... subjects when in the IRB's judgment the information would meaningfully add to the protection of the rights...

  16. An IRB Transformation: Increasing Quality and Efficiency Using Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joseph E., Jr.; Moore, J. Brian; Means, Paula; Weinberg, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase review-quality and efficiency, research administration at Wake Forest School of Medicine initiated a change in the operational structure of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) via a reconfiguring of the boards and rescheduling of the convened meetings. The number of IRB Panels was doubled and each panel/board began…

  17. 40 CFR 26.1108 - IRB functions and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB functions and operations. 26.1108 Section 26.1108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN... Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1108 IRB functions and operations. In order to fulfill...

  18. Peritoneal adhesion index (PAI: proposal of a score for the “ignored iceberg” of medicine and surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coccolini Federico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peritoneal adhesions describe a condition in which pathological bonds form between the omentum, the small and large bowels, the abdominal wall, and other intra-abdominal organs. Different classification systems have been proposed, but they do not resolve the underlying problem of ambiguity in the quantification and definition of adhesions. We therefore propose a standardized classification system of adhesions to universalize their definition based on the macroscopic appearance of adhesions and their diffusion to different regions of the abdomen. By scoring with these criteria, the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI can range from 0 to 30, unambiguously specifying precise adhesion scenarios. The standardized classification and quantification of adhesions would enable different studies to more meaningfully integrate their results, thereby facilitating a more comprehensive approach to the treatment and management of this pathology.

  19. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  20. Palliative Care Medical Education in European Universities: A Descriptive Study and Numerical Scoring System Proposal for Assessing Educational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lynch, Thomas J; Garralda, Eduardo; Woitha, Kathrin; Elsner, Frank; Filbet, Marilène; Ellershaw, John E; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The lack of palliative medicine (PM) education has been identified as a barrier to the development of the discipline. A number of international institutions have called for its implementation within undergraduate medical curricula. The objectives are to describe the situation of undergraduate PM education in Europe and to propose a scoring system to evaluate its status. This descriptive study was conducted with data provided by key experts from countries of the World Health Organization European Region (n = 53). A numerical scoring system was developed through consensus techniques. Forty-three countries (81%) provided the requested information. In 13 countries (30%), a PM course is taught in all medical schools, being compulsory in six of them (14%). In 15 countries (35%), PM is taught in at least one university. In 14 countries (33%), PM is not taught within medical curricula. A full professor of PM was identified in 40% of countries. Three indicators were developed to construct a scale (rank 0-100) of educational development: 1) proportion of medical schools that teach PM (weight = 32%); 2) proportion of medical schools that offer PM as a compulsory subject (weight = 40%); 3) total number of PM professors (weight = 28%). The highest level of PM educational development was found in Israel, Norway, the U.K., Belgium, France, Austria, Germany, and Ireland. PM is taught in a substantial number of undergraduate medical programs at European universities, and a qualified teaching structure is emerging; however, there is a wide variation in the level of PM educational development between individual countries. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 56.113 - Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research. 56.113 Section 56.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... termination of IRB approval of research. An IRB shall have authority to suspend or terminate approval of...

  2. 45 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.109 IRB review of research. (a) An... judgment the information would meaningfully add to the protection of the rights and welfare of subjects. (c...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1109 - IRB review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 26.1109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional... meaningfully add to the protection of the rights and welfare of subjects. (c) An IRB shall require...

  4. Towards reporting standards for neuropsychological study results: A proposal to minimize communication errors with standardized qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Rum, Ruba S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid, clear and efficient communication of neuropsychological results is essential to benefit patient care. Errors in communication are a lead cause of medical errors; nevertheless, there remains a lack of consistency in how neuropsychological scores are communicated. A major limitation in the communication of neuropsychological results is the inconsistent use of qualitative descriptors for standardized test scores and the use of vague terminology. PubMed search from 1 Jan 2007 to 1 Aug 2016 to identify guidelines or consensus statements for the description and reporting of qualitative terms to communicate neuropsychological test scores was conducted. The review found the use of confusing and overlapping terms to describe various ranges of percentile standardized test scores. In response, we propose a simplified set of qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores (Q-Simple) as a means to reduce errors in communicating test results. The Q-Simple qualitative terms are: 'very superior', 'superior', 'high average', 'average', 'low average', 'borderline' and 'abnormal/impaired'. A case example illustrates the proposed Q-Simple qualitative classification system to communicate neuropsychological results for neurosurgical planning. The Q-Simple qualitative descriptor system is aimed as a means to improve and standardize communication of standardized neuropsychological test scores. Research are needed to further evaluate neuropsychological communication errors. Conveying the clinical implications of neuropsychological results in a manner that minimizes risk for communication errors is a quintessential component of evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Seasonal Oscillations into Basel II Behavioural Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a new methodology of temporal influence measurement (seasonal oscillations, temporal patterns for behavioural scoring development purposes. The paper shows how significant temporal variables can be recognised and then integrated into the behavioural scoring models in order to improve model performance. Behavioural scoring models are integral parts of the Basel II standard on Internal Ratings-Based Approaches (IRB. The IRB approach much more precisely reflects individual risk bank profile.A solution of the problem of how to analyze and integrate macroeconomic and microeconomic factors represented in time series into behavioural scorecard models will be shown in the paper by using the REF II model.

  6. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the MPAM-R to Brazilian Portuguese and Proposal of a New Method to Calculate Factor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Lopes, Mariana C.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Faria, Larissa O.; Pereira, Eveline T.; da Costa, Varley T.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons that lead individuals to practice physical activity, researchers developed the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) scale. In 2010, a translation of MPAM-R to Portuguese and its validation was performed. However, psychometric measures were not acceptable. In addition, factor scores in some sports psychology scales are calculated by the mean of scores by items of the factor. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate that items with higher factor loadings, extracted by Factor Analysis, have greater weight in the factor score, as items with lower factor loadings have less weight in the factor score. The aims of the present study are to translate, validate the MPAM-R for Portuguese versions, and investigate agreement between two methods used to calculate factor scores. Three hundred volunteers who were involved in physical activity programs for at least 6 months were collected. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 30 items indicated that the version did not fit the model. After excluding four items, the final model with 26 items showed acceptable model fit measures by Exploratory Factor Analysis, as well as it conceptually supports the five factors as the original proposal. When two methods are compared to calculate factors scores, our results showed that only “Enjoyment” and “Appearance” factors showed agreement between methods to calculate factor scores. So, the Portuguese version of the MPAM-R can be used in a Brazilian context, and a new proposal for the calculation of the factor score seems to be promising. PMID:28293203

  7. Scoring of Decomposition: A Proposed Amendment to the Method When Using a Pig Model for Human Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Natalie; Myburgh, Jolandie; Steyn, Maryna

    2017-07-01

    Decomposition studies often use pigs as proxies for human cadavers. However, differences in decomposition sequences/rates relative to humans have not been scientifically examined. Descriptions of five main decomposition stages (humans) were developed and refined by Galloway and later by Megyesi. However, whether these changes/processes are alike in pigs is unclear. Any differences can have significant effects when pig models are used for human PMI estimation. This study compared human decomposition models to the changes observed in pigs. Twenty pigs (50-90 kg) were decomposed over five months and decompositional features recorded. Total body scores (TBS) were calculated. Significant differences were observed during early decomposition between pigs and humans. An amended scoring system to be used in future studies was developed. Standards for PMI estimation derived from porcine models may not directly apply to humans and may need adjustment. Porcine models, however, remain valuable to study variables influencing decomposition. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Challenges in Evaluating the Severity of Fibropapillomatosis: A Proposal for Objective Index and Score System for Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Silmara; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Dos Santos, Robson Guimarães; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Gattamorta, Marco Aurélio; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease that affects marine turtles worldwide, especially green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP tumors can develop on the body surface of marine turtles and also internally in the oral cavity and viscera. Depending on their quantity, size and anatomical distribution, these tumors can interfere with hydrodynamics and the ability to feed, hence scoring systems have been proposed in an attempt to quantify the clinical manifestation of FP. In order to establish a new scoring system adapted to geographic regions, we examined 214 juvenile green sea turtles with FP caught or rescued at Brazilian feeding areas, counted their 7466 tumors and classified them in relation to their size and anatomical distribution. The patterns in quantity, size and distribution of tumors revealed interesting aspects in the clinical manifestation of FP in specimens studied in Brazil, and that FP scoring systems developed for other areas might not perform adequately when applied to sea turtles on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We therefore propose a novel method to evaluate the clinical manifestation of FP: fibropapillomatosis index (FPI) that provides the Southwest Atlantic fibropapillomatosis score (FPSSWA). In combination, these indexing and scoring systems allow for a more objective, rapid and detailed evaluation of the severity of FP in green sea turtles. While primarily designed for the clinical manifestation of FP currently witnessed in our dataset, this index and the score system can be adapted for other areas and compare the characteristics of the disease across regions. In conclusion, scoring systems to classify the severity of FP can assist our understanding on the environmental factors that modulate its development and its impacts on the individual and population health of green sea turtles.

  9. Clinical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy score of the Iberoamerican Society of Neonatology (Siben): A new proposal for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, José Maria Rodriguez; Golombek, Sergio G; Sola, Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a major complication of perinatal asphyxia, with high morbidity, mortality and neurologic sequelae as cerebral palsy, mostly in poor or developing countries. The difficulty in the diagnosis and management of newborns in these countries is astonishing, thus resulting in unreliable data on this pathology and bad outcomes regarding mortality and incidence of neurologic sequelae. The objective of this article is to present a new clinical diagnostic score to be started in the delivery room and to guide the therapeutic approach, in order to improve these results.

  10. Clinical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy score of the Iberoamerican Society of Neonatology (Siben: A new proposal for diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodriguez Perez

    Full Text Available Summary Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a major complication of perinatal asphyxia, with high morbidity, mortality and neurologic sequelae as cerebral palsy, mostly in poor or developing countries. The difficulty in the diagnosis and management of newborns in these countries is astonishing, thus resulting in unreliable data on this pathology and bad outcomes regarding mortality and incidence of neurologic sequelae. The objective of this article is to present a new clinical diagnostic score to be started in the delivery room and to guide the therapeutic approach, in order to improve these results.

  11. The Rhode Island Life Saving Score (RILSS)--a proposed life-saving definition for EMS and emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth A; Sullivan, Francis M

    2013-12-03

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Emergency Medicine staff are often described as life-saving providers, but there is no generally accepted objective definition of a life saved by these providers. Therefore, a proposed definition is described. Development of this definition began with conceptual rules, followed by a survey of physician EMS medical directors, and then by the development of a tool to implement the definition, and measure its validity and reliability through a review of 100 critical care transport EMS patient charts.

  12. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: proposal of a paediatric synovitis score by a consensus of an international working group. Results of a multicentre reliability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Mattiuz, Chiara; Magnano, GianMichele; Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto; Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; Barbuti, Domenico; Toma, Paolo; Pistorio, Angela; Bracaglia, Claudia; Boavida, Peter; Ording, Lil Sophie Mueller; Juhan, Karen Lambot; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-01-01

    MRI is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of synovitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel MRI-based score for synovitis in children and to examine its inter- and intraobserver variability in a multi-centre study. Wrist MRI was performed in 76 children with JIA. On postcontrast 3-D spoiled gradient-echo and fat-suppressed T2-weighted spin-echo images, joint recesses were scored for the degree of synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation independently by two paediatric radiologists. Total-enhancement and inflammation-synovitis scores were calculated. Interobserver agreement was poor to moderate for enhancement and inflammation in all recesses, except in the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints. Intraobserver agreement was good to excellent. For enhancement and inflammation scores, mean differences (95 % CI) between observers were -1.18 (-4.79 to 2.42) and -2.11 (-6.06 to 1.83). Intraobserver variability (reader 1) was 0 (-1.65 to 1.65) and 0.02 (-1.39 to 1.44). Intraobserver agreement was good. Except for the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints, interobserver agreement was not acceptable. Therefore, the proposed scoring system requires further refinement. (orig.)

  13. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: proposal of a paediatric synovitis score by a consensus of an international working group. Results of a multicentre reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Malattia, Clara; Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; Mattiuz, Chiara; Pistorio, Angela; Bracaglia, Claudia; Barbuti, Domenico; Boavida, Peter; Juhan, Karen Lambot; Ording, Lil Sophie Mueller; Rosendahl, Karen; Martini, Alberto; Magnano, GianMichele; Tomà, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    MRI is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of synovitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel MRI-based score for synovitis in children and to examine its inter- and intraobserver variability in a multi-centre study. Wrist MRI was performed in 76 children with JIA. On postcontrast 3-D spoiled gradient-echo and fat-suppressed T2-weighted spin-echo images, joint recesses were scored for the degree of synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation independently by two paediatric radiologists. Total-enhancement and inflammation-synovitis scores were calculated. Interobserver agreement was poor to moderate for enhancement and inflammation in all recesses, except in the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints. Intraobserver agreement was good to excellent. For enhancement and inflammation scores, mean differences (95 % CI) between observers were -1.18 (-4.79 to 2.42) and -2.11 (-6.06 to 1.83). Intraobserver variability (reader 1) was 0 (-1.65 to 1.65) and 0.02 (-1.39 to 1.44). Intraobserver agreement was good. Except for the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints, interobserver agreement was not acceptable. Therefore, the proposed scoring system requires further refinement.

  14. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: proposal of a paediatric synovitis score by a consensus of an international working group. Results of a multicentre reliability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Mattiuz, Chiara; Magnano, GianMichele [Ospedale Pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto [University of Genova, Department of Paediatrics, Genova (Italy); Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; Barbuti, Domenico; Toma, Paolo [Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pistorio, Angela [Ospedale pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Genova (Italy); Bracaglia, Claudia [Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Department of Rheumatology, Rome (Italy); Boavida, Peter; Ording, Lil Sophie Mueller [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Juhan, Karen Lambot [Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Rosendahl, Karen [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    MRI is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of synovitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel MRI-based score for synovitis in children and to examine its inter- and intraobserver variability in a multi-centre study. Wrist MRI was performed in 76 children with JIA. On postcontrast 3-D spoiled gradient-echo and fat-suppressed T2-weighted spin-echo images, joint recesses were scored for the degree of synovial enhancement, effusion and overall inflammation independently by two paediatric radiologists. Total-enhancement and inflammation-synovitis scores were calculated. Interobserver agreement was poor to moderate for enhancement and inflammation in all recesses, except in the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints. Intraobserver agreement was good to excellent. For enhancement and inflammation scores, mean differences (95 % CI) between observers were -1.18 (-4.79 to 2.42) and -2.11 (-6.06 to 1.83). Intraobserver variability (reader 1) was 0 (-1.65 to 1.65) and 0.02 (-1.39 to 1.44). Intraobserver agreement was good. Except for the radioulnar and radiocarpal joints, interobserver agreement was not acceptable. Therefore, the proposed scoring system requires further refinement. (orig.)

  15. Victor Frankenstein's Institutional Review Board Proposal, 1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gary; Gannon, William L

    2015-10-01

    To show how the case of Mary Shelley's Victor Frankenstein brings light to the ethical and moral issues raised in Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols, we nest an imaginary IRB proposal dated August 1790 by Victor Frankenstein within a discussion of the importance and function of the IRB. Considering the world of science as would have appeared in 1790 when Victor was a student at Ingolstadt, we offer a schematic overview of a fecund moment when advances in comparative anatomy, medical experimentation and theories of life involving animalcules and animal electricity sparked intensive debates about the basic principles of life and the relationship between body and soul. Constructing an IRB application based upon myriad speculations circulating up to 1790, we imagine how Victor would have drawn upon his contemporaries' scientific work to justify the feasibility of his project, as well as how he might have outlined the ethical implications of his plan to animate life from "dead" tissues. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Victor failed to consider his creature's autonomy, vulnerability, and welfare. In this IRB proposal, we show Victor facing those issues of justice and emphasize how the novel can be an important component in courses or workshops on research ethics. Had Victor Frankenstein had to submit an IRB proposal tragedy may have been averted, for he would have been compelled to consider the consequences of his experiment and acknowledge, if not fulfill, his concomitant responsibilities to the creature that he abandoned and left to fend for itself.

  16. The Effect of Computer Automation on Institutional Review Board (IRB) Office Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Karl; Pittman, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Companies purchase computer systems to make their processes more efficient through automation. Some academic medical centers (AMC) have purchased computer systems for their institutional review boards (IRB) to increase efficiency and compliance with regulations. IRB computer systems are expensive to purchase, deploy, and maintain. An AMC should…

  17. How IRBs view and make decisions about coercion and undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. IRBs wrestled with defining of 'coercion' and 'undue inducement', most notably in deciding about participant compensation. IRBs often use these terms synonymously and define undue inducement in varying ways, often wrestling with these issues, relying on 'gut feelings', and seeking compromises. Ambiguities arose, partly reflecting underlying tensions: whether subjects should 'get paid' versus 'volunteer' (ie, whether subjects should be motivated by compensation vs altruism), and whether subjects should be paid differently based on income, given possible resultant selection bias. Lack of consistent standards emerged between and even on single IRBs. Questions arose concerning certain aspects and types of studies; for example, how to view and weigh providing free care in research, whether and how recruitment flyers should mention compensation, and how to avoid coercion in paediatric, developing world, or students research. These data, the first to probe qualitatively how IRBs view and approach questions about coercion, undue influence and participant compensation, and to examine how IRBs have reviewed actual cases, reveal several critical ambiguities and dilemmas, and have vital implications for future practice, education, policy and research.

  18. Sustaining engagement and partnership: model of enhancing cultural capital among nonaffiliated IRB members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yvonne; Ayala, Armida; Morales, Francisco; Frierman-Hunt, Gina; Moreno, Alva; Nwachuku, Ijeoma

    2013-07-01

    Although federal regulations require the presence of at least one nonaffiliated member on the roster of an institutional review board (IRB), little research exists about how to foster their participation and satisfaction. Guided by principles of justice and diversity, the Kaiser Permanente Southern California IRB adapted the sociological concept of "cultural capital" to develop training and support with its nonaffiliated IRB members. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with four past and current nonaffiliated IRB members, we describe how our initial and ongoing activities enhanced their ability to analyze, communicate, and complete the ethical review of research. This case study is situated in the gaps of existing research about nonaffiliated IRB members by providing insights into how to sustain their engagement while protecting the rights of research volunteers, particularly from vulnerable communities.

  19. A proposal for a comprehensive risk scoring system for predicting postoperative complications in octogenarian patients with medically operable lung cancer: JACS1303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Hisashi; Ueno, Takahiko; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Okumura, Norihito; Tsuchida, Masanori; Sonobe, Makoto; Miyazaki, Takuro; Aokage, Keiju; Nakao, Masayuki; Haruki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Kazuhiko; Okabe, Kazunori; Tomizawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Kentaro; Horio, Hirotoshi; Sugio, Kenji; Ode, Yasuhisa; Takao, Motoshi; Okada, Morihito; Chida, Masayuki

    2018-04-01

    Although some retrospective studies have reported clinicopathological scoring systems for predicting postoperative complications and survival outcomes for elderly lung cancer patients, optimized scoring systems remain controversial. The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery (JACS) conducted a nationwide multicentre prospective cohort and enrolled a total of 1019 octogenarians with medically operable lung cancer. Details of the clinical factors, comorbidities and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded for 895 patients to develop a comprehensive risk scoring (RS) system capable of predicting severe complications. Operative (30 days) and hospital mortality rates were 1.0% and 1.6%, respectively. Complications were observed in 308 (34%) patients, of whom 81 (8.4%) had Grade 3-4 severe complications. Pneumonia was the most common severe complication, observed in 27 (3.0%) patients. Five predictive factors, gender, comprehensive geriatric assessment75: memory and Simplified Comorbidity Score (SCS): diabetes mellitus, albumin and percentage vital capacity, were identified as independent predictive factors for severe postoperative complications (odds ratio = 2.73, 1.86, 1.54, 1.66 and 1.61, respectively) through univariate and multivariate analyses. A 5-fold cross-validation was performed as an internal validation to reconfirm these 5 predictive factors (average area under the curve 0.70). We developed a simplified RS system as follows: RS = 3 (gender: male) + 2 (comprehensive geriatric assessment 75: memory: yes) + 2 (albumin: <3.8 ng/ml) + 1 (percentage vital capacity: ≤90) + 1 (SCS: diabetes mellitus: yes). The current series shows that octogenarians can be successfully treated for lung cancer with surgical resection with an acceptable rate of severe complications and mortality. We propose a simplified RS system to predict severe complications in octogenarian patients with medically operative lung cancer. JACS1303 (UMIN000016756).

  20. "Members of the same club": challenges and decisions faced by US IRBs in identifying and managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be "indirect financial" conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB members should recuse themselves

  1. IRB PERSPECTIVES ON THE RETURN OF INDIVIDUAL RESULTS FROM GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Lynn G.; Smolek, Sondra; Ponsaran, Roselle; Markey, Janell M.; Starks, Helene; Gerson, Nancy; Lewis, Susan; Press, Nancy; Juengst, Eric; Wiesner, Georgia L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Return of individual research results from genomic studies is a hotly debated ethical issue in genomic research. However, the perspective of key stakeholders—Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviewers—has been missing from this dialogue. This study explores the positions and experiences of IRB members and staff regarding this issue. Methods In depth interviews with 31 IRB professionals at six sites across the United States. Results IRB professionals agreed that research results should be returned to research participants when results are medically actionable but only if the participants wanted to know the result. Many respondents expected researchers to address the issue of return of results (ROR) in the IRB application and informed-consent document. Many respondents were not comfortable with their expertise in genomics research, and only a few described actual experiences in addressing ROR. Although participants agreed that guidelines would be helpful, most were reticent to develop them in isolation. Even where IRB guidance exists (e.g., CLIA lab certification required for return), in practice, the guidance has been overruled to allow return (e.g., no CLIA lab performs the assay). Conclusion An IRB-researcher partnership is needed to help inform responsible and feasible institutional approaches to returning research results. PMID:22241094

  2. From anonymity to "open doors": IRB responses to tensions with researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2012-07-03

    Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55%) and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions). IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of "PR work" and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using "charm"). IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways - both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions). IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more "open doors" rather than anonymity, engaging in outreach (e.g., through clinics), enhancing

  3. From anonymity to “open doors”: IRB responses to tensions with researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitzman Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. Findings I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding, and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55% and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions. IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of “PR work” and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using “charm”. IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. Conclusions This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways – both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions. IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more “open doors” rather

  4. An Analysis of Information Technology Adoption by IRBs of Large Academic Medical Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Hurdle, John F

    2015-02-01

    The clinical research landscape has changed dramatically in recent years in terms of both volume and complexity. This poses new challenges for Institutional Review Boards' (IRBs) review efficiency and quality, especially at large academic medical centers. This article discusses the technical facets of IRB modernization. We analyzed the information technology used by IRBs in large academic institutions across the United States. We found that large academic medical centers have a high electronic IRB adoption rate; however, the capabilities of electronic IRB systems vary greatly. We discuss potential use-cases of a fully exploited electronic IRB system that promise to streamline the clinical research work flow. The key to that approach utilizes a structured and standardized information model for the IRB application. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. [Frequency of healthy eating habits measured by the 10 Steps to Healthy Eating score proposed by the Ministry of Health: Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Neutzling, Marilda Borges

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to measure frequency of healthy eating habits and associated factors using the 10 Steps to Healthy Eating score proposed by the Ministry of Health in the adult population in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted on a cluster sample of 3,136 adult residents in Pelotas. The frequency of each step to healthy eating was collected with a pre-coded questionnaire. Data analysis consisted of descriptive analysis, followed by bivariate analysis using the chi-square test. Only 1.1% of the population followed all the recommended steps. The average number of steps was six. Step four, salt intake, showed the highest frequency, while step nine, physical activity, showed the lowest. Knowledge of the population's eating habits and their distribution according to demographic and socioeconomic variables is important to guide local and national strategies to promote healthy eating habits and thus improve quality of life.

  6. Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of TaB2, TaB, IrB2, and IrB: First-principle calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjie; Wang Yuanxu

    2009-01-01

    First-principle calculations were performed to investigate the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of TaB 2 , TaB, IrB 2 , and IrB. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters, shear modulus, and Young's modulus of TaB 2 are well consistent with the available experimental data, and TaB 2 with P6/mmm space group has stronger directional bonding between ions than WB 2 , OsB 2 , IrN 2 , and PtN 2 . For TaB 2 , the hexagonal P6/mmm structure is more stable than the orthorhombic Pmmn one, while for IrB 2 the orthorhombic Pmmn structure is the most stable one. The high shear modulus of P6/mmm phase TaB 2 is mainly due to the strong covalent π-bonding of B-hexagon in the (0001) plane. Such a B-hexagon network can strongly resist against an applied [112-bar0] (0001) shear deformation. Correlation between the hardness and the elastic constants of TaB 2 was discussed. The band structure shows that P6/mmm phase TaB 2 and Pmmn phase IrB 2 are both metallic. The calculations show that both TaB and IrB are elastically stable with the hexagonal P6 3 /mmc structure. - Elastic constant c 44 of TaB 2 is calculated to be 235 GPa. This value is exceptionally high, exceeding those of WB 2 , OsB 2 , WB 4 , OsN 2 , IrN 2 , and PtN 2 .

  7. Public service quality improvements: a case for exemption from IRB review of public administration research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sara R

    2014-01-01

    Should the exemption from Institutional Review Board (IRB) evaluations currently in place for quality improvements research be extended to public administration research that addresses questions of improving the quality of public service delivery? As a means to both reduce the level of disdain held by a group of social science researchers for IRBs and to reduce the cost of review for minimal risk studies, I argue here that much of the current public administration research should also be exempted from normal processes of review by IRBs on the basis of their similarity to Quality Improvements (QI) research, a category of studies already granted exemption. This argument dovetails provisions currently in place for studies of public service and public benefit, but reframes these exemptions in the language of "quality improvements," which may be a more comfortable language for IRBs concerned to demonstrate compliance for review of all fields. To expedite this argument into the practices of IRBs, I included a checklist that researchers could use to self-identify their studies as QI, not research as such.

  8. Adherence of non-pharmaceutically sponsored oncology trial protocols to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in an academic institution outside the ICH jurisdictions and the impact of IRB implementation on this adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeneldin, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess adherence of non-pharmaceutically sponsored trials (non-PSTs) to ICH protocol structure guidelines and to estimate the effect of implementing Institutional Review Boards (IRB) review on this adherence. Methods: This is a retrospective exploratory study where 60 non-PST clinical trial protocols (CTPs) were reviewed and halved to IRB-reviewed CTPs (IRCTPs) and non-lRB-reviewed CTPs (non-lRCTPs). Adherence score (AS) was calculated as the number of fulfilled items or sub-items divided by their total number. Results: Three adherence patterns were encountered: (1) items consistently present in both groups e.g. general and background information, objectives, inclusion criteria and intervention details, (2) items consistently absent in both groups and included contact information of investigators and trial sites, product accountability, randomization codes management, interim analyses and many other statistical aspects, and (3) items variably present in both groups where the effect of IRB was verifiable. Trial site details, potential benefits, discontinuation and exclusion criteria, and follow up for adverse events were more encountered in IRCTPs than non-IRCTPs. Withdrawal criteria monitoring of treatment compliance showed a reverse pattern (p < 0.05 for all). The total AS, administrative AS and ethics AS for IRCTPs was 43%, 22% and 70% compared to 38%, 16% and 33% for non-IRCTPs (p < 0.003, <0.001, 0.004), respectively. The scientific AS was 54% for both groups (p = 0.87). Conclusions: IRB-implementation at NCl-Egypt improved ethical and administrative sections of academic protocols. However, this improvement is modest and needs further actions including adoption of protocol templates. Scientific sections were as good after IRB-implementation as they were before that

  9. The microcirculation image quality score: development and preliminary evaluation of a proposed approach to grading quality of image acquisition for bedside videomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Michael J; Larochelle, Ethan; Najarro, Gabriel; Karmacharla, Adarsh; Arnold, Ryan; Trzeciak, Stephen; Angus, Derek C; Shapiro, Nathan I

    2013-12-01

    Side-stream dark-field microscopy is currently used to directly visualize sublingual microcirculation at the bedside. Our experience has found inherent technical challenges in the image acquisition process. This article presents and assesses a quality assurance method to rate image acquisition quality before analysis. We identified 6 common image capture and analysis problem areas in sublingual side-stream dark-field videos: illumination, duration, focus, content, stability, and pressure. We created the "Microcirculation Image Quality Score" by assigning a score of optimal (0 points), suboptimal but acceptable (1 point), or unacceptable (10 points) to each category (for further details, go to http://www.MicroscanAnalysis.blogspot.com). We evaluated 59 videos from a convenience sample of 34 unselected, noncritically ill emergency department patients to create a test set. Two raters, blinded to each other, implemented the score. Any video with a cumulative score of 10 or higher (range, 0-60) was considered unacceptable for further analysis. We created the Microcirculation Image Quality Score and applied it to 59 videos. For this particular set of 59 videos, the mean (SD) passing quality score was 1.68 (0.90), and the mean (SD) failing quality score was 15.74 (6.19), with 27 of 59 passing the quality score less than 10. Highest failure occurred from pressure artifact. The interrater agreement for acceptability was assessed using Cohen κ for each category: illumination (κ = 1.0), duration (κ = 1.0), focus (κ = 0.91), content (κ = 0.76), stability (κ = 0.71), and pressure (κ = 0.82) and overall pass-fail rates (score >10) (κ = 0.66). Our Microcirculation Image Quality Score addresses many of the common areas where video quality can degrade. The criteria introduced are an objective way to assess the quality of image acquisition, with the goal of selecting videos of adequate quality for analysis. The interrater reliability results in our preliminary study suggest

  10. Integración del brazo robot IRB120 en entorno ROS-MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Cuadrado, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Este proyecto usa el entorno ROS (Robot Operating System) para desarrollar el control del brazo robot IRB 120 y su implementación en el entorno de trabajo MATLAB. Se explicará la creación del modelo del robot, la planificación de trayectorias y la comunicación con dicho robot. This project uses the ROS (Robot Operating System) environment for developing the control of the IRB 120 robotic arm and its implementation in the MATLAB working environment. It will explain the creation of the...

  11. Customizable orthopaedic oncology implants: one institution's experience with meeting current IRB and FDA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alexander R; Ippolito, Joseph A; Patterson, Francis R; Benevenia, Joseph; Beebe, Kathleen S

    2016-01-01

    Customizable orthopaedic implants are often needed for patients with primary malignant bone tumors due to unique anatomy or complex mechanical problems. Currently, obtaining customizable orthopaedic implants for orthopaedic oncology patients can be an arduous task involving submitting approval requests to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There is great potential for the delay of a patient's surgery and unnecessary paperwork if the submission pathways are misunderstood or a streamlined protocol is not in place. The objective of this study was to review the existing FDA custom implant approval pathways and to determine whether this process was improved with an institutional protocol. An institutional protocol for obtaining IRB and FDA approval for customizable orthopaedic implants was established with the IRB at our institution in 2013. This protocol was approved by the IRB, such that new patients only require submission of a modification to the existing protocol with individualized patient information. During the two-year period of 2013-2014, eight patients were retrospectively identified as having required customizable implants for various orthopaedic oncology surgeries. The dates of request for IRB approval, request for FDA approval, and total time to surgery were recorded, along with the specific pathway utilized for FDA approval. The average patient age was 12 years old (7-21 years old). The average time to IRB approval of a modification to the pre-approved protocol was 14 days (7-21 days). Average time to FDA approval after submission of the IRB approval to the manufacturer was 12.5 days (7-19 days). FDA approval was obtained for all implants as compassionate use requests in accordance with Section 561 of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act's expanded access provisions. Establishment of an institutional protocol with pre-approval by the IRB can expedite the otherwise time-consuming and complicated

  12. 78 FR 65452 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans, Researchers, and IRB Members Experiences With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... qualitative research methods to understand Veterans' preferences on research recruitment methods. The data... research study subjects and to explore Veterans views on recruitment procedures. DATES: Written comments... Members Experiences with Recruitment Restrictions). Type of Review: New collection. Abstracts: The VHA...

  13. 45 CFR 46.111 - Criteria for IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 46.111 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.111 Criteria for IRB... protect the rights and welfare of these subjects. ...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1111 - Criteria for IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for IRB approval of research. 26.1111 Section 26.1111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION... subjects, and the importance of the knowledge that may reasonably be expected to result. In evaluating...

  15. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  16. 15 CFR 27.111 - Criteria for IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for IRB approval of research. 27.111 Section 27.111 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF... subjects are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits, if any, to subjects, and the importance of the...

  17. Genetics researchers’ and iRB professionals’ attitudes toward genetic research review: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Karen L.; Lemke, Amy A.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Lewis, Susan M.; Starks, Helene; Snapinn, Katherine W.; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Wiesner, Georgia L.; Burke, Wylie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Genetic research involving human participants can pose challenging questions related to ethical and regulatory standards for research oversight. However, few empirical studies describe how genetic researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals conceptualize ethical issues in genetic research or where common ground might exist. Methods Parallel online surveys collected information from human genetic researchers (n = 351) and IRB professionals (n = 208) regarding their views about human participant oversight for genetic protocols. Results A range of opinions were observed within groups on most issues. In both groups, a minority thought it likely that people would be harmed by participation in genetic research or identified from coded genetic data. A majority of both groups agreed that reconsent should be required for four of the six scenarios presented. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups on some issues, with more genetic researcher respondents trusting the confidentiality of coded data, fewer expecting harms from reidentification, and fewer considering reconsent necessary in certain scenarios. Conclusions The range of views observed within and between IRB and genetic researcher groups highlights the complexity and unsettled nature of many ethical issues in genome research. Our findings also identify areas where researcher and IRB views diverge and areas of common ground. PMID:22241102

  18. 40 CFR 26.1113 - Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension or termination of IRB approval of research. 26.1113 Section 26.1113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1113 Suspension or...

  19. 45 CFR 46.502 - What information must be provided when registering an IRB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., facsimile number, and electronic mail address of the senior officer or head official of that institution or..., phone number, facsimile number, and electronic mail address of the contact person providing the... number, and electronic mail address. (d) The name, phone number, and electronic mail address of the IRB...

  20. Adrift in the Gray Zone: IRB Perspectives on Research in the Learning Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Kelley, Maureen; Cho, Mildred K; Kraft, Stephanie Alessi; James, Cyan; Constantine, Melissa; Meyer, Adrienne N; Diekema, Douglas; Capron, Alexander M; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Magnus, David

    2016-01-01

    Human subjects protection in healthcare contexts rests on the premise that a principled boundary distinguishes clinical research and clinical practice. However, growing use of evidence-based clinical practices by health systems makes it increasingly difficult to disentangle research from a wide range of clinical activities that are sometimes called "research on medical practice" (ROMP), including quality improvement activities and comparative effectiveness research. The recent growth of ROMP activities has created an ethical and regulatory gray zone with significant implications for the oversight of human subjects research. We conducted six semi-structured, open-ended focus group discussions with IRB members to understand their experiences and perspectives on ethical oversight of ROMP, including randomization of patients to standard treatments. Our study revealed that IRB members are unclear or divided on the central questions at stake in the current policy debate over ethical oversight of ROMP: IRB members struggle to make a clear distinction between clinical research and medical practice improvement, lack consensus on when ROMP requires IRB review and oversight, and are uncertain about what constitutes incremental risk when patients are randomized to different treatments, any of which may be offered in usual care. They characterized the central challenge as a balancing act, between, on the one hand, making information fully transparent to patients and providing adequate oversight, and on the other hand, avoiding a chilling effect on the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship. Evidence-based guidance that supports IRB members in providing adequate and effective oversight of ROMP without impeding the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship is necessary to realize the full benefits of the learning health system.

  1. Proposal of a new preliminary scoring tool for early identification of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries in patients at risk after road traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanantsoa, Mahery; Zingg, Tobias; Thiery, Alicia; Brigand, Cécile; Delhorme, Jean-Baptiste; Romain, Benoît

    2017-12-14

    Blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries (BBMI) are regularly missed by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. The aim of this study was to develop a risk assessment tool for BBMI to help clinicians in decision-making for blunt trauma after road traffic crashes (RTCs). Single-center retrospective study of trauma patients from January 2010 to April 2015. All patients admitted to our hospital after blunt trauma following RTCs and CT scan at admission were assessed. Of the 394 patients included, 78 (19.8%) required surgical exploration and 34 (43.6%) of these had a significant BBMI. A univariate and multivariate analysis were performed comparing patients with BBMI (n = 34) and patients without BBMI (n = 360). A score with a range from 0 to 13 was created. Scores from 8 to 9 were associated with 5-25% BBMI risk. The power of this new score ≥ 8 to predict a surgically significant BBMI had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.4%. This score could be a valuable tool for the management of blunt trauma patients after RTA without a clear indication for laparotomy but at risk for BBMI. The outcome of this study suggests selective diagnostic laparoscopy for a score ≥ 8 in obtunded patients and ≥ 10 in all other. To assess the value and accuracy of this new score, a prospective validation of these retrospective findings is due.

  2. “Members of the Same Club”: Challenges and Decisions Faced by US IRBs in Identifying and Managing Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. Methods I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. Results IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be “indirect financial” conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. Conclusions This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB

  3. Proposal for evaluating the quality of reports of surgical interventions in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Harith; Mirza, Bilal; Kitchen, Neil; Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to design a checklist with a scoring system for reporting on studies of surgical interventions for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to validate it by a review of the recent literature. A checklist with a scoring system, the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score (STNS), was devised partially based on the validated STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and customized for TN after a literature review and then applied to a series of articles. These articles were identified using a prespecified MEDLINE and Embase search covering the period from 2008 to 2010. Of the 584 articles found, 59 were studies of interventional procedures for TN that fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 56 could be obtained in full. The STNS was then applied independently by 3 of the authors. The maximum STNS came to 30, and was reliable and reproducible when used by the 3 authors who performed the scoring. The range of scores was 6-23.5, with a mean of 14 for all the journals. The impact factor scores of the journals in which the papers were published ranged from 0 to 4.8. Twenty-four of the studies were published in the Journal of Neurosurgery or in Neurosurgery. Studies published in neurosurgical journals ranked higher on the STNS scale than those published in nonneurosurgical journals. There was no statistically significant correlation between STNS and impact factors. Stereotactic radiosurgery (n = 25) and microvascular decompression (n = 15) were the most commonly reported procedures. The diagnostic criteria were stated in 35% of the studies, and 4 studies reported subtypes of TN. An increasing number of studies (46%) used the recommended Kaplan-Meier methodology for pain survival outcomes. The follow-up period was unclear in 8 studies, and 26 reported follow-ups of more than 5 years. Complications were reported fairly consistently but the temporal course was not always indicated. Direct interview, telephone conversation

  4. Ethical and regulatory challenges of research using pervasive sensing and other emerging technologies: IRB perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeker, Camille; Harlow, John; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca; Orozco-Linares, Rubi; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Weibel, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    Vast quantities of personal health information and private identifiable information are being created through mobile apps, wearable sensors, and social networks. While new strategies and tools for obtaining health data have expanded researchers' abilities to design and test personalized and adaptive health interventions, the deployment of pervasive sensing and computational techniques to gather research data is raising ethical challenges for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) charged with protecting research participants. To explore experiences with, and perceptions about, technology-enabled research, and identify solutions for promoting responsible conduct of this research we conducted focus groups with human research protection program and IRB affiliates. Our findings outline the need for increased collaboration across stakeholders in terms of: (1) shared and dynamic resources that improve awareness of technologies and decrease potential threats to participant privacy and data confidentiality, and (2) development of appropriate and dynamic standards through collaboration with stakeholders in the research ethics community.

  5. Das IRB-Modell des Kreditrisikos im Vergleich zum Modell einer logarithmisch normalverteilten Verlustfunktion

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Michael; Cremers, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 the Basel Committee published an extensive revision of the capital charges which creates more risk sensitive capital requirements for banks. The New Accord called International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standard provides in its first pillar for a finer measurement of credit risk. Banks that have received supervisory approval to use the Internal Ratings-Based (IRB) approach may rely on their own internal estimates of risk components in determining the capital requi...

  6. Control del brazo robot IRB120 mediante el dispositivo háptico PHANTOM

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Alía, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    El proyecto expuesto en el presente libro consiste en el control del brazo robot IRB120 a través de diferentes aplicaciones por medio de una interfaz gráfica creada con el software matemático MATLAB. Todo ello se llevará a cabo gracias a un socket de comunicación desarrollado en lenguaje RAPID que permite el envío simultáneo de varias posiciones al robot. Entre esas aplicaciones destaca el empleo del dispositivo háptico Phantom Omni para la creación de dibujos o textos a man...

  7. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  8. Transformation impacts of dissolved and solid phase Fe(II) on trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in an iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) mixed column system: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yeunook; Kim, Dooil; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Singhal, Naresh; Park, Jae-Woo

    2012-12-01

    In this research, we conducted trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in a column filled with iron and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and developed a mathematical model to investigate the critical reactions between active species in iron/IRB/contaminant systems. The formation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in this system with IRB and zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) coated with a ferric iron (Fe(III)) crust significantly affected TCE reduction and IRB respiration in various ways. This study presents a new framework for transformation property and reducing ability of both dissolved (Fe(II)(dissolved)) and solid form ferrous iron (Fe(II)(solid)). Results showed that TCE reduction was strongly depressed by Fe(II)(solid) rather than by other inhibitors (e.g., Fe(III) and lactate), suggesting that Fe(II)(solid) might reduce IRB activation due to attachment to IRB cells. Newly exposed Fe(0) from the released Fe(II)(dissolved) was a strong contributor to TCE reduction compared to Fe(II)(solid). In addition, our research confirmed that less Fe(II)(solid) production strongly supported long-term TCE reduction because it may create an easier TCE approach to Fe(0) or increase IRB growth. Our findings will aid the understanding of the contributions of iron media (e.g., Fe(II)(solid), Fe(II)(dissolved), Fe(III), and Fe(0)) to IRB for decontamination in natural groundwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Desarrollo de una interfaz para el control del robot IRB desde Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Corbacho, Azahara

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es realizar la comunicación con el brazo robótico, IRB120 de ABB, a través de la herramienta de software matemático Matlab. Para ello desarrollaremos un socket de comunicación, que se encargará enviar y procesar los datos. Para comprobar que la comunicación funciona y que el envío de datos se realiza correctamente, se implementarán en Matlab, una serie de interfaces de comunicación con el robot y una aplicación final. La primera, será una interfaz gráfica r...

  10. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  11. Organic matter and hydrogen as electron donor for SRB and IRB activities in a clayey medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, C.; Mifsud, A.; Libert, M.; Marsal, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. According to the French concept for the disposal of High-Level radioactive Waste (HLW), waste will be emplaced in an environment with multiple metallic components into a geological clay formation. The presence of microorganisms has recently been evidenced in deep clayey environment. Therefore, neither the introduction of microbial species during the construction and operational phases nor the survival of bacteria after the disposal closure can be excluded. Indeed, microbial species may be able to tolerate specific environment with few nutrients to sustain life under high temperature, dry and highly radioactive conditions. Moreover, despite the low porosity of clays, cracks in the excavated disturbed zone and remaining void spaces between disposal components may be favorable for bacterial growth. Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Iron-Reducing Bacteria (IRB) activities are notably expected to influence iron-clay reactivity, including corrosion processes. Their potential development must be investigated in order to better assess their metabolism, which may in turn influence the evolution of metallic and clayey materials involved in a HLW disposal cell. More specifically, deep geological environments containing low amounts of biodegradable Organic Matter (OM) are generally nutrient poor for microbial development. However, the radiolysis of pore water and the corrosion of metallic components of HLW disposal cell in anoxic conditions will lead to the production of hydrogen, which may also be used as an electron donor for microbial activity. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to quantify the potential of bacterial growth stimulation due either to the production of hydrogen or the presence of OM. In a first step, characterization of DOM leached from Tournemire clay powder has been performed in order to identify and estimate the concentration of soluble organic matter available for bacteria activity which will

  12. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.

    2012-12-01

    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  13. Estimating NHL Scoring Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buttrey, Samuel E.; Washburn, Alan R.; Price, Wilson L.; Operations Research

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1334 We propose a model to estimate the rates at which NHL teams score and yield goals. In the model, goals occur as if from a Poisson process whose rate depends on the two teams playing, the home-ice advantage, and the manpower (power-play, short-handed) situation. Data on all the games from the 2008-2009 season was downloaded and processed into a form suitable for the analysis. The model...

  14. The programme 'fission product deposition' at the IRB of Juelich nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottaut, H.; Iniotakis, N.; Malinowski, J.; Muenchow, K.H.; Sackmann, B.

    1976-01-01

    The transport and deposition behaviour of the non-gaseous fission and activation products in the primary circuit of HTR-type reactors determines the possibility of inspection and maintenance of single components of the primary circuit as well as the safety of the reactor in normal operation and during accidents. For the investigation of these problems, the programme 'fission product deposition' was started at Juelich nuclear research centre in 1969 in cooperation with a number of industrial firms. The programme covers in-pile and out-of-pile experiments, in which the HTR conditions are simulated as realistically as possible, as well as various laboratory experiments and extensive theoretical studies. It is the objective of this work to establish a realistic physical model and computer programme with which the transport and deposition of nuclides in the primary circuit of HTR reactors can be calculated in advance. A report is given on the experimental and theoretical studies carried out at the IRB of Juelich nuclear research centre. (orig./AK) [de

  15. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  16. Bond deformation paths and electronic instabilities of ultraincompressible transition metal diborides: Case study of OsB2 and IrB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.

    2014-09-01

    The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

  17. A New Ethical Challenge for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs/Ethics Committees (ECs in the Assessment of Pediatric Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA’s Pediatric Committee (PDCO may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs/ethics committees (ECs and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA’s PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients.

  18. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  19. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  20. How to score questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through

  1. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  2. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  3. Extended score interval in the assessment of basic surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Stefan; Sevonius, Dan; Beckman, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The Basic Surgical Skills course uses an assessment score interval of 0-3. An extended score interval, 1-6, was proposed by the Swedish steering committee of the course. The aim of this study was to analyze the trainee scores in the current 0-3 scored version compared to a proposed 1-6 scored version. Sixteen participants, seven females and nine males, were evaluated in the current and proposed assessment forms by instructors, observers, and learners themselves during the first and second day. In each assessment form, 17 tasks were assessed. The inter-rater reliability between the current and the proposed score sheets were evaluated with intraclass correlation (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The distribution of scores for 'knot tying' at the last time point and 'bowel anastomosis side to side' given by the instructors in the current assessment form showed that the highest score was given in 31 and 62%, respectively. No ceiling effects were found in the proposed assessment form. The overall ICC between the current and proposed score sheets after assessment by the instructors increased from 0.38 (95% CI 0.77-0.78) on Day 1 to 0.83 (95% CI 0.51-0.94) on Day 2. A clear ceiling effect of scores was demonstrated in the current assessment form, questioning its validity. The proposed score sheet provides more accurate scores and seems to be a better feedback instrument for learning technical surgical skills in the Basic Surgical Skills course.

  4. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  5. Combination of scoring schemes for protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docking algorithms are developed to predict in which orientation two proteins are likely to bind under natural conditions. The currently used methods usually consist of a sampling step followed by a scoring step. We developed a weighted geometric correlation based on optimised atom specific weighting factors and combined them with our previously published amino acid specific scoring and with a comprehensive SVM-based scoring function. Results The scoring with the atom specific weighting factors yields better results than the amino acid specific scoring. In combination with SVM-based scoring functions the percentage of complexes for which a near native structure can be predicted within the top 100 ranks increased from 14% with the geometric scoring to 54% with the combination of all scoring functions. Especially for the enzyme-inhibitor complexes the results of the ranking are excellent. For half of these complexes a near-native structure can be predicted within the first 10 proposed structures and for more than 86% of all enzyme-inhibitor complexes within the first 50 predicted structures. Conclusion We were able to develop a combination of different scoring schemes which considers a series of previously described and some new scoring criteria yielding a remarkable improvement of prediction quality.

  6. Forecasting the value of credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring system plays an important role in banking sector. This process is important in assessing the creditworthiness of customers requesting credit from banks or other financial institutions. Usually, the credit scoring is used when customers send the application for credit facilities. Based on the score from credit scoring, bank will be able to segregate the "good" clients from "bad" clients. However, in most cases the score is useful at that specific time only and cannot be used to forecast the credit worthiness of the same applicant after that. Hence, bank will not know if "good" clients will always be good all the time or "bad" clients may become "good" clients after certain time. To fill up the gap, this study proposes an equation to forecast the credit scoring of the potential borrowers at a certain time by using the historical score related to the assumption. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of the forecast scoring. Result shows the forecast scoring is highly accurate as compared to actual credit scoring.

  7. A diagnostic scoring system for myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoveniuc, Geanina; Chandra, Tanu; Sud, Anchal; Sharma, Meeta; Blackman, Marc R; Burman, Kenneth D; Mete, Mihriye; Desale, Sameer; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    To develop diagnostic criteria for myxedema coma (MC), a decompensated state of extreme hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if untreated, in order to facilitate its early recognition and treatment. The frequencies of characteristics associated with MC were assessed retrospectively in patients from our institutions in order to derive a semiquantitative diagnostic point scale that was further applied on selected patients whose data were retrieved from the literature. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the predictive power of the score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the discriminative power of the score. Of the 21 patients examined, 7 were reclassified as not having MC (non-MC), and they were used as controls. The scoring system included a composite of alterations of thermoregulatory, central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems, and presence or absence of a precipitating event. All 14 of our MC patients had a score of ≥60, whereas 6 of 7 non-MC patients had scores of 25 to 50. A total of 16 of 22 MC patients whose data were retrieved from the literature had a score ≥60, and 6 of 22 of these patients scored between 45 and 55. The odds ratio per each score unit increase as a continuum was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.16; P = .019); a score of 60 identified coma, with an odds ratio of 1.22. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00), and the score of 60 had 100% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. A score ≥60 in the proposed scoring system is potentially diagnostic for MC, whereas scores between 45 and 59 could classify patients at risk for MC.

  8. Complete Decomposition of Li 2 CO 3 in Li–O 2 Batteries Using Ir/B 4 C as Noncarbon-Based Oxygen Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shidong; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; Luo, Langli; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-02-10

    Incomplete decomposition of Li2CO3 during charge process is a critical barrier for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Here we report complete decomposition of Li2CO3 in Li-O2 batteries using ultrafine iridium-decorated boron carbide (Ir/B4C) nanocomposite as oxygen electrode. The systematic investigation on charging the Li2CO3 preloaded Ir/B4C electrode in an ether-based electrolyte demonstrates that Ir/B4C electrode can decompose Li2CO3 with an efficiency close to 100% at below 4.37 V. In contrast, the bare B4C without Ir electrocatalyst can only decompose 4.7% of preloaded Li2CO3. The reaction mechanism of Li2CO3 decomposition in the presence of Ir/B4C electrocatalyst has been further investigated. A Li-O2 battery using Ir/B4C as oxygen electrode material shows highly enhanced cycling stability than that using bare B4C oxygen electrode. These results clearly demonstrate that Ir/B4C is an effecitive oxygen electrode amterial to completely decompose Li2CO3 at relatively low charge voltages and is of significant importance in improving the cycle performanc of aprotic Li-O2 batteries.

  9. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  10. Risk-Assessment Score and Patient Optimization as Cost Predictors for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Sherif; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with complications that significantly increase healthcare costs. This study explores the associations between hospital costs for VHR and surgical complication risk-assessment scores, need for cardiac or pulmonary evaluation, and smoking or obesity counseling. An IRB-approved retrospective study of patients having undergone open VHR over 3 years was performed. Ventral Hernia Risk Score (VHRS) for surgical site occurrence and surgical site infection, and the Ventral Hernia Working Group grade were calculated for each case. Also recorded were preoperative cardiology or pulmonary evaluations, smoking cessation and weight reduction counseling, and patient goal achievement. Hospital costs were obtained from the cost accounting system for the VHR hospitalization stratified by major clinical cost drivers. Univariate regression analyses were used to compare the predictive power of the risk scores. Multivariable analysis was performed to develop a cost prediction model. The mean cost of index VHR hospitalization was $20,700. Total and operating room costs correlated with increasing CDC wound class, VHRS surgical site infection score, VHRS surgical site occurrence score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and Ventral Hernia Working Group (all p variance in costs (p optimization significantly reduced direct and operating room costs (p < 0.05). Cardiac evaluation was associated with increased costs. Ventral hernia repair hospital costs are more accurately predicted by CDC wound class than VHR risk scores. A straightforward 6-factor model predicted most cost variation for VHR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  12. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  13. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  14. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  15. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  16. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  17. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  18. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  19. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  20. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  1. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  2. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  3. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  4. A simple scoring system for breast MRI interpretation: does it compensate for reader experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)

  5. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  6. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  7. Data-driven efficient score tests for deconvolution hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langovoy, M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider testing statistical hypotheses about densities of signals in deconvolution models. A new approach to this problem is proposed. We constructed score tests for the deconvolution density testing with the known noise density and efficient score tests for the case of unknown density. The

  8. Score Normalization using Logistic Regression with Expected Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin

    State-of-the-art score normalization methods use generative models that rely on sometimes unrealistic assumptions. We propose a novel parameter estimation method for score normalization based on logistic regression. Experiments on the Gov2 and CluewebA collection indicate that our method is

  9. Explaining soccer match outcomes with goal scoring opportunities predictive analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggels, H.; van Elk, R.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2016-01-01

    In elite soccer, decisions are often based on recent results and emotions. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the expected winner of a match in elite soccer. The expected result of a soccer match is determined by estimating the probability of scoring for the individual goal scoring

  10. Generación de trayectorias y evitación de obstáculos para el robot IRB120 en entorno Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Fernández, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    En este proyecto se abordará el desarrollo de una aplicación que permita una comunicación eficaz y fluida con el brazo robótico IRB120 de ABB desde el entorno Matlab, posibilitando la generación de trayectorias definidas por el usuario a través de unos “puntos de paso” intermedios, así como la detección de nuevos obstáculos presentes en la trayectoria del robot y la planificación de nuevas trayectorias recalculadas para evitarlos. La detección del área de trabajo se efectuará mediante el s...

  11. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  12. [Prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain

    2016-03-23

    Nine prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism (PE), based on retrospective and prospective studies, published between 2000 and 2014, have been analyzed and compared. Most of them aim at identifying PE cases with a low risk to validate their ambulatory care. Important differences in the considered outcomes: global mortality, PE-specific mortality, other complications, sizes of low risk groups, exist between these scores. The most popular score appears to be the PESI and its simplified version. Few good quality studies have tested the applicability of these scores to PE outpatient care, although this approach tends to already generalize in the medical practice.

  13. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  15. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  16. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  17. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  18. Estimating the Reliability of Aggregated and Within-Person Centered Scores in Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Weng, Li-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A procedure for estimating the reliability of test scores in the context of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was proposed to take into account the characteristics of EMA measures. Two commonly used test scores in EMA were considered: the aggregated score (AGGS) and the within-person centered score (WPCS). Conceptually, AGGS and WPCS represent…

  19. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  20. A Soft Intelligent Risk Evaluation Model for Credit Scoring Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khashei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the most important branches of business and finance. Classification models are the most popular and widely used analytical group of data mining approaches that can greatly help financial decision makers and managers to tackle credit risk problems. However, the literature clearly indicates that, despite proposing numerous classification models, credit scoring is often a difficult task. On the other hand, there is no universal credit-scoring model in the literature that can be accurately and explanatorily used in all circumstances. Therefore, the research for improving the efficiency of credit-scoring models has never stopped. In this paper, a hybrid soft intelligent classification model is proposed for credit-scoring problems. In the proposed model, the unique advantages of the soft computing techniques are used in order to modify the performance of the traditional artificial neural networks in credit scoring. Empirical results of Australian credit card data classifications indicate that the proposed hybrid model outperforms its components, and also other classification models presented for credit scoring. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered as an appropriate alternative tool for binary decision making in business and finance, especially in high uncertainty conditions.

  1. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  2. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  3. A quality score for coronary artery tree extraction results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Broersen, Alexander; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2018-02-01

    Coronary artery trees (CATs) are often extracted to aid the fully automatic analysis of coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images. Automatically extracted CATs often miss some arteries or include wrong extractions which require manual corrections before performing successive steps. For analyzing a large number of datasets, a manual quality check of the extraction results is time-consuming. This paper presents a method to automatically calculate quality scores for extracted CATs in terms of clinical significance of the extracted arteries and the completeness of the extracted CAT. Both right dominant (RD) and left dominant (LD) anatomical statistical models are generated and exploited in developing the quality score. To automatically determine which model should be used, a dominance type detection method is also designed. Experiments are performed on the automatically extracted and manually refined CATs from 42 datasets to evaluate the proposed quality score. In 39 (92.9%) cases, the proposed method is able to measure the quality of the manually refined CATs with higher scores than the automatically extracted CATs. In a 100-point scale system, the average scores for automatically and manually refined CATs are 82.0 (+/-15.8) and 88.9 (+/-5.4) respectively. The proposed quality score will assist the automatic processing of the CAT extractions for large cohorts which contain both RD and LD cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a general quality score for an extracted CAT is presented.

  4. Fatores de risco associados à mortalidade infantil em duas áreas da região metropolitana de São Paulo (Brasil, 1984-1985: proposta de instrumentos preditivos Risk factors associated with infant mortality in two municipalities of the metropolitan area of S.Paulo (Brazil, 1984-1985: proposal for a predictive scoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester L. G. Cesar

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a aplicação do conceito de "risco" na área materno-infantil, partindo da proposta da Organização Mundial de Saúde relativa ao "enfoque de risco" na organização dos serviços de saúde. O estudo concentrou-se no desenvolvimento de instrumentos de identificação de grupos de alto risco de óbito infantil, seja no período neonatal, seja no período pós-neonatal, e baseou-se em estudo de caso-controle. O grupo de casos correspondeu a óbitos registrados de menores de um ano de idade, ocorridos nos anos de 1984 e 1985, de pais residentes nos municípios de Cotia e Vargem Grande Paulista, SP (Brasil, totalizando 149 óbitos (casos. O grupo controle foi formado por uma amostra probabilística de 216 crianças nascidas em 1984, filhas de pais residentes nos municípios estudados e que sobreviveram ao primeiro ano de vida, As mães de ambos os grupos responderam a um questionário, aplicado em entrevistas domiciliarias, para a identificação de variáveis independentes associadas ao óbito infantil. As variáveis que mostraram associação estatisticamente significante foram agrupadas em quatro escalas de risco: para uso em pré-natal; para uso por ocasião do parto; para uso no período neonatal; e para uso em puericultura após o período neonatal. As variáveis participaram nas escalas ponderadas pelos valores das razões dos produtos cruzados. As escalas apresentaram diferentes pontos de corte e a cada um destes correspondeu uma dada sensibilidade, especificidade e poder preditivo.The application of the concept of "risk" to maternal and child health was studied, the starting point being the World Health Organization's proposal for a "risk approach" in health services. The study was concerned with the development of a scoring system for the identification of groups at high risk of death during the first year of life, whether in the neonatal or the post-neonatal periods, and was based on a case-control study. The case group

  5. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  6. Multiple Score Comparison: a network meta-analysis approach to comparison and external validation of prognostic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Haile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction models and prognostic scores have been increasingly popular in both clinical practice and clinical research settings, for example to aid in risk-based decision making or control for confounding. In many medical fields, a large number of prognostic scores are available, but practitioners may find it difficult to choose between them due to lack of external validation as well as lack of comparisons between them. Methods Borrowing methodology from network meta-analysis, we describe an approach to Multiple Score Comparison meta-analysis (MSC which permits concurrent external validation and comparisons of prognostic scores using individual patient data (IPD arising from a large-scale international collaboration. We describe the challenges in adapting network meta-analysis to the MSC setting, for instance the need to explicitly include correlations between the scores on a cohort level, and how to deal with many multi-score studies. We propose first using IPD to make cohort-level aggregate discrimination or calibration scores, comparing all to a common comparator. Then, standard network meta-analysis techniques can be applied, taking care to consider correlation structures in cohorts with multiple scores. Transitivity, consistency and heterogeneity are also examined. Results We provide a clinical application, comparing prognostic scores for 3-year mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using data from a large-scale collaborative initiative. We focus on the discriminative properties of the prognostic scores. Our results show clear differences in performance, with ADO and eBODE showing higher discrimination with respect to mortality than other considered scores. The assumptions of transitivity and local and global consistency were not violated. Heterogeneity was small. Conclusions We applied a network meta-analytic methodology to externally validate and concurrently compare the prognostic properties

  7. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  8. Score distributions in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arampatzis, A.; Robertson, S.; Kamps, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review the history of modeling score distributions, focusing on the mixture of normal-exponential by investigating the theoretical as well as the empirical evidence supporting its use. We discuss previously suggested conditions which valid binary mixture models should satisfy, such as the

  9. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  10. The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies.

  11. Automatic scoring of the severity of psoriasis scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...... with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  12. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P

    2015-02-01

    Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone

  13. Quasi-linear score for capturing heterogeneous structure in biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Katsuhiro; Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto

    2017-06-19

    Linear scores are widely used to predict dichotomous outcomes in biomedical studies because of their learnability and understandability. Such approaches, however, cannot be used to elucidate biodiversity when there is heterogeneous structure in target population. Our study was focused on describing intrinsic heterogeneity in predictions. Because heterogeneity can be captured by a clustering method, integrating different information from different clusters should yield better predictions. Accordingly, we developed a quasi-linear score, which effectively combines the linear scores of clustered markers. We extended the linear score to the quasi-linear score by a generalized average form, the Kolmogorov-Nagumo average. We observed that two shrinkage methods worked well: ridge shrinkage for estimating the quasi-linear score, and lasso shrinkage for selecting markers within each cluster. Simulation studies and applications to real data show that the proposed method has good predictive performance compared with existing methods. Heterogeneous structure is captured by a clustering method. Quasi-linear scores combine such heterogeneity and have a better predictive ability compared with linear scores.

  14. Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination Scores for Certification: Comparative Study of Four Statistical Models. ... University entrance examination scores in mathematics were obtained for a subsample of 115 ...

  15. Scoring System Improvements to Three Leadership Predictors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dela

    1997-01-01

    .... The modified scoring systems were evaluated by rescoring responses randomly selected from the sample which had been scored according to the scoring systems originally developed for the leadership research...

  16. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  17. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  18. 76 FR 20366 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Management Operations interim scoring notice. The document inadvertently omitted a word with respect to the... INFORMATION: I. Background The proposed management operations scoring information was published on August 21...

  19. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Open Field Scoring Record No. 298

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Jr., Larry; Robitaille, George; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  2. Open Field Scoring Record No. 299

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  3. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  4. Development of a severity score for CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Bruehl, Stephen; Perez, Roberto S G M; Birklein, Frank; Marinus, Johan; Maihofner, Christian; Lubenow, Timothy; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Mackey, Sean; Graciosa, Joseph; Mogilevski, Mila; Ramsden, Christopher; Schlereth, Tanja; Chont, Melissa; Vatine, Jean-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a dichotomous (yes/no) categorization necessary for clinical decision-making. However, such dichotomous diagnostic categories do not convey an individual's subtle and temporal gradations in severity of the condition, and have poor statistical power when used as an outcome measure in research. This study evaluated the validity and potential utility of a continuous type score to index severity of CRPS. Psychometric and medical evaluations were conducted in 114 CRPS patients and 41 non-CRPS neuropathic pain patients. Based on the presence/absence of 17 clinically-assessed signs and symptoms of CRPS, an overall CRPS Severity Score (CSS) was derived. The CSS discriminated well between CRPS and non-CRPS patients (pCRPS diagnoses using both IASP diagnostic criteria (Eta=0.69) and proposed revised criteria (Eta=0.77-0.88). Higher CSS was associated with significantly higher clinical pain intensity, distress, and functional impairments, as well as greater bilateral temperature asymmetry and thermal perception abnormalities (p'sCRPS, and support its validity as an index of CRPS severity. Its utility as an outcome measure in research studies is also suggested, with potential statistical advantages over dichotomous diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...... the assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  6. Formation of borrower’s bank credit scoring integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the borrower’s bank credit scoring model that is of particular relevance in an unstable world and Ukrainian financial markets. The essence of this integrated model is the consistent definition of indicators, which analyze the financial and economic situation and development of scoring that allows to calculate overall index, that is, the integral factor of credit scoring level of the bank to calculate which one uses the formed set of factors characterizing riskiness, profitability and liquidity of the banking institution. The author determines the factors according to their functional purpose; the former ones are divided into four groups: capital adequacy, loan portfolio quality, profitability and liquidity. Each group consists of four indicators; each indicator is assigned thresholds to determine the appropriate credit scoring level of the bank for one or another direction. The higher is the value of the integral factor, the more efficient and less risky is the financial and economic activity of banks and the higher is their credit scoring level. The study concludes that the proposed model for bank credit scoring differs with its transparency and clarity due to use in its implementation only public information. The disadvantages include the presence of the subjective factor in assigning a certain number of points based on expert and normative methods.

  7. Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  8. Interval Coded Scoring: a toolbox for interpretable scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Billiet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, clinical decision support systems have been gaining importance. They help clinicians to make effective use of the overload of available information to obtain correct diagnoses and appropriate treatments. However, their power often comes at the cost of a black box model which cannot be interpreted easily. This interpretability is of paramount importance in a medical setting with regard to trust and (legal responsibility. In contrast, existing medical scoring systems are easy to understand and use, but they are often a simplified rule-of-thumb summary of previous medical experience rather than a well-founded system based on available data. Interval Coded Scoring (ICS connects these two approaches, exploiting the power of sparse optimization to derive scoring systems from training data. The presented toolbox interface makes this theory easily applicable to both small and large datasets. It contains two possible problem formulations based on linear programming or elastic net. Both allow to construct a model for a binary classification problem and establish risk profiles that can be used for future diagnosis. All of this requires only a few lines of code. ICS differs from standard machine learning through its model consisting of interpretable main effects and interactions. Furthermore, insertion of expert knowledge is possible because the training can be semi-automatic. This allows end users to make a trade-off between complexity and performance based on cross-validation results and expert knowledge. Additionally, the toolbox offers an accessible way to assess classification performance via accuracy and the ROC curve, whereas the calibration of the risk profile can be evaluated via a calibration curve. Finally, the colour-coded model visualization has particular appeal if one wants to apply ICS manually on new observations, as well as for validation by experts in the specific application domains. The validity and applicability

  9. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  10. New scoring schema for finding motifs in DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowzari-Dalini Abbas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pattern discovery in DNA sequences is one of the most fundamental problems in molecular biology with important applications in finding regulatory signals and transcription factor binding sites. An important task in this problem is to search (or predict known binding sites in a new DNA sequence. For this reason, all subsequences of the given DNA sequence are scored based on an scoring function and the prediction is done by selecting the best score. By assuming no dependency between binding site base positions, most of the available tools for known binding site prediction are designed. Recently Tomovic and Oakeley investigated the statistical basis for either a claim of dependence or independence, to determine whether such a claim is generally true, and they presented a scoring function for binding site prediction based on the dependency between binding site base positions. Our primary objective is to investigate the scoring functions which can be used in known binding site prediction based on the assumption of dependency or independency in binding site base positions. Results We propose a new scoring function based on the dependency between all positions in biding site base positions. This scoring function uses joint information content and mutual information as a measure of dependency between positions in transcription factor binding site. Our method for modeling dependencies is simply an extension of position independency methods. We evaluate our new scoring function on the real data sets extracted from JASPAR and TRANSFAC data bases, and compare the obtained results with two other well known scoring functions. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach improves known binding site discovery and show that the joint information content and mutual information provide a better and more general criterion to investigate the relationships between positions in the TFBS. Our scoring function is formulated by simple

  11. A Study on Text-Score Disagreement in Online Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazzolari, Michela; Cozza, Vittoria; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    expressing different sentiments may feature the same score (and vice-versa), and (2) detecting and analyzing the mismatches between the review content and the actual score may benefit both service providers and consumers, by highlighting specific factors of satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) in texts....... To prove the intuitions, we adopt sentiment analysis techniques and we concentrate on hotel reviews, to find polarity mismatches therein. In particular, we first train a text classifier with a set of annotated hotel reviews, taken from the Booking website. Then, we analyze a large dataset, with around 160k...... between the text polarity and the score, we find that-on a scale of five stars-those reviews ranked with middle scores include a mixture of positive and negative aspects. The approach proposed here, beside acting as a polarity detector, provides an effective selection of reviews-on an initial very large...

  12. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  13. Identifying and Evaluating External Validity Evidence for Passing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    A critical component of the standard setting process is collecting evidence to evaluate the recommended cut scores and their use for making decisions and classifying students based on test performance. Kane (1994, 2001) proposed a framework by which practitioners can identify and evaluate evidence of the results of the standard setting from (1)…

  14. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scored items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk; Rijkes, Carl P.M.; Rijkes, Carl

    1994-01-01

    A loglinear IRT model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. The analyst may specify a response function for each response, indicating which latent abilities are necessary to arrive at that response. Each item may have a different number of

  15. Using perinatal morbidity scoring tools as a primary study outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Platt, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal morbidity scores are tools that score or weight different adverse events according to their relative severity. Perinatal morbidity scores are appealing for maternal-infant health researchers because they provide a way to capture a broad range of adverse events to mother and newborn while recognising that some events are considered more serious than others. However, they have proved difficult to implement as a primary outcome in applied research studies because of challenges in testing if the scores are significantly different between two or more study groups. We outline these challenges and describe a solution, based on Poisson regression, that allows differences in perinatal morbidity scores to be formally evaluated. The approach is illustrated using an existing maternal-neonatal scoring tool, the Adverse Outcome Index, to evaluate the safety of labour and delivery before and after the closure of obstetrical services in small rural communities. Applying the proposed Poisson regression to the case study showed a protective risk ratio for adverse outcome following closures as compared with the original analysis, where no difference was found. This approach opens the door for considerably broader use of perinatal morbidity scoring tools as a primary outcome in applied population and clinical maternal-infant health research studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Development and validation of a composite scoring system for robot-assisted surgical training--the Robotic Skills Assessment Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowriappa, Ashirwad J; Shi, Yi; Raza, Syed Johar; Ahmed, Kamran; Stegemann, Andrew; Wilding, Gregory; Kaouk, Jihad; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Hassett, James M; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Guru, Khurshid A

    2013-12-01

    A standardized scoring system does not exist in virtual reality-based assessment metrics to describe safe and crucial surgical skills in robot-assisted surgery. This study aims to develop an assessment score along with its construct validation. All subjects performed key tasks on previously validated Fundamental Skills of Robotic Surgery curriculum, which were recorded, and metrics were stored. After an expert consensus for the purpose of content validation (Delphi), critical safety determining procedural steps were identified from the Fundamental Skills of Robotic Surgery curriculum and a hierarchical task decomposition of multiple parameters using a variety of metrics was used to develop Robotic Skills Assessment Score (RSA-Score). Robotic Skills Assessment mainly focuses on safety in operative field, critical error, economy, bimanual dexterity, and time. Following, the RSA-Score was further evaluated for construct validation and feasibility. Spearman correlation tests performed between tasks using the RSA-Scores indicate no cross correlation. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed between the two groups. The proposed RSA-Score was evaluated on non-robotic surgeons (n = 15) and on expert-robotic surgeons (n = 12). The expert group demonstrated significantly better performance on all four tasks in comparison to the novice group. Validation of the RSA-Score in this study was carried out on the Robotic Surgical Simulator. The RSA-Score is a valid scoring system that could be incorporated in any virtual reality-based surgical simulator to achieve standardized assessment of fundamental surgical tents during robot-assisted surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores.

  18. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  19. Moderate Psoriasis: A Proposed Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, M; de la Cueva, P; Notario, J; Martínez-Pilar, L; Martorell, A; Moreno-Ramírez, D

    2017-12-01

    The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used scale for assessing the severity of psoriasis and for therapeutic decision making. On the basis of the PASI score, patients have been stratified into 2 groups: mild disease and moderate-to-severe disease. To draft a proposal for the definition and characterization of moderate psoriasis based on PASI and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. A group of 6 dermatologists with experience in the treatment of psoriasis undertook a critical review of the literature and a discussion of cases to draft a proposal. In order of priority, PASI, DLQI, and body surface area (BSA) are the parameters to be used in daily practice to classify psoriasis as mild, moderate, or severe. Severity should be assessed on the basis of a combined evaluation and interpretation of the PASI and DLQI. And 3, PASI and DLQI should carry equal weight in the determination of disease severity. On this basis, psoriasis severity was defined using the following criteria: mild, PASI15, independently of the DLQI score. A more precise classification of psoriasis according to disease severity will improve the risk-benefit assessment essential to therapeutic decision making in these patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposta de escore de risco pré-operatório para pacientes candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca valvar Propuesta de escore de riesgo preoperatorio para pacientes candidatos a cirugía cardiaca valvular Proposed preoperative risk score for patients candidate to cardiac valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Vieira da Costa Guaragna

    2010-04-01

    para mortalidad hospitalaria para los pacientes candidatos a cirugía en el Hospital São Lucas de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Rio Grande do Sul (HSL-PUCRS. MÉTODOS: La muestra del estudio incluyó 1.086 pacientes adultos a los que se realizó cirugía cardiaca valvular entre enero de 1996 y diciembre de 2007 en el HSL-PUCRS. Para identificar factores de riesgo y mortalidad hospitalaria se utilizó regresión logística. El modelo fue desarrollado en 699 pacientes y se probó su desempeño en los datos restantes (n = 387. El modelo final fue creado con el análisis de la muestra total (n = 1.086. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad global fue del 11,8%: un 8,8% de casos electivos y un 63,8% de cirugía de emergencia. En el análisis multivariado, 9 variables permanecieron como predictores independientes para el desenlace: edad avanzada, prioridad quirúrgica, sexo femenino, fracción de eyección 2,5 mg/dl o diálisis. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,83 (IC: 95%,0,78-0,86. El modelo de riesgo mostró buena habilidad para mortalidad observada/prevista: el test Hosmer-Lemeshow fue x² = 5,61; p = 0,691 y r = 0,98 (coeficiente de Pearson. CONCLUSIÓN: Las variables predictoras de mortalidad hospitalaria permitieron construir un escore de riesgo simplificado para la práctica diaria, que clasifica al paciente en bajo, medio, elevado, muy elevado y extremadamente elevado riesgo preoperatorio.BACKGROUND: To establish a risk score for heart surgery allows the assessment of preoperative risk, informing the patient and defining care during the intervention. OBJECTIVE: To assess preoperative risk factors for death in cardiac valve surgery and construct a simple risk model (score for in-hospital mortality of patients candidate to surgery at Hospital São Lucas of Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (HSL-PUCRS. METHODS: The study sample included 1,086 adult patients that underwent cardiac valve surgery between January 1996 and December 2007 at HSL

  1. Linkage between company scores and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on company scores conducted at firm-level, generally concluded that there exists a positive relation between company scores and stock returns. Motivated by these studies, this study examines the relationship between company scores (Corporate Governance Score, Economic Score, Environmental Score, and Social Score and stock returns, both at portfolio-level analysis and firm-level cross-sectional regressions. In portfolio-level analysis, stocks are sorted based on each company scores and quintile portfolio are formed with different levels of company scores. Then, existence and significance of raw returns and risk-adjusted returns difference between portfolios with the extreme company scores (portfolio 10 and portfolio 1 is tested. In addition, firm-level cross-sectional regression is performed to examine the significance of company scores effects with control variables. While portfolio-level analysis results indicate that there is no significant relation between company scores and stock returns; firm-level analysis indicates that economic, environmental, and social scores have effect on stock returns, however, significance and direction of these effects change, depending on the included control variables in the cross-sectional regression.

  2. Continuous equilibrium scores: factoring in the time before a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F

    2012-07-01

    The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. From scores to face templates: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pranab; Sarkar, Sudeep; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-12-01

    Regeneration of templates from match scores has security and privacy implications related to any biometric authentication system. We propose a novel paradigm to reconstruct face templates from match scores using a linear approach. It proceeds by first modeling the behavior of the given face recognition algorithm by an affine transformation. The goal of the modeling is to approximate the distances computed by a face recognition algorithm between two faces by distances between points, representing these faces, in an affine space. Given this space, templates from an independent image set (break-in) are matched only once with the enrolled template of the targeted subject and match scores are recorded. These scores are then used to embed the targeted subject in the approximating affine (non-orthogonal) space. Given the coordinates of the targeted subject in the affine space, the original template of the targeted subject is reconstructed using the inverse of the affine transformation. We demonstrate our ideas using three, fundamentally different, face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Mahalanobis cosine distance measure, Bayesian intra-extrapersonal classifier (BIC), and a feature-based commercial algorithm. To demonstrate the independence of the break-in set with the gallery set, we select face templates from two different databases: Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) Database (FERET). With an operational point set at 1 percent False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and 99 percent True Acceptance Rate (TAR) for 1,196 enrollments (FERET gallery), we show that at most 600 attempts (score computations) are required to achieve a 73 percent chance of breaking in as a randomly chosen target subject for the commercial face recognition system. With similar operational set up, we achieve a 72 percent and 100 percent chance of breaking in for the Bayesian and PCA based face recognition systems, respectively. With

  4. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  5. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  6. Interobserver variability of the neurological optimality score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the interobserver reliability of the neurological optimality score. The neurological optimality score of 21 full term healthy, neurologically normal newborn infants was determined by two well trained observers. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.31. Kappa for optimality (score of

  7. Semiparametric score level fusion: Gaussian copula approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanyo, N.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2015-01-01

    Score level fusion is an appealing method for combining multi-algorithms, multi- representations, and multi-modality biometrics due to its simplicity. Often, scores are assumed to be independent, but even for dependent scores, accord- ing to the Neyman-Pearson lemma, the likelihood ratio is the

  8. An Objective Fluctuation Score for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Malcolm K.; McGregor, Sarah; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson’s Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system. Methods The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm. Results This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations. Conclusion The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges. PMID:25928634

  9. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with

  10. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  11. MELD Score as a Predictor of Early Death in Patients Undergoing Elective Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Aaron; Ferral, Hector; Vasan, Rajiv; Postoak, Darren W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To Evaluate the MELD score as a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients undergoing elective TIPS procedures. Methods. This was a retrospective, IRB-approved study. The medical records of all patients who underwent a TIPS procedure between May 1, 1999 and June 1, 2003 in a single institution were reviewed. Patients who underwent elective TIPS were selected. Elective TIPS was performed in 119 patients with a mean age of 55.1 (± 9.6) years. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS, etiology of cirrhosis, portosystemic gradients before and after TIPS, procedure time, and procedural complications were obtained from the medical records. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS were compared between the survivor group (SG) and the early death (EDG) group. The early death rate was calculated for MELD score subgroups (1-10, 11-17, 18-24, and >24). Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, chi-square test and independent-sample t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Technical success rate was 100%. The early death rate was 10.9% (13/119). The mean MELD scores before TIPS were 19.4 (± 5.9) (EDG) and 14 (± 4.2) (SG) (p = 0.025). The early death rate was highest in the pre-TIPS MELD > 24 subgroup. The Child-Pugh scores were 9.0 (± 1.6) (SG) and 9.8 ± 1.06 (EDG) (p 0.08). The mean portosystemic gradients before TIPS were 20.5 (± 7.7) mmHg (EDG) and 22.7 (± 7.3) (SG) (p > 1) and the mean portosystemic gradients after TIPS were 6.5 (± 3.5) (EDG) and 6.9 (± 2.4) (SG) (p > 1). The mean procedural times were 95.6 (± 8.4) min (EDG) and 89.2 (± 7.5) min (SG) (p > 1). No early death was attributed to a fatal complication during TIPS. Conclusion. The MELD score is useful in identifying patients at a higher risk of early death after an elective TIPS. On the basis of our results, we do not endorse elective TIPS in patients with MELD scores > 24

  12. INNOVATION ANALYSIS BASED ON SCORES AT THE FIRM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin George ALEXE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation analysis based on scores (Innovation Scorecard is a simple way to get a quick diagnosis on the potential of innovation of a firm in its intention to achieve the innovation capability. It aims to identify and remedy the deficient aspects related to innovation management being used as a measuring tool for the innovation initiatives over time within the innovation audit. The paper aims to present the advantages and disadvantages of using the method, and the three approaches developed over time. Therefore, the model proposed by the consulting firm Arthur D. Little in collaboration with the European Business School, Eckelmann's model and AGGB's local model are summarized and compared. At the end of the paper, several possible solutions are proposed to improve the way of analysis based on scores.

  13. Oswestry Disability Index scoring made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, P B

    2008-09-01

    Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires.

  14. Development of the siriraj clinical asthma score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Veskitkul, Jittima; Rienmanee, Nuanphong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2013-09-01

    Acute asthmatic attack in children commonly occurs despite the introduction of effective controllers such as inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers. Treatment of acute asthmatic attack requires proper evaluation of attack severity and appropriate selection of medical therapy. In children, measurement of lung function is difficult during acute attack and thus clinical asthma scoring may aid physician in making further decision regarding treatment and admission. We enrolled 70 children with acute asthmatic attack with age range from 1 to 12 years (mean ± SD = 51.5 ± 31.8 months) into the study. Twelve selected asthma severity items were assessed by 2 independent observers prior to administration of salbutamol nebulization (up to 3 doses at 20 minutes interval). Decision for further therapy and admission was made by emergency department physician. Three different scoring systems were constructed from items with best validity. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of these scores were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was assessed for each score. Review of previous scoring systems was also conducted and reported. Three severity items had poor validity, i.e., cyanosis, depressed cerebral function, and I:E ratio (p > 0.05). Three items had poor inter-rater reliability, i.e., breath sound quality, air entry, and I:E ratio. These items were omitted and three new clinical scores were constructed from the remaining items. Clinical scoring system comprised retractions, dyspnea, O2 saturation, respiratory rate and wheezing (rangeof score 0-10) gave the best accuracy and inter-rater variability and were chosen for clinical use-Siriraj Clinical Asthma Score (SCAS). A Clinical Asthma Score that is simple, relatively easy to administer and with good validity and variability is essential for treatment of acute asthma in children. Several good candidate scores have been introduced in the past. We described the development of the Siriraj Clinical Asthma Score (SCAS) in

  15. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  16. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan).

  17. Scoring an Abstract Contemporary Silent Film

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    I composed an original digital audio film score with full sound design for a contemporary silent film called Apple Tree. The film is highly conceptual and interpretive and required a very involved, intricate score to successfully tell the story. In the process of scoring this film, I learned new ways to convey an array of contrasting emotions through music and sound. After analyzing the film's emotional journey, I determined that six defining emotions were the foundation on which to build an ...

  18. Standard Errors of Estimated Latent Variable Scores with Estimated Structural Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose a concise formula to evaluate the standard error of the estimated latent variable score when the true values of the structural parameters are not known and must be estimated. The formula can be applied to factor scores in factor analysis or ability parameters in item response theory, without bootstrap or Markov chain Monte…

  19. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  20. A comparative study on assessment procedures and metric properties of two scoring systems of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised items: standard and modified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Lovaglio, Piergiorgio; Brenna, Greta; Covelli, Venusia; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Duran, Dunja; Minati, Ludovico; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-09-01

    The study compared the metric characteristics (discriminant capacity and factorial structure) of two different methods for scoring the items of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and it analysed scale scores collected using the standard assessment procedure and a new proposed method. Cross sectional design/methodological study. Inpatient, neurological unit. A total of 153 patients with disorders of consciousness were consecutively enrolled between 2011 and 2013. All patients were assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised using standard (rater 1) and inverted (rater 2) procedures. Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, number of cognitive and reflex behaviours and diagnosis. Regarding patient assessment, rater 1 using standard and rater 2 using inverted procedures obtained the same best scores for each subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised for all patients, so no clinical (and statistical) difference was found between the two procedures. In 11 patients (7.7%), rater 2 noted that some Coma Recovery Scale-Revised codified behavioural responses were not found during assessment, although higher response categories were present. A total of 51 (36%) patients presented the same Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scores of 7 or 8 using a standard score, whereas no overlap was found using the modified score. Unidimensionality was confirmed for both score systems. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score showed a higher discriminant capacity than the standard score and a monofactorial structure was also supported. The inverted assessment procedure could be a useful evaluation method for the assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness diagnosis.

  1. MRF-ANN: a machine learning approach for automated ER scoring of breast cancer immunohistochemical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungle, T; Tewary, S; DAS, D K; Arun, I; Basak, B; Agarwal, S; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C

    2017-08-01

    Molecular pathology, especially immunohistochemistry, plays an important role in evaluating hormone receptor status along with diagnosis of breast cancer. Time-consumption and inter-/intraobserver variability are major hindrances for evaluating the receptor score. In view of this, the paper proposes an automated Allred Scoring methodology for estrogen receptor (ER). White balancing is used to normalize the colour image taking into consideration colour variation during staining in different labs. Markov random field model with expectation-maximization optimization is employed to segment the ER cells. The proposed segmentation methodology is found to have F-measure 0.95. Artificial neural network is subsequently used to obtain intensity-based score for ER cells, from pixel colour intensity features. Simultaneously, proportion score - percentage of ER positive cells is computed via cell counting. The final ER score is computed by adding intensity and proportion scores - a standard Allred scoring system followed by pathologists. The classification accuracy for classification of cells by classifier in terms of F-measure is 0.9626. The problem of subjective interobserver ability is addressed by quantifying ER score from two expert pathologist and proposed methodology. The intraclass correlation achieved is greater than 0.90. The study has potential advantage of assisting pathologist in decision making over manual procedure and could evolve as a part of automated decision support system with other receptor scoring/analysis procedure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  3. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  4. Equating error in observed-score equating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of

  5. Correlating continuous assessment scores to junior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between continuous assessment scores and junior secondary school certificate examination(JSCE) final scores in Imo State. A sample of four hundred students were purposively selected from thirty eight thousand students who took the 1997 JSCE in Imo State. The data used were ...

  6. Summary of Score Changes (in other Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; McCandless, Sam A.

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores have declined during the last 14 years. Similar score declines have been observed in many different testing programs, many groups, and tested areas. The declines, while not large in any given year, have been consistent over time, area, and group. The period around 1965 is critical for the interpretation of…

  7. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  8. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  9. Semiparametric Copula Models for Biometric Score Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In biometric recognition systems, biometric samples (images of faces, finger- prints, voices, gaits, etc.) of people are compared and classifiers (matchers) indicate the level of similarity between any pair of samples by a score. If two samples of the same person are compared, a genuine score is

  10. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  11. Evaluating the role of ecosystem serivces in participatory land use planning: proposing a balanced score card

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, C.; Opdam, P.; Inostroza, L.; Luque, S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in land use planning has great potential to enhance the awareness of planning actors on their interactions. At the same time it can contribute to improve the linkage between the role of land use patterns and the understanding of land system

  12. 76 FR 63640 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Proposed Physical Condition Interim Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... developed in 1997. In addition to taking advantage of advances in technology, the core functionality of the... door jamb; (3) there is an accessible route to all exterior common areas; and (4) for multi-story...

  13. [The use of scores in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ursula; Rösli, Andreas; Ballmer, Peter E; Rippin, Sarah Jane

    2013-10-01

    Scores are tools to combine complex information into a numerical value. In General Medicine, there are scores to assist in making diagnoses and prognoses, scores to assist therapeutic decision making and to evaluate therapeutic results and scores to help physicians when informing and advising patients. We review six of the scoring systems that have the greatest utility for the General Physician in hospital-based care and in General Practice. The Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) tool is designed to identify hospital patients in danger of malnutrition. The aim is to improve the nutritional status of these patients. The CURB-65 score predicts 30-day mortality in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Patients with a low score can be considered for home treatment, patients with an elevated score require hospitalisation and those with a high score should be treated as having severe pneumonia; treatment in the intensive care unit should be considered. The IAS-AGLA score of the Working Group on Lipids and Atherosclerosis of the Swiss Society of Cardiology calculates the 10-year risk of a myocardial infarction for people living in Switzerland. The working group makes recommendations for preventative treatment according to the calculated risk status. The Body Mass Index, which is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared and then divided into weight categories, is used to classify people as underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese. The prognostic value of this classification is discussed. The Mini-Mental State Examination allows the physician to assess important cognitive functions in a simple and standardised form. The Glasgow Coma Scale is used to classify the level of consciousness in patients with head injury. It can be used for triage and correlates with prognosis.

  14. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle dos; Costa e Fonseca, Ana Carolina da; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author's guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal.

  15. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Fonseca, Ana Carolina da Costa e; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Methods Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author’s guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal. PMID:25628189

  16. Posterior probability of linkage and maximal lod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génin, E; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1995-01-01

    To detect linkage between a trait and a marker, Morton (1955) proposed to calculate the lod score z(theta 1) at a given value theta 1 of the recombination fraction. If z(theta 1) reaches +3 then linkage is concluded. However, in practice, lod scores are calculated for different values of the recombination fraction between 0 and 0.5 and the test is based on the maximum value of the lod score Zmax. The impact of this deviation of the test on the probability that in fact linkage does not exist, when linkage was concluded, is documented here. This posterior probability of no linkage can be derived by using Bayes' theorem. It is less than 5% when the lod score at a predetermined theta 1 is used for the test. But, for a Zmax of +3, we showed that it can reach 16.4%. Thus, considering a composite alternative hypothesis instead of a single one decreases the reliability of the test. The reliability decreases rapidly when Zmax is less than +3. Given a Zmax of +2.5, there is a 33% chance that linkage does not exist. Moreover, the posterior probability depends not only on the value of Zmax but also jointly on the family structures and on the genetic model. For a given Zmax, the chance that linkage exists may then vary.

  17. The ERICE-score: the new native cardiovascular score for the low-risk and aged Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rafael; Brotons, Carlos; Tormo, M José; Segura, Antonio; Rigo, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Carbayo, Julio A; Gavrila, Diana; Moral, Irene; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, data based on large population-based cohorts adequate to provide an accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been scarce. Thus, calibration of the EuroSCORE and Framingham scores has been proposed and done for our population. The aim was to develop a native risk prediction score to accurately estimate the individual cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population. Seven Spanish population-based cohorts including middle-aged and elderly participants were assembled. There were 11800 people (6387 women) representing 107915 person-years of follow-up. A total of 1214 cardiovascular events were identified, of which 633 were fatal. Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine the contributions of the different variables to the 10-year total cardiovascular risk. Age was the strongest cardiovascular risk factor. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and smoking were strong predictive factors. The contribution of serum total cholesterol was small. Antihypertensive treatment also had a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, greater in men than in women. The model showed a good discriminative power (C-statistic=0.789 in men and C=0.816 in women). Ten-year risk estimations are displayed graphically in risk charts separately for men and women. The ERICE is a new native cardiovascular risk score for the Spanish population derived from the background and contemporaneous risk of several Spanish cohorts. The ERICE score offers the direct and reliable estimation of total cardiovascular risk, taking in consideration the effect of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factor management. The ERICE score is a practical and useful tool for clinicians to estimate the total individual cardiovascular risk in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive value of seven preoperative prognostic scoring systems for spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Andreas; Radl, Roman; Gruber, Gerald; Hochegger, Markus; Leithner, Katharina; Welkerling, Heike; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Predicting prognosis is the key factor in selecting the proper treatment modality for patients with spinal metastases. Therefore, various assessment systems have been designed in order to provide a basis for deciding the course of treatment. Such systems have been proposed by Tokuhashi, Sioutos, Tomita, Van der Linden, and Bauer. The scores differ greatly in the kind of parameters assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of each score. Eight parameters were assessed for 69 patients (37 male, 32 female): location, general condition, number of extraspinal bone metastases, number of spinal metastases, visceral metastases, primary tumour, severity of spinal cord palsy, and pathological fracture. Scores according to Tokuhashi (original and revised), Sioutos, Tomita, Van der Linden, and Bauer were assessed as well as a modified Bauer score without scoring for pathologic fracture. Nineteen patients were still alive as of September 2006 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. All other patients died after a mean period of 17 months after operation. The mean overall survival period was only 3 months for lung cancer, followed by prostate (7 months), kidney (23 months), breast (35 months), and multiple myeloma (51 months). At univariate survival analysis, primary tumour and visceral metastases were significant parameters, while Karnofsky score was only significant in the group including myeloma patients. In multivariate analysis of all seven parameters assessed, primary tumour and visceral metastases were the only significant parameters. Of all seven scoring systems, the original Bauer score and a Bauer score without scoring for pathologic fracture had the best association with survival (P < 0.001). The data of the present study emphasize that the original Bauer score and a modified Bauer score without scoring for pathologic fracture seem to be practicable and highly predictive preoperative scoring systems for patients with spinal metastases

  19. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  20. A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.

  1. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  2. Surgical Apgar Score Predicts Post- Laparatomy Complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calculated Surgical Apgar Scores for 152 patients during a 6-month study ... major postoperative complications and/or death within. 30 days of ... respond to and control hemodynamic changes during a ... abdominal injury (18.42%). Intestinal ...

  3. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Donald E; San Miguel, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  4. Film scoring today - Theory, practice and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Paula Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers film scoring by taking a closer look at the theoretical discourse throughout the last decades, examining current production practice of film music and showcasing a musical analysis of the film Inception (2010).

  5. Climiate Resilience Screening Index and Domain Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CRSI and related-domain scores for all 50 states and 3135 counties in the U.S. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: They are already available within the...

  6. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  7. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  8. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  9. Technology Performance Level (TPL) Scoring Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics, and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Three different ways of combining scores are used in the revised formulation. These are arithmetic mean, geometric mean and multiplication with normalisation. Arithmetic mean is used when combining scores that measure similar attributes, e.g. used for combining costs. The arithmetic mean has the property that it is similar to a logical OR, e.g. when combining costs it does not matter what the individual costs are only what the combined cost is. Geometric mean and Multiplication are used when combining scores that measure disparate attributes. Multiplication is similar to a logical AND, it is used to combine ‘must haves.’ As a result, this method is more punitive than the geometric mean; to get a good score in the combined result it is necessary to have a good score in ALL of the inputs. e.g. the different types of survivability are ‘must haves.’ On balance, the revised TPL is probably less punitive than the previous spreadsheet, multiplication is used sparingly as a method of combining scores. This is in line with the feedback of the Wave Energy Prize judges.

  10. Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG: SCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make

  11. A Novel Risk Scoring System Reliably Predicts Readmission Following Pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Vicente; Grimm, Joshua C.; Kilic, Arman; Lewis, Russell L.; Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; He, Jin; Griffin, James; Cameron, John L.; Weiss, Matthew J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative readmissions have been proposed by Medicare as a quality metric and may impact provider reimbursement. Since readmission following pancreatectomy is common, we sought to identify factors associated with readmission in order to establish a predictive risk scoring system (RSS). Study Design A retrospective analysis of 2,360 pancreatectomies performed at nine, high-volume pancreatic centers between 2005 and 2011 was performed. Forty-five factors strongly associated with readmission were identified. To derive and validate a RSS, the population was randomly divided into two cohorts in a 4:1 fashion. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed and scores were assigned based on the relative odds ratio of each independent predictor. A composite Readmission After Pancreatectomy (RAP) score was generated and then stratified to create risk groups. Results Overall, 464 (19.7%) patients were readmitted within 90-days. Eight pre- and postoperative factors, including prior myocardial infarction (OR 2.03), ASA Class ≥ 3 (OR 1.34), dementia (OR 6.22), hemorrhage (OR 1.81), delayed gastric emptying (OR 1.78), surgical site infection (OR 3.31), sepsis (OR 3.10) and short length of stay (OR 1.51), were independently predictive of readmission. The 32-point RAP score generated from the derivation cohort was highly predictive of readmission in the validation cohort (AUC 0.72). The low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) and high risk (>7) groups correlated to 11.7%, 17.5% and 45.4% observed readmission rates, respectively (preadmission following pancreatectomy. Identification of patients with increased risk of readmission using the RAP score will allow efficient resource allocation aimed to attenuate readmission rates. It also has potential to serve as a new metric for comparative research and quality assessment. PMID:25797757

  12. Item response theory scoring and the detection of curvilinear relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Guan, Li; LoPilato, Alexander C; Withrow, Scott A

    2017-03-01

    Psychologists are increasingly positing theories of behavior that suggest psychological constructs are curvilinearly related to outcomes. However, results from empirical tests for such curvilinear relations have been mixed. We propose that correctly identifying the response process underlying responses to measures is important for the accuracy of these tests. Indeed, past research has indicated that item responses to many self-report measures follow an ideal point response process-wherein respondents agree only to items that reflect their own standing on the measured variable-as opposed to a dominance process, wherein stronger agreement, regardless of item content, is always indicative of higher standing on the construct. We test whether item response theory (IRT) scoring appropriate for the underlying response process to self-report measures results in more accurate tests for curvilinearity. In 2 simulation studies, we show that, regardless of the underlying response process used to generate the data, using the traditional sum-score generally results in high Type 1 error rates or low power for detecting curvilinearity, depending on the distribution of item locations. With few exceptions, appropriate power and Type 1 error rates are achieved when dominance-based and ideal point-based IRT scoring are correctly used to score dominance and ideal point response data, respectively. We conclude that (a) researchers should be theory-guided when hypothesizing and testing for curvilinear relations; (b) correctly identifying whether responses follow an ideal point versus dominance process, particularly when items are not extreme is critical; and (c) IRT model-based scoring is crucial for accurate tests of curvilinearity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Objective assessment of psoriasis erythema for PASI scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fadzil, M H; Ihtatho, Dani; Mohd Affandi, Azura; Hussein, S H

    2009-01-01

    Skin colour is vital information in dermatological diagnosis as it reflects the pathological condition beneath the skin. It is commonly used to indicate the extent of diseases such as psoriasis, which is indicated by the appearance of red plaques. Although there is no cure for psoriasis, there are many treatment modalities to help control the disease. To evaluate treatment efficacy, the current gold standard method, PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index), is used to determine severity of psoriasis lesion. Erythema (redness) is one parameter in PASI and this condition is assessed visually, thus leading to subjective and inconsistent results. Current methods or instruments that assess erythema have limitations, such as being able to measure erythema well for low pigmented skin (fair skin) but not for highly pigmented skin (dark skin) or vice versa. In this work, we proposed an objective assessment of psoriasis erythema for PASI scoring for different (low to highly pigmented) skin types. The colour of psoriasis lesions are initially obtained by using a chromameter giving the values L*, a*, and b* of CIELAB colour space. The L* value is used to classify skin into three categories: low, medium and highly pigmented skin. The lightness difference (DeltaL*), hue difference (Deltah(ab)), chroma (DeltaC*(ab)) between lesions and the surrounding normal skin are calculated and analysed. It is found that the erythema score of a lesion can be distinguished by their Deltah(ab) value within a particular skin type group. References of lesion with different scores are obtained from the selected lesions by two dermatologists. Results based on 38 lesions from 22 patients with various level of skin pigmentation show that PASI erythema score for different skin types i.e. low (fair skin) to highly pigmented (dark skin) skin types can be determined objectively and consistent with dermatology scoring.

  14. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  15. Prognostic value of FOUR and GCS scores in determining mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Amrit; Bansal, Sonia; Philip, Mariamma; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval P

    2015-09-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered the gold standard for assessment of unconsciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) against which other scales are compared. To overcome the disadvantages of GCS, the Full Outline Of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score was proposed. We aimed to compare the predictability of FOUR score and GCS for early mortality, after moderate and severe TBI. This is a prospective observational study of patients with moderate and severe TBI. Both FOUR and GCS scores were determined at admission. The primary outcome was mortality at the end of 2 weeks of injury. A total of 138 (117 males) patients were included in the study. Out of these, 17 (12.3 %) patients died within 2 weeks of injury. The mean GCS and FOUR scores were 9.5 (range, 3-13) and 11 (0-16), respectively. The total GCS and FOUR scores were significantly lower in patients who did not survive. At a cut-off score of 7 for FOUR score, the AUC was 0.97, with sensitivity of 97.5 and specificity of 88.2 % (p FOUR scores. The predictive value of the FOUR score on admission of patients with TBI is no better than the GCS score.

  16. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  17. Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Cox, N J

    1997-11-01

    Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.

  18. MODIFIED ALVARADO SCORING IN ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadarajan Sujath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies with a lifetime presentation of approximately 1 in 7. Its incidence is 1.5-1.9/1000 in males and females. Surgery for acute appendicitis is based on history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations (e.g. WBC count. Imaging techniques add very little to the efficacy in the diagnosis of appendix. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20-40% has been reported in literature. A difficulty in diagnosis is experienced in very young patients and females of reproductive age. The diagnostic accuracy in assessing acute appendicitis has not improved in spite of rapid advances in management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The modified Alvarado score was applied and assessed for its accuracy in preparation diagnosis of acute appendicitis in 50 patients. The aim of our study is to understand the various presentations of acute appendicitis including the age and gender incidence and the application of the modified Alvarado scoring system in our hospital setup and assessment of the efficacy of the score. RESULTS Our study shows that most involved age group is 3 rd decade with male preponderance. On application of Alvarado score, nausea and vomiting present in 50% and anorexia in 30%, leucocytosis was found in 75% of cases. Sensitivity and specificity of our study were 65% and 40% respectively with positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 15%. CONCLUSION This study showed that clinical scoring like the Alvarado score can be a cheap and quick tool to apply in emergency departments to rule out acute appendicitis. The implementation of modified Alvarado score is simple and cost effective.

  19. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  20. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  1. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  2. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major...... public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes....... Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read...

  3. The kidney allocation score: methodological problems, moral concerns and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, B

    2009-07-01

    The growing disparity between the demand for and supply of kidneys for transplantation has generated interest in alternative systems of allocating kidneys from deceased donors. This personal viewpoint focuses attention on the Kidney Allocation Score (KAS) proposal promulgated by the UNOS/OPTN Kidney Committee. I identify several methodological and moral flaws in the proposed system, concluding that any iteration of the KAS proposal should be met with more skepticism than sanguinity.

  4. Feature and Score Fusion Based Multiple Classifier Selection for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  5. Quasi-supervised scoring of human sleep in polysomnograms using augmented input variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghouby, Farid; Sunderam, Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    The limitations of manual sleep scoring make computerized methods highly desirable. Scoring errors can arise from human rater uncertainty or inter-rater variability. Sleep scoring algorithms either come as supervised classifiers that need scored samples of each state to be trained, or as unsupervised classifiers that use heuristics or structural clues in unscored data to define states. We propose a quasi-supervised classifier that models observations in an unsupervised manner but mimics a human rater wherever training scores are available. EEG, EMG, and EOG features were extracted in 30s epochs from human-scored polysomnograms recorded from 42 healthy human subjects (18-79 years) and archived in an anonymized, publicly accessible database. Hypnograms were modified so that: 1. Some states are scored but not others; 2. Samples of all states are scored but not for transitional epochs; and 3. Two raters with 67% agreement are simulated. A framework for quasi-supervised classification was devised in which unsupervised statistical models-specifically Gaussian mixtures and hidden Markov models--are estimated from unlabeled training data, but the training samples are augmented with variables whose values depend on available scores. Classifiers were fitted to signal features incorporating partial scores, and used to predict scores for complete recordings. Performance was assessed using Cohen's Κ statistic. The quasi-supervised classifier performed significantly better than an unsupervised model and sometimes as well as a completely supervised model despite receiving only partial scores. The quasi-supervised algorithm addresses the need for classifiers that mimic scoring patterns of human raters while compensating for their limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of credit scoring on the dynamics of Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, Timofeeva

    2015-11-01

    Markov processes are widely used to model the dynamics of a credit portfolio and forecast the portfolio risk and profitability. In the Markov chain model the loan portfolio is divided into several groups with different quality, which determined by presence of indebtedness and its terms. It is proposed that dynamics of portfolio shares is described by a multistage controlled system. The article outlines mathematical formalization of controls which reflect the actions of the bank's management in order to improve the loan portfolio quality. The most important control is the organization of approval procedure of loan applications. The credit scoring is studied as a control affecting to the dynamic system. Different formalizations of "good" and "bad" consumers are proposed in connection with the Markov chain model.

  7. A Comparative Study between the Conventional MCQ Scores and MCQ with the CBA Scores at the Standardized Clinical Knowledge Exam for Clinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghadermarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Partial knowledge is one of the main factors to be considered when dealing with the improvement of the administration of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ in testing. Various strategies have been proposed for this factor in the traditional testing environment. Therefore, this study proposed a Confidence Based Assessment (CBA as a pertinent solution and aims at comparing the effect of the CBA Scoring system with that of the conventional scoring systems (with and without negative score estimation as penalty on the students’ scores and estimating their partial knowledge on clinical studies.Methods: This comparative study was conducted using a standardized clinical knowledge exam for 117 clinical students. After two-step training, both the conventional MCQ and CBA examination was given in a single session simultaneously. The exam included 100 questions and the volunteers were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their attitude and satisfaction on their first experience of the CBA after exam. A new confidence based marking system was selected for the scoring, which was a hybrid of the UCL and MUK2010 systems. The MCQ-Assistant, SPSS and Microsoft office Excel software were used for scoring and data analysis.Results: The mean age of the volunteers was 27.3±5.47, of whom 43.6% were men and 69.2% were senior medical students. Exam reliability was 0.977. The fit line of the MCQ scores without penalty estimation was R2=0.9816 and Intercept=18.125 or approximately.2 deviation in the low scores. The MCQ scoring with penalty had a fit line approximately parallel to the 45-degree line but on or above it and the CBA scoring fit line was nearer to the 45-degree line, parallel to it and a little below it. These two sets of scores had a significant p value0.037. The response percentage to the CBA is higher (p value=0.0001. The discrimination power of the MCQ and the CBA for the upper and lower 1/3 of the students was not

  8. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KOOS......) domains as comparators. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of MUS examinations in 45 patients with knee OA. Validity, reliability, and reproducibility were evaluated. RESULTS: MUS examination for knee OA consists of five separate domains assessing (1) predominantly morphological changes in the medial...... coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.97 for the five domains. Construct validity was confirmed with statistically significant correlation coefficients (0.47-0.81, P knee OA. In comparison with standing radiographs...

  10. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  11. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores...... of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure....

  12. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  13. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  14. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  15. A scoring mechanism for the rank aggregation of network robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Li, Qilin

    2013-10-01

    To date, a number of metrics have been proposed to quantify inherent robustness of network topology against failures. However, each single metric usually only offers a limited view of network vulnerability to different types of random failures and targeted attacks. When applied to certain network configurations, different metrics rank network topology robustness in different orders which is rather inconsistent, and no single metric fully characterizes network robustness against different modes of failure. To overcome such inconsistency, this work proposes a multi-metric approach as the basis of evaluating aggregate ranking of network topology robustness. This is based on simultaneous utilization of a minimal set of distinct robustness metrics that are standardized so to give way to a direct comparison of vulnerability across networks with different sizes and configurations, hence leading to an initial scoring of inherent topology robustness. Subsequently, based on the inputs of initial scoring a rank aggregation method is employed to allocate an overall ranking of robustness to each network topology. A discussion is presented in support of the presented multi-metric approach and its applications to more realistically assess and rank network topology robustness.

  16. New clinical score to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulzi Fernanda BU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most frequent disease associated with abnormal liver tests that is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple macro vesicular steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH, cirrhosis or liver carcinoma. Liver biopsy is the most precise test to differentiate NASH from other stages of NAFLD, but it is an invasive and expensive method. This study aimed to create a clinical laboratory score capable of identify individual with NASH in severely obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Methods The medical records from 66 patients submitted to gastroplasty were reviewed. Their chemistry profile, abdominal ultrasound (US and liver biopsy done during the surgical procedure were analyzed. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to liver biopsy: Non-NASH group - those patients without NAFLD or with grade I, II or III steatosis; and NASH group - those with steatohepatitis or fibrosis. The t-test was used to compare each variable with normal distribution between NASH and Non-NASH groups. When comparing proportions of categorical variables, we used chi-square or z-test, where appropriate. A p-value Results 83% of patients with obesity grades II or III showed NAFLD, and the majority was asymptomatic. Total Cholesterol (TC≥200 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT ≥30, AST/ALT ratio (AAR≤ 1, gammaglutaril-transferase (γGT≥30 U/L and abdominal US, compatible with steatosis, showed association with NASH group. We proposed 2 scores: Complete score (TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US and the simplified score, where US was not included. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the recognition of NASH (sensitivity 70%, specificity 88.6%, NPV 91.2%, PPV 63. 6%. Conclusion Alterations in TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US are related to the most risk for NASH. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the

  17. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  18. Advanced empirical estimate of information value for credit scoring models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Řezáč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit scoring, it is a term for a wide spectrum of predictive models and their underlying techniques that aid financial institutions in granting credits. These methods decide who will get credit, how much credit they should get, and what further strategies will enhance the profitability of the borrowers to the lenders. Many statistical tools are avaiable for measuring quality, within the meaning of the predictive power, of credit scoring models. Because it is impossible to use a scoring model effectively without knowing how good it is, quality indexes like Gini, Kolmogorov-Smirnov statisic and Information value are used to assess quality of given credit scoring model. The paper deals primarily with the Information value, sometimes called divergency. Commonly it is computed by discretisation of data into bins using deciles. One constraint is required to be met in this case. Number of cases have to be nonzero for all bins. If this constraint is not fulfilled there are some practical procedures for preserving finite results. As an alternative method to the empirical estimates one can use the kernel smoothing theory, which allows to estimate unknown densities and consequently, using some numerical method for integration, to estimate value of the Information value. The main contribution of this paper is a proposal and description of the empirical estimate with supervised interval selection. This advanced estimate is based on requirement to have at least k, where k is a positive integer, observations of socres of both good and bad client in each considered interval. A simulation study shows that this estimate outperform both the empirical estimate using deciles and the kernel estimate. Furthermore it shows high dependency on choice of the parameter k. If we choose too small value, we get overestimated value of the Information value, and vice versa. Adjusted square root of number of bad clients seems to be a reasonable compromise.

  19. Computerized summary scoring: crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Cai, Zhiqiang; Graesser, Arthur C

    2017-11-03

    In this study we developed and evaluated a crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis (LSA) approach to computerized summary scoring (CSS). LSA is a frequently used mathematical component in CSS, where LSA similarity represents the extent to which the to-be-graded target summary is similar to a model summary or a set of exemplar summaries. Researchers have proposed different formulations of the model summary in previous studies, such as pregraded summaries, expert-generated summaries, or source texts. The former two methods, however, require substantial human time, effort, and costs in order to either grade or generate summaries. Using source texts does not require human effort, but it also does not predict human summary scores well. With human summary scores as the gold standard, in this study we evaluated the crowdsourcing LSA method by comparing it with seven other LSA methods that used sets of summaries from different sources (either experts or crowdsourced) of differing quality, along with source texts. Results showed that crowdsourcing LSA predicted human summary scores as well as expert-good and crowdsourcing-good summaries, and better than the other methods. A series of analyses with different numbers of crowdsourcing summaries demonstrated that the number (from 10 to 100) did not significantly affect performance. These findings imply that crowdsourcing LSA is a promising approach to CSS, because it saves human effort in generating the model summary while still yielding comparable performance. This approach to small-scale CSS provides a practical solution for instructors in courses, and also advances research on automated assessments in which student responses are expected to semantically converge on subject matter content.

  20. COMPASS-II Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Koivuniemi, J; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Bisplinghoff, J; Eversheim, D; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Joosten, R; Negrini, T; Barth, J; Klein, F; Goertz, S; Panknin, R; Pretz, J; Windmolders, R; Srnka, A; Dasgupta, S; Dhara, L; Sarkara, S; Sinha, L; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexeev, G D; Anosov, V A; Antonov, A; Efremov, A; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Guskov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Ivanov, O; Kisselev, Yu; Kouznetsov, O; Kroumchtein, Z; Meshcheryakov, G V; Nagaytsev, A; Olshevski, A; Peshekhonov, D V; Pontecorvo, G; Rossiyskaya, N; Sapozhnikov, M G; Savin, I A; Shevchenko, O Yu; Sissakian, A N; Smirnov, G I; Teryaev, O V; Tkatchev, L G; Vlassov, N V; Zemlyanichkina, E; Adolph, Ch; Braun, Ch; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Richter, A; Fischer, H; Heinsius, F-H; Herrmann, F; Guthörl, T; Lauser, L; Königsmann, K; Nerling, F; Schill, Ch; Wollny, H; Schmidt, K; Schopferer, S; Mallot, G K; Nowak, W-D; Schönning, K; Schott, M; Sulc, M; Bordalo, P; Franco, C; Nunes, A S; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Silva, L; Stolarski, M; Bernhard, J; Chaberny, D; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; von Harrach, D; Jasinski, P; Kabuß, E M; Kang, D-H; Ostrick, M; Pochodzalla, J; Alexandrov, Yu; Zavertyaev, M; Böhmer, F; Dørheim, S; Friedrich, J M; Gerassimov, S; Grabmüller, S; Grube, B; Haas, F; Höppner, Ch; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Krämer, M; Mann, A; Nagel, T; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Schmitt, L; Uhl, S; Bettinelli, M; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, M A; Geyer, R; Rajotte, J-F; Schlüter, T; Uman, I; Zvyagin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Slunecka, M; Jary, V; Virius, M; Donskov, S V; Filin, A; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu; Kolosov, V; Konstantinov, V; Lednev, A A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Nikolaenko, V I; Polyakov, V A; Ryabchikov, D; Samoylenko, V D; Bedfer, Y; Burtin, E; Ferrero, A; d’Hose, N; Kunne, F; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Marchand, C; Morreale, A; Neyret, D; Platchkov, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Lichtenstadt, J; Moinester, M A; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Dalla Torre, S; Duic, V; Elia, C; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Levorato, S; Martin, A; Pesaro, G; Rocco, E; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Sozzi, F; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Alexeev, M G; Amoroso, A; Balestra, F; Bertini, R; Chiosso, M; Denisov, O; Garfagnini, R; Gnesi, I; Grasso, A; Kotzinian, A; Maggiora, A; Melis, S; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Piragino, G; Sosio, S; Takekawa, S; Badelek, B; Brona, G; Gazda, R; Klimaszewski, K; Kurek, K; Rondio, E; Sandacz, A; Sznajder, P; Wislicki, W; Marzec, J; Dziewiecki, M; Sulej, R; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Doshita, N; Iwata, T; Ishimoto, S; Horikawa, N; Kondo, K; Matsuda, T; Miyachi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The proposed new measurements comprise a Generalised Parton Distributions programme, an unpolarised PDF and FF programme, a transverse momentum dependent PDF programme and a programme for tests of chiral perturbation theory.

  1. Scoring ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Terslev, Lene; Aegerter, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a consensus-based ultrasound (US) definition and quantification system for synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A multistep, iterative approach was used to: (1) evaluate the baseline agreement on defining and scoring synovitis according to the usual practice...

  2. Multilevel Analysis of Student Civics Knowledge Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Chris; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    Compositional effects of scholarly culture classroom/school climate on civic knowledge scores of 9th graders in the United States were examined using the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) 1999 Civic Education Study data. Following Evans et al. (2010, 2014), we conceived that the number of books at home,…

  3. Normalization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... influenced by age, education levels, and gender.[5] Till date, the PHES ... and death. MHE also increases the risk of development ... large circles beginning from each row on the left and working to the right. The test score is the ...

  4. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  5. Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare

  6. Correlation between International Prostate Symptom Score and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-23

    Jul 23, 2016 ... International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms-benign prostatic ... cause of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male geriatric population.[1] ... age and results in LUTS in about 10% of elderly men.[1]. BPH causes morbidity through the urinary ...

  7. Polygenic scores via penalized regression on summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Timothy Shin Heng; Porsch, Robert Milan; Choi, Shing Wan; Zhou, Xueya; Sham, Pak Chung

    2017-09-01

    Polygenic scores (PGS) summarize the genetic contribution of a person's genotype to a disease or phenotype. They can be used to group participants into different risk categories for diseases, and are also used as covariates in epidemiological analyses. A number of possible ways of calculating PGS have been proposed, and recently there is much interest in methods that incorporate information available in published summary statistics. As there is no inherent information on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in summary statistics, a pertinent question is how we can use LD information available elsewhere to supplement such analyses. To answer this question, we propose a method for constructing PGS using summary statistics and a reference panel in a penalized regression framework, which we call lassosum. We also propose a general method for choosing the value of the tuning parameter in the absence of validation data. In our simulations, we showed that pseudovalidation often resulted in prediction accuracy that is comparable to using a dataset with validation phenotype and was clearly superior to the conservative option of setting the tuning parameter of lassosum to its lowest value. We also showed that lassosum achieved better prediction accuracy than simple clumping and P-value thresholding in almost all scenarios. It was also substantially faster and more accurate than the recently proposed LDpred. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  9. Validation of dengue infection severity score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpan S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surangrat Pongpan,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Apichart Wisitwong,4 Chamaiporn Tawichasri,5 Sirianong Namwongprom1,6 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Occupational Medicine, Phrae Hospital, Phrae, Thailand; 3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Social Medicine, Sawanpracharak Hospital, Nakorn Sawan, Thailand; 5Clinical Epidemiology Society at Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 6Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: To validate a simple scoring system to classify dengue viral infection severity to patients in different settings. Methods: The developed scoring system derived from 777 patients from three tertiary-care hospitals was applied to 400 patients in the validation data obtained from another three tertiary-care hospitals. Percentage of correct classification, underestimation, and overestimation was compared. The score discriminative performance in the two datasets was compared by analysis of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Patients in the validation data were different from those in the development data in some aspects. In the validation data, classifying patients into three severity levels (dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome yielded 50.8% correct prediction (versus 60.7% in the development data, with clinically acceptable underestimation (18.6% versus 25.7% and overestimation (30.8% versus 13.5%. Despite the difference in predictive performances between the validation and the development data, the overall prediction of the scoring system is considered high. Conclusion: The developed severity score may be applied to classify patients with dengue viral infection into three severity levels with clinically acceptable under- or overestimation. Its impact when used in routine

  10. Development of the Crohn's disease digestive damage score, the Lémann score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pariente, Benjamin; Cosnes, Jacques; Danese, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    is to outline the methods to develop an instrument that can measure cumulative bowel damage. The project is being conducted by the International Program to develop New Indexes in Crohn's disease (IPNIC) group. This instrument, called the Crohn's Disease Digestive Damage Score (the Lémann score), should take...

  11. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  12. A Bayesian Scoring Technique for Mining Predictive and Non-Spurious Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Batal, Iyad; Cooper, Gregory; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2012-01-01

    Rule mining is an important class of data mining methods for discovering interesting patterns in data. The success of a rule mining method heavily depends on the evaluation function that is used to assess the quality of the rules. In this work, we propose a new rule evaluation score - the Predictive and Non-Spurious Rules (PNSR) score. This score relies on Bayesian inference to evaluate the quality of the rules and considers the structure of the rules to filter out spurious rules. We present ...

  13. Finger Tapping Clinimetric Score Prediction in Parkinson's Disease Using Low-Cost Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stamatakis

    2013-01-01

    algorithm were used to identify the most relevant features in the prediction of MDS-UPDRS FT scores, given by 3 specialists in movement disorders (SMDs. The Goodman-Kruskal Gamma index obtained (0.961, depicting the predictive performance of the model, is similar to those obtained between the individual scores given by the SMD (0.870 to 0.970. The automatic prediction of MDS-UPDRS scores using the proposed system may be valuable in clinical trials designed to evaluate and modify motor disability in PD patients.

  14. Personalized Risk Scoring for Critical Care Prognosis Using Mixtures of Gaussian Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaa, Ahmed M; Yoon, Jinsung; Hu, Scott; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a personalized real-time risk scoring algorithm that provides timely and granular assessments for the clinical acuity of ward patients based on their (temporal) lab tests and vital signs; the proposed risk scoring system ensures timely intensive care unit admissions for clinically deteriorating patients. The risk scoring system is based on the idea of sequential hypothesis testing under an uncertain time horizon. The system learns a set of latent patient subtypes from the offline electronic health record data, and trains a mixture of Gaussian Process experts, where each expert models the physiological data streams associated with a specific patient subtype. Transfer learning techniques are used to learn the relationship between a patient's latent subtype and her static admission information (e.g., age, gender, transfer status, ICD-9 codes, etc). Experiments conducted on data from a heterogeneous cohort of 6321 patients admitted to Ronald Reagan UCLA medical center show that our score significantly outperforms the currently deployed risk scores, such as the Rothman index, MEWS, APACHE, and SOFA scores, in terms of timeliness, true positive rate, and positive predictive value. Our results reflect the importance of adopting the concepts of personalized medicine in critical care settings; significant accuracy and timeliness gains can be achieved by accounting for the patients' heterogeneity. The proposed risk scoring methodology can confer huge clinical and social benefits on a massive number of critically ill inpatients who exhibit adverse outcomes including, but not limited to, cardiac arrests, respiratory arrests, and septic shocks.

  15. Rationalization of outcome scores for low back pain: the Oswestry disability index and the low back outcome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eranki, Vivek; Koul, Kongposh; Fagan, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The two commonly used questionnaires to assess low back pain are the low back outcome score (LBOS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). This study aims to identify unique questions and remove redundant questions to develop a composite questionnaire. Eighty-seven consecutive patients attending the practice of a single spinal surgeon completed both the ODI and the LBOS as part of their initial assessment. Both questionnaires were analysed to eliminate questions that exhibit floor-ceiling bias and questions that are interdependent and correlate strongly. Total scores and the scores obtained for each question were then compared (Spearman's rho). A principal axis factor analysis using a varimax rotation was performed to reduce data and identify questions that were interdependent. Using these data, a composite questionnaire was proposed that would minimize overlap in clinical data. Eighty-seven patients completed the LBOS and ODI. The mean age is 54, with a range between 18 and 80. The male to female ratio was 50:37. By eliminating questions that contain biases and overlap in clinical data, the composite questionnaire contains 11 questions. From LBOS; housework, dressing, sleeping, sitting, walking and travelling. From the ODI; pain, standing, social life and lifting. Analysis of the questionnaires identified eight questions that were similar in both questionnaires. Two questions were included that were unique to each questionnaire. The proposed composite questionnaire is of similar size as the original questionnaires and retains questions that are unique to each other while eliminating questions that are redundant and exhibit bias. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. The RIPASA score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: A comparison with the modified Alvarado score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barrientos, C Z; Aquino-González, A; Heredia-Montaño, M; Navarro-Tovar, F; Pineda-Espinosa, M A; Espinosa de Santillana, I A

    2018-02-06

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of surgical emergencies. It is still a difficult diagnosis to make, especially in young persons, the elderly, and in reproductive-age women, in whom a series of inflammatory conditions can have signs and symptoms similar to those of acute appendicitis. Different scoring systems have been created to increase diagnostic accuracy, and they are inexpensive, noninvasive, and easy to use and reproduce. The modified Alvarado score is probably the most widely used and accepted in emergency services worldwide. On the other hand, the RIPASA score was formulated in 2010 and has greater sensitivity and specificity. There are very few studies conducted in Mexico that compare the different scoring systems for appendicitis. The aim of our article was to compare the modified Alvarado score and the RIPASA score in the diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and suspected acute appendicitis. An observational, analytic, and prolective study was conducted within the time frame of July 2002 and February 2014 at the Hospital Universitario de Puebla. The questionnaires used for the evaluation process were applied to the patients suspected of having appendicitis. The RIPASA score with 8.5 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .595), sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (8.3%), PPV (91.8%), NPV (10.1%). Modified Alvarado score with 6 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .719), sensitivity (75%), specificity (41.6%), PPV (93.7%), NPV (12.5%). The RIPASA score showed no advantages over the modified Alvarado score when applied to patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower bounds to the reliabilities of factor score estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone’s factor score estimators, Bartlett’s factor score

  18. Sparse Learning of the Disease Severity Score for High-Dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojkovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning disease severity scores automatically from collected measurements may aid in the quality of both healthcare and scientific understanding. Some steps in that direction have been taken and machine learning algorithms for extracting scoring functions from data have been proposed. Given the rapid increase in both quantity and diversity of data measured and stored, the large amount of information is becoming one of the challenges for learning algorithms. In this work, we investigated the direction of the problem where the dimensionality of measured variables is large. Learning the severity score in such cases brings the issue of which of measured features are relevant. We have proposed a novel approach by combining desirable properties of existing formulations, which compares favorably to alternatives in accuracy and especially in the robustness of the learned scoring function. The proposed formulation has a nonsmooth penalty that induces sparsity. This problem is solved by addressing a dual formulation which is smooth and allows an efficient optimization. The proposed approach might be used as an effective and reliable tool for both scoring function learning and biomarker discovery, as demonstrated by identifying a stable set of genes related to influenza symptoms’ severity, which are enriched in immune-related processes.

  19. Applying the Upper Integral to the Biometric Score Fusion Problem in the Identification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Fakhar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new biometric score fusion approach in an identification system using the upper integral with respect to Sugeno’s fuzzy measure. First, the proposed method considers each individual matcher as a fuzzy set in order to handle uncertainty and imperfection in matching scores. Then, the corresponding fuzzy entropy estimates the reliability of the information provided by each biometric matcher. Next, the fuzzy densities are generated based on rank information and training accuracy. Finally, the results are aggregated using the upper fuzzy integral. Experimental results compared with other fusion methods demonstrate the good performance of the proposed approach.

  20. OSQAR-CHASE Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    (Pugnat, P; (Sulc, M

    2015-01-01

    For 2015, the OSQAR collaboration will focus on a new proposal for the search of chameleon, a hypothetical scalar particle postulated as a dark energy candidate with an environment-dependant mass. The required experimental set-up has been successfully tested and validated in 2014 at the SM-18 experimental hall. This proposal will focus on the sensitivity that can be reached during the OSQAR chameleon run in 2015 as well as to possible upgrade phases of the experiment for the coming years.

  1. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  2. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    The theoretical literature has a rich characterization of scoring rules for eliciting the subjective beliefs that an individual has for continuous events, but under the restrictive assumption of risk neutrality. It is well known that risk aversion can dramatically affect the incentives to correctly...... report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...... to distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  3. Shower reconstruction in TUNKA-HiSCORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porelli, Andrea; Wischnewski, Ralf [DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-HiSCORE detector is a non-imaging wide-angle EAS cherenkov array designed as an alternative technology for gamma-ray physics above 10 TeV and to study spectrum and composition of cosmic rays above 100 TeV. An engineering array with nine stations (HiS-9) has been deployed in October 2013 on the site of the Tunka experiment in Russia. In November 2014, 20 more HiSCORE stations have been installed, covering a total array area of 0.24 square-km. We describe the detector setup, the role of precision time measurement, and give results from the innovative WhiteRabbit time synchronization technology. Results of air shower reconstruction are presented and compared with MC simulations, for both the HiS-9 and the HiS-29 detector arrays.

  4. Credit scoring analysis using kernel discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiharih, T.; Mukid, M. A.; Mustafid

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring model is an important tool for reducing the risk of wrong decisions when granting credit facilities to applicants. This paper investigate the performance of kernel discriminant model in assessing customer credit risk. Kernel discriminant analysis is a non- parametric method which means that it does not require any assumptions about the probability distribution of the input. The main ingredient is a kernel that allows an efficient computation of Fisher discriminant. We use several kernel such as normal, epanechnikov, biweight, and triweight. The models accuracy was compared each other using data from a financial institution in Indonesia. The results show that kernel discriminant can be an alternative method that can be used to determine who is eligible for a credit loan. In the data we use, it shows that a normal kernel is relevant to be selected for credit scoring using kernel discriminant model. Sensitivity and specificity reach to 0.5556 and 0.5488 respectively.

  5. Nursing Activities Score and Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Utuari de Andrade Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the nursing workload in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Method: A quantitative study, conducted in an intensive care unit, from April to August of 2015. The Nursing Activities Score (NAS and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO were used to measure nursing workload and to classify the stage of AKI, respectively. Results: A total of 190 patients were included. Patients who developed AKI (44.2% had higher NAS when compared to those without AKI (43.7% vs 40.7%, p <0.001. Patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI showed higher NAS than those without AKI. A relationship was identified between stage 2 and 3 with those without AKI (p = 0.002 and p <0.001. Conclusion: The NAS was associated with the presence of AKI, the score increased with the progression of the stages, and it was associated with AKI, stage 2 and 3.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...

  7. PhishScore: Hacking Phishers' Minds

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growth of prevention techniques, phishing remains an important threat since the principal countermeasures in use are still based on reactive URL blacklisting. This technique is inefficient due to the short lifetime of phishing Web sites, making recent approaches relying on real-time or proactive phishing URLs detection techniques more appropriate. In this paper we introduce PhishScore, an automated real-time phishing detection system. We observed that phishing URLs usually have fe...

  8. Credit Scoring Problem Based on Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khassawneh, Bashar Suhil Jad Allah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an explanatory introduction to the regression models of data mining and contains basic definitions of key terms in the linear, multiple and logistic regression models. Meanwhile, the aim of this study is to illustrate fitting models for the credit scoring problem using simple linear, multiple linear and logistic regression models and also to analyze the found model functions by statistical tools. Keywords: Data mining, linear regression, logistic regression....

  9. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  10. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  11. MODELING CREDIT RISK THROUGH CREDIT SCORING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cantemir CALIN; Oana Cristina POPOVICI

    2014-01-01

    Credit risk governs all financial transactions and it is defined as the risk of suffering a loss due to certain shifts in the credit quality of a counterpart. Credit risk literature gravitates around two main modeling approaches: the structural approach and the reduced form approach. In addition to these perspectives, credit risk assessment has been conducted through a series of techniques such as credit scoring models, which form the traditional approach. This paper examines the evolution of...

  12. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  13. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  14. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  15. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  16. Modelling the predictive performance of credit scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Shen

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this empirical paper was to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems in Taiwan. Motivation for the study: Corporate lending remains a major business line for financial institutions. However, in light of the recent global financial crises, it has become extremely important for financial institutions to implement rigorous means of assessing clients seeking access to credit facilities. Research design, approach and method: Using a data sample of 10 349 observations drawn between 1992 and 2010, logistic regression models were utilised to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems. Main findings: A test of Goodness of fit demonstrated that credit scoring models that incorporated the Taiwan Corporate Credit Risk Index (TCRI, micro- and also macroeconomic variables possessed greater predictive power. This suggests that macroeconomic variables do have explanatory power for default credit risk. Practical/managerial implications: The originality in the study was that three models were developed to predict corporate firms’ defaults based on different microeconomic and macroeconomic factors such as the TCRI, asset growth rates, stock index and gross domestic product. Contribution/value-add: The study utilises different goodness of fits and receiver operator characteristics during the examination of the robustness of the predictive power of these factors.

  17. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  18. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  19. Scores for post-myocardial infarction risk stratification in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Reeder, Guy S; Jacobsen, Steven J; Weston, Susan; Killian, Jill; Roger, Véronique L

    2002-10-29

    Several scores, most of which were derived from clinical trials, have been proposed for stratifying risk after myocardial infarctions (MIs). Little is known about their generalizability to the community, their respective advantages, and whether the ejection fraction (EF) adds prognostic information to the scores. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Predicting Risk of Death in Cardiac Disease Tool (PREDICT) scores in a geographically defined MI cohort and determine the incremental value of EF for risk stratification. MIs occurring in Olmsted County were validated with the use of standardized criteria and stratified with the ECG into ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) MI. Logistic regression examined the discriminant accuracy of the TIMI and PREDICT scores to predict death and recurrent MI and assessed the incremental value of the EF. After 6.3+/-4.7 years, survival was similar for the 562 STEMIs and 717 NSTEMIs. The discriminant accuracy of the TIMI score was good in STEMI but only fair in NSTEMI. Across time and end points, irrespective of reperfusion therapy, the discriminant accuracy of the PREDICT score was consistently superior to that of the TIMI scores, largely because PREDICT includes comorbidity; EF provided incremental information over that provided by the scores and comorbidity. In the community, comorbidity and EF convey important prognostic information and should be included in approaches for stratifying risk after MI.

  20. Comparison of scoring approaches for the NEI VFQ-25 in low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Bullimore, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different approaches to scoring the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with low vision including scoring by the standard method, by Rasch analysis, and by use of an algorithm created by Massof to approximate Rasch person measure. Subscale validity and use of a 7-item short form instrument proposed by Ryan et al. were also investigated. NEI VFQ-25 data from 50 patients with low vision were analyzed using the standard method of summing Likert-type scores and calculating an overall average, Rasch analysis using Winsteps software, and the Massof algorithm in Excel. Correlations between scores were calculated. Rasch person separation reliability and other indicators were calculated to determine the validity of the subscales and of the 7-item instrument. Scores calculated using all three methods were highly correlated, but evidence of floor and ceiling effects was found with the standard scoring method. None of the subscales investigated proved valid. The 7-item instrument showed acceptable person separation reliability and good targeting and item performance. Although standard scores and Rasch scores are highly correlated, Rasch analysis has the advantages of eliminating floor and ceiling effects and producing interval-scaled data. The Massof algorithm for approximation of the Rasch person measure performed well in this group of low-vision patients. The validity of the subscales VFQ-25 should be reconsidered.

  1. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Fierrez, J.; Li, S.Z.; Ross, A.; Veldhuis, R.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Bigun, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  2. Methods to score vertebral deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Raymakers, J. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to compare four different scoring methods for vertebral deformities: the semiquantitative Kleerekoper score and three quantitative scores (according to Minne, Melton and Raymakers) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral

  3. Reliability of Modern Scores to Predict Long-Term Mortality After Isolated Aortic Valve Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Ventura, Martina; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Perucci, Carlo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Contemporary scores for estimating perioperative death have been proposed to also predict also long-term death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the updated European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score, and the Age, Creatinine, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction score for predicting long-term mortality in a contemporary cohort of isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR). We also sought to develop for each score a simple algorithm based on predicted perioperative risk to predict long-term survival. Complete data on 1,444 patients who underwent isolated AVR in a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Data were evaluated with performance analyses and time-to-event semiparametric regression. Survival was 83.0% ± 1.1% at 5 years and 67.8 ± 1.9% at 8 years. Discrimination and calibration of all three scores both worsened for prediction of death at 1 year and 5 years. Nonetheless, a significant relationship was found between long-term survival and quartiles of scores (p System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40) for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.10) for the Age, Creatinine, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction score. The predicted risk generated by European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, and Age, Creatinine, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction scores cannot also be considered a direct estimate of the long-term risk for death. Nonetheless, the three scores can be used to derive an estimate of long-term risk of death in patients who undergo isolated AVR with the use of a simple algorithm. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based on our…

  5. Proposed Darlington generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The proposed Darlington GS A project, consisting of four 850 MW CANDU-type reactors, is described. Construction and operation will cause environmental changes with regard to air, water, aquatic life, the site area, safety and noise, and the predicted changes are described. (E.C.B.)

  6. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  7. Badminton: Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in Badminton. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose explains that the course is designed to introduce students to the techniques, knowledge, and strategies of badminton. Next, course goals and a course outline are…

  8. Estimated conditional score function for missing mechanism model with nonignorable nonresponse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; ZHOU Yong

    2017-01-01

    Missing data mechanism often depends on the values of the responses,which leads to nonignorable nonresponses.In such a situation,inference based on approaches that ignore the missing data mechanism could not be valid.A crucial step is to model the nature of missingness.We specify a parametric model for missingness mechanism,and then propose a conditional score function approach for estimation.This approach imputes the score function by taking the conditional expectation of the score function for the missing data given the available information.Inference procedure is then followed by replacing unknown terms with the related nonparametric estimators based on the observed data.The proposed score function does not suffer from the non-identifiability problem,and the proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal.We also construct a confidence region for the parameter of interest using empirical likelihood method.Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed inference procedure performs well in many settings.We apply the proposed method to a data set from research in a growth hormone and exercise intervention study.

  9. A model including sarcopenia surpasses the MELD score in predicting waiting list mortality in cirrhotic liver transplant candidates : A competing risk analysis in a national cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Jeroen Laurens Ad; Alferink, Louise Johanna Maria; Buettner, Stefan; Gaspersz, Marcia Patricia; Bot, Daphne; Murad, Sarwa Darwish; Feshtali, Shirin; van Ooijen, Peter Martinus Adranius; Polak, Wojciech Grzegorz; Porte, Robert Jan; van Hoek, Bart; van den Berg, Aad Pieter; Metselaar, Herold Johnny; IJzermans, Jan Nicolaas Maria

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frail patients with low MELD scores may be underprioritised. Low skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) has been identified as risk factor for waiting list mortality and a recent study proposed to incorporate sarcopenia in the MELD score (i.e. MELD-Sarcopenia score). We aimed to

  10. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130-HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well.

  11. AutoIHC-scoring: a machine learning framework for automated Allred scoring of molecular expression in ER- and PR-stained breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, S; Arun, I; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C

    2017-11-01

    In prognostic evaluation of breast cancer Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers namely, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are widely used. The expert pathologist investigates qualitatively the stained tissue slide under microscope to provide the Allred score; which is clinically used for therapeutic decision making. Such qualitative judgment is time-consuming, tedious and more often suffers from interobserver variability. As a result, it leads to imprecise IHC score for ER and PR. To overcome this, there is an urgent need of developing a reliable and efficient IHC quantifier for high throughput decision making. In view of this, our study aims at developing an automated IHC profiler for quantitative assessment of ER and PR molecular expression from stained tissue images. We propose here to use CMYK colour space for positively and negatively stained cell extraction for proportion score. Also colour features are used for quantitative assessment of intensity scoring among the positively stained cells. Five different machine learning models namely artificial neural network, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbours, decision tree and random forest are considered for learning the colour features using average red, green and blue pixel values of positively stained cell patches. Fifty cases of ER- and PR-stained tissues have been evaluated for validation with the expert pathologist's score. All five models perform adequately where random forest shows the best correlation with the expert's score (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.9192). In the proposed approach the average variation of diaminobenzidine (DAB) to nuclear area from the expert's score is found to be 7.58%, as compared to 27.83% for state-of-the-art ImmunoRatio software. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Standardized UXO Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 690

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record #833

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Woods Scoring Record Number 486

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  15. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130?HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * famil...

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  17. Novel Semiquantitative Bone Marrow Oedema Score and Fracture Score for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Active Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacock, L.; Donaldson, Ana; Isaac, A.; Briody, A.; Ramnarine, R.; Edmonds, M. E.; Elias, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    There are no accepted methods to grade bone marrow oedema (BMO) and fracture on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in Charcot osteoarthropathy. The aim was to devise semiquantitative BMO and fracture scores on foot and ankle MRI scans in diabetic patients with active osteoarthropathy and to assess the agreement in using these scores. Three radiologists assessed 45 scans (Siemens Avanto 1.5T, dedicated foot and ankle coil) and scored independently twenty-two bones (proximal phalanges, medial and lateral sesamoids, metatarsals, tarsals, distal tibial plafond, and medial and lateral malleoli) for BMO (0—no oedema, 1—oedema  50% of bone volume) and fracture (0—no fracture, 1—fracture, and 2—collapse/fragmentation). Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were measured using multilevel modelling and intraclass correlation (ICC). The interobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was very good (ICC = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.76, 0.91) and good (ICC = 0.62; 95% CI 0.48, 0.76), respectively. The intraobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was good (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.6, 0.95) and fair to moderate (ICC = 0.44; 95% CI 0.14, 0.74), respectively. The proposed BMO and fracture scores are reliable and can be used to grade the extent of bone damage in the active Charcot foot. PMID:29230422

  18. Evaluation of modified Alvarado scoring system and RIPASA scoring system as diagnostic tools of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Abdullah; Shuaib, Ali; Fakhra, Zainab; Marafi, Bader; Alsharaf, Khalid; Behbehani, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition presented in emergency departments worldwide. Clinical scoring systems, such as the Alvarado and modified Alvarado scoring systems, were developed with the goal of reducing the negative appendectomy rate to 5%-10%. The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) scoring system was established in 2008 specifically for Asian populations. The aim of this study was to compare the modified Alvarado with the RIPASA scoring system in Kuwait population. This study included 180 patients who underwent appendectomies and were documented as having "acute appendicitis" or "abdominal pain" in the operating theatre logbook (unit B) from November 2014 to March 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, predicted negative appendectomy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems were derived using SPSS statistical software. A total of 136 patients were included in this study according to our criteria. The cut-off threshold point of the modified Alvarado score was set at 7.0, which yielded a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 56%. The PPV was 89.3% and the NPV was 42.4%. The cut-off threshold point of the RIPASA score was set at 7.5, which yielded a 94.5% sensitivity and an 88% specificity. The PPV was 97.2% and the NPV was 78.5%. The predicted negative appendectomy rates were 10.7% and 2.2% for the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate decreased significantly, from 18.4% to 10.7% for the modified Alvarado, and to 2.2% for the RIPASA scoring system, which was a significant difference (PAsian populations. It consists of 14 clinical parameters that can be obtained from a good patient history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The RIPASA scoring system is more accurate and specific than the modified Alvarado

  19. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score)

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Shroff; Petra Hopf-Seidel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NF...

  20. External validation of the NOBLADS score, a risk scoring system for severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Aoki

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of NOBLADS, a severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB prediction model which we had previously derived when working at a different institution, using an external validation cohort. NOBLADS comprises the following factors: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg, antiplatelet drug use, albumin < 3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥ 2, and syncope.We retrospectively analyzed 511 patients emergently hospitalized for acute LGIB at the University of Tokyo Hospital, from January 2009 to August 2016. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs-AUCs for severe bleeding (continuous and/or recurrent bleeding were compared between the original derivation cohort and the external validation cohort.Severe LGIB occurred in 44% of patients. Several clinical factors were significantly different between the external and derivation cohorts (p < 0.05, including background, laboratory data, NOBLADS scores, and diagnosis. The NOBLADS score predicted the severity of LGIB with an AUC value of 0.74 in the external validation cohort and one of 0.77 in the derivation cohort. In the external validation cohort, the score predicted the risk for blood transfusion need (AUC, 0.71, but was not adequate for predicting intervention need (AUC, 0.54. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with a score ≥ 5 than in those with a score < 5 (AUC, 0.83.Although the external validation cohort clinically differed from the derivation cohort in many ways, we confirmed the moderately high generalizability of NOBLADS, a clinical risk score for severe LGIB. Appropriate triage using this score may support early decision-making in various hospitals.

  1. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  2. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  3. Pediatric siMS score: A new, simple and accurate continuous metabolic syndrome score for everyday use in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Stojan, George; Vukovic, Ana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomous nature of the current definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in youth results in loss of information. On the other hand, the calculation of continuous MS scores using standardized residuals in linear regression (Z scores) or factor scores of principal component analysis (PCA) is highly impractical for clinical use. Recently, a novel, easily calculated continuous MS score called siMS score was developed based on the IDF MS criteria for the adult population. To develop a Pediatric siMS score (PsiMS), a modified continuous MS score for use in the obese youth, based on the original siMS score, while keeping the score as simple as possible and retaining high correlation with more complex scores. The database consisted of clinical data on 153 obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) children and adolescents. Continuous MS scores were calculated using Z scores and PCA, as well as the original siMS score. Four variants of PsiMS score were developed in accordance with IDF criteria for MS in youth and correlation of these scores with PCA and Z score derived MS continuous scores was assessed. PsiMS score calculated using formula: (2xWaist/Height) + (Glucose(mmol/l)/5.6) + (triglycerides(mmol/l)/1.7) + (Systolic BP/130)-(HDL(mmol/l)/1.02) showed the highest correlation with most of the complex continuous scores (0.792-0.901). The original siMS score also showed high correlation with continuous MS scores. PsiMS score represents a practical and accurate score for the evaluation of MS in the obese youth. The original siMS score should be used when evaluating large cohorts consisting of both adults and children.

  4. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  5. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  6. Computerized scoring algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2018-02-01

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Optimization of continuous ranked probability score using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Atefeh Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Weather forecast has been a major concern in various industries such as agriculture, aviation, maritime, tourism, transportation, etc. A good weather prediction may reduce natural disasters and unexpected events. This paper presents an empirical investigation to predict weather temperature using continuous ranked probability score (CRPS. The mean and standard deviation of normal density function are linear combination of the components of ensemble system. The resulted optimization model has been solved using particle swarm optimization (PSO and the results are compared with Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS method. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed PSO provides better results in terms of root-mean-square deviation criteria than the alternative BFGS method.

  8. Setting pass scores for clinical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Keh-Min

    2008-12-01

    In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  9. Setting Pass Scores for Clinical Skills Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  10. Boundary curves of individual items in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores approximate an exponential pattern in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Ono, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    [Background]Previously, we proposed a model for ordinal scale scoring in which individual thresholds for each item constitute a distribution by each item. This lead us to hypothesize that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores follow a common mathematical model, which is expressed as the product of the frequency of the total depressive symptom scores and the probability of the cumulative distribution function of each item th...

  11. An image based system to automatically and objectivelly score the degreeof redness and scaling in psoriasi lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...... that the obtained scores are highly correlated with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  12. Sway Area and Velocity Correlated With MobileMat Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccese, Jaclyn B; Buckley, Thomas A; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is often used for sport-related concussion balance assessment. However, moderate intratester and intertester reliability may cause low initial sensitivity, suggesting that a more objective balance assessment method is needed. The MobileMat BESS was designed for objective BESS scoring, but the outcome measures must be validated with reliable balance measures. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to compare MobileMat BESS scores to linear and nonlinear measures of balance. Eighty-eight healthy collegiate student-athletes (age: 20.0 ± 1.4 y, height: 177.7 ± 10.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 13.7 kg) completed the MobileMat BESS. MobileMat BESS scores were compared with 95% area, sway velocity, approximate entropy, and sample entropy. MobileMat BESS scores were significantly correlated with 95% area for single-leg (r = .332) and tandem firm (r = .474), and double-leg foam (r = .660); and with sway velocity for single-leg (r = .406) and tandem firm (r = .601), and double-leg (r = .575) and single-leg foam (r = .434). MobileMat BESS scores were not correlated with approximate or sample entropy. MobileMat BESS scores were low to moderately correlated with linear measures, suggesting the ability to identify changes in the center of mass-center of pressure relationship, but not higher-order processing associated with nonlinear measures. These results suggest that the MobileMat BESS may be a clinically-useful tool that provides objective linear balance measures.

  13. Ripasa score: a new diagnostic score for diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of RIPASA score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis using histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery, Combined Military Hospital, Kohat, from September 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: A total of 267 patients were included in this study. RIPASA score was assessed. The diagnosis of appendicitis was made clinically aided by routine sonography of abdomen. After appendicectomies, resected appendices were sent for histopathological examination. The 15 parameters and the scores generated were age (less than 40 years = 1 point; greater than 40 years = 0.5 point), gender (male = 1 point; female = 0.5 point), Right Iliac Fossa (RIF) pain (0.5 point), migration of pain to RIF (0.5 point), nausea and vomiting (1 point), anorexia (1 point), duration of symptoms (less than 48 hours = 1 point; more than 48 hours = 0.5 point), RIF tenderness (1 point), guarding (2 points), rebound tenderness (1 point), Rovsing's sign (2 points), fever (1 point), raised white cell count (1 point), negative urinalysis (1 point) and foreign national registration identity card (1 point). The optimal cut-off threshold score from the ROC was 7.5. Sensitivity analysis was done. Results: Out of 267 patients, 156 (58.4%) were male while remaining 111 patients (41.6%) were female with mean age of 23.5 +- 9.1 years. Sensitivity of RIPASA score was 96.7%, specificity 93.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 95.1%, positive predictive value was 94.8% and negative predictive value was 95.54%. Conclusion: RIPASA score at a cut-off total score of 7.5 was a useful tool to diagnose appendicitis, in equivocal cases of pain. (author)

  14. How is the injury severity scored? a brief review of scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of injured patients is a critical issue in pre-hospital and emergency departments. Trauma victims are usually young and the injuries may lead to mortality or severe morbidities. The severity of injury can be estimated by observing the anatomic and physiologic evidences. Scoring systems are used to present a scale of describing the severity of the injuries in the victims.We reviewed the evidences of famous scoring systems, the history of their development, applications and their evolutions. We searched electronic database PubMed and Google scholar with keywords: (trauma OR injury AND (severity OR intensity AND (score OR scale.In this paper, we are going to present a definition of scoring systems and discuss the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and Injury Severity Score (ISS, the most acceptable systems, their applications and their advantages and limitations.Several injury-scoring methods have been introduced. Each method has specific features, advantages and disadvantages. The AIS is an anatomical-based scoring system, which provides a standard numerical scale of ranking and comparing injuries. The ISS was established as a platform for trauma data registry. ISS is also an anatomically-based ordinal scale, with a range of 1-75. Several databases and studies are formed based on ISS and are available for trauma management research.Although the ISS is not perfect, it is established as the basic platform of health services and public health researches. The ISS registering system can provide many opportunities for the development of efficient data recording and statistical analyzing models.

  15. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  16. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, N J; Prinsen, C A C; Christensen, R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence regarding measurement properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search identified 37 eligible papers evaluating KOOS measurement properties in partici......OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence regarding measurement properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search identified 37 eligible papers evaluating KOOS measurement properties...... in participants with knee injuries and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Where possible, meta-analysis of extracted data was conducted for all studies and stratified by age and knee condition; otherwise narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: KOOS has...... adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity in young and old adults with knee injuries and/or OA. The ADL subscale has better content validity for older patients and Sport/Rec for younger patients with knee injuries, while the Pain subscale is more relevant for painful...

  17. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...

  18. Multimodal Personal Verification Using Likelihood Ratio for the Match Score Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Binh Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a novel personal verification system based on the likelihood ratio test for fusion of match scores from multiple biometric matchers (face, fingerprint, hand shape, and palm print. In the proposed system, multimodal features are extracted by Zernike Moment (ZM. After matching, the match scores from multiple biometric matchers are fused based on the likelihood ratio test. A finite Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used for estimating the genuine and impostor densities of match scores for personal verification. Our approach is also compared to some different famous approaches such as the support vector machine and the sum rule with min-max. The experimental results have confirmed that the proposed system can achieve excellent identification performance for its higher level in accuracy than different famous approaches and thus can be utilized for more application related to person verification.

  19. A Bayesian Scoring Technique for Mining Predictive and Non-Spurious Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, Iyad; Cooper, Gregory; Hauskrecht, Milos

    Rule mining is an important class of data mining methods for discovering interesting patterns in data. The success of a rule mining method heavily depends on the evaluation function that is used to assess the quality of the rules. In this work, we propose a new rule evaluation score - the Predictive and Non-Spurious Rules (PNSR) score. This score relies on Bayesian inference to evaluate the quality of the rules and considers the structure of the rules to filter out spurious rules. We present an efficient algorithm for finding rules with high PNSR scores. The experiments demonstrate that our method is able to cover and explain the data with a much smaller rule set than existing methods.

  20. Unsupervised deep learning applied to breast density segmentation and mammographic risk scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenberg, Michiel Gijsbertus J.; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic risk scoring has commonly been automated by extracting a set of handcrafted features from mammograms, and relating the responses directly or indirectly to breast cancer risk. We present a method that learns a feature hierarchy from unlabeled data. When the learned features are used...... as the input to a simple classifier, two different tasks can be addressed: i) breast density segmentation, and ii) scoring of mammographic texture. The proposed model learns features at multiple scales. To control the models capacity a novel sparsity regularizer is introduced that incorporates both lifetime...... and population sparsity. We evaluated our method on three different clinical datasets. Our state-of-the-art results show that the learned breast density scores have a very strong positive relationship with manual ones, and that the learned texture scores are predictive of breast cancer. The model is easy...

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  2. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Knol, Dirk L; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2012-05-01

    The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5-18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist to calculate quality scores per measurement property when using the checklist in systematic reviews of measurement properties. The scoring system was developed based on discussions among experts and testing of the scoring system on 46 articles from a systematic review. Four response options were defined for each COSMIN item (excellent, good, fair, and poor). A quality score per measurement property is obtained by taking the lowest rating of any item in a box ("worst score counts"). Specific criteria for excellent, good, fair, and poor quality for each COSMIN item are described. In defining the criteria, the "worst score counts" algorithm was taken into consideration. This means that only fatal flaws were defined as poor quality. The scores of the 46 articles show how the scoring system can be used to provide an overview of the methodological quality of studies included in a systematic review of measurement properties. Based on experience in testing this scoring system on 46 articles, the COSMIN checklist with the proposed scoring system seems to be a useful tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies included in systematic reviews of measurement properties.

  3. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. The Management Operations Indicator score provides...

  4. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for estimating the reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement of scale scores incorporating the discrete transformation of raw scores to scale scores. The method is illustrated using a strong true score model, and practical applications are described. (SLD)

  5. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  6. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Larsen, K.G.; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact of

  7. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  8. An Assessment of Statistical Process Control-Based Approaches for Charting Student Evaluation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Wardell, Don; Verma, Rohit

    2006-01-01

    We compare three control charts for monitoring data from student evaluations of teaching (SET) with the goal of improving student satisfaction with teaching performance. The two charts that we propose are a modified "p" chart and a z-score chart. We show that these charts overcome some of the shortcomings of the more traditional charts…

  9. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  10. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  11. The OMERACT-RAMRIS Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Joint Space Narrowing Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Døhn, Uffe; Conaghan, Philip G; Eshed, Iris

    2014-01-01

    To test the intrareader and interreader reliability of assessment of joint space narrowing (JSN) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using the newly proposed OMERACT-RAMRIS JSN scoring method...

  12. MX draft proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an interim report on the design of a large mirror fusion experiment, MX, that LLL is proposing to construct in FY 78-80. The MX experiment brings together the main elements of our present concept of a mirror reactor: a superconducting magnet and neutral beam injection. The plasma will be created by pulsed beam injection into a plasma stream injected along the magnetic field through the mirrors. This will be followed by sustained injection of high energy neutrals to achieve steady-state conditions for 0.5 to several seconds

  13. Proposed TFTR electrical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, G.; Murray, J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of controlled thermonuclear fusion has progressed to the stage where the present facilities and energy available for future devices are not sufficient and must be increased by about a factor of ten. This report describes the proposed TFTR ac utility power distribution system, an energy storage motor generator flywheel facility, and the rectifier conversion equipment for the Toroidal Field Confining System (TF), Ohmic Heating System (OH), Equilibrium Field System (EF) and the Neutral Beam Heating System (NB). The general requirements are described and the special design considerations identified

  14. An evaluation of bias in propensity score-adjusted non-linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fei; Mitra, Nandita

    2018-03-01

    Propensity score methods are commonly used to adjust for observed confounding when estimating the conditional treatment effect in observational studies. One popular method, covariate adjustment of the propensity score in a regression model, has been empirically shown to be biased in non-linear models. However, no compelling underlying theoretical reason has been presented. We propose a new framework to investigate bias and consistency of propensity score-adjusted treatment effects in non-linear models that uses a simple geometric approach to forge a link between the consistency of the propensity score estimator and the collapsibility of non-linear models. Under this framework, we demonstrate that adjustment of the propensity score in an outcome model results in the decomposition of observed covariates into the propensity score and a remainder term. Omission of this remainder term from a non-collapsible regression model leads to biased estimates of the conditional odds ratio and conditional hazard ratio, but not for the conditional rate ratio. We further show, via simulation studies, that the bias in these propensity score-adjusted estimators increases with larger treatment effect size, larger covariate effects, and increasing dissimilarity between the coefficients of the covariates in the treatment model versus the outcome model.

  15. Construction of an Exome-Wide Risk Score for Schizophrenia Based on a Weighted Burden Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David

    2018-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores obtained as a weighted sum of associated variants can be used to explore association in additional data sets and to assign risk scores to individuals. The methods used to derive polygenic risk scores from common SNPs are not suitable for variants detected in whole exome sequencing studies. Rare variants, which may have major effects, are seen too infrequently to judge whether they are associated and may not be shared between training and test subjects. A method is proposed whereby variants are weighted according to their frequency, their annotations and the genes they affect. A weighted sum across all variants provides an individual risk score. Scores constructed in this way are used in a weighted burden test and are shown to be significantly different between schizophrenia cases and controls using a five-way cross-validation procedure. This approach represents a first attempt to summarise exome sequence variation into a summary risk score, which could be combined with risk scores from common variants and from environmental factors. It is hoped that the method could be developed further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  16. Continual Screening of Patients Using mHealth: The Rolling Score Concept Applied to Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zluga, Claudio; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Kastner, Peter; Schreier, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Continual monitoring of patients utilizing mHealth-based telemonitoring applications are more and more used for individual management of patients. A new approach in risk assessment called Rolling Score Concept uses standardized questionnaires for continual scoring of individuals' health state through electronic patient reported outcome (ePRO). Using self-rated questionnaires and adding a specific Time Schedule to each question result in a movement of the questionnaires' scores over time, the Rolling Score. A text-processing pipeline was implemented with KNIME analytics platform to extract a Score Mapping Rule Set for three standardized screening questionnaires in the field of sleep medicine. A feasibility study was performed in 10 healthy volunteers equipped with a mHealth application on a smartphone and a sleep tracker. Results show that the proposed Rolling Score Concept is feasible and deviations of scores are in a reasonable range (< 7%), sustaining the new approach. However, further studies are required for verification. In addition, parameter quantification could avoid incorrect subjective evaluation by substitution of questions with sensor data.

  17. [The diagnostic and the exclusion scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-05-27

    Several clinical scores for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) have been published. The most popular ones are the Wells score and the revised Geneva score; simplified versions exist for these two scores; they have been validated. Both scores have common properties, but there is a major difference for the Wells score, namely the inclusion of a feature based on clinical judgment. These two scores in combination with D-dimers measurement have been used to rule out PE. An important improvement in this process has recently taken place with the use of an adjustable, age-dependent threshold for DD for patients over 50 years.

  18. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Proposed Dunvegan hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, M.

    2001-01-01

    A new hydroelectric project is being proposed on the Peace River in the vicinity of Dunvegan, Alberta, by Glacier Power. The proposal calls for a low head, run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant which would comprise a powerhouse containing 40 Kaplan turbines, a weir section, two fishways and a boat lock. The capacity of the generating plant would be 80 MW. As per established guidelines, the review process was initiated in July 1999 and is ongoing. Stakeholders, government agencies, both at the federal and provincial levels, are involved in the review process. The potential effects on the ice regime, fish passage and fish mortality and bank stability are the issues that have warranted the most attention to date. Scheduled to begin on October 2, 2001, a public hearing on the project has been arranged by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. The objective sought by Glacier Power is to have the project certified as being a green-power plant. Green power is defined as power produced from renewable sources with low environmental impact. The production of power with minimal environmental impacts is being encouraged in Alberta by Glacier Power, which sells power for a premium. 6 refs., 4 figs

  20. Nursing Activities Score and Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Filipe Utuari de Andrade; Watanabe, Mirian; Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti da; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the nursing workload in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). A quantitative study, conducted in an intensive care unit, from April to August of 2015. The Nursing Activities Score (NAS) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) were used to measure nursing workload and to classify the stage of AKI, respectively. A total of 190 patients were included. Patients who developed AKI (44.2%) had higher NAS when compared to those without AKI (43.7% vs 40.7%), p <0.001. Patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI showed higher NAS than those without AKI. A relationship was identified between stage 2 and 3 with those without AKI (p = 0.002 and p <0.001). The NAS was associated with the presence of AKI, the score increased with the progression of the stages, and it was associated with AKI, stage 2 and 3. avaliar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem em pacientes de terapia intensiva com lesão renal aguda (LRA). estudo quantitativo, em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, no período de abril a agosto de 2015. O Nursing Activities Score (NAS) e o Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) foram utilizados para medir a carga de trabalho de enfermagem e classificar o estágio da LRA, respectivamente. foram incluídos 190 pacientes. Os pacientes que desenvolveram LRA (44,2%) possuíam NAS superiores quando comparados aos sem LRA (43,7% vs 40,7%), p<0,001. Os pacientes com LRA nos estágios 1, 2 e 3 de LRA demonstraram NAS superiores aos sem LRA, houve relação entre os estágios 2 e 3 com os sem LRA, p=0,002 e p<0,001. o NAS apresentou associação com a existência de LRA, visto que seu valor aumenta com a progressão dos estágios, tendo associação com os estágios 2 e 3 de LRA.

  1. The inter-observer variability of breast density scoring between mammography technologists and breast radiologists and its effect on the rate of adjuvant ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Roei D; Savir, Avital; Gheorghiu, David; Weinstein, Yuliana; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the inter-observer variability of mammographic breast density scoring (BDS) between technologists and radiologists and evaluates the effect of technologist patient referral on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds. In this IRB approved study, a retrospective analysis of 503 prospectively acquired, random mammograms was performed between January and March 2014. Each mammogram was evaluated for BDS independently and blindly by both the performing technologist and the interpreting radiologist. Statistical calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient and weighted kappa were obtained to evaluate the inter-observer variability between technologists and radiologists and to examine whether it relates to the technologist's seniority or women's age. The effect on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds was evaluated. 10 mammography technologists and 7 breast radiologists participated in this study. BDS agreement levels between technologists and radiologists were in the fair to moderate range (kappa values: 0.3-0.45, Spearman coefficient values: 0.59-0.65). The technologists markedly over-graded the density compared to the radiologists in all the subsets evaluated. Comparison between low and high-density groups demonstrated a similar trend of over-grading by technologists, who graded 51% of the women as having dense breasts (scores 3-4) compared to 27% of the women graded as such by the radiologists. This trend of over grading breast density by technologists was unrelated to the women's age or to the technologists' seniority. Mammography technologists over-grade breast density. Technologists' referral to an adjuvant ultrasound leads to redundant ultrasound studies, unnecessary breast biopsies, costs and increased patient anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Huang, Xiuqin; Wang, Jinan; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mengchen

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria for internet addiction disorder (IAD) and to evaluate the validity of our proposed diagnostic criteria for discriminating non-dependent from dependent internet use in the general population. This study was conducted in three stages: the developmental stage (110 subjects in the survey group; 408 subjects in the training group), where items of the proposed diagnostic criteria were developed and tested; the validation stage (n = 405), where the proposed criteria were evaluated for criterion-related validity; and the clinical stage (n = 150), where the criteria and the global clinical impression of IAD were evaluated by more than one psychiatrist to determine inter-rater reliability. The proposed internet addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of symptom criterion (seven clinical symptoms of IAD), clinically significant impairment criterion (functional and psychosocial impairments), course criterion (duration of addiction lasting at least 3 months, with at least 6 hours of non-essential internet usage per day) and exclusion criterion (exclusion of dependency attributed to psychotic disorders). A diagnostic score of 2 + 1, where the first two symptoms (preoccupation and withdrawal symptoms) and at least one of the five other symptoms (tolerance, lack of control, continued excessive use despite knowledge of negative effects/affects, loss of interests excluding internet, and use of the internet to escape or relieve a dysphoric mood) was established. Inter-rater reliability was 98%. Our findings suggest that the proposed diagnostic criteria may be useful for the standardization of diagnostic criteria for IAD.

  3. An Enhanced Rule-Based Web Scanner Based on Similarity Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an enhanced rule-based web scanner in order to get better accuracy in detecting web vulnerabilities than the existing tools, which have relatively high false alarm rate when the web pages are installed in unconventional directory paths. Using the proposed matching method based on similarity score, the proposed scheme can determine whether two pages have the same vulnerabilities or not. With this method, the proposed scheme is able to figure out the target web pages are vulnerable by comparing them to the web pages that are known to have vulnerabilities. We show the proposed scanner reduces 12% false alarm rate compared to the existing well-known scanner through the performance evaluation via various experiments. The proposed scheme is especially helpful in detecting vulnerabilities of the web applications which come from well-known open-source web applications after small customization, which happens frequently in many small-sized companies.

  4. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R.; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests

  5. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests.

  6. The Rectal Cancer Female Sexuality Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyø, Anne; Emmertsen, Katrine J; Laurberg, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction and impaired quality of life is a potential side effect to rectal cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple scoring system intended to evaluate sexual function in women treated for rectal cancer. DESIGN......: This is a population-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Female patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 2001 and 2014 were identified by using the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database. Participants filled in the validated Sexual Function Vaginal Changes questionnaire. Women declared to be sexually active...... in the validation group. PATIENTS: Female patients with rectal cancer above the age of 18 who underwent abdominoperineal resection, Hartmann procedure, or total/partial mesorectal excision were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was the quality of life that was negatively affected because...

  7. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  8. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2017-01-01

    . AIM: To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical...... restraint. METHODS: The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. RESULTS: The three sub-scales (Confounders......, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. CONCLUSIONS: MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items...

  9. SOS score: an optimized score to screen acute stroke patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Millene R; Sander, Heidi H; Eckeli, Alan L; Fernandes, Regina M F; Dos Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M

    2014-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequent in acute stroke patients, and has been associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard diagnostic method for OSA, but it is impracticable as a routine for all acute stroke patients. We evaluated the accuracy of two OSA screening tools, the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) when administered to relatives of acute stroke patients; we also compared these tools against a combined screening score (SOS score). Ischemic stroke patients were submitted to a full PSG at the first night after onset of symptoms. OSA severity was measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BQ and ESS were administered to relatives of stroke patients before the PSG and compared to SOS score for accuracy and C-statistics. We prospectively studied 39 patients. OSA (AHI ≥10/h) was present in 76.9%. The SOS score [area under the curve (AUC): 0.812; P = 0.005] and ESS (AUC: 0.789; P = 0.009) had good predictive value for OSA. The SOS score was the only tool with significant predictive value (AUC: 0.686; P = 0.048) for severe OSA (AHI ≥30/h), when compared to ESS (P = 0.119) and BQ (P = 0.191). The threshold of SOS ≤10 showed high sensitivity (90%) and negative predictive value (96.2%) for OSA; SOS ≥20 showed high specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (92.5%) for severe OSA. The SOS score administered to relatives of stroke patients is a useful tool to screen for OSA and may decrease the need for PSG in acute stroke setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Coronary artery calcium scoring in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslic, S.; Dalagija, F.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium scoring and the assessment of the risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. During the period of three years, 27 patients with MI were analyzed. The average age of patients was 66.1 years (46 to 81). Coronary arteries calcium was evaluated by multi row detector computed tomography (MTDC) S omatom Volume Zoom Siemens , and, retrospectively by ECG gating data acquisition. Semi automated calcium quantification to calculate Agatston calcium score (CS) was performed with 4 x 2.5 mm collimation, using 130 ml of contrast medium, injected with an automatic injector, with the flow rate of 4 ml/sec. The delay time was determined empirically. At the same time several risk factors were evaluated. Results. Out of 27 patients with MI, 3 (11.1%) patients had low CS (10- 100), 5 (18.5%) moderate CS (101- 499), and 19 (70.4%) patients high CS (>500). Of risk factors, smoking was confirmed in 17 (63.0%), high blood pressure (HTA) in 10 (57.0%), diabetes mellitus in 7 (25.9%), positive family history in 5 (18.5%), pathological lipids in 5 (18.5%), alcohol abuse in 4 (1.8%) patients. Six (22.2%) patients had symptoms of angina pectoris. Conclusions. The research showed high correlation of MI and high CS (>500). Smoking, HTA, diabetes mellitus, positive family history and hypercholesterolemia are significant risk factors. Symptoms are relatively poor in large number of patients. (author)

  12. Automatic ECG quality scoring methodology: mimicking human annotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesen, Lars; Galeotti, Loriano

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the quality of electrocardiograms (ECGs) can enable inexperienced nurses and paramedics to record ECGs of sufficient diagnostic quality. Previously, we proposed an algorithm for determining if ECG recordings are of acceptable quality, which was entered in the PhysioNet Challenge 2011. In the present work, we propose an improved two-step algorithm, which first rejects ECGs with macroscopic errors (signal absent, large voltage shifts or saturation) and subsequently quantifies the noise (baseline, powerline or muscular noise) on a continuous scale. The performance of the improved algorithm was evaluated using the PhysioNet Challenge database (1500 ECGs rated by humans for signal quality). We achieved a classification accuracy of 92.3% on the training set and 90.0% on the test set. The improved algorithm is capable of detecting ECGs with macroscopic errors and giving the user a score of the overall quality. This allows the user to assess the degree of noise and decide if it is acceptable depending on the purpose of the recording. (paper)

  13. Prediction of IOI-HA Scores Using Speech Reception Thresholds and Speech Discrimination Scores in Quiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2014-01-01

    ), and speech discrimination scores (SDSs) in quiet or in noise are common assessments made prior to hearing aid (HA) fittings. It is not known whether SRT and SDS in quiet relate to HA outcome measured with the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...... COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The psychometric properties were evaluated and compared to previous studies using the IOI-HA. The associations and differences between the outcome scores and a number of descriptive variables (age, gender, fitted monaurally/binaurally with HA, first-time/experienced HA users, years...

  14. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  15. Proposal of Carbon Nanotube Inductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsubaki, K; Nakajima, Y; Hanajiri, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2006-01-01

    The inductors made of carbon Nanotube (CNT) have been proposed. Though the fabrication of the proposed inductor is still challenging and has many problems, merits of the proposed inductor are following...

  16. Proposal of 'Modular Heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo

    1994-01-01

    A new modular helical system named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  17. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  18. Proposal of 'modular heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo.

    1993-11-01

    A new modular helical configuration named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  19. Stress: a naturalistic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Rodríguez Campuzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior, and its three dimensions. Emphasis is made on the singular and individual nature of stress reactions. Finally it is suggested to take into account these functional criteria to develop a generic situational taxonomy to study these reactions as parts of complex behavioral patterns.

  20. Combined time-varying forecast based on the proper scoring approach for wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xingying; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error...... distribution, a proper scoring approach is applied to combine plausible models to form an overall time-varying model for the next day forecasts, rather than weights-based combination. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, real data of 3 years were used for testing. Simulation results...... demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of overall forecasts, even compared with a numerical weather prediction....

  1. A new pathological scoring system by the Japanese classification to predict renal outcome in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Junichi; Furuichi, Kengo; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Mise, Koki; Sekine, Akinari; Kawada, Masahiro; Sumida, Keiichi; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sawa, Naoki; Hara, Shigeko; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Toyama, Tadashi; Shimizu, Miho; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Wada, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the newly proposed pathological classification by the Japan Renal Pathology Society (JRPS) on renal outcome is unclear. So we evaluated that impact and created a new pathological scoring to predict outcome using this classification. A multicenter cohort of 493 biopsy-proven Japanese patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) were analyzed. The association between each pathological factor-Tervaert' and JRPS classifications-and renal outcome (dialysis initiation or 50% eGFR decline) was estimated by adjusted Cox regression. The overall pathological risk score (J-score) was calculated, whereupon its predictive ability for 10-year risk of renal outcome was evaluated. The J-scores of diffuse lesion classes 2 or 3, GBM doubling class 3, presence of mesangiolysis, polar vasculosis, and arteriolar hyalinosis were, respectively, 1, 2, 4, 1, and 2. The scores of IFTA classes 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 3, 4, and 4, and those of interstitial inflammation classes 1, 2, and 3 were 5, 5, and 4 (J-score range, 0-19). Renal survival curves, when dividing into four J-score grades (0-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19), were significantly different from each other (prenal outcome. Ability to predict 10-year renal outcome was improved when the J-score was added to the basic model: c-statistics from 0.661 to 0.685; category-free net reclassification improvement, 0.154 (-0.040, 0.349, p = 0.12); and integrated discrimination improvement, 0.015 (0.003, 0.028, p = 0.02). Mesangiolysis, polar vasculosis, and doubling of GBM-features of the JRPS system-were significantly associated with renal outcome. Prediction of DN patients' renal outcome was better with the J-score than without it.

  2. A scoring model for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia in a screened population of asymptomatic Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Minori; Matsuda, Takahisa

    2018-01-22

    Risk stratification of screened populations could help improve colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Use of the modified Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score has been proposed in the Asia-Pacific region. This study was performed to build a new useful scoring model for CRC screening. Data were reviewed from 5218 asymptomatic Japanese individuals who underwent their first screening colonoscopy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN), and a new scoring model for the prediction of ACN was developed based on the results. The discriminatory capability of the new model and the modified APCS score were assessed and compared. Internal validation was also performed. ACN was detected in 225 participants. An 8-point scoring model for the prediction of ACN was developed using five independent risk factors for ACN (male sex, higher age, presence of two or more first-degree relatives with CRC, body mass index of > 22.5 kg/m 2 , and smoking history of > 18.5 pack-years). The prevalence of ACN was 1.6% (34/2172), 5.3% (127/2419), and 10.2% (64/627) in participants with scores of statistic of the scoring model was 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.73) in both the development and internal validation sets, and this value was higher than that of the modified APCS score [0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.71), P = 0.03]. We built a new simple scoring model for prediction of ACN in a Japanese population that could stratify the screened population into low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups.

  3. Reliability of scoring arousals in normal children and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tat Kong; Galster, Patricia; Lau, Tai Shing; Lutz, Janita M; Marcus, Carole L

    2004-09-15

    Scoring of arousals in children is based on an extension of adult criteria, as defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). By this, a minimum duration of 3 seconds is required. A few recent studies utilized modified criteria for the study of children, with durations as short as 1 second. However, the validity and reliability of scoring these shorter arousals have never been verified. Based on studies in adults, we hypothesized that interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds was poor. Retrospective review of polysomnograms by 2 experienced sleep practitioners who independently scored arousals according to the ASDA 3-second criteria and modified duration criteria of 1 and 2 seconds. Academic hospital. 20 polysomnographic studies from children aged 3 to 8 years with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 16 polysomnographic studies from normal children. None. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring ASDA arousals was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.95), indicating excellent interscorer agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring modified 1-second and 2-second arousals were 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.61) and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.65) respectively, indicating poor to fair interscorer agreement. Furthermore, modified 1-second and 2-second arousals accounted for less than 15% of all arousals scored. We conclude that there is much poorer interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds, when compared to the standard ASDA criteria. We propose that scoring of arousals in children should follow the standard ASDA criteria.

  4. A Summary Score for the Framingham Heart Study Neuropsychological Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; Fardo, David W; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2015-10-01

    To calculate three summary scores of the Framingham Heart Study neuropsychological battery and determine which score best differentiates between subjects classified as having normal cognition, test-based impaired learning and memory, test-based multidomain impairment, and dementia. The final sample included 2,503 participants. Three summary scores were assessed: (a) composite score that provided equal weight to each subtest, (b) composite score that provided equal weight to each cognitive domain assessed by the neuropsychological battery, and (c) abbreviated score comprised of subtests for learning and memory. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine which summary score best differentiated between the four cognitive states. The summary score that provided equal weight to each subtest best differentiated between the four cognitive states. A summary score that provides equal weight to each subtest is an efficient way to utilize all of the cognitive data collected by a neuropsychological battery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  6. Renal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and its correlation with Child-Pugh score and MELD score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Gurning, M.

    2018-03-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is a serious and common complication in a patient with liver cirrhosis. It provides a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the renal function in liver cirrhosis, also to determine the correlation with the graduation of liver disease assessed by Child-Pugh Score (CPS) and MELD score. This was a cross-sectional study included patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to Adam Malik Hospital Medan in June - August 2016. We divided them into two groups as not having renal dysfunction (serum creatinine SPSS 22.0 was used. Statistical methods used: Chi-square, Fisher exact, one way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test and Pearson coefficient of correlation. The level of significance was p<0.05. 55 patients with presented with renal dysfunction were 16 (29.1 %). There was statistically significant inverse correlation between GFR and CPS (r = -0.308), GFR and MELD score (r = -0.278). There was a statistically significant correlation between creatinine and MELD score (r = 0.359), creatinine and CPS (r = 0.382). The increase of the degree of liver damage is related to the increase of renal dysfunction.

  7. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Hopf-Seidel, Petra

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Nutech functional Score (NFS), which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position) and directional (moves in direction bad to good) scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  8. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Shroff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NFS, which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position and directional (moves in direction bad to good scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. Results: The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. Conclusion: NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  9. Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Hamoen, A.; Jong, de G.

    2002-01-01

    Subjective visual assessment of animals by classifiers is undertaken for several different traits in farm livestock, e.g., linear type traits, body condition score, or carcass conformation. One of the difficulties in assessment is the effect of an individual classifier. To ensure that classifiers

  10. Symptom scoring systems to diagnose distal polyneuropathy in diabetes : the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.G.; Smit, A.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Links, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To provide one of the diagnostic categories for distal diabetic polyneuro-pathy,several symptom scoring systems are available, which are often extensive andlack in validation. We validated a new four-item Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) scorefor diagnosing distal diabetic polyneuropathy.

  11. A scoring system for ascertainment of incident stroke; the Risk Index Score (RISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, T A; Moyé, L A; Smith, M A; Morgenstern, L B

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based statistical algorithm that could be translated into a simple scoring system in order to ascertain incident stroke cases using hospital admission medical records data. The Risk Index Score (RISc) algorithm was developed using data collected prospectively by the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, 2000. The validity of RISc was evaluated by estimating the concordance of scoring system stroke ascertainment to stroke ascertainment by physician and/or abstractor review of hospital admission records. RISc was developed on 1718 randomly selected patients (training set) and then statistically validated on an independent sample of 858 patients (validation set). A multivariable logistic model was used to develop RISc and subsequently evaluated by goodness-of-fit and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The higher the value of RISc, the higher the patient's risk of potential stroke. The study showed RISc was well calibrated and discriminated those who had potential stroke from those that did not on initial screening. In this study we developed and validated a rapid, easy, efficient, and accurate method to ascertain incident stroke cases from routine hospital admission records for epidemiologic investigations. Validation of this scoring system was achieved statistically; however, clinical validation in a community hospital setting is warranted.

  12. Fast liner proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10 6 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  13. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  14. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  15. Validity of GRE General Test scores and TOEFL scores for graduate admission to a technical university in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the Master's programme grade point average (GGPA) with and without the addition of the undergraduate GPA (UGPA) and the TOEFL score, and of GRE scores for study completion and Master's thesis performance. GRE scores explained 20% of the variation in the GGPA, while additional 7% were explained by the TOEFL score and 3% by the UGPA. Contrary to common belief, the GRE quantitative reasoning score showed only little explanatory power. GRE scores were also weakly related to study progress but not to thesis performance. Nevertheless, GRE and TOEFL scores were found to be sensible admissions instruments. Rigorous methodology was used to obtain highly reliable results.

  16. Application of the FOUR Score in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksick, Sherri A; Hemphill, J Claude; Mandrekar, Jay; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2018-06-01

    The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a validated scale describing the essentials of a coma examination, including motor response, eye opening and eye movements, brainstem reflexes, and respiratory pattern. We incorporated the FOUR Score into the existing ICH Score and evaluated its accuracy of risk assessment in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Consecutive patients admitted to our institution from 2009 to 2012 with spontaneous ICH were reviewed. The ICH Score was calculated using patient age, hemorrhage location, hemorrhage volume, evidence of intraventricular extension, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The FOUR Score was then incorporated into the ICH Score as a substitute for the GCS (ICH Score FS ). The ability of the 2 scores to predict mortality at 1 month was then compared. In total, 274 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range 60-82) and 138 (50.4%) were male. Overall mortality at 1 month was 28.8% (n = 79). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .91 for the ICH Score and .89 for the ICH Score FS . For ICH Scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1-month mortality was 4.2%, 29.9%, 62.5%, 95.0%, and 100%. In the ICH Score FS model, mortality was 10.7%, 26.5%, 64.5%, 88.9%, and 100% for scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The ICH Score and the ICH Score FS predict 1-month mortality with comparable accuracy. As the FOUR Score provides additional clinical information regarding patient status, it may be a reasonable substitute for the GCS into the ICH Score. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  18. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  19. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  20. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  1. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction...... between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC...

  2. How different from random are docking predictions when ranked by scoring functions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Oliva, Baldomero

    2010-01-01

    on the number of near-native structures in the sampling. We studied the effect of filtering out redundant structures and tested the use of pair-potentials derived using ZDock and ZRank. Our results show that for many targets, it is not possible to determine when a successful reranking performed by scoring...... functions results merely from random choice. This analysis reveals that changes should be made in the design of the CAPRI scoring experiment. We propose including the statistical assessment in this experiment either at the preprocessing or the evaluation step....

  3. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Total Performance Score

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their Clinical Process of Care domain scores, Patient Experience of Care dimension scores, and...

  4. Lower Bounds to the Reliabilities of Factor Score Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J

    2016-10-06

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators, Bartlett's factor score estimators, and McDonald's factor score estimators are derived and conditions are given under which these lower bounds are equal. The relative performance of the derived lower bounds is studied using classic example data sets. The results show that estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators are greater than or equal to the estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Bartlett's and McDonald's factor score estimators.

  5. The Truth about Scores Children Achieve on Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of using the standard error of measurement (SEm) in determining reliability in test scores is emphasized. The SEm is compared to the hypothetical true score for standardized tests, and procedures for calculation of the SEm are explained. (JDD)

  6. A locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Europe or North America and seem not optimally suited for a general West ... We introduce a cross-cultural adaptation of the Lequesne index as a new score. ... Keywords: THR, Hip, Africa, Functional score, Hip replacement, Arthroscopy ...

  7. 48 CFR 1515.305-70 - Scoring plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 1515.305-70 Scoring plans. When... solicitation, e.g., other numeric, adjectival, color rating systems, etc. Scoring Plan Value Descriptive...

  8. Methods and statistics for combining motif match scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T L; Gribskov, M

    1998-01-01

    Position-specific scoring matrices are useful for representing and searching for protein sequence motifs. A sequence family can often be described by a group of one or more motifs, and an effective search must combine the scores for matching a sequence to each of the motifs in the group. We describe three methods for combining match scores and estimating the statistical significance of the combined scores and evaluate the search quality (classification accuracy) and the accuracy of the estimate of statistical significance of each. The three methods are: 1) sum of scores, 2) sum of reduced variates, 3) product of score p-values. We show that method 3) is superior to the other two methods in both regards, and that combining motif scores indeed gives better search accuracy. The MAST sequence homology search algorithm utilizing the product of p-values scoring method is available for interactive use and downloading at URL http:/(/)www.sdsc.edu/MEME.

  9. Modifying scoring system at South African University rugby level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in rugby is measured by winning the game and in order to do so, teams need to score more points ... if modifying the scoring system at South African University rugby level changes the game dynamics. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. The Incentive Effect of Scores: Randomized Evidence from Credit Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paravisini; Antoinette Schoar

    2013-01-01

    We design a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the adoption of credit scoring with a bank that uses soft information in small businesses lending. We find that credit scores improve the productivity of credit committees, reduce managerial involvement in the loan approval process, and increase the profitability of lending. Credit committee members' effort and output also increase when they anticipate the score becoming available, indicating that scores improve incentives to use existing in...

  11. Gambling score in earthquake prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2011-03-01

    The number of successes and the space-time alarm rate are commonly used to characterize the strength of an earthquake prediction method and the significance of prediction results. It has been recently suggested to use a new characteristic to evaluate the forecaster's skill, the gambling score (GS), which incorporates the difficulty of guessing each target event by using different weights for different alarms. We expand parametrization of the GS and use the M8 prediction algorithm to illustrate difficulties of the new approach in the analysis of the prediction significance. We show that the level of significance strongly depends (1) on the choice of alarm weights, (2) on the partitioning of the entire alarm volume into component parts and (3) on the accuracy of the spatial rate measure of target events. These tools are at the disposal of the researcher and can affect the significance estimate. Formally, all reasonable GSs discussed here corroborate that the M8 method is non-trivial in the prediction of 8.0 ≤M < 8.5 events because the point estimates of the significance are in the range 0.5-5 per cent. However, the conservative estimate 3.7 per cent based on the number of successes seems preferable owing to two circumstances: (1) it is based on relative values of the spatial rate and hence is more stable and (2) the statistic of successes enables us to construct analytically an upper estimate of the significance taking into account the uncertainty of the spatial rate measure.

  12. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method.

  13. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the

  14. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. 40 CFR 26.1107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non... safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing the professional competence...

  16. 38 CFR 16.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 16.107 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN... the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing the professional competence... inclusion of one or more individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these...

  17. 45 CFR 690.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN... the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing the professional competence... inclusion of one or more individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these...

  18. Nutech functional score: A novel scoring system to assess spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Barthakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-06-26

    To develop a new scoring system, nutech functional scores (NFS) for assessing the patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The conventional scale, American Spinal Injury Association's (ASIA) impairment scale is a measure which precisely describes the severity of the SCI. However, it has various limitations which lead to incomplete assessment of SCI patients. We have developed a 63 point scoring system, i . e ., NFS for patients suffering with SCI. A list of symptoms either common or rare that were found to be associated with SCI was recorded for each patient. On the basis of these lists, we have developed NFS. These lists served as a base to prepare NFS, a 63 point positional (each symptom is sub-graded and get points based on position) and directional (moves in direction BAD → GOOD) scoring system. For non-progressive diseases, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 denote worst, bad, moderate, good and best (normal), respectively. NFS for SCI has been divided into different groups based on the affected part of the body being assessed, i . e ., motor assessment (shoulders, elbow, wrist, fingers-grasp, fingers-release, hip, knee, ankle and toe), sensory assessment, autonomic assessment, bed sore assessment and general assessment. As probability based studies required a range of (-1, 1) or at least the range of (0, 1) to be useful for real world analysis, the grades were converted to respective numeric values. NFS can be considered as a unique tool to assess the improvement in patients with SCI as it overcomes the limitations of ASIA impairment scale.

  19. Severity scoring in the critically ill: part 2: maximizing value from outcome prediction scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Michael J; Badawi, Omar

    2012-02-01

    Part 2 of this review of ICU scoring systems examines how scoring system data should be used to assess ICU performance. There often are two different consumers of these data: lCU clinicians and quality leaders who seek to identify opportunities to improve quality of care and operational efficiency, and regulators, payors, and consumers who want to compare performance across facilities. The former need to know how to garner maximal insight into their care practices; this includes understanding how length of stay (LOS) relates to quality, analyzing the behavior of different subpopulations, and following trends over time. Segregating patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk populations is especially helpful, because care issues and outcomes may differ across this severity continuum. Also, LOS behaves paradoxically in high-risk patients (survivors often have longer LOS than nonsurvivors); failure to examine this subgroup separately can penalize ICUs with superior outcomes. Consumers of benchmarking data often focus on a single score, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). However, simple SMRs are disproportionately affected by outcomes in high-risk patients, and differences in population composition, even when performance is otherwise identical, can result in different SMRs. Future benchmarking must incorporate strategies to adjust for differences in population composition and report performance separately for low-, medium- and high-acuity patients. Moreover, because many ICUs lack the resources to care for high-acuity patients (predicted mortality >50%), decisions about where patients should receive care must consider both ICU performance scores and their capacity to care for different types of patients.

  20. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...

  1. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predictive of ATI and the optimal cut-off score for predicting an ATI were identified. These factors were then used to develop a standard scoring system. The score was then tested prospectively for accuracy in a new validation cohort consisting of 100 patients admitted for snakebite to our unit from 1 December 2014 to ...

  2. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  3. a locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results and success of total hip arthroplasty are often measured using a functional outcome scoring system. Most current scores were developed in Europe and. North America (1-3). During the evaluation of a Total. Hip Replacement (THR) project in Ouagadougou,. Burkina Faso (4) it was felt that these scores were not.

  4. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…

  5. LCA single score analysis of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the LCA report “Life Cycle assessment of man-made cellulose fibres” [3] is extended to the single score analysis in order to provide an additional basis for decision making. The single score analysis covers 9 to 11 environmental impact categories. Three single score methods (Single

  6. A Framework for Evaluation and Use of Automated Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Xi, Xiaoming; Breyer, F. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A framework for evaluation and use of automated scoring of constructed-response tasks is provided that entails both evaluation of automated scoring as well as guidelines for implementation and maintenance in the context of constantly evolving technologies. Consideration of validity issues and challenges associated with automated scoring are…

  7. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  8. Clinical outcome scoring of intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Heetveld, Martin J.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Patka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Outcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited outcome score

  9. Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…

  10. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  11. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in patients with traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective. To safely and reliably ...

  12. An Objective Balance Error Scoring System for Sideline Concussion Evaluation Using Duplex Kinect Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqi Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussion is a common sports injury that might induce potential long-term consequences without early diagnosis and intervention in the field. However, there are few options of such sensor systems available. The aim of the study is to propose and validate an automated concussion administration and scoring approach, which is objective, affordable and capable of detecting all balance errors required by the balance error scoring system (BESS protocol in the field condition. Our approach is first to capture human body skeleton positions using two Microsoft Kinect sensors in the proposed configuration and merge the data by a custom-made algorithm to remove the self-occlusion of limbs. The standing balance errors according to BESS protocol were further measured and accessed automatically by the proposed algorithm. Simultaneously, the BESS test was filmed for scoring by an experienced rater. Two results were compared using Pearson coefficient r, obtaining an excellent consistency (r = 0.93, p < 0.05. In addition, BESS test–retest was performed after seven days and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, showing a good test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.81, p < 0.01. The proposed approach could be an alternative of objective tools to assess postural stability for sideline sports concussion diagnosis.

  13. AUC-based biomarker ensemble with an application on gene scores predicting low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X G; Dai, W; Li, Y; Tian, L

    2011-11-01

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), long regarded as a 'golden' measure for the predictiveness of a continuous score, has propelled the need to develop AUC-based predictors. However, the AUC-based ensemble methods are rather scant, largely due to the fact that the associated objective function is neither continuous nor concave. Indeed, there is no reliable numerical algorithm identifying optimal combination of a set of biomarkers to maximize the AUC, especially when the number of biomarkers is large. We have proposed a novel AUC-based statistical ensemble methods for combining multiple biomarkers to differentiate a binary response of interest. Specifically, we propose to replace the non-continuous and non-convex AUC objective function by a convex surrogate loss function, whose minimizer can be efficiently identified. With the established framework, the lasso and other regularization techniques enable feature selections. Extensive simulations have demonstrated the superiority of the new methods to the existing methods. The proposal has been applied to a gene expression dataset to construct gene expression scores to differentiate elderly women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and those with normal BMD. The AUCs of the resulting scores in the independent test dataset has been satisfactory. Aiming for directly maximizing AUC, the proposed AUC-based ensemble method provides an efficient means of generating a stable combination of multiple biomarkers, which is especially useful under the high-dimensional settings. lutian@stanford.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores measured by NASA-TLX technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that a large portion of human performance related problems was attributed to the complexity of tasks. Therefore, managing the complexity of tasks is a prerequisite for safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs), because the consequence of a degraded human performance could be more severe than in other systems. From this concern, it is necessary to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks that are stipulated in procedures, because most tasks of NPPs have been specified in the form of procedures. For this reason, Park et al. developed a task complexity measure called TACOM. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the TACOM measure, subjective workload scores that were measured by the NASA-TLX technique were compared with the associated TACOM scores. To do this, 23 emergency tasks of the reference NPPs were selected, and then subjective workload scores for these emergency tasks were quantified by 18 operators who had a sufficient knowledge about emergency operations

  15. Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores measured by NASA-TLX technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    It is a well-known fact that a large portion of human performance related problems was attributed to the complexity of tasks. Therefore, managing the complexity of tasks is a prerequisite for safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs), because the consequence of a degraded human performance could be more severe than in other systems. From this concern, it is necessary to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks that are stipulated in procedures, because most tasks of NPPs have been specified in the form of procedures. For this reason, Park et al. developed a task complexity measure called TACOM. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the TACOM measure, subjective workload scores that were measured by the NASA-TLX technique were compared with the associated TACOM scores. To do this, 23 emergency tasks of the reference NPPs were selected, and then subjective workload scores for these emergency tasks were quantified by 18 operators who had a sufficient knowledge about emergency operations.

  16. An evaluation of automatic coronary artery calcium scoring methods with cardiac CT using the orCaScore framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M; Leiner, Tim; de Vos, Bob D; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Kelm, B Michael; Kondo, Satoshi; Salgado, Rodrigo A; Shahzad, Rahil; Shu, Huazhong; Snoeren, Miranda; Takx, Richard A P; van Vliet, Lucas J; van Walsum, Theo; Willems, Tineke P; Yang, Guanyu; Zheng, Yefeng; Viergever, Max A; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-05-01

    The amount of coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In clinical practice, CAC is manually identified and automatically quantified in cardiac CT using commercially available software. This is a tedious and time-consuming process in large-scale studies. Therefore, a number of automatic methods that require no interaction and semiautomatic methods that require very limited interaction for the identification of CAC in cardiac CT have been proposed. Thus far, a comparison of their performance has been lacking. The objective of this study was to perform an independent evaluation of (semi)automatic methods for CAC scoring in cardiac CT using a publicly available standardized framework. Cardiac CT exams of 72 patients distributed over four CVD risk categories were provided for (semi)automatic CAC scoring. Each exam consisted of a noncontrast-enhanced calcium scoring CT (CSCT) and a corresponding coronary CT angiography (CCTA) scan. The exams were acquired in four different hospitals using state-of-the-art equipment from four major CT scanner vendors. The data were divided into 32 training exams and 40 test exams. A reference standard for CAC in CSCT was defined by consensus of two experts following a clinical protocol. The framework organizers evaluated the performance of (semi)automatic methods on test CSCT scans, per lesion, artery, and patient. Five (semi)automatic methods were evaluated. Four methods used both CSCT and CCTA to identify CAC, and one method used only CSCT. The evaluated methods correctly detected between 52% and 94% of CAC lesions with positive predictive values between 65% and 96%. Lesions in distal coronary arteries were most commonly missed and aortic calcifications close to the coronary ostia were the most common false positive errors. The majority (between 88% and 98%) of correctly identified CAC lesions were assigned to the correct artery. Linearly weighted Cohen's kappa

  17. Scoring the full extent of periodontal disease in the dog: development of a total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin E; Laster, Larry; Shofer, Frances; Miller, Bonnie

    2008-09-01

    The development of a total mouth periodontal scoring system is described. This system uses methods to score the full extent of gingivitis and periodontitis of all tooth surfaces, weighted by size of teeth, and adjusted by size of dog.

  18. A qualitative study of institutional review board members' experience reviewing research proposals using emergency exception from informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Katie B; Delorio, Nicole M; Schmidt, Terri A; Chiodo, Gary; Gorman, Paul

    2007-05-01

    Emergency exception to informed consent regulation was introduced to provide a venue to perform research on subjects in emergency situations before obtaining informed consent. For a study to proceed, institutional review boards (IRBs) need to determine if the regulations have been met. To determine IRB members' experience reviewing research protocols using emergency exception to informed consent. This qualitative research used semistructured telephone interviews of 10 selected IRB members from around the US in the fall of 2003. IRB members were chosen as little is known about their views of exception to consent, and part of their mandate is the protection of human subjects in research. Interview questions focused on the length of review process, ethical and legal considerations, training provided to IRB members on the regulations, and experience using community consultation and notification. Content analysis was performed on the transcripts of interviews. To ensure validity, data analysis was performed by individuals with varying backgrounds: three emergency physicians, an IRB member and a layperson. Respondents noted that: (1) emergency exception to informed consent studies require lengthy review; (2) community consultation and notification regulations are vague and hard to implement; (3) current regulations, if applied correctly, protect human subjects; (4) legal counsel is an important aspect of reviewing exception to informed-consent protocols; and (5) IRB members have had little or no formal training in these regulations, but are able to access materials needed to review such protocols. This preliminary study suggests that IRB members find emergency exception to informed consent studies take longer to review than other protocols, and that community consultation and community notification are the most difficult aspect of the regulations with which to comply but that they adequately protect human subjects.

  19. Automated outcome scoring in a virtual reality simulator for endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Myat Su; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2018-01-01

    We address the problem of automated outcome assessment in a virtual reality (VR) simulator for endodontic surgery. Outcome assessment is an essential component of any system that provides formative feedback, which requires assessing the outcome, relating it to the procedure, and communicating in a language natural to dental students. This study takes a first step toward automated generation of such comprehensive feedback. Virtual reference templates are computed based on tooth anatomy and the outcome is assessed with a 3D score cube volume which consists of voxel-level non-linear weighted scores based on the templates. The detailed scores are transformed into standard scoring language used by dental schools. The system was evaluated on fifteen outcome samples that contained optimal results and those with errors including perforation of the walls, floor, and both, as well as various combinations of major and minor over and under drilling errors. Five endodontists who had professional training and varying levels of experiences in root canal treatment participated as raters in the experiment. Results from evaluation of our system with expert endodontists show a high degree of agreement with expert scores (information based measure of disagreement 0.04-0.21). At the same time they show some disagreement among human expert scores, reflecting the subjective nature of human outcome scoring. The discriminatory power of the AOS scores analyzed with three grade tiers (A, B, C) using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC values are generally highest for the {AB: C} cutoff which is cutoff at the boundary between clinically acceptable (B) and clinically unacceptable (C) grades. The objective consistency of computed scores and high degree of agreement with experts make the proposed system a promising addition to existing VR simulators. The translation of detailed level scores into terminology commonly used in dental surgery supports natural

  20. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  1. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  2. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  3. QUASAR--scoring and ranking of sequence-structure alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzele, Fabian; Gewehr, Jan E; Zimmer, Ralf

    2005-12-15

    Sequence-structure alignments are a common means for protein structure prediction in the fields of fold recognition and homology modeling, and there is a broad variety of programs that provide such alignments based on sequence similarity, secondary structure or contact potentials. Nevertheless, finding the best sequence-structure alignment in a pool of alignments remains a difficult problem. QUASAR (quality of sequence-structure alignments ranking) provides a unifying framework for scoring sequence-structure alignments that aids finding well-performing combinations of well-known and custom-made scoring schemes. Those scoring functions can be benchmarked against widely accepted quality scores like MaxSub, TMScore, Touch and APDB, thus enabling users to test their own alignment scores against 'standard-of-truth' structure-based scores. Furthermore, individual score combinations can be optimized with respect to benchmark sets based on known structural relationships using QUASAR's in-built optimization routines.

  4. Cross-modal face recognition using multi-matcher face scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2015-05-01

    The performance of face recognition can be improved using information fusion of multimodal images and/or multiple algorithms. When multimodal face images are available, cross-modal recognition is meaningful for security and surveillance applications. For example, a probe face is a thermal image (especially at nighttime), while only visible face images are available in the gallery database. Matching a thermal probe face onto the visible gallery faces requires crossmodal matching approaches. A few such studies were implemented in facial feature space with medium recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal recognition approach, where multimodal faces are cross-matched in feature space and the recognition performance is enhanced with stereo fusion at image, feature and/or score level. In the proposed scenario, there are two cameras for stereo imaging, two face imagers (visible and thermal images) in each camera, and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, linear discriminant analysis). A score vector is formed with three cross-matched face scores from the aforementioned three algorithms. A classifier (e.g., k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression [BLR]) is trained then tested with the score vectors by using 10-fold cross validations. The proposed approach was validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Our experiments show very promising results: ACR (accuracy rate) = 97.84%, FAR (false accept rate) = 0.84% when cross-matching the fused thermal faces onto the fused visible faces by using three face scores and the BLR classifier.

  5. A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Andrzej S

    2013-03-15

    Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparision of GCS and FOUR scores used in the evaluation of neurological status in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Sultan sahin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS is the most widely used scoring system to evaluation of neurological status for patients in intensive care unit. Limitations of the GCS include severe to assess the verbal score in intubated or aphasic patients. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score (FOUR, a new coma scale not reliant on verbal response, was recently proposed. New scales strongly suggest a scale is needed that could provide further nerological detail that is easy to use. We aimed to compare FOUR score and GCS among unselected patients in intensive care units and comparerealibility betweenobservers. Material-Methods: In our study 105 patients was admitted. Three different types of examiners tested FOUR score and GCS: one intensive care unit nurse, one anaesthesiology resident (2. year, and one anaesthesiology fellow. Patients receiving sedative agents or neuromuscular function blockers were excluded. The raters performed their examination within 1 hour of each other without knowledge of the others scores. Results: In our study compared the interrater agreement of GCS and FOUR score. Although FOUR score was thought to be superior in aphasic and intubated patients, there was neither a statistical significant difference between the GCS and the FOUR score nor a difference among ICU staff. Conclusion: As a result, the scores that used in ICUs, should be simple, reliable and predictive. Our study revealed that the FOUR score is at least equivalent to the GCS. And for us, GCS and FOUR scores are easy to use both doctors and nurses. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 167-172

  7. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  8. MR score system on spatium perilymphaticum gadolinium opacification and its application for diagnosis of Meniere's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheming; Liu Ying; Cao Dairong; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a MR scoring methods for spatium perilymphaticum gadolinium opacification and explore the value of their diagnosis of Meniere's disease. Methods: Fifty-one asymptomatic and 65 symptomatic patients with Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. MR imaging of spatium perilymphaticum after intratypanic gadolinium injection were analyzed with following scoring method. (1) Semicircular canal not visualized equal to score 0; some visualized equal score 1; full visualized equal score 2.(2)There were high-signal and low-signal in the vestibule, low-signal areas above the lateral semicircular canal plane equal score 6; low signal areas down to lateral semicircular canal plane equal score 3; no higher signal in the vestibule area equal score 0. (3) Basal turn of cochlea: full visualized equal score 3; part visualized equal score 2; scala vestibule of basal turn smaller than scala tympani equal score 1 regardless of full or visualized in basal turn; no visualized equal score 0. Medial turn of cochlea: full visualized equal score 2; part visualized equal score 1; no visualized equal score 0. Apical turn of cochlea: visualized equal score 1; no visualized equal score 0. One radiologist scored all cases with double blind. SPSS 17.0 software was used to conduct multiple independent-samples nonparametric tests, multivariate Logistic regression, and ROC curve analysis. Evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of Meniere's disease with the scoring system. Results: (1) Meniere's disease summation score 0 to 12, median 9 (quarter spacing 4.5); no symptoms group summation score 15 to 18,median 17 (quarter spacing 3), two group differences has statistics significance (Wilcoxon rank and inspection U=-9.118, P=0.00). (2) Based on summation score for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease, tangent point was 14.5, Youden index 0.969, specificity 100.0%, sensitivity 96.9%.(3) Let cochlear, vestibular, semicircular canal scoring

  9. Risk score prediction model for dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ing; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liao, Li-Na; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2018-03-30

    No study established a prediction dementia model in the Asian populations. This study aims to develop a prediction model for dementia in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. This retrospective cohort study included 27,540 Chinese type 2 diabetes patients (aged 50-94 years) enrolled in Taiwan National Diabetes Care Management Program. Participants were randomly allocated into derivation and validation sets at 2:1 ratio. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify risk factors for dementia in the derivation set. Steps proposed by Framingham Heart Study were used to establish a prediction model with a scoring system. The average follow-up was 8.09 years, with a total of 853 incident dementia cases in derivation set. Dementia risk score summed up the individual scores (from 0 to 20). The areas under curve of 3-, 5-, and 10-year dementia risks were 0.82, 0.79, and 0.76 in derivation set and 0.84, 0.80, and 0.75 in validation set, respectively. The proposed score system is the first dementia risk prediction model for Chinese type 2 diabetes patients in Taiwan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Linear discriminant analysis (LDA is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA, which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  11. 36 CFR 51.16 - How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factor will be scored from zero to four (with a score of one for agreeing to the minimum franchise fee... apply the selection factors set forth in § 51.17 by assessing each timely proposal under each of the selection factors on the basis of a narrative explanation, discussing any subfactors when applicable. For...

  12. My max score AP statistics maximize your score in less time

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Phd, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The only study guide to offer expert, customized study plans for every student's needs You've had a year to study...but also a year to forget. As the AP test approaches, other guides reexamine the entire year of material. But only one guide identifies your strengths and weaknesses, then points you directly to the review you need most My Max Score, a new concept developed by AP teachers and exam graders, offers separate review materials for long-term prep and last-minute cram sessions-no matter when you start studying, This is just what you need-plus str

  13. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...

  14. IW-Scoring: an Integrative Weighted Scoring framework for annotating and prioritizing genetic variations in the noncoding genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Chelala, Claude

    2018-01-30

    The vast majority of germline and somatic variations occur in the noncoding part of the genome, only a small fraction of which are believed to be functional. From the tens of thousands of noncoding variations detectable in each genome, identifying and prioritizing driver candidates with putative functional significance is challenging. To address this, we implemented IW-Scoring, a new Integrative Weighted Scoring model to annotate and prioritise functionally relevant noncoding variations. We evaluate 11 scoring methods, and apply an unsupervised spectral approach for subsequent selective integration into two linear weighted functional scoring schemas for known and novel variations. IW-Scoring produces stable high-quality performance as the best predictors for three independent data sets. We demonstrate the robustness of IW-Scoring in identifying recurrent functional mutations in the TERT promoter, as well as disease SNPs in proximity to consensus motifs and with gene regulatory effects. Using follicular lymphoma as a paradigmatic cancer model, we apply IW-Scoring to locate 11 recurrently mutated noncoding regions in 14 follicular lymphoma genomes, and validate 9 of these regions in an extension cohort, including the promoter and enhancer regions of PAX5. Overall, IW-Scoring demonstrates greater versatility in identifying trait- and disease-associated noncoding variants. Scores from IW-Scoring as well as other methods are freely available from http://www.snp-nexus.org/IW-Scoring/. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  16. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  17. The power and robustness of maximum LOD score statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y J; Mendell, N R

    2008-07-01

    The maximum LOD score statistic is extremely powerful for gene mapping when calculated using the correct genetic parameter value. When the mode of genetic transmission is unknown, the maximum of the LOD scores obtained using several genetic parameter values is reported. This latter statistic requires higher critical value than the maximum LOD score statistic calculated from a single genetic parameter value. In this paper, we compare the power of maximum LOD scores based on three fixed sets of genetic parameter values with the power of the LOD score obtained after maximizing over the entire range of genetic parameter values. We simulate family data under nine generating models. For generating models with non-zero phenocopy rates, LOD scores maximized over the entire range of genetic parameters yielded greater power than maximum LOD scores for fixed sets of parameter values with zero phenocopy rates. No maximum LOD score was consistently more powerful than the others for generating models with a zero phenocopy rate. The power loss of the LOD score maximized over the entire range of genetic parameters, relative to the maximum LOD score calculated using the correct genetic parameter value, appeared to be robust to the generating models.

  18. Improving Citation Network Scoring by Incorporating Author and Program Committee Reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineshi Peiris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Publication venues play an important role in the scholarly communication process. The number of publication venues has been increasing yearly, making it difficult for researchers to determine the most suitable venue for their publication. Most existing methods use citation count as the metric to measure the reputation of publication venues. However, this does not take into account the quality of citations. Therefore, it is vital to have a publication venue quality estimation mechanism. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a novel approach for ranking publication venues by considering publication history. The main aim of this research work is to propose a mechanism to identify the key Computer Science journals and conferences from various fields of research. Our approach is completely based on the citation network represented by publications. A modified version of the PageRank algorithm is used to compute the ranking scores for each publication. In our publication ranking method, there are many aspects that contribute to the importance of a publication, including the number of citations, the rating of the citing publications, the time metric and the authors’ reputation. Known publication venue scores have been formulated by using the scores of the publications. New publication venue ranking is taken care by the scores of Program Committee members which derive from their ranking scores as authors. Experimental results show that our publication ranking method reduces the bias against more recent publications, while also providing a more accurate way to determine publication quality.

  19. Scores of a web-based version of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD is a proposed mental disorder still controversial. This condition is prevalent in northern latitudes, but few studies have been conducted at locations in the southern hemisphere. It is usually assessed by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. This study aimed to evaluate, through on-line questionnaire, the hypothesis that, in the Brazilian population, latitude and longitude influence SPAQ scores. Methods: An advertisement was posted on a sleep medicine website inviting visitors to investigate seasonal patterns of behavior and mood, using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SPAQ. The geographic coordinates of the place of residence of each respondent were analyzed as a continuous variable or distributed in quartiles of latitude and longitude. The psychometric properties of the SPAQ were assessed by reliability and factor analyses. Results: Answers from 1001 respondents out of 1045 were considered eligible. High SPAQ scores were observed in 287 respondents, equally distributed among all latitude and longitude quartiles. Data collected in different seasons and during daylight saving time did not differ significantly in any of the scores for SPAQ dimensions. No correlations between SPAQ scores and latitude or longitude were observed. Psychometric properties of the SPAQ were preserved in all geographic locations. Conclusion: The finding of similar SPAQ scores at a wide latitude range defies the concept of SAD symptoms as latitude or longitude-dependent phenomena.

  20. Modified PADSS (Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System) for monitoring outpatients discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Tellan, Guglielmo; Perotti, Bruno; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Vietri, Francesco; Illuminati, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The decision to discharge a patient undergoing day surgery is a major step in the hospitalization pathway, because it must be achieved without compromising the quality of care, thus ensuring the same assistance and wellbeing as for a long-term stay. Therefore, the use of an objective assessment for the management of a fair and safe discharge is essential. The authors propose the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System (PADSS), which considers six criteria: vital signs, ambulation, nausea/vomiting, pain, bleeding and voiding. Each criterion is given a score ranging from 0 to 2. Only patients who achieve a score of 9 or more are considered ready for discharge. Furthermore, PADSS has been modified to ensure a higher level of safety, thus the "vital signs" criteria must never score lower than 2, and none of the other five criteria must ever be equal to 0, even if the total score reaches 9. The effectiveness of PADSS was analyzed on 2432 patients, by recording the incidence of postoperative complications and the readmission to hospital. So far PADDS has proved to be an efficient system that guarantees safe discharge.

  1. Diagnostic performance of sonoelastographic Tsukuba score and strain ratio in evaluation of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abd Elaziz Dawood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the use of strain index ratio by sonoelastography to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions. Patients & Methods: This prospective study including 40 females, complaining of breast masses which were suspicious to be malignant on clinical examination. All patients were submitted to B-mode Ultrasound and sonoelastography. Biopsy as a gold standard and pathological study were done for all breast lesions. Results: US examination of every mass was done and categorized according to BI-RADS categories according to ACR2013, according to US lexicon. Sonoelastography examination with Lesions classification was performed on the basis of a 5-point scoring method proposed by Tsukuba elasticity score. Then measurements of strain ratio were done. Statistical analysis of combination of the three methods was sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 100% when we use cut off value of 3–4 in elastography score and ≤3 cut off value of strain ratio. Conclusion: The combined use of strain ratio with Tsukuba score and BI-RADS categorization increased the diagnostic performance in differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. Keywords: Elastography, Breast masses, Strain ratio, Ultrasound, BI-RADS classification, Tsukuba score

  2. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  3. Lod scores for gene mapping in the presence of marker map uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, H M; Boehnke, M

    2001-07-01

    Multipoint lod scores are typically calculated for a grid of locus positions, moving the putative disease locus across a fixed map of genetic markers. Changing the order of a set of markers and/or the distances between the markers can make a substantial difference in the resulting lod score curve and the location and height of its maximum. The typical approach of using the best maximum likelihood marker map is not easily justified if other marker orders are nearly as likely and give substantially different lod score curves. To deal with this problem, we propose three weighted multipoint lod score statistics that make use of information from all plausible marker orders. In each of these statistics, the information conditional on a particular marker order is included in a weighted sum, with weight equal to the posterior probability of that order. We evaluate the type 1 error rate and power of these three statistics on the basis of results from simulated data, and compare these results to those obtained using the best maximum likelihood map and the map with the true marker order. We find that the lod score based on a weighted sum of maximum likelihoods improves on using only the best maximum likelihood map, having a type 1 error rate and power closest to that of using the true marker order in the simulation scenarios we considered. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. ACCURATUM: improved calcium volume scoring using a mesh-based algorithm - a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Szekely, Gabor; Alkadhi, Hatem; Desbiolles, Lotus; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the classical volume scoring method for quantifying coronary calcifications, including accuracy, variability between examinations, and dependency on plaque density and acquisition parameters, a mesh-based volume measurement method has been developed. It was evaluated and compared with the classical volume scoring method for accuracy, i.e., the normalized volume (measured volume/ground-truthed volume), and for variability between examinations (standard deviation of accuracy). A cardiac computed-tomography (CT) phantom containing various cylindrical calcifications was scanned using different tube voltages and reconstruction kernels, at various positions and orientations on the CT table and using different slice thicknesses. Mean accuracy for all plaques was significantly higher (p<0.0001) for the proposed method (1.220±0.507) than for the classical volume score (1.896±1.095). In contrast to the classical volume score, plaque density (p=0.84), reconstruction kernel (p=0.19), and tube voltage (p=0.27) had no impact on the accuracy of the developed method. In conclusion, the method presented herein is more accurate than classical calcium scoring and is less dependent on tube voltage, reconstruction kernel, and plaque density. (orig.)

  5. Mobile health technology transforms injury severity scoring in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard Trafford; Zargaran, Eiman; Hameed, S Morad; Navsaria, Pradeep; Nicol, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The burden of data collection associated with injury severity scoring has limited its application in areas of the world with the highest incidence of trauma. Since January 2014, electronic records (electronic Trauma Health Records [eTHRs]) replaced all handwritten records at the Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit in South Africa. Data fields required for Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, Kampala Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score calculations are now prospectively collected. Fifteen months after implementation of eTHR, the injury severity scores were compared as predictors of mortality on three accounts: (1) ability to discriminate (area under receiver operating curve, ROC); (2) ability to calibrate (observed versus expected ratio, O/E); and (3) feasibility of data collection (rate of missing data). A total of 7460 admissions were recorded by eTHR from April 1, 2014 to July 7, 2015, including 770 severely injured patients (ISS > 15) and 950 operations. The mean age was 33.3 y (range 13-94), 77.6% were male, and the mechanism of injury was penetrating in 39.3% of cases. The cohort experienced a mortality rate of 2.5%. Patient reserve predictors required by the scores were 98.7% complete, physiological injury predictors were 95.1% complete, and anatomic injury predictors were 86.9% complete. The discrimination and calibration of Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score was superior for all admissions (ROC 0.9591 and O/E 1.01) and operatively managed patients (ROC 0.8427 and O/E 0.79). In the severely injured cohort, the discriminatory ability of Revised Trauma Score was superior (ROC 0.8315), but no score provided adequate calibration. Emerging mobile health technology enables reliable and sustainable injury severity scoring in a high-volume trauma center in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  7. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  8. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk

  9. Scoring of digital dermatitis during milking as an alternative to scoring in a hoof trimming chute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Bach, K.

    2008-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. In many settings, it is important to evaluate the digital dermatitis status of individual cows or an entire dairy herd. Such an evaluation has traditionally been done in a hoof trimming chute. An evaluation in the milk......Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. In many settings, it is important to evaluate the digital dermatitis status of individual cows or an entire dairy herd. Such an evaluation has traditionally been done in a hoof trimming chute. An evaluation...... in the milking parlor can take place without disturbing the cows to a large extent, it can be done using less labor compared with an evaluation in a hoof trimming chute, and is cheaper than using a chute. The objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid screening method for digital...... dermatitis in the milking parlor, without using any specialized tools and taking approximately 15 s/cow. All lactating cows in 3 commercial Danish dairy herds were included. Cows were first scored for the presence of digital dermatitis during milking and the next day all cows were scored during hoof trimming...

  10. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk.

  11. Prognosis Essay Scoring and Article Relevancy Using Multi-Text Features and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for essay scoring and article relevancy. Essay scoring is a costly process when we consider the time spent by an evaluator. It may lead to inequalities of the effort by various evaluators to apply the same evaluation criteria. Bibliometric research uses the evaluation criteria to find relevancy of articles instead. Researchers mostly face relevancy issues while searching articles. Therefore, they classify the articles manually. However, manual classification is burdensome due to time needed for evaluation. The proposed model performs automatic essay evaluation using multi-text features and ensemble machine learning. The proposed method is implemented in two data sets: a Kaggle short answer data set for essay scoring that includes four ranges of disciplines (Science, Biology, English, and English language Arts, and a bibliometric data set having IoT (Internet of Things and non-IoT classes. The efficacy of the model is measured against the Tandalla and AutoP approach using Cohen’s kappa. The model achieves kappa values of 0.80 and 0.83 for the first and second data sets, respectively. Kappa values show that the proposed model has better performance than those of earlier approaches.

  12. Face Recognition Performance Improvement using a Similarity Score of Feature Vectors based on Probabilistic Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIKOTE, G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved performance algorithm of face recognition to identify two face mismatch pairs in cases of incorrect decisions. The primary feature of this method is to deploy the similarity score with respect to Gaussian components between two previously unseen faces. Unlike the conventional classical vector distance measurement, our algorithms also consider the plot of summation of the similarity index versus face feature vector distance. A mixture of Gaussian models of labeled faces is also widely applicable to different biometric system parameters. By comparative evaluations, it has been shown that the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is superior to that of the conventional algorithm by an average accuracy of up to 1.15% and 16.87% when compared with 3x3 Multi-Region Histogram (MRH direct-bag-of-features and Principal Component Analysis (PCA-based face recognition systems, respectively. The experimental results show that similarity score consideration is more discriminative for face recognition compared to feature distance. Experimental results of Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW data set demonstrate that our algorithms are suitable for real applications probe-to-gallery identification of face recognition systems. Moreover, this proposed method can also be applied to other recognition systems and therefore additionally improves recognition scores.

  13. An Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS Method Based on an Improved Score Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yong Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved score function for the effective ranking order of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs and an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS method based on the score function to solve multicriteria decision-making problems in which all the preference information provided by decision-makers is expressed as interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision matrices where each of the elements is characterized by IVIFS value and the information about criterion weights is known. We apply the proposed score function to calculate the separation measures of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions to determine the relative closeness coefficients. According to the values of the closeness coefficients, the alternatives can be ranked and the most desirable one(s can be selected in the decision-making process. Finally, two illustrative examples for multicriteria fuzzy decision-making problems of alternatives are used as a demonstration of the applications and the effectiveness of the proposed decision-making method.

  14. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón LorenzoJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  15. Rerating the Movie Scores in Douban through Word Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingyu

    2018-04-01

    The movie scores in the social networking service website such as IMDb, Totten Tomatoes and Douban are important references to evaluate the movies. Always, it will influence the box office directly. However, the public rating has strong bias depended on the types of movies, release time, and ages and background of the audiences. To fix the bias and give a movie a fair judgement is an important problem. In the paper, we focus on the movie scores on Douban, which is one of the most famous Chinese movie network community. We decompose the movie scores into two parts. One is the basis scores based on the basic properties of movies. The other is the extra scores which represent the excess value of the movies. We use the word-embedding technique to reduce the movies in a small dense subspace. Then, in the reduced subspace, we use the k-means method to offer the similar movies a basis scores.

  16. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    systematically dropped from each person’s raw scores and the standardized score was proportionally recalculated. This process was repeated until 6 questions had been dropped from each person’s questionnaire. ·         The error (absolute and percentage) introduced by each level of dropped question was calculated......MANAGING MISSING SCORES ON THE ROLAND MORRIS DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE  Peter Kenta and Henrik Hein Lauridsenb  aBack Research Centre and bInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark Background There is no standard method to calculate Roland Morris...... Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) sum scores when one or more questions have not been answered. However, missing data are common on the RMDQ and the current options are: calculate a sum score regardless of unanswered questions, reject all data containing unanswered questions, or to impute scores. Other...

  17. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A

    2008-01-01

    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...... categories by different observers before or after training. In conclusion, the results suggest that the lameness categories were not equidistant and the scoring system has reasonable reliability in terms of intra- and interobserver agreement...

  18. Gleason Score Correlation Between Prostate Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Öztürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. Prostate biopsy and the Gleason score guide treatment decisions in prostate cancer. Several studies have investigated the correlation between biopsy scores and radical prostatectomy specimen scores. We also evaluated the correlation of Gleason scores of these specimens in our patient series. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 468 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between 2008 and 2017. Patients’ age, prostate-specific antigen levels at diagnosis, and prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason scores were recorded. Upgrading and downgrading were defined as increase or decrease of Gleason score of radical prostate specimen compared to Gleason score of prostate biopsy. Results: A total of 442 men diagnosed with prostate cancer were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 62.62±6.26 years (44-84 years and mean prostate specific antigen level was 9.01±6.84 ng/mL (1.09-49 ng/mL. Prostate biopsy Gleason score was 7 in 27 (6.1% men. Radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason score was 7 in 62 (14% men. Gleason correlation was highest in the 240 patients (71.6% with score <7 and was lowest in the 31 (38.75% patients with score =7. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the discordance rate between Gleason scores of prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens was 35.7%.

  19. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  20. Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28: diretrizes para aplicação Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directrices para su aplicación Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directions for application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Grillo Padilha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 é um instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabalho de enfermagem em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e estimar gravidade da doença. Apresenta-se nesta publicação as definições operacionais para sua aplicação, proposta por um grupo de especialistas na área, com vistas a uniformizar o significado de cada um dos itens e evitar vieses de interpretação.El Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 es un instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabajo de enfermería en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva y estimar la gravedad de la enfermedad. Se presenta en esta publicación las definiciones operacionales para su aplicación, propuesta por un grupo de especialistas en el área, con vistas a uniformizar el significado de cada uno de los items y evitar sesgos de interpretación.Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 is a tool that enables the measurement of the nursing work load in Intensive Care Units and the estimate of how grave the disease is. In this study are presented the operational definitions for its application, proposed by a group of specialists in the area, with the aim of rendering uniform the meaning of each of the items and preventing interpretation biases.

  1. Beyond Statistics: The Economic Content of Risk Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Kluender, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    “Big data” and statistical techniques to score potential transactions have transformed insurance and credit markets. In this paper, we observe that these widely-used statistical scores summarize a much richer heterogeneity, and may be endogenous to the context in which they get applied. We demonstrate this point empirically using data from Medicare Part D, showing that risk scores confound underlying health and endogenous spending response to insurance. We then illustrate theoretically that when individuals have heterogeneous behavioral responses to contracts, strategic incentives for cream skimming can still exist, even in the presence of “perfect” risk scoring under a given contract. PMID:27429712

  2. Building a Scoring Model for Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Constantin CARACOTA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to produce a scoring model for small and medium enterprises seeking financing through a bank loan. To analyze the loan application, scoring system developed for companies is as follows: scoring quantitative factors and scoring qualitative factors. We have estimated the probability of default using logistic regression. Regression coefficients determination was made with a solver in Excel using five ratios as input data. Analyses and simulations were conducted on a sample of 113 companies, all accepted for funding. Based on financial information obtained over two years, 2007 and 2008, we could establishe and appreciate the default value.

  3. Prognostic factors and scoring system for survival in colonic perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Shimomatsuya, Takumi; Nakajima, Masayuki; Amaya, Hirokazu; Kobuchi, Taketsune; Shiraishi, Susumu; Konishi, Sayuri; Ono, Susumu; Maruhashi, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    No ideal and generally accepted prognostic factors and scoring systems exist to determine the prognosis of peritonitis associated with colonic perforation. This study was designed to investigate prognostic factors and evaluate the various scoring systems to allow identification of high-risk patients. Between 1996 and 2003, excluding iatrogenic and trauma cases, 26 consecutive patients underwent emergency operations for colorectal perforation and were selected for this retrospective study. Several clinical factors were analyzed as possible predictive factors, and APACHE II, SOFA, MPI, and MOF scores were calculated. The overall mortality was 26.9%. Compared with the survivors, non-survivors were found more frequently in Hinchey's stage III-IV, a low preoperative marker of pH, base excess (BE), and a low postoperative marker of white blood cell count, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and renal output (24h). According to the logistic regression model, BE was a significant independent variable. Concerning the prognostic scoring systems, an APACHE II score of 19, a SOFA score of 8, an MPI score of 30, and an MOF score of 7 or more were significantly related to poor prognosis. Preoperative BE and postoperative white blood cell count were reliable prognostic factors and early classification using prognostic scoring systems at specific points in the disease process are useful to improve our understanding of the problems involved.

  4. Validation of the Danish version of Oxford Shoulder Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Noergaard, Peter Moensted; Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is a patient-administered condition-specific questionnaire for patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder disease. The purpose of this study was to validate a Danish translation of the OSS and to compare it with the Constant Score (CS).......The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is a patient-administered condition-specific questionnaire for patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder disease. The purpose of this study was to validate a Danish translation of the OSS and to compare it with the Constant Score (CS)....

  5. Risk scores-the modern Oracle of Delphi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Florian; Schwaiger, Johannes P

    2017-03-01

    Recently, 4 new risk scores for the prediction of mortality and cardiovascular events were especially tailored for hemodialysis patients; these scores performed much better than previous scores. Tripepi et al. found that these risk scores were even more predictive for all-cause and cardiovascular death than the measurement of the left ventricular mass index was. Nevertheless, the investigation of left ventricular mass and function has its own place for other reasons. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine if managing RMDQ23 missing data...... fully completed RMDQ23 and matching Oswestry questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum scores were converted to a score on a 0-100 scale and the error calculated. Wilcoxon Tests were used to compare the magnitude of the error scores...

  7. The Introduction of Adult Appendicitis Score Reduced Negative Appendectomy Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammalkorpi, H E; Mentula, P; Savolainen, H; Leppäniemi, A

    2017-09-01

    Implementation of a clinical risk score into diagnostics of acute appendicitis may provide accurate diagnosis with selective use of imaging studies. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate recently described diagnostic scoring system, Adult Appendicitis Score, and evaluate its effects on negative appendectomy rate. Adult Appendicitis Score stratifies patients into three groups: high, intermediate, and low risk of appendicitis. The score was implemented in diagnostics of adult patients suspected of acute appendicitis in two university hospitals. We analyzed the effects of Adult Appendicitis Score on diagnostic accuracy, imaging studies, and treatment. The study population was compared with a reference population of 829 patients suspected of acute appendicitis originally enrolled for the study of construction of the Adult Appendicitis Score. This study enrolled 908 patients of whom 432 (48%) had appendicitis. The score stratified 49% of all appendicitis patients into high-risk group with specificity of 93.3%. In the low-risk group, prevalence of appendicitis was 7%. The histologically confirmed negative appendectomy rate decreased from 18.2% to 8.7%, pAppendicitis Score is a reliable tool for stratification of patients into selective imaging, which results in low negative appendectomy rate.

  8. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...... of the channel (negative). In both cases, LIFE responded negatively to features associated with historical channel modification. We suggest that there are several mechanisms for these relationships, including the narrower tolerances of taxa preferring high velocity habitat; these taxa are also continually...

  9. The APPLE Score - A Novel Score for the Prediction of Rhythm Outcomes after Repeat Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kornej

    Full Text Available Arrhythmia recurrences after catheter ablation occur in up to 50% within one year but their prediction remains challenging. Recently, we developed a novel score for the prediction of rhythm outcomes after single AF ablation demonstrating superiority to other scores. The current study was performed to 1 prove the predictive value of the APPLE score in patients undergoing repeat AF ablation and 2 compare it with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.Rhythm outcome between 3-12 months after AF ablation were documented. The APPLE score (one point for Age >65 years, Persistent AF, imPaired eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73m2, LA diameter ≥43 mm, EF <50% was calculated in every patient before procedure.379 consecutive patients from The Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry (60±10 years, 65% male, 70% paroxysmal AF undergoing repeat AF catheter ablation were included. Arrhythmia recurrences were observed in 133 patients (35%. While the CHADS2 (AUC 0.577, p = 0.037 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (AUC 0.590, p = 0.015 demonstrated low predictive value, the APPLE score showed better prediction of arrhythmia recurrences (AUC 0.617, p = 0.002 than other scores (both p<0.001. Compared to patients with an APPLE score of 0, the risk (OR for arrhythmia recurrences was 2.9, 3.0 and 6.0 (all p<0.01 for APPLE scores 1, 2, or ≥3, respectively.The novel APPLE score is superior to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores for prediction of rhythm outcomes after repeat AF catheter ablation. It may be helpful to identify patients with low, intermediate or high risk for recurrences after repeat procedure.

  10. How to calculate an MMSE score from a MODA score (and vice versa) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, R; Francescani, A; Saetti, C; Spinnler, H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a statistically sound way of reciprocally converting scores of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Milan overall dementia assessment (MODA). A consecutive series of 182 patients with "probable" Alzheimer's disease patients was examined with both tests. MODA and MMSE scores proved to be highly correlated. A formula for converting MODA and MMSE scores was generated.

  11. The effect of length, duration, and intensity of psychological therapy on CORE global distress scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark

    2017-09-01

    This study explores whether improvements, as measured by the CORE-OM/10, as a result of psychological therapy were related to length of treatment in weeks, number of treatment sessions, or treatment intensity, as well as any effect of diagnostic group. Pre- and post-therapy CORE-OM/10 scores were extracted from the clinical records of all secondary care adult psychological therapy team patients who undertook psychological therapy between 2010 and 2013 in one mental health trust. Of the 4,877 patients identified, 925 had complete records. Length of therapy was divided by the number of sessions to create 'treatment intensity' (sessions per week). Nonparametric analyses were used, initial score was controlled for, and diagnostic group was explored. No relationship was found between change in score and the number of sessions, therapy length, or treatment intensity; however, change in score was positively correlated with first-session score. Patients with higher initial scores had longer therapies; however, treatment intensity was similar for patients with lower pre-therapy distress. There were differences in treatment length (weeks) between diagnostic groups. Demographic differences were found between patients with and without complete records, prompting caution in terms of generalizability. These findings are consistent with the responsive regulation model (Barkham et al., 1996) which proposes that patients vary in their response to treatment, resulting in no associations between session numbers or treatment intensity and therapeutic gain with aggregated scores. Patients with higher CORE scores at the outset of psychological therapy had longer not more intensive therapy. There was variation in treatment intensity between diagnostic clusters. Number of sessions, length of therapy (in weeks), and treatment intensity (the number of sessions per week between the first and last therapy sessions) were not related to therapeutic gains. These results fit with a responsive

  12. A Modified APACHE II Score for Predicting Mortality of Variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Modified APACHE II score is effective in predicting outcome of patients with variceal bleeding. Score of L 15 points and long ICU stay are associated with high mortality. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, schistosomiasis udan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 105- ...

  13. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  14. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  15. Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Frank W; Frobell, Richard; Lohmander, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a whole joint scoring system, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and follow-up of structural sequelae, and to assess its reliability. DESIGN...

  16. Derivation and validation of a universal vital assessment (UVA) score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Christopher C; Hazard, Riley; Saulters, Kacie J

    2017-01-01

    (MEWS) and the quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score. RESULTS: Of 5573 patients included in the analysis, 2829 (50.8%) were female, the median (IQR) age was 36 (27-49) years, 2122 (38.1%) were HIV-infected and 996 (17.3%) died in-hospital. The UVA score included points...

  17. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  18. Longitudinal Factor Score Estimation Using the Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Johan H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    How longitudinal factor score estimation--the estimation of the evolution of factor scores for individual examinees over time--can profit from the Kalman filter technique is described. The Kalman estimates change more cautiously over time, have lower estimation error variances, and reproduce the LISREL program latent state correlations more…

  19. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken between 29th January and 17th February 2004 to test the applicability of the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5) scoring and calculation procedure in nutrient-enriched palustrine wetlands in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Four reference wetlands and three dairy-effluent ...

  20. Preference score of units in the presence of ordinal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahanshahloo, G.R.; Soleimani-damaneh, M.; Mostafaee, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the ordinal data in the performance analysis framework and provides a weight-restricted DEA model to obtain the preference score of each unit under assessment. The obtained scores are used to rank DMUs. Furthermore, to decrease the complexity of the provided model, the number of the constraints is decreased by some linear transformations