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Sample records for iras measurements d-down

  1. BRDF measurements of sunshield and baffle materials for the IRAS telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the far-infrared bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of four samples of Martin Black coating and one sample of gold coated aluminum from the telescope to be flown on the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) are presented. At incidence angles near 35 deg Martin Black is a diffuse reflector at wavelengths as long as 36 microns. The gold coated aluminum sample from the IRAS sunshield has a visible grain which causes a strong diffraction enhancement of the BRDF at large nonspecular angles. This enhancement from the sunshield will increase the stray light level inside the telescope.

  2. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements of dosimetric parameters of the IRA-103Pd brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S. Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a brachytherapy source having 103 Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103 Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA- 103 Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h -1 U -1 with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r,θ), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA- 103 Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms

  3. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements of dosimetric parameters of the IRA-103Pd source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Hosseini, Hamed; Raisali, Gholamreza

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The use of 103 Pd seed sources for permanent prostate implantation has become a popular brachytherapy application. As recommended by AAPM the dosimetric characteristics of the new source must be determined using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations, before its use in clinical applications thus The goal of this report is the experimental and theoretical determination of the dosimetric characteristics of this source following the recommendations in the AAPM TG-43U1 protocol. Figure 1 shows the geometry of the IRA- 103 Pd source. The source consists of a cylindrical silver core, 0.3 cm long x 0.05 cm in diameter, onto which 0.5 nm layer of 103 Pd has been uniformly adsorbed. The effective active length of source is 0.3 cm and the silver core encapsulated inside a hollow titanium tube with 0.45 cm long, 0.07 cm and 0.08 inner and outer diameters and two caps. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C, was used to determine the relevant dosimetric parameters of the source. The geometry of the Monte Carlo simulation performed in this study consisted of a sphere with 30 cm diameter. Dose distributions around this source were measured in two Perspex phantom using enough TLD chips. For these measurements, slabs of Perspex material were machined to accommodate the source and TLD chips. A value of 0.67± 1% cGy.h -1 .U -1 for, Λ, was calculated as the ratio of d(r 0 ,θ 0 ) and s K , that may be compared with Λ values obtained for 103 Pd sources. Result of calculations and measurements values of dosimetric parameters of the source including radial dose function, g(r), and anisotropy function, F(r,θ), has been shown in separate figures. The radial dose function, g(r), for the IRA- 103 Pd source and other 103 Pd sources is included in Fig. 2. Comparison between measured and Monte Carlo simulated dose function, g(r), and anisotropy function, F(r,θ), of this source demonstrated that they are in good agreement with each other and The value of Λ is

  4. Ira as a pioneer in audiology: His contributions to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, C.; Gagne, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh's contributions to clinical science and research are diverse and significant. In fact, approximately one-third of the 100+ publications that Ira lists in his curriculum vitae (CV) are clinical in nature, dealing with various aspects of audiology, deafness, hearing aids, aural rehabilitation, and speech and language pathology. The majority of these citations, fully one-quarter of his publication list, addresses problems specific to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment. Undoubtedly, the most influential of these published works appears in his CV under the citation ``The Measurement of Hearing.'' The forward for this publication, his only textbook, was penned in June, 1952 (now precisely half a century past at the time of this session). The aims of this presentation are to (1) provide perspective on the fundamental importance of his virtually timeless text in shaping the fledgling discipline of audiology, and (2) celebrate Ira's many contributions to the profession and practice of audiology. [Preparation for this presentation was supported, in part, by a K24 career development award from NIDCD.

  5. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Addison, Graeme E., E-mail: hincks@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: gaddison@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  6. Classification of IRAS asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.; Veeder, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Albedos and spectral reflectances are essential for classifying asteroids. For example, classes E, M and P are indistinguishable without albedo data. Colorometric data are available for about 1000 asteroids but, prior to IRAS, albedo data was available for only about 200. IRAS broke this bottleneck by providing albedo data on nearly 2000 asteroids. Hence, excepting absolute magnitudes, the albedo and size are now the most common asteroid physical parameters known. In this chapter the authors present the results of analyses of IRAS-derived asteroid albedos, discuss their application to asteroid classification, and mention several studies which might be done to exploit further this data set

  7. IRAS observations of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, P.; he ultraviolet.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations of the Pleiades region are reported. The data show large flux densities at 12 and 25 microns, extended over the optical nebulosity. This strong excess emission, implying temperatures of a few hundred degrees Kelvin, indicates a population of very small grains in the Pleiades. It is suggested that these grains are similar to the small grains needed to explain the surface brightness measurements made in the ultraviolet.

  8. IRAS observations of the Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.; Leene, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations of the Pleiades region are reported. The data show large flux densities at 12 and 25 microns, extended over the optical nebulosity. This strong excess emission, implying temperatures of a few hundred degrees Kelvin, indicates a population of very small grains in the Pleiades. It is suggested that these grains are similar to the small grains needed to explain the surface brightness measurements made in the ultraviolet

  9. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  10. IRAS associations with dark clouds of opacity class 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate positions of the opacity class 6 clouds from the Lynds Catalog of Dark Nebulae have been measured on blue and red prints from the Polomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) plates. These revised positions and the dimensions of ellipses fitted to the clouds are listed. The IRAS point source catalog has been searched for sources lying within the boundaries of the 147 clouds in the sample. The distribution and properties of these IRAS sources are discussed briefly. (author)

  11. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. I. Sample selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.A.; Davis, M.; Yahil, A.; Huchra, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    A complete all-sky sample of objects, flux-limited at 60 microns, has been extracted from the data base of the IRAS. The sample consists of 5014 objects, of which 2649 are galaxies and 13 are not yet identified. In order to study large-scale structure with this sample, it must be free of systematic biases. Corrections are applied for a major systematic effect in the flux densities listed in the IRAS Point Source Catalog: sources resolved by the IRAS beam have flux densities systematically underestimated. In addition, accurate flux densities are obtained for sources flagged as variable, or of moderate flux quality at 60 microns. The IRAS detectors suffered radiation-induced responsivity enhancement (hysteresis) due to crossings of the satellite scans across the Galactic plane; this effect is measured and is shown to be negligible. 53 refs

  12. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  13. IRAS 10479 - 2808: a quasar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.; Leggett, S.K.; Savage, A.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS point source 10479-2808 is a quasar with B J ∼ 16 and z = 0.190. It is not in the Parkes and Molonglo radio catalogues. At the resolution of the UK and ESO Schmidt telescopes it appears to be star-like, with no sign of surrounding fuzz or interactions; it is probably optically variable. (author)

  14. Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnell, L.; Langford, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    During the calibration and testing of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) focal plane, it was observed that the extrinsic photoconductor detectors were affected by gamma radiation at dose levels of the order of one rad. Since the flight environment will subject the focal plane to dose levels of this order from protons in single pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly, an extensive program of radiation tests was carried out to measure the radiation effects and to devise a method to counteract these effects. The effects observed after irradiation are increased responsivity, noise, and rate of spiking of the detectors after gamma-ray doses of less than 0.1 rad. The detectors can be returned almost to pre-irradiation performance by increasing the detector bias to breakdown and allowing a large current to flow for several minutes. No adverse effects on the detectors have been observed from this bias boost, and this technique will be used for IRAS with frequent calibration to ensure the accuracy of observations made with the instrument.

  15. IRAS observations of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared properties of Starburst galaxies were analyzed using IRAS observations at 25, 60, and 100 micrometers. Seventy-nine of 102 Starburst galaxies from the list of Balzano were detected. These galaxies have high IR luminosities of up to a few 10 to the 12th power L sub 0 and concentrate in a small area of the IR color - color diagram. The IR power law spectral indices, alpha, lie within the ranges -2.5 < alpha(60,25)< -1.5 and -1.5 < alpha(100,60)< 0. These observed indices can be interpreted in terms of a cold disk component and a warm component. More than 80% of the 60 micrometer emission comes from the warm component. The fraction of the 60 micrometer emission attributable to the warm component can be used as an activity indicator

  16. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    observations reveal the physical and chemical structure of water vapor close to the protostars on solar-system scales. The red-shifted absorption detected toward source B is indicative of infall. The excitation temperature is consistent with the picture of water ice evaporation close to the protostar. The low......Context. Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength...... interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Aims: To measure the water deuterium fractionation in the warm gas of the deeply-embedded protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 53,2 - 44,1 transition of H218O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large...

  17. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  18. Asteroid results from the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeder, G.J.; Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey yield a data base of infrared flux densities for 1811 individual asteroids. Albedos and diameters for these have been derived via a standard thermal model. IRAS sampled a large number of small asteroids and detected many dark asteroids in the outer belt. High-albedo asteroids remain rare. Observations of the brighter asteroids at multiple wavelengths shows the expected range of color temperatures through the main belt

  19. IRAS Colors of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-01-01

    We present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. Residual Zodiacal background and a discontinuity in the image due to the scanning strategy of the satellite necessitated special background subtraction methods. The 60/100 color image clearly shows the heating of the ambient interstellar medium by the cluster. The 12/100 and 25/100 images peak on the cluster as expected for exposure of small dust grains to an enhanced UV radiation field; however, the 25/100 color declines to below the average interstellar value at the periphery of the cluster. Potential causes of the color deficit are discussed. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented. The difference between the 100 micron flux density and the 60 micron flux density scaled by the average interstellar 60/100 color ratio (Delta I(sub 100) is a sensitive diagnostic of material with embedded heating sources (Delta I(sub 100) less than 0) and cold, dense cores (Delta I(sub 100) greater than 0). The dense cores of the Taurus cloud complex as well as Lynds 1457 are clearly identified by this method, while the IR bright but diffuse Pleiades molecular cloud is virtually indistinguishable from the nearby infrared cirrus.

  20. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  1. Detection of OH radicals from IRAS sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.M.; Eder, J.; Terzian, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient method for detecting new OH/infrared stars is to begin with IRAS source positions, selected for appropriate infrared colours, and using radio-line observations to confirm the OH properties. The authors demonstrate the validity of this approach here, using the Arecibo 305 m radio-telescope to confirm the 1,612 MHz line observations of sources in IRAS Circulars 8 and 9; the present observations identify 21 new OH/infrared stars. The new sources have weaker 1,612 MHz fluxes, bluer (60-25) μm colours and a smaller mean separation between the principal emission peaks than previous samples. (author)

  2. MEDICIÓN DE LA IRA EN EL DEPORTE DE COMBATE: VALIDACIÓN DEL STAXI-2 EN DEPORTISTAS MEXICANOS/ MEASUREMENT OF ANGER IN COMBAT SPORT:VALIDATION OF STAXI-2 IN MEXICAN SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Calleja Bello**

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa ira es una emoción que juega un papel fundamental en la ejecución de los deportes de combate. El propósito delpresente estudio fue desarrollar una versión para deportistas de combate del Inventario de Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo, STAXI-2, versión española. La muestra estuvo conformada por 303 deportistas que formaban parte de las seleccionesnacionales mexicanas de cinco deportes de combate. Los resultados mostraron una estructura factorial similar a la versiónespañola, que reporta tres escalas: Ira-Estado, Ira-Rasgo y Expresión de Ira; sin embargo, de los 49 reactivos iniciales sólose conservaron 28, que se agruparon en siete factores y no en las nueve subescalas que conformaban el instrumento original.Los índices de consistencia interna fueron aceptables y se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas entre los factores, exceptocon el Control de la ira. El inventario obtenido es un instrumento válido y confiable para su utilización en la medición de laira en el deporte de combate.ABSTRACTThe anger is an emotion that plays a fundamental role in combat sports execution. The purpose of the present study wasto develop a version for combat sportsmen of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI-2, Spanish version. Thesample was conformed by 303 sportsmen that were part of the selections national Mexicans of five combat sports. Theresults showed a similar factorial structure to the Spanish version which reports three scales: Anger-State, Anger-Trait andAnger-Expression; however, of the 49 initial items only 28 were conserved that grouped in seven factors and not in the ninesubscales that consisted the original instrument. The indexes of internal consistency were acceptable and significantcorrelations were obtained among the factors, except with the Anger-Control. The obtained inventory is a reliable and validfor its use in anger mensuration in combat sports.

  3. OH masers associated with IRAS point sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masheder, MRW; Cohen, RJ; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Migenes,; Reid, MJ

    2002-01-01

    We report a search for masers from the Lambda-doublet of the ground-state of OH at 18cm, carried out with the Jodrell Bank Lovell Telescope and with the 25m Dwingeloo telescope. All objects north of delta = -20degrees which appear in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with fluxes > 1000 Jy at 60mum and

  4. IMAGE CONSTRUCTION FROM THE IRAS SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BONTEKOE, TR; KESTER, DJM; PRICE, SD; DEJONGE, ARW; WESSELIUS, PR

    IRAS survery data can be used successfully to produce images of extended objects. The major difficulties, viz. non-uniform sampling, different response functions for each detector, and varying signal-to-noise levels for each detector for each scan, have been resolved. The results of three different

  5. Unidentified point sources in the IRAS minisurvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Clegg, P. E.; Gillett, F. C.; Habing, H. J.; Hauser, M. G.; Low, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nine bright, point-like 60 micron sources have been selected from the sample of 8709 sources in the IRAS minisurvey. These sources have no counterparts in a variety of catalogs of nonstellar objects. Four objects have no visible counterparts, while five have faint stellar objects visible in the error ellipse. These sources do not resemble objects previously known to be bright infrared sources.

  6. Symbiotic stars observed from the IRAS satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, L.; Tuvikene, T.

    1987-01-01

    Symbiotic stars according to Alfven's catalogue have been checked for coincidence with the IRAS-observed for-infrared sources. 72 symbiotic and possible symbiotic stars have been identified with the IRAS-observed sources. A catalogue of identified stars and energy distributions of representative stars are given. It turns out that the dust in symbiotic stars is a more widespread phenomenon than that it was believed before. Almost 40% of systems are the dusty ones. Among objects with dust temperature some tens of K have been found. It is shown that the only useful two-color diagram is (K-m 12 )-(m 12 -m 25 ). Attention is paid to a type of symbiotic stars with G spectral class cold component which needs special investigation

  7. Finding charts for southern IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.J.; Maddox, S.J.; Saunders, W.

    1991-01-01

    Using the APM Galaxy Survey, we have generated a collection of finding charts for 4614 sources with non-stellar colours in the IRAS Faint Source Catalogue south of δ= -17.5 o . Over 90 per cent of the sources are reliably identified with an optical object, and we provide 1-arcsec positions and B J magnitudes for these. We will provide paper copies of the charts on request, at a small charge to cover photocopying costs. (author)

  8. T Tauri stars in Taurus - the IRAS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Stella; Clegg, Peter; Hughes, Joanne

    1988-01-01

    Statistical studies of star-formation have traditionally been beset with selection effects. We have developed a technique, using the completeness of the IRAS catalogue, which circumvents these effects. We have taken the properties of known T Tau stars within Taurus as a template to establish a purely IRAS-based definition of such sources. We then use this definition to extract, from the IRAS catalogue, all sources within a specific region of Taurus having those same IRAS properties. This wider class of source is examined and discussed. (author)

  9. A practical approach to the classification of IRAS sources using infrared colors alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Schwartz, D.E.; Cohen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Zones of the IRAS color-color planes in which a variety of different types of known source occur, have been defined for the purpose of obtaining representative IRAS colors for them. There is considerable overlap between many of these zones, rendering a unique classification difficult on the basis of IRAS colors alone, although galactic latitude can resolve ambiguities between galactic and extragalactic populations. The color dependence of these zones on the presence of spectral emission/absorption features and on the spatial extent of the sources has been investigated. It is found that silicate emission features do not significantly influence the IRAS colors. Planetary nebulae may show a dependence of color on the presence of atomic or molecular features in emission, although the dominant cause of this effect may be the underlying red continua of nebulae with strong atomic lines. Only small shifts are detected in the colors of individual spatially extended sources when total flux measurements are substituted for point-source measurements. 36 refs

  10. IRAS surface brightness maps of visible reflection nebulae: evidence for non-equilibrium infrared emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.; Werner, M.W.; Sellgren, K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns of 16 visible reflection nebulae were extracted from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) database. The maps were produced by coadding IRAS survey scans over areas centered on the illuminating stars, and have spatial resolutions of 0.9' x 4' at 12 and 25 microns, 1.8' x 4.5' at 60 microns, and 3.6' x 5' at 100 microns. Extended emission in the four IRAS bandpasses was detected in fourteen of the reflection nebulae. The IRAS data were used to measure the flux of the infrared emission associated with each source. The energy distributions show that the 12 micron flux is greater than the 25 micron flux in 11 of the nebulae, and the peak flux occurs in the 60 or 100 micron bandpass in all 16 nebular. The 60 and 100 micron flux can be approximated by blackbodies with temperatures between 30 and 50 K, consistent with temperatures expected from extrapolation of greybody fits to the 60 and 100 micron data. The excess 12 and 25 micron emission is attributed to a nonequilibrium process such as emission from thermal fluctuations of very small grains excited by single ultraviolet photons, or emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excited by ultraviolet radiation. The common features of the energy distributions of the 16 reflection nebulae, also seen in the reflection nebulae associated with the Pleiades, suggest that PAHs or very small grains may be found in most reflection nebulae

  11. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  12. Generation and Characterization of Novel Human IRAS Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoline receptors were first proposed by Bousquet et al., when they studied antihypertensive effect of clonidine. A strong candidate for I1R, known as imidazoline receptor antisera-selected protein (IRAS, has been cloned from human hippocampus. We reported that IRAS mediated agmatine-induced inhibition of opioid dependence in morphine-dependent cells. To elucidate the functional and structure properties of I1R, we developed the newly monoclonal antibody against the N-terminal hIRAS region including the PX domain (10–120aa through immunization of BALB/c mice with the NusA-IRAS fusion protein containing an IRAS N-terminal (10–120aa. Stable hybridoma cell lines were established and monoclonal antibodies specifically recognized full-length IRAS proteins in their native state by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Monoclonal antibodies stained in a predominantly punctate cytoplasmic pattern when applied to IRAS-transfected HEK293 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assays and demonstrated excellent reactivity in flow immunocytometry. These monoclonal antibodies will provide powerful reagents for the further investigation of hIRAS protein functions.

  13. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases. Explanatory Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, T. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission is described. An overview of the mission, a description of the satellite and its telescope system, and a discussion of the mission design, requirements, and inflight modifications are given. Data reduction, flight tests, flux reconstruction and calibration, data processing, and the formats of the IRAS catalogs and atlases are also considered.

  14. Symbiotic stars according to IRAS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, L.; Tuvikene, T.

    1987-01-01

    Symbiotic stars contained in Allen's catalog are examined with a view to establishing their coincidence with sources of far infrared radiation in the catalog of point sources observed with the IRAS satellite. Altogether, 72 symbiotic or suspected symbiotic objects have been identified. A list of the identified stars has been compiled, and the energy distributions in the infrared spectra of selected stars are given. It has been found that the presence of dust in symbiotic systems is a more widespread phenomenon than hitherto believed. Almost 40% of them are dust systems. Among them, objects with dust temperature of several tens of degrees kelvin have been found. It is shown that the only useful two-color diagram is the (K - m 12 )-(m 12 - m 25 ) diagram. Finally, attention is drawn to a type of symbiotic stars having cold components of the spectral class G; these require a special investigation

  15. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  16. Infrared galaxies in the IRAS minisurvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Emerson, J. P.; Houck, J. R.; De Jong, T.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Boggess, N.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 86 galaxies have been detected at 60 microns in the high galactic latitude portion of the IRAS minisurvey. The surface density of detected galaxies with flux densities greater than 0.5 Jy is 0.25 sq deg. Virtually all the galaxies detected are spiral galaxies and have an infrared to blue luminosity ratio ranging from 50 to 0.5. For the infrared-selected sample, no obvious correlation exists between infrared excess and color temperature. The infrared flux from 10 to 100 microns contributes approximately 5 percent of the blue luminosity for galaxies in the magnitude range 14 less than m(pg) less than 18 mag. The fraction of interacting galaxies is between one-eighth and one-fourth of the sample.

  17. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Allen, L.; Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N H /A K ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABILITY OF IRAS 22272+5435

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Začs, Laimons; Grankina, Aija; Musaev, Faig; Kaminsky, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Sperauskas, Julius; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    A time series of high-resolution spectra was observed in the optical wavelength region for the bright proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435 (HD 235858), along with a simultaneous monitoring of its radial velocity and BV R C magnitudes. The object is known to vary in light, color, and velocity owing to pulsation with a period of 132 days. The light and color variations are accompanied by significant changes in spectral features, most of which are identified as lines of carbon-bearing molecules. According to the observations, the C 2 Swan system and CN Red system lines are stronger near the light minimum. A photospheric spectrum of the central star was calculated using new self-consistent atmospheric models. The observed intensity variations in the C 2 Swan system and CN Red system lines were found to be much larger than expected if due solely to the temperature variation in the atmosphere of the pulsating star. In addition, the molecular lines are blueshifted relative to the photospheric velocity. The site of formation of the strong molecular features appears to be a cool outflow triggered by the pulsation. The variability in atomic lines seems to be mostly due variations of the effective temperature during the pulsation cycle. The profiles of strong atomic lines are split, and some of them are variable in a timescale of a week or so, probably because of shock waves in the outer atmosphere

  19. DEVELOPING AN INVENTORY TO MEASURE ANGER IN MEXICAN CHILDREN/ DESARROLLO DE UN INVENTARIO PARA LA MEDICIÓN DE LA IRA EN NIÑOS MEXICANOS/ DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM INVENTÁRIO PARA A MEDIAÇÃO DA IRA EM CRIANÇAS MEXICANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Alcázar-Olán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the state-trait model of anger (Spielberger, 1988, 1999, the aim was to develop a reliable and valid inventory to measure anger in Mexican children. Exploratory factor analyses on responses from 592 children (302 boys, 290 girls (M=10.35 years old, SD=1.14 revealed four factors suggesting construct validity: 6-item state anger (e.g., “I am upset”, 5-item trait-temperament (e.g., “I get mad easily”, 7-item angerout (e.g., “I fight with whoever made me mad”, and 12-item anger control (e.g., “I try to relax”. Alpha reliabilities were .76, .76, .73, and .88, respectively. Anger control correlated negatively with other factors, whereas other factors correlated positively with each other. The inventory also had concurrent validity with an instrument that measured physical aggression.

  20. Molecular jet of IRAS 04166+2706

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang-Yao [Graduate Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Shang, Hsien; Su, Yu-Nung; Hirano, Naomi; Lee, Chin-Fei [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Santiago-García, Joaquín [Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Núcleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: lywang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The molecular outflow from IRAS 04166+2706 was mapped with the Submillimeter Array at a 350 GHz continuum and CO J = 3-2 at an angular resolution of ∼1''. The field of view covers the central arcminute, which contains the inner four pairs of knots of the molecular jet. On the channel map, conical structures are clearly present in the low-velocity range (|V – V {sub 0}| < 10 km s{sup –1}), and the highly collimated knots appear in the extremely high velocity range (50 >|V – V {sub 0}| > 30 km s{sup –1}). The higher angular resolution of ∼1'' reveals the first blue-shifted knot (B1) that was missing in previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer observation of Santiago-García et al. at an offset of ∼6'' to the northeast of the central source. This identification completes the symmetric sequence of knots in both the blue- and red-shifted lobes of the outflow. The innermost knots R1 and B1 have the highest velocities within the sequence. Although the general features appear to be similar to previous CO J = 2-1 images in Santiago-García et al., the emission in CO J = 3-2 almost always peaks further away from the central source than that of CO J = 2-1 in the red-shifted lobe of the channel maps. This gives rise to a gradient in the line-ratio map of CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 from head to tail within a knot. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests that the differences may reflect a higher gas kinetic temperature at the head. We also explore possible constraints imposed by the nondetection of SiO J = 8-7.

  1. Impact of Tax Reform Act of 1986 on IRA's Investment Value

    OpenAIRE

    William Reichenstein; Mark L. Cross

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an economic analysis of the tax advantages of deductible and nondeductible IRAs under the 1986 Tax Reform Act. These advantages are compared to those offered by other pension plans. The results show that the tax advantages of deductible IRAs allow for substantially higher values than the value of a similar investment held outside a pension account. The nondeductible IRA does not provide tax advantages over non-IRA investments if investors expect to with...

  2. IRAS colors of VLA identified objects in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fich, M.; Terebey, S.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources found within 4 degrees of l = 125 deg, b = 2 deg on the 3rd HCON 60 micron Sky Brightness Images were observed at the Very Large Array (VLA). Regions were to be identified where massive stars are forming by looking for small areas of radio continuum emissions. The IRAS sources could be divided into three groups by their IRAS 12 micron/25 micron and 60 micron/100 micron color. The group identified with star forming regions contained essentially all of the objects with extended radio emission. In all of these cases the extended radio emission showed a morphology consistent with the identification of these objects as HII regions. The conclusion drawn is that star formation regions can be distinguished from other objects by their infrared colors

  3. The Tully-Fisher relation of the IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, W.; Van Den Broek, A. C.; Baan, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the possible influence on the Tully-Fisher relation of active massive star formation in IRAS galaxies, in order to estimate the contribution of star formation to their near-infrared luminosity. We observed 60 galaxies from the infrared complete so-called IRAS Minisurvey sample in the 21 cm H1 line at Arecibo, determined the near-infrared (H-band) Tully-Fisher relation for the 36 objects in the sample we judged to be usable for this purpose, and compared this relation with that of optically selected normal galaxies. The results show no significant enhancement of the near-infrared luminosities of the IRAS Minisurvey galaxies compared to those of the optically selected normal glaxies. From these results we inferred that in the minisurvey galaxies the average contribution of the active massive star formation to the total near-infrared luminosity is less and that exponential decay times for the starbursts occurring in the Minisurvey galaxies are of the order of 10 Myr. The Tully-Fisher relation shows one exceptional galaxy (IRAS 03565+2139) with an about 25 times higher luminosity than average for its rotational velocity.

  4. NEBULAR EMISSION-LINES IN IRAS 10215-5916

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GARCIALARIO, P; MANCHADO, A; PARTHASARATHY, M; POTTASCH, [No Value

    From low and high resolution spectroscopic observations of IRAS 10215 - 5916 we have discovered the presence of nebular emission lines in this G-type supergiant star in the post-AGB stage. From its high resolution spectrum we derived an expansion velocity of 17 km s-1 for the shell, similar to the

  5. Search for brown dwarfs in the IRAS data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given on the initial searches for brown dwarf stars in the IRAS data bases. The paper was presented to the workshop on 'Astrophysics of brown dwarfs', Virginia, USA, 1985. To date no brown dwarfs have been discovered in the solar neighbourhood. Opportunities for future searches with greater sensitivity and different wavelengths are outlined. (U.K.)

  6. Dialogic & Critical Pedagogies: An Interview with Ira Shor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ira; Matusov, Eugene; Marjanovic-Shane, Ana; Cresswel, lJames

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Main Editors of "Dialogic Pedagogy Journal" issued a call for papers and contributions to a wide range of dialogic pedagogy scholars and practitioners. One of the scholars who responded to our call is famous American educator Ira Shor, a professor at the College of Staten Island, City University of New York. Shor has been…

  7. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-113, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Pipher, J. L., E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 500 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N{sub H}/A{sub K} ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  8. Development and validation of a questionnaire (the IRA-AGHN to assess teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Soroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire, called IRA-AGHN, to assess infant and primary school teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The psychometric properties of this questionnaire were examined in a sample of 752 teachers aged between 20 and 64 years (M = 41.57; SD = 9.69. These teachers were employed at 84 randomly selected schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre. The factor validity, internal consistency, temporal stability, convergent validity and external validity of the instrument were all analysed. The results suggest that the IRA-AGHN is a valid and reliable measure for assessing teachers' knowledge of ADHD.

  9. Search for near-infrared counterparts of IRAS embedded sources in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.; Phillips, J.; Beck, K.; Thomas, H.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Wide-field near-infrared and blue band plates of the region containing the M17 giant molecular cloud complex have been blinked to locate bright near-infrared stars that may be embedded in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud. Twenty such stars coincided with the positions of IRAS point sources that appeared embedded based on color-color diagrams. Some of these stars may be the sources of the infrared luminosities. Of the 20 stars, seven were too faint to appear on the B band plate. The optical magnitudes and colors determined from the plate image diameters were measured for the other 13 coincident stars; they are most likely upper main-sequence or pre-main-sequence stars with extinctions of 7 mag. The IRAS luminosity-temperature diagram indicates that the embedded sources in M17 are more massive than those in the Orion cloud. 35 references

  10. New CO and HCN sources associated with IRAS carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN-Q-RIEU; Epchtein, N.; TRUONG-BACH; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    Emission of CO and HCN was detected in 22 out of a sample of 53 IRAS sources classified as unidentified carbon-rich objects. The sample was selected according to the presence of the silicon carbide feature as revealed by low-resolution spectra. The molecular line widths indicate that the CO and HCN emission arises from the circumstellar envelopes of very highly evolved stars undergoing mass loss. The visible stars tend to be deficient in CO as compared with unidentified sources. Most the detected CO and HCN IRAS stars are distinct and thick-shelled objects, but their infrared and CO luminosities are similar to those of IRC + 102156 AFGL and IRC-CO evolved stars. The 12 micron flux seems to be a good indicator of the distance, hence a guide for molecular searches.

  11. IRAS constraints on a cold cloud around the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumann, H.H.; Good, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    IRAS 60- and 100-micron observations of G-stars in the solar neighborhood indicate that the typical G star is surrounded by a cold cloud. The assumption that the sun is archetypical requires that a cloud of typical G star extent and temperature surrounds our solar system. IRAS ecliptic plane scans, which are dominated by a 40-deg wide band of zodiacal dust, asteroid debris trails, and the Galactic plane, are consistent with a larger than typical G star cold cloud. Consistency with the typical G star and the direct observations constrain the width of the cold cloud perpendicular to the ecliptic plane to be larger than 5 deg. The 100-150 AU radius of this cloud is larger, but not inconsistent with the inner boundary of a cloud of comets, postulated previously at a radius of 50 AU based on Neptune orbital perturbations and models of short period comets. 17 refs

  12. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs

  13. IRAS far-infrared colours of normal stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. B. F. M.; Cote, J.; Aumann, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of IRAS observations at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns of bright stars of spectral type O to M is presented. The objective is to identify the 'normal' stellar population and to characterize it in terms of the relationships between (B-V) and (V-/12/), between (R-I) and (V-/12/), and as a function of spectral type and luminosity class. A well-defined relation is found between the color of normal stars in the visual (B-V), (R-I) and in the IR, which does not depend on luminosity class. Using the (B-V), (V-/12/) relation for normal stars, it is found that B and M type stars show a large fraction of deviating stars, mostly with IR excess that is probably caused by circumstellar material. A comparison of IRAS colors with the Johnson colors as a function of spectral type shows good agreement except for the K0 to M5 type stars. The results will be useful in identifying the deviating stars detected with IRAS.

  14. Radio and optical studies of high luminosity Iras galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Parker, Q.A.; Savage, A.; MacGillivray, H.T.; Leggett, S.K.; Clowes, R.G.; Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Heasley, J.N.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up observations of a complete sample of 154 IRAS galaxies, optically identified down to B=21, indicate that between 3 and 9% of the sample are ultraluminous depending on the choice of H 0 . VLA observations at 20 cm of the complete sample indicate that 85% are detected above 1mJy and for the most part the radio emission is centrally concentrated. The tight linear relation between radio and infrared luminosities is valid at the highest luminosities. Of the 11 most luminous objects one is a quasar: it fits the radio infrared relation very well which suggests that the infrared and radio emission has the same origin as in the other IRAS galaxies, ie. it probably originates primarily in regions of star formation in the host galaxy. The other 10 very luminous galaxies are either close but resolved mergers or double galaxies, presumably interacting. Radio observations of the 10 original empty field sources in our sample with no optical counterpart (B ≤ 21) allow us to conclude that 4 of these are fainter galaxies just outside the IRAS error ellipse with high values of L IR /L B . One other object, with a radio source at the edge of the error ellipse but no optical counterpart brighter than B = 23, may prove to be a highly luminous galaxy with L IR /L B > ∼ 1250

  15. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-05

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  16. Multi-wavelength study of two possible cloud-cloud collision regions: IRAS 02459+6029 and IRAS 22528+5936

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Wang Junjie

    2012-01-01

    Based on observations of 12 CO (J=2–1), we select targets from archived Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data of IRAS 02459+6029 and IRAS 22528+5936 as samples of cloud-cloud collision, according to the criteria given by Vallee. Then we use the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) A band (8.28 μm) images and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) (1.4 GHz) continuum images to investigate the association between molecular clouds traced by the CO contour maps. The distribution of dust and ionized hydrogen shows an obvious association with the CO contour maps toward IRAS 02459+6029. However, in the possible collision region of IRAS 22528+5936, NVSS continuum radiation is not detected and the MSX sources are merely associated with the central star. The velocity fields of the two regions indicate the direction of the pressure and interaction. In addition, we have identified candidates of young stellar objects (YSOs) by using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in JHK bands expressed in a color-color diagram. The distribution of YSOs shows that the possible collision region is denser than other regions. All the evidence suggests that IRAS 02459+6029 could be an example of cloud-cloud collision, and that IRAS 22528+5936 could be two separate non-colliding clouds. (research papers)

  17. La ira en la primera tradición cidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Martín

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The expressions of the wrath in the Cantar de Mio Cid include a group of traditions of different nature, which constitute a point of departure for the proper interpretation of the text. On the one hand, the ira regia ('regal wrath' is related to the emotional medieval theory on wrath, and, on the other hand, the analysis of the political dimension of wrath in the Cantar and in the preceding Cidian tradition, contributes with new aspects on cultural practices and legal systems in the Middle Ages.

  18. Radar observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Hine, A.A.; Campbell, D.B.; Shapiro, I.I.; Marsden, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed analysis and interpretation of the Arecibo S-band radar observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d are presented. The very high signal strengths are used to make an accurate determination of the shape of the echo spectrum in the two orthogonal senses of circular polarization. The narrow-band component is used to place constraints on the size, rotation, period, reflectivity, and roughness of the nucleus. Detailed analysis of the broadband component yields estimates of, or bounds on, the spatial extent, position, and mass of the particle cloud, as well as the effective size of the constituent particles. 41 references

  19. Luminosity function of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Madore, B.F.; Neugebauer, G.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.; Rice, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a study of the far infrared properties of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey are described. There is a correlation between the infrared luminosity and the infrared to optical luminosity ratio and between the infrared luminosity and the far infrared color temperature in these galaxies. The infrared bright galaxies represent a significant component of extragalactic objects in the local universe, being comparable in space density to the Seyferts, optically identified starburst galaxies, and more numerous than quasars at the same bolometric luminosity. The far infrared luminosity in the local universe is approximately 25% of the starlight output in the same volume

  20. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.99-1 Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs. (a) Scope. This...), as applied to payroll deduction programs established by employers 1 for the purpose of enabling...

  1. IRAS IDENTIFICATION OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE CHAMELEON-II ASSOCIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUSTI, T; WHITTET, DCB; ASSENDORP, R; WESSELIUS, PR

    We report the results of a search for new pre-main sequence candidates in the Chamaeleon II dark cloud based on three IRAS catalogues (the Point Source Catalog, the Serendipitous Survey Catalog and the Faint Source Survey). A total of 30 sources were selected. Twelve of these display IRAS colours

  2. A search for hot post-AGE stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudmaijer, RD

    In this paper a first step is made to search for hot post-AGB stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog. In order to find objects that evolved off the AGE a longer time ago than post-AGB objects discussed in the literature, objects that were not detected at 12 mu m by IRAS were selected. The selection

  3. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 1: Explanatory supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, Thomas J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched on January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and data reduction.

  4. IRAS galaxies and the large-scale structure in the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Postman, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies in the first CfA slice are compared. The IRAS galaxies are generally less clustered than optical ones, but their distribution is essentially identical to that of late-type optical galaxies. The discrepancy between the clustering properties of the IRAS and optical samples in the CfA slice region is found to be entirely due to the paucity of IRAS galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster. The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies, both late and early types, outside the dense core of the Coma cluster are entirely consistent with each other. This conflicts with the prediction of the linear biasing scenario.

  5. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  6. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  7. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063–6259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Bik, A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063–6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 μm) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 μm silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063–6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 μm absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  8. Ligand binding affinity at the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A and subsequent IR-A tyrosine phosphorylation kinetics are important determinants of mitogenic biological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinda eRajapaksha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin receptor (IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signalling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration by activating some unique signalling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signalling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signalling (MAPK and Akt and receptor internalisation rates (related to mitogenic signalling. We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic ([His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51] IGF-I, qIGF-I or metabolic (S597 peptide biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signalling through the IR-A. The 3-fold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316 and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and the kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I.

  9. Improved selection criteria for H II regions, based on IRAS sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Zeng; Xu, Ye; Walsh, A. J.; Macquart, J. P.; MacLeod, G. C.; Zhang, Bo; Hancock, P. J.; Chen, Xi; Tang, Zheng-Hong

    2018-05-01

    We present new criteria for selecting H II regions from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalogue (PSC), based on an H II region catalogue derived manually from the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The criteria are used to augment the number of H II region candidates in the Milky Way. The criteria are defined by the linear decision boundary of two samples: IRAS point sources associated with known H II regions, which serve as the H II region sample, and IRAS point sources at high Galactic latitudes, which serve as the non-H II region sample. A machine learning classifier, specifically a support vector machine, is used to determine the decision boundary. We investigate all combinations of four IRAS bands and suggest that the optimal criterion is log(F_{60}/F_{12})≥ ( -0.19 × log(F_{100}/F_{25})+ 1.52), with detections at 60 and 100 {μ}m. This selects 3041 H II region candidates from the IRAS PSC. We find that IRAS H II region candidates show evidence of evolution on the two-colour diagram. Merging the WISE H II catalogue with IRAS H II region candidates, we estimate a lower limit of approximately 10 200 for the number of H II regions in the Milky Way.

  10. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    (leptin, adiponectin (= adipo Q, homocysteine, insulin. All variables were at least measured before and after the intervention period. Ergometry (ECG, blood pressure behaviour, lactate curve with power at 2, 3 and 4 mmol/l before the intervention period. In addition: nutrition training ahead of and during the intervention period with a nutrition protocol over one week for assessment of the daily energy intake; calculation of basic metabolic rate and total energy requirement. Assessment of undesired effects. Only methods of non-parametric statistics were used, both descriptive (median, percentiles of 25 and 75 (= interquartile range, minimum, maximum and confirmatory (two-sided Mann-Whitney U test for unpaired samples for the only one main variable of interest. Total error probability: .05 (5%. An intention to treat analysis ITT with last observed carry forward method was used preferably (presented results and in addition an on treatment analysis OT. Only 2 (treatment group and 4 (control group drop-outs occurred (mostly due to lack of time. Results: The “sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” decreased during the 4 weeks significantly more (p<.001 in the wIRA group than in the control group: medians and interquartile ranges: -8.0 cm (-10.5 cm/-4.1 cm vs. -1.8 cm (-4.4 cm/0.0 cm. As well “body weight of each patient” decreased during the 4 weeks markedly more in the wIRA group than in the control group: medians and interquartile ranges: -1.9 kg (-4.0 kg/0.0 kg vs. 0.0 kg (-1.5 kg/+0.4 kg; median of body weight changed from 99.3 kg to 95.6 kg (wIRA vs. 89.9 kg to 89.6 kg (control. A similar effect showed the body mass index BMI. Blood variables of interest remained unchanged or showed some slight improvements during the treatment period, concerning most variables with no obvious differences between the two groups; insulin showed a slight trend to decrease in the wIRA group and to increase in the control group. Undesired effects of the

  11. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references

  12. Newly discovered IRAS QSO close to the Galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.A.; Kirhakos, S.D.; Yahil, A.

    1988-01-01

    CCD observations of the IRAS QSO candidate I09149-6206 performed at CTIO during December 1987 are reported, including 564-806-nm spectroscopy obtained with the 1.5-m telescope and direct UVBRI imaging obtained with the 0.91-m telescope. The data are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. It is found that the source is surrounded by a faint fuzz with low surface brightness and strong forbidden O III lines. Parameters determined include redshift z = 0.0571, Galactic latitude -9.2 deg, V magnitude 13.55, Galactic reddening E(B-V) = about 0.23, and absolute V magnitude about -24.87. 33 references

  13. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Brinch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The lineradiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of thesystem taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ aredetected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, thecircumstellar envelope...... and the surrounding cloud also have a profoundimpact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ isdetected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region,perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO andH3+ in the densest regions as well as thedestruction of N2H+ by CO.N2D+ is detected in a ridge south...

  14. Observation of the HH 1 and 2 region with IRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdo, S.H.; Chester, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations of the region in Orion containing HH 1 and 2 reveal for the first time the large-scale distribution of newly formed stars. New infrared sources discovered in these observations are discussed, and attempts are made to untangle the complex infrared morphology of this field. A major finding of this study is that HH 1 is near the peak of an intense and broad plateau of 60 and 100 micron emission that spatially corresponds well with the boundaries of a previously detected molecular cloud. Other findings include the detection of an emitting circum-HH object dust complex around HH 2, 25 micron emission associated with the putative HH 1 and 2 exciting source discovered with the VLA, a new luminous far-infrared source, and numerous infrared source complexes, some in blank optical fields and others in fields containing optical emission-line stars. 37 references

  15. IRAS bright galaxy sample. II. The sample and luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Neugebauer, G.; Madore, B.F.; Danielson, G.E.; David Dunlap Observatory, Richmond Hill, Canada; Palomar Observatory; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1987-01-01

    A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infrared galaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey is described. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significant luminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent of the luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11th solar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominant population of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfert galaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. The infrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosity of galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of the interstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infrared luminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosity of the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to recent or ongoing star formation. 67 references

  16. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  17. CO and IRAS detection of an intermediate-velocity cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desert, F.X.; Bazell, D.; Blitz, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of a radio survey of high-Galactic-latitude clouds, CO emission was detected at the position l = 210.8 deg and b = 63.1 deg with an LSR velocity of -39 km/sec. This molecular cloud constitutes the third one with an unusually large absolute velocity at these latitudes, as compared with the 5.4-km/sec cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of the high-latitude molecular clouds. The position is coincident with an H I intermediate-velocity cloud (GHL 11, Verschuur H, OLM 268) and the IR-excess cloud 306 in the list by Desert et al. (1988). This cloud is clearly detected at all four IRAS wavelengths and has warmer colors than the local ISM. 27 refs

  18. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  19. Dante, i diavoli e l'ira di Virgilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saviotti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto: Numerosi interventi critici hanno analizzato ad ogni livello la diablerie che Dante mette in scena in If. XXI-XXIII; tuttavia, la sua eccentricità formale e contenutistica rispetto al resto del poema sembra ancora imbarazzare gli esegeti. In questo articolo si cerca di giustificarne la coerenza nel quadro della poetica della comedìa dantesca, concentrandosi su alcuni aspetti di particolare interesse: tra questi, l’opportunità di una lettura carnevalesca – in senso bachtiniano – della diablerie e il senso del “riso” di cui questa è portatrice; la presenza di un rovesciamento intra-testuale definibile come “auto-parodico” rispetto alla scena di If. VIII-IX e apprezzabile a partire dalla rappresentazione dei diversi personaggi; la “sconfitta” due volte patita da Virgilio nei confronti dei diavoli e la definizione, in entrambi ed altri casi, della sua ira. Abstract: Many scholars have analyzed at any level the diablerie Dante puts on stage in If. XXI-XXIII; nevertheless, its formal and substantial eccentricity compared with the rest of the poem still seems to puzzle the commentators. In this paper I will try to demonstrate its coherence with the poetics of Dante’s comedìa, by focusing on some very interesting elements: the opportunity of a bachtinian interpretation of the diablerie as a carnival expression and the meaning of the “laughter” it conveys; the presence of an intra-textual reversal which may be defined as “auto-parodic” in respect to the scene in If. VIII-IX and appreciated through the poetic representation of the different characters; the “defeat” which Virgilio undergoes twice against the devils and the definition, in both and other cases, of its ira.  

  20. An atlas of high-resolution IRAS maps on nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Walter

    1993-01-01

    An atlas of far-infrared IRAS maps with near 1 arcmin angular resolution of 30 optically large galaxies is presented. The high-resolution IRAS maps were produced with the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM) image construction and enhancement technique developed at IPAC. The MCM technique, which recovers the spatial information contained in the overlapping detector data samples of the IRAS all-sky survey scans, is outlined and tests to verify the structural reliability and photometric integrity of the high-resolution maps are presented. The infrared structure revealed in individual galaxies is discussed. The atlas complements the IRAS Nearby Galaxy High-Resolution Image Atlas, the high-resolution galaxy images encoded in FITS format, which is provided to the astronomical community as an IPAC product.

  1. Brief description of the programmes of the Institut fuer Reaktordynamik und Anlagensicherheit (IRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    All programmes used by the IRA are presented, giving name and abbreviation, field of application, purpose and solution method, requirements made on the computer, necessary auxiliary programmes, and machine time for typical examples. (RW) [de

  2. Radio identifications of IRAS point sources with b greater than 30 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg)

    1986-01-01

    The present radio identifications of IRAS point sources on the basis of Green Bank 1400 MHz survey maps notes that 365 hot IR sources are not detectable radio sources, and that nearly all cool high latitude IRAS sources are extragalactic. The fainter IR-source identifications encompass optically bright quasars, BL Lac objects, Seyfert galaxies, and elliptical galaxies. No IRAS sources could be identified with distant elliptical radio galaxies, so that although the radio and IR fluxes of most IRAS extragalactic sources are tightly correlated, complete samples of strong radio and IR sources are almost completely disjoint; no more than 1 percent of the IR sources are radio sources and less than 1 percent of the radio sources are IR ones. 35 references

  3. Estrategias terapéuticas e intelectualismo en el De ira de Séneca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretendo demostrar que a el tratado De IRA de Séneca incluye no una sino dos estrategias terapéuticas diseñadas para evitar la ira, y que b que la segunda de estasestrategiasla cual ha sido desatendida en la literatura secundaria– presenta problemas irresolubles cuando la contrastamos contra la teoría estoica de la acción, lacual se funda en premisas intelectualistas.

  4. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped 12 CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10 6 cm -3 ), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10 -4 M ⊙ yr -1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M ⊙ ) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  5. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Helou, G.; Walker, D.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study has been carried out of a complete sample of IRAS 25-, 60- and 100-μm sources identified with galaxies brighter than 14.5 mag at b > 60 0 . Redshifts are available for virtually all these galaxies. The 60- and 100-μm luminosities are well correlated with the corrected absolute magnitude Msub(B), the 25-μm luminosity less well so. There is a clear correlation of the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to optical luminosity, Lsub(FIR)/Lsub(B), with 100 μm/60 μm colour, in the sense that the more luminous infrared galaxies are warmer. This behaviour can be modelled as a mixture of a normal 'disc' component and a starburst component. There is no significant difference in the distribution of Lsub(FIR)/Lsub(B) versus 100 μm/60 μm colour for edge-on and face-on spirals, showing that the adopted internal extinction correction is a good approximation. (author)

  6. Planetary transit candidates in Corot-IRa01 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpano, S.; Cabrera, J.; Alonso, R.; Barge, P.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carone, L.; Deeg, H. J.; de La Reza, R.; Deleuil, M.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Fridlund, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Magain, P.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Ollivier, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Régulo, C.; Renner, S.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2009-10-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with contributions from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany, and Spain. Four French laboratories associated with the CNRS (LESIA, LAM, IAS ,OMP) collaborate with CNES on the satellite development. First CoRoT data are available to the public from the CoRoT archive: http://idoc-corot.ias.u-psud.fr.

  7. IRAS surface brightness maps of reflection nebulae in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Werner, M. W.; Sellgren, K.

    1987-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were made of a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg area of the reflection nebulae in the Pleiades by coadding IRAS scans of this region. Emission is seen surrounding 17 Tau, 20 Tau, 23 Tau, and 25 Tau in all four bands, coextensive with the visible reflection nebulosity, and extending as far as 30 arcminutes from the illuminating stars. The infrared energy distributions of the nebulae peak in the 100 micron band, but up to 40 percent of the total infrared power lies in the 12 and 25 micron bands. The brightness of the 12 and 25 micron emission and the absence of temperature gradients at these wavelengths are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium thermal emission models. The emission at these wavelengths appears to be the result of micron nonequilibrium emission from very small grains, or from molecules consisting of 10-100 carbon atoms, which have been excited by ultraviolet radiation from the illuminating stars.

  8. An IRAS-Based Search for New Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles, 'ADDSCANs', and two-dimensional full-resolution images, 'FRESCOS'. The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color ([12] - [25], [25] - [60])-plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be ex amined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IPAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for l is greater than 30 degrees, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  9. The Topology of Large-Scale Structure in the 1.2 Jy IRAS Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protogeros, Zacharias A. M.; Weinberg, David H.

    1997-11-01

    We measure the topology (genus) of isodensity contour surfaces in volume-limited subsets of the 1.2 Jy IRAS redshift survey, for smoothing scales λ = 4, 7, and 12 h-1 Mpc. At 12 h-1 Mpc, the observed genus curve has a symmetric form similar to that predicted for a Gaussian random field. At the shorter smoothing lengths, the observed genus curve shows a modest shift in the direction of an isolated cluster or ``meatball'' topology. We use mock catalogs drawn from cosmological N-body simulations to investigate the systematic biases that affect topology measurements in samples of this size and to determine the full covariance matrix of the expected random errors. We incorporate the error correlations into our evaluations of theoretical models, obtaining both frequentist assessments of absolute goodness of fit and Bayesian assessments of models' relative likelihoods. We compare the observed topology of the 1.2 Jy survey to the predictions of dynamically evolved, unbiased, gravitational instability models that have Gaussian initial conditions. The model with an n = -1 power-law initial power spectrum achieves the best overall agreement with the data, though models with a low-density cold dark matter power spectrum and an n = 0 power-law spectrum are also consistent. The observed topology is inconsistent with an initially Gaussian model that has n = -2, and it is strongly inconsistent with a Voronoi foam model, which has a non-Gaussian, bubble topology.

  10. The peculiar acceleration of the Local Group as deduced from the optical and IRAS flux dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, O.; Lynden-Bell, D.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between the peculiar acceleration of the Local Group and the surface brightness dipole moments of all-sky optical and IRAS samples is studied. Our revised optical dipole lies within 7 0 of the direction of the Local Group's motion through the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR). The directions of the optical, IRAS and MBR dipoles are all consistent with each other. To analyse the optical dipole we have calculated diameter functions for the UGC and ESO galaxy catalogues from redshift surveys. Most of the optical dipole arises from the Centaurus-Virgo direction and from the 'Local Void' on the opposite side of the sky. The sources of the IRAS dipole are more evenly distributed around the sky. A simple 'shell model', fitted to the variation of the dipoles as a function of flux, suggests that the dipoles arise from galaxies whose recession velocities are smaller than 4000 kms -1 . We find a high Ω 0 value for the IRAS sample and a low one for the optical sample. These results may be reconciled if the optical galaxy distribution is more biased relative to the matter distribution than the IRAS galaxy distribution. (author)

  11. Infrared spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) - A bare nucleus revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Aitken, D. K.; Knacke, R.; Mccorkle, S.; Roche, P. F.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the central core and surrounding coma of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) were obtained at 8-13 microns on May 11 and 2-4 microns on May 12, 1983. Spatially resolved measurements at 10 microns with a 4-arcsec beam showed that the central core was more than 100 times brighter than the inner coma only 8 arcsec away; for radially outflowing dust, the brightness ratio would be a factor of 8. The observations of the central core are consistent with direct detection of a nucleus having a radius of approximately 5 km. The temperature of the sunlit hemisphere was greater than 300 K. Spectra of the core are featureless, while spectra of the coma suggest weak silicate emission. The spectra show no evidence for icy grains. The dust production rate on May 11.4 was about 100,000 g/sec, assuming that the gas flux from the dust-producing areas on the nucleus was about 0.00001 g/sq cm per sec.

  12. Optical identifications of IRAS point sources: the Fornax, Hydra I and Coma clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Leggett, S.K.; Savage, A.

    1991-01-01

    We present optical identifications for 66 IRAS point sources in the region of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, 106 IRAS point sources in the region of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) and 59 IRAS point sources in the region of the Coma cluster of galaxies (Abell 1656). Eight other sources in Hydra I do not have optical counterparts and are very probably due to infrared cirrus. Twenty-three (35 per cent) of the Fornax sources are associated with stars and 43 (65 per cent) with galaxies; 48 (42 per cent) of the Hydra I sources are associated with stars and 58 (51 per cent) with galaxies; 18 (31 per cent) of the Coma sources are associated with stars and 41 (69 per cent) with galaxies. The stellar and infrared cirrus surface density is consistent with the galactic latitude of each field. (author)

  13. IRAS variables as galactic structure tracers - Classification of the bright variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. E.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the 'bright infrared variables' (BIRVs), a sample consisting of the 300 brightest stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with IRAS variability index VAR of 98 or greater, are investigated with the purpose of establishing which of IRAS variables are AGB stars (e.g., oxygen-rich Miras and carbon stars, as was assumed by Weinberg (1992)). Results of the analysis of optical, infrared, and microwave spectroscopy of these stars indicate that, out of 88 stars in the BIRV sample identified with cataloged variables, 86 can be classified as Miras. Results of a similar analysis performed for a color-selected sample of stars, using the color limits employed by Habing (1988) to select AGB stars, showed that, out of 52 percent of classified stars, 38 percent are non-AGB stars, including H II regions, planetary nebulae, supergiants, and young stellar objects, indicating that studies using color-selected samples are subject to misinterpretation.

  14. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  15. The infrared emission of carbonaceous particles around C-rich IRAS sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Strafella, F.

    1997-01-01

    The IRAS spectra of 23 carbon-rich sources have been fitted by means of an improved theoretical model based on the Leung-Spagna radiative transfer code and using extinction data obtained in their laboratory for different types of amorphous carbon and silicon carbide submicron particles. The agreement between observations and theoretical spectra is rather good. A comparison between the IRAS spectrum of the object 12447 + 0425 (RU Vir) and that recently obtained at UKIRT, for the same object but with higher resolution, seems to open new problems

  16. Observations of 40-70 micron bands of ice in IRAS 09371 + 1212 and other stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omont, A.; Forveille, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Glaccum, W. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Likkel, L.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Lisse, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    IRAS 09371 + 1212 is still an absolutely unique object. This M giant star, with circumstellar CO and a spectacular bipolar nebula, displays unique IRAS FIR colors which had been attributed to strong emission in the 40-70-micron bands of ice, as subsequently supported by the observation of a strong 3.1-micron absorption band. The results of the KAO observations have confirmed its unusual nature: the far-infrared bands of ice are by far the strongest known. Its dust temperature, 50 K or less, is by far the lowest known for a late-type circumstellar envelope.

  17. IRAS observations of the ISM in the gamma CAS reflection nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Richard H., Jr.; Werner, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Mid-infrared emission from other galaxies originates both from interstellar grains heated by diffuse starlight and local excitation of grains by hot OB stars. Thus, a detailed examination of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data from a B star interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM) could provide insight into infrared (IR) emission processes in external galaxies. Researchers have therefore used IRAS data to study the B0 IVe star gamma Cas and its surroundings, which they find to exhibit evidence of grain heating, destruction, and possible star formation.

  18. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry as well as the kinematical information, allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. Aims: We aim to determine the spatial distribution of different species that are of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim to determine the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim to determine the physical properties of the outflow. Methods: Maps from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ are detected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud also have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as the destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west of the protostellar condensation and is not associated with the outflow. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than ~1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy, and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

  19. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408(q)-1... restrictions that a trustee, custodian, or insurance company is permitted to impose on distributions from... accounts of any of the deemed IRAs is invested in life insurance contracts, regardless of whether the...

  20. WIDE FIELD CO MAPPING IN THE REGION OF IRAS 19312+1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi [Department of Astronomy and Geodesy, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ladeyschikov, Dmitry A.; Sobolev, Andrej M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zhang, Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yung, Bosco H. K., E-mail: nakashima.junichi@gmail.com [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of wide field CO mapping in the region of IRAS 19312+1950. This Infrared Astronomical Satellite ( IRAS ) object exhibits SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser emission, and is embedded in a chemically rich molecular component, the origin of which is still unknown. In order to reveal the entire structure and gas mass of the surrounding molecular component for the first time, we have mapped a wide region around IRAS 19312+1950 in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0, {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 and C{sup 18}O J = 1–0 lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In conjunction with archival CO maps, we investigated a region up to 20′ × 20′ in size around this IRAS object. We calculated the CO gas mass assuming local thermal equilibrium, the stellar velocity through the interstellar medium assuming an analytic model of bow shock, and the absolute luminosity, using the latest archival data and trigonometric parallax distance. The derived gas mass (225 M {sub ⊙}–478 M {sub ⊙}) of the molecular component and the relatively large luminosity (2.63 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}) suggest that the central SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser source is a red supergiant rather than an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star or post-AGB star.

  1. IRAS 06562-0337, The Ironclad Nebula: A New Young Star Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.R.; Hoard, D.W.; Rodgers, B.

    1998-01-01

    IRAS 06562-0337 has been the recent subject of a classic debate: is it a proto endash planetary nebula or a young stellar object? We present the first 2 μm image of IRAS 06562-0337, which reveals an extended diffuse nebula containing approximately 70 stars inside a 30 double-prime radius around a bright, possibly resolved, central object. The derived stellar luminosity function is consistent with that expected from a single coeval population, and the brightness of the nebulosity is consistent with the predicted flux of unresolved low-mass stars. The stars and nebulosity are spatially coincident with strong CO line emission. We therefore identify IRAS 06562-0337 as a new young star cluster embedded in its placental molecular cloud. The central object is likely a Herbig Be star, M ∼ 20 M circle-dot , which may be seen in reflection. We present medium-resolution high signal-to-noise ratio 1997 epoch optical spectra of the central object. Comparison with previously published spectra shows new evidence for time-variable permitted and forbidden line emission, including Si ii, Fe ii, [Fe ii], and [O i]. We suggest that the origin is a dynamic stellar wind in the extended stratified atmosphere of the massive central star in IRAS 06562-0337. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  2. Chemistry of Carbon Rich Star IRAS 15194–5115 A. Ali

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have constructed two gas-phase models to study the chem- ... 1. Introduction. IRAS 15194–5115 is the third brightest carbon star at 12 µm and the brightest one ..... The main formation routes of CN, HCN and HNC in the inner part are.

  3. Detection of glycolaldehyde toward the solar-type protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutens, Audrey; Persson, M. V.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde is a key molecule in the formation of biologically relevant molecules such as ribose. We report its detection with the Plateau de Bure interferometer toward the Class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS2A, which is only the second solar-type protostar for which this prebiotic mole...

  4. Changes of MMP-1 and collagen type Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA are differentially regulated by Trx-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Nicole; Schroeder, Peter; Jakob, Sascha; Kunze, Kerstin; Maresch, Tanja; Calles, Christian; Krutmann, Jean; Haendeler, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar radiation, which includes ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB) visible light and infrared radiation, induces skin aging. The effects of light have been attributed to irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, but the specific signaling pathways are not well understood. Detrimental effects of solar radiation are dermal diseases and photoaging. Exposure of cultured human dermal fibroblasts to UVA, UVB or IRA increased ROS formation in vitro. One important redox regulator is the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx). Trx is ubiquitously expressed and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides its function to reduce H(2)O(2), Trx binds to and regulates transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Trx influences the regulation of MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA. We irradiated human dermal fibroblasts with UVA, UVB and IRA. UVA, UVB and IRA upregulated MMP-1 expression. Trx inhibited UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation in a NFkappaB dependent manner. UVA, UVB and IRA reduced collagen Ialpha1 expression. Incubation with Trx inhibited the effects of UVB and IRA on collagen Ialpha1 expression. In conclusion, MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1, which play important roles in aging processes, seems to be regulated by different transcriptional mechanisms and Trx can only influence distinct signaling pathways induced by UVA, UVB and probably IRA. Thus, Trx may serve as an important contributor to an "anti-aging therapeutic cocktail".

  5. Análisis factorial confirmatorio del inventario multicultural de la expresión de la ira y hostilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolete S. Moscoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal del presente estudio fue verificar la estructura factorial de las dos escalas que componen el Inventario Multicultural de la Expresión de la Ira y Hostilidad desde una perspectiva confirmatoria. Se utilizó el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio en una muestra de 264 participantes provenientes de una universidad privada de Lima, Perú. El muestreo fue no probabilístico e incluyó estudiantes (25%, personal docente (17.8% y personal administrativo (57.2%. La confiabilidad del instrumento fue evaluada mediante los modelos congenérico, tau-equivalente y paralelo para cada una de las seis subescalas del instrumento, así como también calculada en base al coeficiente alfa de Cronbach con intervalos de confianza. Resultados: El análisis factorial realizado en la presente muestra peruana identificó cuatro dimensiones para la Escala de la Ira (ira manifiesta, ira contenida, control de la ira manifiesta y control de la ira contenida y dos factores para la Escala de la Hostilidad (reacción impulsiva a la ira; y temperamento, lo cual replica sustancialmente los resultados de estudios previos realizados en América Latina con muestras hispanoparlantes. El modelo congenérico nos indica un ajuste adecuado para cada una de las subescalas de la ira y hostilidad. En base a los resultados del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio realizado en el presente estudio, la estructura factorial de ambas escalas del Inventario Multicultural de la Ira y Hostilidad es robusta y demuestra sustancial evidencia empírica de validez de construcción y consistencia interna del instrumento.

  6. Photodynamic therapy (PDT and waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA in patients with recalcitrant common hand and foot warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common warts (verrucae vulgares are human papilloma virus (HPV infections with a high incidence and prevalence, most often affecting hands and feet, being able to impair quality of life. About 30 different therapeutic regimens described in literature reveal a lack of a single striking strategy. Recent publications showed positive results of photodynamic therapy (PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA in the treatment of HPV-induced skin diseases, especially warts, using visible light (VIS to stimulate an absorption band of endogenously formed protoporphyrin IX. Additional experiences adding waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA during 5-ALA-PDT revealed positive effects. Aim of the study: First prospective randomised controlled blind study including PDT and wIRA in the treatment of recalcitrant common hand and foot warts. Comparison of "5-ALA cream (ALA vs. placebo cream (PLC" and "irradiation with visible light and wIRA (VIS+wIRA vs. irradiation with visible light alone (VIS". Methods: Pre-treatment with keratolysis (salicylic acid and curettage. PDT treatment: topical application of 5-ALA (Medac in "unguentum emulsificans aquosum" vs. placebo; irradiation: combination of VIS and a large amount of wIRA (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 4 mm water cuvette, waterfiltered spectrum 590-1400 nm, contact-free, typically painless vs. VIS alone. Post-treatment with retinoic acid ointment. One to three therapy cycles every 3 weeks. Main variable of interest: "Percent change of total wart area of each patient over the time" (18 weeks. Global judgement by patient and by physician and subjective rating of feeling/pain (visual analogue scales. 80 patients with therapy-resistant common hand and foot warts were assigned randomly into one of the four therapy groups with comparable numbers of warts at comparable sites in all groups. Results: The individual total wart area decreased during 18 weeks in group 1 (ALA+VIS+wIRA and in group 2 (PLC+VIS+wIRA

  7. Análisis de la ira en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ochoa Ochoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar los niveles de ira, y sus componentes, entre un grupo de personas con Cardiopatía Isquémica y un grupo control sin esta enfermedad. Participaron 90 pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica de la Clínica Cardiovascular en Medellín y 78 controles sin la enfermedad. A cada uno de los participantes de les administró la prueba del STAXI- 2. Los resultados muestran que, comparado con los controles, los pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica tuvieron niveles significativamente más altos de ira como rasgo (p < 0.01, específicamente en la subescala reacción de ira (p < 0.05, y expresión interna de ira (p < 0.05. Los pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica experimentan más frecuentemente sentimientos de ira (ira rasgo, aparentemente debido a que son más sensibles a las críticas de los demás (reacción de ira, pero tienden a suprimir la expresión de esta emoción (expresión de ira interna. Estos datos confirman la necesidad de implementar programas dirigidos al manejo adecuado de la ira en estos pacientes y entender mejor las implicaciones que pueda tener la ira en la progresión de su enfermedad.

  8. Insights into the working mechanism of water filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratli, Jasmin; Pesch, Theresa; Marti, Hanna; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are the major cause for infectious blindness and still represent the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Considering the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy and the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed a reduction of C. trachomatis infectivity after irradiation with water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS). In this study, we aimed to gain further insight into the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels of infected and non-infected HeLa cells following triple dose irradiation at 24, 36 and 40 hours post infection. Subsequently, we examined the influence of cytokines on irradiation and chlamydial infection using a cytokine/chemokine inhibitor (Azelastine) and by IL-6 and IL-8 gene silencing. A triple dose irradiation significantly reduced chlamydial infectivity in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial stress response. The reducing effect was present regardless of the addition of cycloheximide (CHX), a host protein synthesis inhibitor. Chlamydial infection, wIRA/VIS treatment and the combination of both revealed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, Serpin E1). The addition of Azelastine induced the chlamydial stress response in non-irradiated samples. This effect was even more pronounced in wIRA/VIS-treated conditions. Silencing of IL-6 and IL-8 resulted in a lower chlamydial infectivity. However, wIRA/VIS treatment of infected and silenced cells reduced the chlamydial infectivity similar to wIRA/VIS treated control cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS.

  9. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO CORRELACIONAL ENTRE IRA Y PERSONALIDAD A LA LUZ DE LA TEORÍA DE HANS EYSENCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una cuidadosa revisión teórica sobre el tema de la ira, su evaluación e intervención, relacionada muy directamente con la agresividad y teorías importantes de la personalidad, enfocándose principalmente a la teoría de H. Eysenck. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, uno para medir ira (escala MAG de Ira y otro para medir dimensiones de personalidad Extroversión – Neuroticismo – Psicoticismo (EPQ-J, a 200 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 11 años, en tres colegios de Santafé de Bogotá. Se realizó una aplicación piloto y validación por jueces para la Escala MAG de ira con el objetivo de verificar su efectividad, mostrando unos buenos resultados mediante una consistencia interna de 0.8236. Al relacionar esta dos pruebas se encontró que hay niveles muy significativos de correlación entre personalidad e ira, a la vez que hay buenas intercorrelaciones entre las dimensiones del EPQ-J. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre ira y conducta antisocial. El aporte del trabajo es la presentación de la escala MAG para aplicarla en población infantil.

  10. Estudio descriptivo correlacional entre ira y personalidad, a la luz de la teoría de Hans Eysenck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Montaña de Barragán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una cuidadosa revisión teórica sobre el tema de la ira, su evaluación e intervención, relacionada muy directamente con la agresividad y teorías importantes de la personalidad, enfocándose principalmente a la teoría de H. Eysenck. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, uno para medir ira (escala MAG de Ira y otro para medir dimensiones de personalidad Extroversión – Neuroticismo – Psicoticismo (EPQ-J, a 200 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 11 años, en tres colegios de Santafé de Bogotá. Se realizó una aplicación piloto y validación por jueces para la Escala MAG de ira con el objetivo de verificar su efectividad, mostrando unos buenos resultados mediante una consistencia interna de 0.8236. Al relacionar esta dos pruebas se encontró que hay niveles muy significativos de correlación entre personalidad e ira, a la vez que hay buenas intercorrelaciones entre las dimensiones del EPQ-J. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre ira y conducta antisocial. El aporte del trabajo es la presentación de la escala MAG para aplicarla en población infantil

  11. Percolation Analysis of a Wiener Reconstruction of the IRAS 1.2 Jy Redshift Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yess, Capp; Shandarin, Sergei F.; Fisher, Karl B.

    1997-01-01

    We present percolation analyses of Wiener reconstructions of the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey. There are 10 reconstructions of galaxy density fields in real space spanning the range β = 0.1-1.0, where β = Ω0.6/b, Ω is the present dimensionless density, and b is the bias factor. Our method uses the growth of the largest cluster statistic to characterize the topology of a density field, where Gaussian randomized versions of the reconstructions are used as standards for analysis. For the reconstruction volume of radius R ~ 100 h-1 Mpc, percolation analysis reveals a slight ``meatball'' topology for the real space, galaxy distribution of the IRAS survey.

  12. A highly embedded protostar in SFO 18: IRAS 05417+0907

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piyali; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Puravankara, Manoj; Sharma, Neha; Soam, Archana

    2018-04-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds, located at the periphery of relatively evolved HIT regions, are considered to be the sites of star formation possibly triggered by the implosion caused due to the ionizing radiation from nearby massive stars. SFO 18 is one such region showing a bright-rim on the side facing the 0-type star, A Ori. A point source, IRAS 05417+0907, is detected towards the high density region of the cloud. A molecular outflow has been found to be associated with the source. The outflow is directed towards a Herbig-Haro object, HH 175. From the Spitzer and WISE observations, we show evidence of a physical connection between the molecular outflow, IRAS 05417+0907 and the HH object. The spectral energy distribution constructed using multi-wavelength data shows that the point source is most likely a highly embedded protostar.

  13. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA overcomes swallowing disorders and hypersalivation – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube: quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out. In total the situation was interpreted more as a problem related to a feeling of choking (with food or fluid in the sense of a functional dysphagia rather than as a swallowing disorder from a structural stenosis. At that time acetylcysteine (2 times 200 mg per day, given via the PEG tube and irradiation with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, a special form of heat radiation, of the ventral part of the neck and the thorax were added to the therapy. Within 1 day with acetylcysteine saliva and mucus became less viscous. Within 2 days with wIRA (one day with 4 to 5 hours with irradiation with wIRA at home salivation decreased markedly and quality of life clearly improved: For the first time the patient slept without interruption and without the need for sleep-inducing medication. After 5 days with wIRA the patient could eat his first soft dumpling although drinking of fluids was still not possible. After 2½ weeks with wIRA the patient could eat his first minced schnitzel (escalope. Following the commencement of wIRA (with typically approximately 90–150 minutes irradiation with wIRA per day the patient had 8 months with good quality of life with only small amounts of liquid saliva and mucus and without the

  14. Far-infrared investigation of the Taurus star-forming region using the IRAS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Taurus-Auriga complex was selected as the first molecular cloud to be investigated in this study. The Taurus clouds were defined as lying between 04h and 05h in R.A. and +16 to +31 degrees in Dec., then the IRAS point-source catalogue was searched for sources with good or moderate quality fluxes in all three of the shortest IRAS bands. The sources selected were then classified into subgroups according to their IRAS colors. Taurus is generally believed to be an area of low-mass star formation, having no luminous O-B associations within or near to the cloud complex. Once field stars, galaxies and planetary nebulae had been removed from the sample only the molecular cloud cores, T Tauri stars and a few emission-line A and B stars remained. The great majority of these objects are pre-main sequence in nature and, as stated by Chester (1985), main sequence stars without excess far-infrared emission would only be seen in Taurus if their spectral types were earlier than about A5 and then not 25 microns. By choosing our sample in this way we are naturally selecting the hotter and thus more evolved sources. To counteract this, the molecular cloud core-criterion was applied to soruces with good or moderate quality flux at 25, 60 and 100 microns, increasing the core sample by about one third. The candidate protostar B335 is only detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns while Taurus is heavily contaminated by cirrus at 100 microns. This means that detection at 25 microns is also required with those at 60 and 100 microns to avoid confusing a ridge of cirrus with a genuine protostar. The far-infrared luminosity function of these sources is then calculated and converted to the visual band by a standard method to compare with the field star luminosity function of Miller and Scalo

  15. Circumstellar envelopes seen in radio (OH masers) and in the infrared observations (IRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Pedro-Correia-de-Matos

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars, namely from one to nine solar masses, eject mass into the surrounding interstellar medium at high rates (up to 1/10000 solar masses per year) in their late stages of evolution on the so called asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Indeed, the presence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) composed of dust and gas is one of the principal features of the objects on the AGB. Because of the high opacity at visible wavelength of the CSE, most of these objects can only be observed at infrared and radio frequencies. This study was undertaken using infrared and radio data from a large sample of CSE sources. The infrared data was obtained from the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) data base. For a selection of IRAS objects, radio observations were made of the OH maser at 1612 and 1667 MHz at the Nancay radio telescope, France. This work consists in two parts, one is theoretical in nature, the other observational. The theoretical part is concerned with the modeling of IRAS low resolution spectra (LRS catalog) and IRAS photometry through the use of a radiative transfer code. Confrontation between models and data has yielded such results as a better definition of the grain optical properties and the behavior of the CSE as it evolves. A model of a shock wave (a possible lifting engine of the CSE) propagating in the atmosphere of Mira stars (AGB) is described. On the observational side, a large number of objects has been surveyed for the presence of OH masers at 1612 and 1667 MHz. A statistical analysis has established more clearly the evolutionary status of CSE and the OH maser characteristics. A compiling of detection rates for the occurrence of masers, average location of these masing CSEs in the Galaxy, and OH maser characteristics is reported for use in future work. (author) [fr

  16. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs

  17. Expresión de la ira y autoconcepto en adolescentes tempranos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Arsenio Sanz-Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó la exploración de las implicaciones de las modalidades de expresión de la ira entre adolescentes tempranos de la zona oriental de Cuba. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 498 adolescentes tempranos de Holguín y Santiago de Cuba respectivamente. Se obtuvo que la expresión abierta, y destructiva de la ira correlacionó negativamente con el autoconcepto en dominios de la escuela y las relaciones con el sexo opuesto. La expresión inhibida o interiorizada de esta emoción predijo fuertemente aspectos del autoconcepto relacionados con el dominio de la escuela. La ira expresada de forma controlada, calmada y asertiva se relacionó fuertemente con el autoconcepto en dimensiones generales, del ámbito escolar, de las relaciones interpersonales y de cualidades de honestidad y seguridad. Se recomienda realizar estudios paralelos para obtener información en otras etapas del desarrollo humano.

  18. ANOMALOUSLY STEEP REDDENING LAW IN QUASARS: AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE OBSERVED IN IRAS 14026+4341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Ji Tuo; Shu Xinwen; Liu Wenjuan; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Huiyuan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Jianguo; Bai Jinming

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of the heavily reddened quasars require a reddening curve that is even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this paper, we thoroughly characterize the anomalously steep reddening law in quasars via an exceptional example observed in IRAS 14026+4341. By comparing the observed spectrum to the quasar composite spectrum, we derive a reddening curve in the rest-frame wavelength range of 1200-10000 Å. It has a steep rise at wavelengths shorter than 3000 Å, but no significant reddening at longer wavelengths. The absence of dust reddening in the optical continuum is confirmed by the normal broad-line Balmer decrement (the Hα/Hβ ratio) in IRAS 14026+4341. The anomalous reddening curve can be satisfactorily reproduced with a dust model containing silicate grains in a power-law size distribution, dn(a)/da∝a –1.4 , truncated at a maximum size of a max = 70 nm. The unusual size distribution may be caused by the destruction of large 'stardust' grains by quasar activities or a different dust formation mechanism (i.e., the in situ formation of dust grains in quasar outflows). It is also possible that the analogies of the dust grains observed near the Galactic center are responsible for the steep reddening curve. In addition, we find that IRAS 14026+4341 is a weak emission-line quasar (i.e., PHL 1811 analogies) with heavy dust reddening and blueshifted broad absorption lines.

  19. A catalog of pre-main-sequence emission-line stars with IRAS source associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weintraub, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    To aid in finding premain-sequence (PMS) emission-line stars that might have dusty circumstellar environments, 361 PMS stars that are associated with 304 separate IRAS sources were identified. These stars include 200 classical T Tauri stars, 25 weak-lined (naked) T Tauri stars, 56 Herbig Ae/Be stars, six FU Orionis stars, and two SU Aurigae stars. All six of the FU Orionis stars surveyed by IRAS were detected. Of the PMS-IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC) associations, 90 are new and are not noted in the PSC. The other 271 entries include 104 that are correctly identified in the PSC but have not yet appeared in the literature, 56 more that can be found in both the PSC and in the published and unpublished iterature, and 111 that are in the literature but not in the PSC. Spectral slope diagrams constructed from the 12-, 25-, and 60-micron flux densities reveal unique distributions for the different PMS subclasses; these diagrams may help identify the best candidate PMS stars for observations of circumstellar dust. 30 refs

  20. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.; Suarez, Olga; Miranda, Luis F.; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of ≅ 500 km s -1 , the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest total velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes (≅ 170 km s -1 ). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.

  1. Fast digital 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting with offline analysis at IRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Durán, M; Nedjadi, Youcef; Juget, Frédéric; Bochud, François; Bailat, Claude

    2018-04-01

    IRA recently launched a project to digitize all the data acquisition systems it uses for primary radionuclide standardizations. It is well-known that the digital approach presents numerous advantages over the traditional analog electronics such as information losslessness, scalability, online and/or offline data processing, and it is also a solution to the growing difficulties to repair or renew ageing modules. As a first step in this wider program, our institute set-up a 4πβ-4πγ digital coincidence counting system, with FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)-based commercial boards from National Instruments (NI), to perform data acquisition and offline data analysis. Choosing all components and software from the same supplier provides a full compact and consistent electronic system. To demonstrate and validate the capacity of this system to standardize the activity of radioisotopes, we compare its predictions for the activity concentration of 133 Ba, 166m Ho and 18 F solutions with the results from a coincidence counting system with analog electronics, as well as with the results from other primary methods and a secondary measurement performed with an IG11 ionization chamber (CIR, chambre d'ionization de référence) with an equivalent activity traceable to the Système International de Référence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MILLIMETRIC AND SUBMILLIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 05327+3404 ''HOLOEA'' IN M36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morata, O.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Zhao-Geisler, R.; Magnier, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The transition between the protostar, Class I, and the pre-main-sequence star, Class II, phases is still one of the most uncertain, and important, stages in the knowledge of the process of formation of an individual star because it is the stage that determines the final mass of the star. We observed the young stellar object ''Holoea'', associated with IRAS 05327+3404, which was classified as an object in the transition between the Class I and Class II phases with several unusual properties, and appears to be surrounded by large amounts of circumstellar material. We used the SMA and BIMA telescopes at millimeter and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths to observe the dust continuum emission and the CO (1-0) and (2-1), HCO + (1-0) and (3-2), and HCN (1-0) transitions in the region around IRAS 05327+3404. We detected two continuum emission peaks at 1.1 mm: SMM 1, the submm counterpart of IRAS 05327+3404, and SMM 2, ∼6 arcsec to the west. The emissions of the three molecules show marked differences. The CO emission near the systemic velocity is filtered out by the telescopes, and CO mostly traces the high-velocity gas. The HCO + and HCN emissions are more concentrated around the central parts of the region, and show several intensity peaks coincident with the submm continuum peaks. We identify two main molecular outflows: a bipolar outflow in an E-W direction that would be powered by SMM 1 and the other in a NE direction, which we associate with SMM 2. We propose that the SMM sources are probably Class I objects, with SMM 1 in an earlier evolutionary stage

  3. Chemistry of the High-mass Protostellar Molecular Clump IRAS 16562–3959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Hechenleitner, Federico

    2018-06-01

    We present molecular line observations of the high-mass molecular clump IRAS 16562‑3959 taken at 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 1.″7 angular resolution (0.014 pc spatial resolution). This clump hosts the actively accreting high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677, which is associated with a hypercompact H II region. We identify and analyze emission lines from 22 molecular species (encompassing 34 isomers) and classify them into two groups, depending on their spatial distribution within the clump. One of these groups gathers shock tracers (e.g., SiO, SO, HNCO) and species formed in dust grains like methanol (CH3OH), ethenone or ketene (H2CCO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The second group collects species closely resembling the dust continuum emission morphology and are formed mainly in the gas phase, like hydrocarbons (CCH, c-C3H2, CH3CCH), cyanopolyynes (HC3N and HC5N), and cyanides (HCN and CH3C3N). Emission from complex organic molecules (COMs) like CH3OH, propanenitrile (CH3CH2CN), and methoxymethane (CH3OCH3) arise from gas in the vicinity of a hot molecular core (T ≳ 100 K) associated with the HMYSO. Other COMs such as propyne (CH3CCH), acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN), and acetaldehyde seem to better trace warm (T ≲ 80 K) dense gas. In addition, deuterated ammonia (NH2D) is detected mostly in the outskirts of IRAS 16562‑3959 and associated with near-infrared dark globules, probably gaseous remnants of the clump’s prestellar phase. The spatial distribution of molecules in IRAS 16562‑3959 supports the view that in protostellar clumps, chemical tracers associated with different evolutionary stages—starless to hot cores/H II regions—exist coevally.

  4. The Dense Molecular Gas and Nuclear Activity in the ULIRG IRAS 13120–5453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C.; Treister, E. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Aalto, S.; Falstad, N.; Muller, S.; Costagliola, F. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcalá, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Sliwa, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio de Madrid, OAN-IGN, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014-Madrid (Spain); Izumi, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Sakamoto, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, 10617, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Werf, P. van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chu, J. K. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 (∼340 GHz) observations of the dense gas tracers HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS in the local, single-nucleus, ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 13120–5453. We find centrally enhanced HCN (4–3) emission, relative to HCO{sup +} (4–3), but do not find evidence for radiative pumping of HCN. Considering the size of the starburst (0.5 kpc) and the estimated supernovae rate of ∼1.2 yr{sup −1}, the high HCN/HCO{sup +} ratio can be explained by an enhanced HCN abundance as a result of mechanical heating by the supernovae, though the active galactic nucleus and winds may also contribute additional mechanical heating. The starburst size implies a high Σ{sub IR} of 4.7 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙} kpc{sup −2}, slightly below predictions of radiation-pressure limited starbursts. The HCN line profile has low-level wings, which we tentatively interpret as evidence for outflowing dense molecular gas. However, the dense molecular outflow seen in the HCN line wings is unlikely to escape the Galaxy and is destined to return to the nucleus and fuel future star formation. We also present modeling of Herschel observations of the H{sub 2}O lines and find a nuclear dust temperature of ∼40 K. IRAS 13120–5453 has a lower dust temperature and Σ{sub IR} than is inferred for the systems termed “compact obscured nuclei (CONs)” (such as Arp 220 and Mrk 231). If IRAS 13120–5453 has undergone a CON phase, we are likely witnessing it at a time when the feedback has already inflated the nuclear ISM and diluted star formation in the starburst/active galactic nucleus core.

  5. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  6. Dynamical structure of the inner 100 AU of the deeply embedded protostar IRAS 16293–2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, Cécile; Field, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Bisschop, Suzanne E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hogerheijde, Michiel R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Frieswijk, Wilfred W. F., E-mail: cfavre@umich.edu [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2014-07-20

    A fundamental question about the early evolution of low-mass protostars is when circumstellar disks may form. High angular resolution observations of molecular transitions in the (sub)millimeter wavelength windows make it possible to investigate the kinematics of the gas around newly formed stars, for example, to identify the presence of rotation and infall. IRAS 16293–2422 was observed with the extended Submillimeter Array (eSMA) resulting in subarcsecond resolution (0.''46 × 0.''29, i.e., ∼55 × 35 AU) images of compact emission from the C{sup 17}O (3-2) and C{sup 34}S (7-6) transitions at 337 GHz (0.89 mm). To recover the more extended emission we have combined the eSMA data with SMA observations of the same molecules. The emission of C{sup 17}O (3-2) and C{sup 34}S (7-6) both show a velocity gradient oriented along a northeast-southwest direction with respect to the continuum marking the location of one of the components of the binary, IRAS 16293A. Our combined eSMA and SMA observations show that the velocity field on the 50-400 AU scales is consistent with a rotating structure. It cannot be explained by simple Keplerian rotation around a single point mass but rather needs to take into account the enclosed envelope mass at the radii where the observed lines are excited. We suggest that IRAS 16293–2422 could be among the best candidates to observe a pseudo-disk with future high angular resolution observations.

  7. 8- to 13-micron spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Campins, H.

    1984-01-01

    Spectrophotometry between 8.0 and 13.0 microns at 2 percent spectral resolution is presented for areas in and near the nuclear condensation of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) on May 11 and 12, 1983. All the spectra can be fit very well by blackbody curves, and no 10-micron silicate emissions are seen. The temperature structure of the coma suggests the presence of small (radii less than 5 microns) dust particles within 150 km of the nucleus and larger ones further out. The change in the spatial distribution of the infrared flux between the two nights suggests that an outburst may have occurred sometime on May 11.

  8. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  9. Application of radioactive tracers in upgradation of industrial grade ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    The exchange rates of ion exchange are determined by application of 131 I as a tracer isotope. The exchange study carried out in this investigation deals with understanding the effectiveness of ion exchange resin (in iodide form) Amberlite IRA-400 at different concentrations of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) with temperature of solution varying from 27-48 degC by keeping amount of ion exchange resin constant (1.0 g). The exchange study is also carried out by varying amount of ion exchange resins, for fixed temperature (27.0 degC) and for fixed concentration of potassium iodide solution (0.005 M). (author)

  10. Irrationality, barbarism and violence in the Seneca’s De Ira: a political reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pajón Leyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seneca’s philosophy dedicates a special attention to passions, regarded as the main obstacle to attaining wisdom, and in particular to anger, considered the most dreadful of them all. Scholars have usually interpreted his treaty On anger (De ira as a private handbook of ethics containing advice about how to become wise. However, this article explores a different approach to the text, placing it in the context of Seneca’s discussion about the virtue of courage. Thus, in Seneca’s thought anger appears as a social issue that affects both political communities and isolated individuals.

  11. Respuesta emocional de ira y alteraciones del lenguaje en pacientes con esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Sebastián, Neus

    2015-01-01

    Los pacientes con esquizofrenia presentan alteraciones en el procesamiento emocional especialmente en la expresión, y en el reconocimiento de emociones. Sin embargo, se ha investigado poco cómo experimentan las emociones los pacientes con esquizofrenia y en concreto existe una literatura muy escasa sobre la respuesta cardiovascular, hormonal o de la activación asimétrica cerebral. Por otro lado, la ira es clave en la conducta agresiva, y en el caso de la esquizofrenia parece estar mediada por...

  12. Warm absorber and truncated accretion disc in IRAS 05078+1626

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Guainazzi, M.; Karas, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 512, Mar-Apr (2010), A62/1-A62/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD205/09/H033; GA ČR GA205/07/0052 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98040; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 33308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies: active * galaxies: Seyfert * galaxies: individual: IRAS 05078+1626 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  13. The identification of IRAS 15194-5115 with a bright extreme carbon star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors identify IRAS 15194-5115 with a previously unknown extreme carbon star which is the third brightest carbon star in the sky at 12 μm (1148 Jy). Results of optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy are presented. The 3.03 μm absorption feature associated with C 2 H 2 and HCN is seen as well as SiC emission at 11.2 μm. A comparison with recent model calculations of other workers indicates that this star is very similar to IRC+10216 and that it lies at a distance of about 1.7 kpc. (author)

  14. Deuterated water in the solar-type protostars NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Cabrit, S.; Codella, C.; Kristensen, L. E.; Ceccarelli, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bottinelli, S.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Comito, C.; Demyk, K.; Herpin, F.; Lefloch, B.; McCoey, C.; Mottram, J. C.; Parise, B.; Taquet, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The measure of the water deuterium fractionation is a relevant tool for understanding mechanisms of water formation and evolution from the prestellar phase to the formation of planets and comets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to study deuterated water in the solar-type protostars NGC 1333

  15. IRaPPA: information retrieval based integration of biophysical models for protein assembly selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Barradas-Bautista, Didier; Jiménez-García, Brian; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; van der Velde, Arjan; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Bates, Paul A; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2017-06-15

    In order to function, proteins frequently bind to one another and form 3D assemblies. Knowledge of the atomic details of these structures helps our understanding of how proteins work together, how mutations can lead to disease, and facilitates the designing of drugs which prevent or mimic the interaction. Atomic modeling of protein-protein interactions requires the selection of near-native structures from a set of docked poses based on their calculable properties. By considering this as an information retrieval problem, we have adapted methods developed for Internet search ranking and electoral voting into IRaPPA, a pipeline integrating biophysical properties. The approach enhances the identification of near-native structures when applied to four docking methods, resulting in a near-native appearing in the top 10 solutions for up to 50% of complexes benchmarked, and up to 70% in the top 100. IRaPPA has been implemented in the SwarmDock server ( http://bmm.crick.ac.uk/∼SwarmDock/ ), pyDock server ( http://life.bsc.es/pid/pydockrescoring/ ) and ZDOCK server ( http://zdock.umassmed.edu/ ), with code available on request. moal@ebi.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. IRAS 03063+5735: A BOWSHOCK NEBULA POWERED BY AN EARLY B STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Bhattacharjee, Anirban [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1000 E. University Avenue, University of Wyoming Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu, E-mail: mlundqui@uwyo.edu, E-mail: abhattac@uwyo.edu, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Mid-infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope Galactic Legacy Infrared MidPlane Survey Extraordinaire program reveal that the infrared source IRAS 03063+5735 is a bowshock nebula produced by an early B star, 2MASS 03101044+5747035. We present new optical spectra of this star, classify it as a B1.5 V, and determine a probable association with a molecular cloud complex at V{sub LSR} = -38 to -42 km s{sup -1} in the outer Galaxy near l = 140.{sup 0}59, b = -0.{sup 0}250. On the basis of spectroscopic parallax, we estimate a distance of 4.0 {+-} 1 kpc to both the bowshock nebula and the molecular complex. One plausible scenario is that this is a high-velocity runaway star impinging upon a molecular cloud. We identify the H II region and stellar cluster associated with IRAS 03064+5638 at a projected distance of 64 pc as one plausible birth site. The spectrophotometric distance and linkage to a molecular feature provides another piece of data helping to secure the ill-determined rotation curve in the outer Galaxy. As a by-product of spectral typing this star, we present empirical spectral diagnostic diagrams suitable for approximate spectral classification of O and B stars using He lines in the little-used yellow-red portion of the optical spectrum.

  17. The Herschel/HIFI unbiased spectral survey of the solar-mass protostar IRAS16293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Cecarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-01

    Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high-mass protostars, very little data exist on low-mass protostars, with only one such ground-based survey carried out towards this kind of object. However, since low-mass protostars are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor, the information provided by spectral surveys is crucial in order to uncover the birth mechanisms of low-mass stars and hence of our Sun. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out an almost complete spectral survey towards the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422 with the HIFI instrument onboard Herschel. The observations covered a range of about 700 GHz, in which a few hundreds lines were detected with more than 3σ confidence interval certainty and identified. All the detected lines which were free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Contrarily to what is observed in the millimeter range, no lines from complex organic molecules have been observed. In this work, we characterize the different components of IRAS16293-2422 (a known binary at least) by analyzing the numerous emission and absorption lines identified.

  18. ALMA 690 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 16293–2422B: INFALL IN A HIGHLY OPTICALLY THICK DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Hernández-Hernández, Vicente; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso; Parise, Bérengère

    2013-01-01

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution (∼0.''2) submillimeter continuum and line observations of IRAS 16293–2422B made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The 0.45 mm continuum observations reveal a single and very compact source associated with IRAS 16293–2422B. This submillimeter source has a deconvolved angular size of about 400 mas (50 AU) and does not show any inner structure inside of this diameter. The H 13 CN, HC 15 N, and CH 3 OH line emission regions are about twice as large as the continuum emission and reveal a pronounced inner depression or ''hole'' with a size comparable to that estimated for the submillimeter continuum. We suggest that the presence of this inner depression and the fact that we do not see an inner structure (or a flat structure) in the continuum are produced by very optically thick dust located in the innermost parts of IRAS 16293–2422B. All three lines also show pronounced inverse P-Cygni profiles with infall and dispersion velocities larger than those recently reported from observations at lower frequencies, suggesting that we are detecting faster and more turbulent gas located closer to the central object. Finally, we report a small east-west velocity gradient in IRAS 16293–2422B that suggests that its disk plane is likely located very close to the plane of the sky.

  19. Recovery of gold from ammonia-thiosulfate media with amberlite IRA-410 ionic exchange resin; Recuperacion de oro desde un medio amoniaco-tiosulfato con resina de intercambio ionico Amberlite IRA-410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Reveco, V.; Orellana, J.

    2006-07-01

    The absorption and elution of gold in thiosulfate-ammonia media were studied at laboratory level using the Amberlite IRA-410 ionic exchange resin. Tests were carried out in a stirred reactor, maintaining constant temperature (25 degree centigree), with a volume of solution/mass of resin ratio of 833,3 ml/g and during 3 h. The variables tested were the following: pH (9-11), thio sufate concentration (0-0,5 M), ammonia concentration (0-0,5 M) and selectivity in the presence of cupric ion. The obtained results indicate that gold adsorption was quick; the presence of thiosulfate decreased strongly the adsorption; and the presence of ammonia did not affect the adsorption mostly. The copper was in a certain measure a competitor of the gold, but its biggest negative effect was that acted as catalyst of the oxidizing reaction of thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}''2-) to tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}''2), which can cause a partial elution of gold during the load stage. Also, the behavior of CLO-''-{sub 4}; SO{sub 3}''2- and CLO''- as effluents was studied in both gold and copper elution. These tests were also carried out in a stirred reactor, to constant temperature (25 degree centigree) with a volume of aqueous solution/mass of resin ratio of 200 ml/g and for 3 h. Results demonstrated that the copper was eluted more quickly that the gold in all the cases. (Author) 34 refs.

  20. Manejo de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA en una comunidad kaqchiquel de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz de Tejada Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA figuran entre las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantiles en América Latina. En Guatemala, la neumonía es la primera causa de muerte en niños pequeños y ocasiona aproximadamente una tercera parte de las consultas ambulatorias a servicios pediátricos. Una buena proporción de estas muertes se deben a un manejo deficiente, atribuible a la falta de reconocimiento de los primeros signos de neumonía, a la presencia de barreras que impiden una búsqueda inmediata de atención, a la consulta a proveedores inapropiados o a recomendaciones terapéuticas inadecuadas. El propósito de esta breve investigación cualitativa fue estudiar las percepciones y los comportamientos de los habitantes de San Juan Comalapa, comunidad kaqchiquel en el altiplano central de Guatemala, en lo que respecta a las IRA. Se entrevistó a 32 madres en su domicilio con el fin de determinar cómo clasificaban las IRA y qué signos y síntomas las hacían buscar atención inmediata. Los resultados revelaron que las madres sabían reconocer la presencia de respiración rápida, pero no de tiraje respiratorio (dos signos importantes de neumonía. Cuando buscaban atención, solían acudir a médicos u otros proveedores en centros de salud y ocasionalmente en consultorios privados, pero la búsqueda raras veces era oportuna debido a la poca accesibilidad de los servicios y a la subestimación de la gravedad de los síntomas. Esta conducta podría modificarse por medio de una intervención educativa. Al final se hacen recomendaciones orientadas a mejorar la comunicación verbal entre los proveedores de atención de salud y las madres.

  1. Manejo de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA en una comunidad kaqchiquel de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sáenz de Tejada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA figuran entre las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantiles en América Latina. En Guatemala, la neumonía es la primera causa de muerte en niños pequeños y ocasiona aproximadamente una tercera parte de las consultas ambulatorias a servicios pediátricos. Una buena proporción de estas muertes se deben a un manejo deficiente, atribuible a la falta de reconocimiento de los primeros signos de neumonía, a la presencia de barreras que impiden una búsqueda inmediata de atención, a la consulta a proveedores inapropiados o a recomendaciones terapéuticas inadecuadas. El propósito de esta breve investigación cualitativa fue estudiar las percepciones y los comportamientos de los habitantes de San Juan Comalapa, comunidad kaqchiquel en el altiplano central de Guatemala, en lo que respecta a las IRA. Se entrevistó a 32 madres en su domicilio con el fin de determinar cómo clasificaban las IRA y qué signos y síntomas las hacían buscar atención inmediata. Los resultados revelaron que las madres sabían reconocer la presencia de respiración rápida, pero no de tiraje respiratorio (dos signos importantes de neumonía. Cuando buscaban atención, solían acudir a médicos u otros proveedores en centros de salud y ocasionalmente en consultorios privados, pero la búsqueda raras veces era oportuna debido a la poca accesibilidad de los servicios y a la subestimación de la gravedad de los síntomas. Esta conducta podría modificarse por medio de una intervención educativa. Al final se hacen recomendaciones orientadas a mejorar la comunicación verbal entre los proveedores de atención de salud y las madres.

  2. Relación entre locus de control, ira y rendimiento deportivo en jugadores de tenis de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comprobar la relación entre el locus de control y el rendimiento de- portivo, y conocer la relación entre el locus de control y las variables de ira. La muestra de la investigación se compuso de 58 jugadores federados de tenis de mesa de toda la geografía española. Los participantes completa- ron un cuestionario sociodemográfico ad hoc , la Escala de Locus de Control (ELC y el Inventario de Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo (STAXI-2. Los resultados revela- ron que no había diferencias de medias en los niveles de locus de control externo en función de la división de juego y del tipo de práctica deportiva (profesionales vs amateurs. Por otro lado, se confirmó la relación entre el locus de control externo y la expresión externa de la ira, encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente signifi- cativas entre la expresión externa de la ira y los grupos de locus de control externo alto y bajo. Finalmente, se concluyó que el nivel de rendimiento deportivo no in- terfería en los niveles de locus de control y, por otro lado, se confirma la relación del locus de control exter- no en la expresión externa de la ira de los jugadores de tenis de mesa. Por lo tanto, el locus de control interno se muestra como una variable protectora importante para intervenir con jugadores y entrenadores.

  3. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Melis, Carl; Kratter, Kaitlin; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Plunkett, Adele L.

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar

  4. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sadavoy, Sarah I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kratter, Kaitlin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Plunkett, Adele L., E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu, E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SEAMBHs. I. Mrk 142, Mrk 335, and IRAS F12397+3333 (Du+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P.; Hu, C.; Lu, K.-X.; Wang, F.; Qiu, J.; Li, Y.-R.; Bai, J.-M.; Kaspi, S.; Netzer, H.; Wang, J.-M.; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    All the spectroscopy and imaging observations reported here were obtained with the Shangri-La telescope (SLT: IAU site code O44) at the Lijiang Station of the Yunnan Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The SLT started its operation in 2008. This is a 2.4m alt-azimuth mounted Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The rms pointing error is about 2arcsec rms, and the tracking accuracy with autoguiding is better than 0.5''/hr. The longitude of the station is 100°01'51''E, the latitude 26°42'32''N, and the altitude 3193m. The annually averaged seeing is ~1.5'' in terms of the FWHM of stars (measured with Yunnan Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera, YFOSC), ranging from 0.7'' to 2.0''. The YFOSC, built in 2010 by the astronomical instrumentation team at the Niels Bohr Institute, is similar to the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera, but with an additional focal reducer. It started its operation in 2011. YFOSC is a versatile instrument for low resolution spectroscopy and imaging, working at the Cassegrain focus. The CCD chip is an e2v CCD42-90 Back Illuminated Deep Depletion 2048*4608 pixel Scientific CCD Sensor whose pixel size is 13.5mm, pixel scale 0.283''/pixel, covering a 10'*10' field of view (FOV). Our Reverberation Mapping (RM) campaign started in 2012 October. All the spectra were obtained using YFOSC with Grism 14 which provides a resolution of 92Å/mm (1.8Å/pixel) and covers the wavelength range of 3800-7200Å. In this first paper of the series we report the observations of three objects: Mrk 142, Mrk 335, and IRAS F12397+3333. (3 data files).

  6. X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG STARS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C. N.; Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Shepherd, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 40 ks Chandra observation of the IRAS 20126+4104 core region. In the inner 6'' two X-ray sources were detected, which are coincident with the radio jet source I20S and the variable radio source I20Var. No X-ray emission was detected from the nearby massive protostar I20N. The spectra of both detected sources are hard and highly absorbed, with no emission below 3 keV. For I20S, the measured 0.5-8 keV count rate was 4.3 counts ks -1 . The X-ray spectrum was fitted with an absorbed 1T APEC model with an energy of kT =10 keV and an absorbing column of N H = 1.2 x 10 23 cm -2 . An unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about 1.4 x 10 32 erg s -1 was estimated. The spectrum shows broad line emission between 6.4 and 6.7 keV, indicative of emission from both neutral and highly ionized iron. The X-ray light curve indicates that I20S is marginally variable; however, no flare emission was observed. The variable radio source I20Var was detected with a count rate of 0.9 counts ks -1 but there was no evidence of X-ray variability. The best-fit spectral model is a 1T APEC model with an absorbing hydrogen column of N H = 1.1 x 10 23 cm -2 and a plasma energy of kT = 6.0 keV. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity is about 3 x 10 31 erg s -1 .

  7. Searching for the UV counterpart of the extraordinary X-ray UFO in the NLSy1 IRAS17020+4544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krongold, Yair

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the first unambiguous discovery in high resolution X-ray data of an ultra fast outflow (UFO) with velocity .1c. This wind, in Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS17020+4544, represents so far the most compelling detection of an UFO, with many different absorption lines that give rise to very high significance detections. The charge states that form the wind clearly indicate a large range of ionization states in the gas, and significant absorption by Ly alpha, C IV, Si IV and N V (among other ions) is expected in the UV band. The goal of our proposed program is to observe an characterize the best X-ray detected UFO in the UV. These observations are crucial to study in great detail the UFO phenomenon, and understand its nature and its relation to the narrow absorption line low velocity systems. Only through detection of Ly alpha absorption in the UV data, measurements of the metallicity of these winds will be possible. The proposed program will help guide new theoretical models of UFOs origins, beyond the simple actual picture that predicts only very high ionization Fe absorption. UV data are required to understand the wind nature and launching mechanism (whether due to radiation pressure via line or continuum opacity, or magnetic forces). Fully characterizing the wind properties will put stronger constraints in the mass outflow and kinetic outflow rates of these systems, as well as in their geometry. Such estimates will give a much clearer picture of UFOs feedback potential, and will provide clues on the feedback mode in action (e.g. energy conserving vs. momentum conserving).

  8. Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling....... The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...

  9. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  10. Revealing the ultrafast outflow in IRAS 13224-3809 through spectral variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M. L.; Alston, W. N.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Fabian, A. C.; Jiang, J.; Kara, E.; Lohfink, A.; Pinto, C.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the long-term X-ray variability of the extreme narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809 using principal component analysis (PCA) and fractional excess variability (Fvar) spectra to identify model-independent spectral components. We identify a series of variability peaks in both the first PCA component and Fvar spectrum which correspond to the strongest predicted absorption lines from the ultrafast outflow (UFO) discovered by Parker et al. (2017). We also find higher order PCA components, which correspond to variability of the soft excess and reflection features. The subtle differences between RMS and PCA results argue that the observed flux-dependence of the absorption is due to increased ionization of the gas, rather than changes in column density or covering fraction. This result demonstrates that we can detect outflows from variability alone and that variability studies of UFOs are an extremely promising avenue for future research.

  11. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  12. Implications of the IRAS data for galactic gamma-ray astronomy and EGRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Using the results of gamma-ray, millimeter wave and far infrared surveys of the galaxy, one can derive a logically consistent picture of the large scale distribution of galactic gas and cosmic rays, one tied to the overall processes of stellar birth and destruction on a galactic scale. Using the results of the IRAS far-infrared survey of the galaxy, the large scale radial distributions of galactic far-infrared emission were obtained independently for both the northern and southern hemisphere sides of the Galaxy. It was found that the dominant feature in these distributions to be a broad peak coincident with the 5 kpc molecular gas cloud ring. Also found was evidence of spiral arm features. Strong correlations are evident between the large scale galactic distributions of far infrared emission, gamma-ray emission and total CO emission. There is a particularly tight correlation between the distribution of warm molecular clouds and far-infrared emission on a galactic scale

  13. The IRAS minisurvey. [Infra Red Astronomy Satellite study of selected sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Emerson, J. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.

    1984-01-01

    Before the main Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey was started, a preliminary survey of 900 sq deg was carried out. Some results from this 'minisurvey' are given here. The completeness of the minisurvey at galactic latitudes from 20 to 40 deg drops sharply at flux densities below 0.4, 0.4, 0.5, and 2.5 Jy at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. The corresponding surface densities of point sources brighter than these flux levels are 1.1, 0.4, 0.65, and 1.25/sq deg, respectively. Outside the galactic plane, the majority of the sources at 12 and 25 microns are stars, while galaxies make up a significant proportion of 60 micron sources. The 100 micron band is dominated by emission from interstellar dust over much of the minisurvey area.

  14. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AROUND IRAS 17599–2148: INFRARED DARK CLOUD AND BIPOLAR NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Janardhan, P. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Ojha, D. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Zinchenko, I. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov st., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ghosh, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Luna, A., E-mail: lokeshd@prl.res.in [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro # 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840 (Mexico)

    2016-12-20

    We present a multiscale and multiwavelength study to investigate the star formation process around IRAS 17599–2148, which is part of an elongated filamentary structure (EFS) (extension ∼21 pc) seen in the Herschel maps. Using the Herschel data analysis, at least six massive clumps (M {sub clump} ∼ 777–7024 M {sub ⊙}) are found in the EFS with a range of temperature and column density of ∼16–39 K and ∼(0.6–11) × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2} (A {sub V}  ∼ 7–117 mag), respectively. The EFS hosts cold gas regions (i.e., infrared dark cloud) without any radio detection and a bipolar nebula (BN) linked with the H ii region IRAS 17599–2148, tracing two distinct environments inferred through the temperature distribution and ionized emission. Based on virial analysis and higher values of self-gravitating pressure, the clumps are found unstable against gravitational collapse. We find 474 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region, and ∼72% of these YSOs are found in the clusters distributed mainly toward the clumps in the EFS. These YSOs might have spontaneously formed due to processes not related to the expanding H ii region. At the edges of BN, four additional clumps are also associated with YSO clusters, which appear to be influenced by the expanding H ii region. The most massive clump in the EFS contains two compact radio sources traced in the Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope 1.28 GHz map and a massive protostar candidate, IRS 1, prior to an ultracompact H ii phase. Using the Very Large Telescope/NACO near-infrared images, IRS 1 is resolved with a jet-like feature within a 4200 au scale.

  15. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE CONTINUUM AND WATER MASER EMISSION IN THE IRAS 19217+1651 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo Postal 144, Guanajuato, GTO, Mexico CP 36000 (Mexico); Migenes, V., E-mail: tatiana@iga.cu, E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx, E-mail: vmigenes@byu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, ESC-N145, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We report interferometric observations of the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 19217+1651. We observed the radio continuum (1.3 cm and 3.6 cm) and water maser emission using the Very Large Array (VLA-EVLA) in transition mode (configuration A). Two radio continuum sources were detected at both wavelengths, I19217-A and I19217-B. In addition, 17 maser spots were observed distributed mainly in two groups, M1 and M2, and one isolated maser. This latter could be indicating the relative position of another continuum source which we did not detect. The results indicate that I19217-A appears to be consistent with an ultracompact H II region associated with a zero-age main-sequence B0-type star. Furthermore, the 1.3 cm continuum emission of this source suggests a cometary morphology. In addition, I19217-B appears to be an H II region consisting of at least two stars, which may be contributing to its complex structure. It was also found that the H{sub 2}O masers of the group M1 are apparently associated with the continuum source I19217-A. These are tracing motions which are not gravitationally bound according to their spatial distribution and kinematics. They also seem to be describing outflows in the direction of the elongated cometary region. On the other hand, the second maser group, M2, could be tracing the base of a jet. Finally, infrared data from Spitzer, Midcourse Space Experiment, and IRIS show that IRAS 19217+1651 is embedded inside a large open bubble, like a broken ring, which possibly has affected the morphology of the cometary H II region observed at 1.3 cm.

  16. Rotation-Infall Motion around the Protostar IRAS 16293-2422 Traced by Water Maser Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Makoto

    1999-08-01

    We made VLBI observations of the water maser emission associated with a protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, using the Kashima-Nobeyama Interferometer (KNIFE) and the Japanese domestic VLBI network (J-Net).\\footnote[2]. These distributions of water maser features showed the blue-shifted and red-shifted components separated in the north-south direction among three epochs spanning three years. The direction of the separation was perpendicular to the molecular outflow and parallel to the elongation of the molecular disk. These steady distributions were successfully modeled by a rotating-infalling disk with an outer radius of 100 AU around a central object with a mass of 0.3 MO . The local specific angular momentum of the disk was calculated to be 0.2-1.0times 10-3 km s-1 pc at a radius of 20-100 AU. This value is roughly equal to that of the disk of IRAS 00338+6312 in L1287 and those of the molecular disks around the protostars in the Taurus molecular cloud. The relatively large disk radius of about 100 AU traced by water maser emission suggests that impinging clumps onto the disk should be hotter than 200 K to excite the water maser emission. Mizusawa, Nobeyama, and Kagoshima stations are operated by staff members of National Astronomical Observatory of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture. Kashima station is operated by staff members of Communications Research Laboratory of the Ministry of Posts and Telecomunications. The recent status of J-Net is seen in the WWW home page: http://www.nro.nao.ac.jp/\\ \\ miyaji/Jnet.

  17. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-10

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (≳30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of ≳100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in ≲20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (≲30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10{sup –10}. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  18. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  19. Expresión de la ira en adolescentes holguineros. Repercusión psicológica y diferencias de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Arsenio Sanz Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda el proceso de validación de dos instrumentos diagnósticos: Escala Pediátrica de la Expresión de la Ira y Juego Clase, aplicados a un grupo de adolescentes tempranos. Se obtiene que ambos instrumentos poseen índices aceptables y altos de confiabilidad y se reporta validez de constructo. Se comprueba que los adolescentes que externalizan la ira emiten menos comportamientos prosociales que aquellos que la manejan de forma controlada, quienes son más sociables, aceptados, y tienen más amigos. Los adolescentes que reprimen su ira son los que menos comportamientos prosociales emiten. Los varones expresan de forma más abierta su ira que las hembras.

  20. CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN EVOLVED STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, AND 23239+5754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, B. W.; Zhang, Ke [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lisse, C. M., E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kzhang@caltech.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We report the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of three evolved stars: IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, and 23239+5754. The 9.9-37.2 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectra of these three sources exhibit rich sets of enstatite-dominated crystalline silicate emission features. IRAS 16456-3542 is extremely rich in crystalline silicates, with >90% of its silicate mass in crystalline form, the highest to date ever reported for crystalline silicate sources.

  1. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. La ira de Dios: sobre ‘Relatos salvajes’ de Damián Szifrón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “La ira de Dios (sobre ‘Relatos salvajes’ de Damián Szifrón” propone un debate sobre una de las películas argentinas más exitosas de todos los tiempos. En polémica con las lecturas que señalaban y cuestionaban el carácter prepolítico del film y su uso de las pasiones más bajas del público, este ensayo busca otro camino: por un lado, analizar la ira como uno de los capitales políticos más importantes y decisivos de la sociedad contemporánea. Por otro, investigar los vínculos entre la película Relatos salvajes y la pospolítica en la sociedad del espectáculo.

  3. ON THE NATURE OF THE ENIGMATIC OBJECT IRAS 19312+1950: A RARE PHASE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Milam, S. N. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boogert, A. C. A. [Universities Space Research Association, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Justtanont, K.; Wirström, E. S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92, Onsala (Sweden); Cox, N. L. J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, bus 2401, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Smith, R. G. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2600 (Australia); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Keane, J. V., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5–550 μ m using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μ m, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M {sub ⊙} of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M {sub ⊙} of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μ m line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s{sup −1} along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H{sub 2}O at 5.8 μ m and CO{sub 2} at 15 μ m. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (∼2 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ⊙}) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ∼500–700 M {sub ⊙}, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs.

  4. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirstrom, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-01-01

    IRAS?19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS?19312+1950 in the range 5-550 microns using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 microns, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: approx. = 0.22 Stellar Mass of material at 280+/-18 K, and ˜1.6 Me of material at 157+/-3 K. The OI 63 micron line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km/s along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 microns and CO2 at 15 microns. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (approx. 2 × 10(exp 4) Stellar Luminosity) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass approx. 500-700 Stellar Mass with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs.

  5. The chemical structure of the Class 0 protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A⋆⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpia, E.; Semenov, D. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Caux, E.

    2017-07-01

    Context. It is not well known what drives the chemistry of a protostellar envelope, in particular the role of the stellar mass and the protostellar outflows on the chemical enrichment of such environments. Aims: We study the chemical structure of the Class 0 protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A in order to (I) investigate the influence of the outflows on the chemistry; (II) constrain the age of our studied object; (III) compare it with a typical high-mass protostellar envelope. Methods: In our analysis we use JCMT line mapping (360-373 GHz) and HIFI pointed spectra (626.01-721.48 GHz). To study the influence of the outflow on the degree of deuteration, we compare JCMT maps of HCO+ and DCO+ with non-LTE (RADEX) models in a region that spatially covers the outflow activity of IRAS 4A. To study the envelope chemistry, we derive empirical molecular abundance profiles for the observed species using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (RATRAN) and adopting a 1D dust density/temperature profile from the literature. We use a combination of constant abundance profiles and abundance profiles that include jumps at two radii (T 100 K or T 30 K) to fit our observations. We compare our best-fit observed abundance profiles with the predictions from the time dependent gas grain chemical code (ALCHEMIC). Results: We detect CO, 13CO, C18O, CS, HCN, HCO+, N2H+, H2CO, CH3OH, H2O, H2S, DCO+, HDCO, D2CO, SO, SO2, SiO, HNC, CN, C2H and OCS. We divide the detected lines in three groups based on their line profiles: a) broad emission (FWHM = 4-11 km s-1), b) narrow emission (FWHMtime-dependent gas-grain chemical model for the outer envelope, with the exceptions of HCN, HNC, CN. These species along with the CO abundance require an enhanced UV field which points towards an outflow cavity. The abundances with respect to H2 are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than those observed in the high mass protostellar envelope (AFGL 2591), while they are found to be similar within factors of a

  6. Current Diagnosis and Management of Immune Related Adverse Events (irAEs Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The indications of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs are set to rise further with the approval of newer agent like atezolimumab for use in patients with advanced stage urothelial carcinoma. More frequent use of ICIs has improved our understanding of their unique side effects, which are known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs. The spectrum of irAEs has expanded beyond more common manifestations such as dermatological, gastrointestinal and endocrine effects to rarer presentations involving nervous, hematopoietic and urinary systems. There are new safety data accumulating on ICIs in patients with previously diagnosed autoimmune conditions. It is challenging for clinicians to continuously update their working knowledge to diagnose and manage these events successfully. If diagnosed timely, the majority of events are completely reversible, and temporary immunosuppression with glucocorticoids, infliximab or other agents is warranted only in the most severe grade illnesses. The same principles of management will possibly apply as newer anti- cytotoxic T lymphocytes-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are introduced. The current focus of research is for prophylaxis and for biomarkers to predict the onset of these toxicities. In this review we summarize the irAEs of ICIs and emphasize their growing spectrum and their management algorithms, to update oncology practitioners.

  7. A study of the stellar population in the Lynds 1641 dark cloud. I. The IRAS catalog sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, K.M.; Newton, G.; Strom, S.E.; Seaman, R.L.; Carrasco, L.

    1989-01-01

    The character of the sources identified in the IRAS Point Source Catalog and located within the boundaries of the nearest giant molecular cloud, Lynds 1641 is discussed. New optical and near-infrared photometry are combined to provide spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these objects divided into three classes: class I objects with flat or rising spectra, class II objects with spectra intermediate in slope between a flat and blackbody spectrum, and class III objects with spectra similar to those of blackbodies. It is found that L1641 contains a much larger percentage of class I sources than does the nearby Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex. Spectral energy distributions for the IRAS-selected sample are examined and compared with SEDs for young stellar objects (YSOs) located in Taurus-Auriga. The IRAS-selected sources having optical counterparts in the H-R diagram are identified and discussed along with the distribution of masses and ages for these YSOs. 86 refs

  8. Adsorption of uranium(VI) from sulphate solutions using Amberlite IRA-402 resin: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solgy, Mostafa; Taghizadeh, Majid; Ghoddocynejad, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption of uranium from sulphate solutions by an anion exchange resin. • The effects of pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage were investigated. • The adsorption equilibrium is well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. • The adsorption kinetics can be predicted by the pseudo second-order model. • The adsorption is a physical, spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: In the present study, adsorption of uranium from sulphate solutions was evaluated using Amberlite IRA-402 resin. The variation of adsorption process was investigated in batch sorption mode. The parameters studied were pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used in order to present a mathematical description of the equilibrium data at three different temperatures (25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C). The final results confirmed that the equilibrium data tend to follow Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Amberlite IRA-402 for uranium(VI) was evaluated to be 213 mg/g for the Langmuir model at 25 °C. The adsorption of uranium on the mentioned anion exchange resin was found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model, indicating that chemical adsorption was the rate limiting-step. The values of thermodynamic parameters proved that adsorption process of uranium onto Amberlite IRA-402 resin could be considered endothermic (ΔH > 0) and spontaneous (ΔG < 0)

  9. RECTIFIED ASTEROID ALBEDOS AND DIAMETERS FROM IRAS AND MSX PHOTOMETRY CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Erin Lee; Woodward, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Rectified diameters and albedo estimates of 1517 main-belt asteroids selected from IRAS and the Mid-Course Space Experiment asteroid photometry catalogs are derived from updated infrared thermal models, the Standard Thermal Model and the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), and Monte Carlo simulations, using new Minor Planet Center compilations of absolute magnitudes (H values) constrained by occultation- and radar-derived parameters. The NEATM approach produces a more robust estimate of albedos and diameters, yielding albedos of p v (NEATM mean) =0.081 ± 0.064. The asteroid beaming parameter (η) for the selected asteroids has a mean value of 1.07 ± 0.27, and the smooth distribution of η suggests that this parameter is independent of asteroid properties such as composition. No trends in η due to size-dependent rotation rates are evident. Comparison of derived values of η as a function of taxonomic type indicates that the beaming parameter values for S- and C-type asteroids are identical within the standard deviation of the population of beaming parameters.

  10. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBERS OF IRAS F22456-5125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Jay P.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Trippe, M. L.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray spectra observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the XMM-Newton satellite, respectively, of the low-z Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS F22456 - 5125. This object shows absorption from five distinct, narrow kinematic components that span a significant range in velocity (∼0 to -700 km s -1 ) and ionization (Lyman series, C III, N III, and O VI). We also show that three of the five kinematic components in these lines appear to be saturated in Lyβ λ1026 and that all five components show evidence of saturation in the O VI doublet lines λλ1032, 1038. Further, all five components show evidence for partial covering due to the absorption seen in the O VI doublet. This object is peculiar because it shows no evidence for corresponding X-ray absorption to the UV absorption in the X-ray spectrum, which violates the 1:1 correlation known for low-z active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform photoionization modeling of the UV absorption lines and predict that the O VII column density should be small, which would produce little to no absorption in agreement with the X-ray observation. We also examine the UV variability of the continuum flux for this object (an increase of a factor of 6). As the absorption components lack variability, we find a lower limit of ∼20 kpc for the distance for the absorbers from the central AGN.

  11. Study of deuterated water in the low-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Herschel Chess Team

    2011-05-01

    Observations of deuterated water are an important complement for studies of H2O, since they give strong constraints on the formation processes: grain surfaces versus gas-phase chemistry through energetic process as shocks. The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) Key Program has allowed to detect a lot of transitions of HDO (8) and H2O (16) as well as its isotopes H_218O and H_217O towards the low-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422 thanks to the unbiaised spectral survey carried out with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Complementary data of HDO from the ground-based telescopes IRAM and JCMT are also available, allowing a precise determination of the abundance of deuterated water through the protostar envelope. In order to reproduce the observed line profiles, we have performed a modeling of HDO from the hot corino through the envelope using the physical structure of the protostar (Crimier et al. 2010) and the spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, which takes also into account radiative pumping by continuum emission from dust. We have used new HDO collision rates with H_2, recently computed by Wiesenfeld, Scribano and Faure (2011, PCCP). The same method has been applied to model H_2O and its isotopes H_218O and H_217O. We will present the results of this analysis and discuss the determined abundances.

  12. Serendipitous discovery of warm absorbers in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuinai; Gu Qiusheng; Peng Zhixin; Ji Li

    2011-01-01

    Warm absorption is a common phenomenon in Seyfert 1s and quasars, but is rare in Seyfert 2s. We report the detection of warm absorbers with high energy resolution in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 for the first time with Chandra HETGS spectra. An intrinsic absorbing line system with an outflow velocity ∼ 400 km s -1 was found, which is contributed by two warm absorbers with FWHM of 570 km s -1 and 1360 km s -1 , respectively. The two absorbers were adjacent, and moving transversely across our line of sight. We constrained the distance between the center and the absorbers to be a small value, suggesting that the absorbers may originate from the highly ionized accretion disk wind ejected five years ago. The perspective of this type 2 Seyfert provides the best situation in which to investigate the vertical part of the funnel-like outflows. Another weak absorbing line system with zero redshift was also detected, which could be due to Galactic absorption with very high temperature or an intrinsic outflow with a very high velocity ∼ 6000 km s -1 . (research papers)

  13. Star formation and gas inflows in the OH Megamaser galaxy IRAS03056+2034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekatelyne, C.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Sales, Dinalva; Robinson, Andrew; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Kharb, Preeti; Gallimore, Jack; Baum, Stefi; O'Dea, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    We have obtained observations of the OH Megamaser galaxy IRAS03056+0234 using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (IFU), Very Large Array (VLA) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data reveals spiral arms containing knots of emission associated to star forming regions. The GMOS-IFU data cover the spectral range of 4500 to 7500 Å at a velocity resolution of 90 km s-1 and spatial resolution of 506 pc. The emission-line flux distributions reveal a ring of star forming regions with radius of 786 pc centred at the nucleus of the galaxy, with an ionized gas mass of 1.2× 108M⊙, an ionizing photon luminosity of log Q[H+]=53.8 and a star formation rate of 4.9 M⊙ yr-1. The emission-line ratios and radio emission suggest that the gas at the nuclear region is excited by both starburst activity and an active galactic nucleus. The gas velocity fields are partially reproduced by rotation in the galactic plane, but show, in addition, excess redshifts to the east of the nucleus, consistent with gas inflows towards the nucleus, with velocity of ˜45 km s-1 and a mass inflow rate of ˜7.7 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1.

  14. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II. The IRAS survey observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell. 42 references

  15. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Zapata, L. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico); Qiu, K., E-mail: manferna@illinois.edu, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  16. IRAS 17423-1755 (HEN 3-1475) REVISITED: AN O-RICH HIGH-MASS POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteiga, M.; GarcIa-Hernandez, D. A.; Manchado, A.; Ulla, A.; GarcIa-Lario, P.

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution (R ∼ 600) Spitzer/IRS spectrum of the bipolar protoplanetary nebula (PN) IRAS 17423-1755 is presented in order to clarify the dominant chemistry (C-rich versus O-rich) of its circumstellar envelope as well as to constrain its evolutionary stage. The high-quality Spitzer/IRS spectrum shows weak 9.7 μm absorption from amorphous silicates. This confirms for the first time the O-rich nature of IRAS 17423-1755 in contradiction to a previous C-rich classification, which was based on the wrong identification of the strong 3.1 μm absorption feature seen in the Infrared Space Observatory spectrum as due to acetylene (C 2 H 2 ). The high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectrum displays a complete lack of C-rich mid-IR features such as molecular absorption features (e.g., 13.7 μm C 2 H 2 , 14.0 μm HCN, etc.) or the classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon infrared emission bands. Thus, the strong 3.1 μm absorption band toward IRAS 17423-1755 has to be identified as water ice. In addition, an [Ne II] nebular emission line at 12.8 μm is clearly detected, indicating that the ionization of its central region may be already started. The spectral energy distribution in the infrared (∼2-200 μm) and other observational properties of IRAS 17423-1755 are discussed in comparison with the similar post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects IRAS 19343+2926 and IRAS 17393-2727. We conclude that IRAS 17423-1755 is an O-rich high-mass post-AGB object that represents a link between OH/IR stars with extreme outflows and highly bipolar PN.

  17. Water distribution in shocked regions of the NGC 1333-IRAS 4A protostellar outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Giannini, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Tafalla, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in protostellar environments because its line emission is very sensitive to both the chemistry and the physical conditions of the gas. Observations of H2O line emission from low-mass protostars and their associated outflows performed with HIFI onboard the Herschel Space Observatory have highlighted the complexity of H2O line profiles, in which different kinematic components can be distinguished. Aims: The goal is to study the spatial distribution of H2O, in particular of the different kinematic components detected in H2O emission, at two bright shocked regions along IRAS 4A, one of the strongest H2O emitters among the Class 0 outflows. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS maps of the IRAS 4A outflow and HIFI observations of two shocked positions. The largest HIFI beam of 38'' at 557 GHz was mapped in several key water lines with different upper energy levels, to reveal possible spatial variations of the line profiles. A large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis was performed to determine the excitation conditions of the gas. Results: We detect four H2O lines and CO (16-15) at the two selected shocked positions. In addition, transitions from related outflow and envelope tracers are detected. Different gas components associated with the shock are identified in the H2O emission. In particular, at the head of the red lobe of the outflow, two distinct gas components with different excitation conditions are distinguished in the HIFI emission maps: a compact component, detected in the ground-state water lines, and a more extended one. Assuming that these two components correspond to two different temperature components observed in previous H2O and CO studies, the LVG analysis of the H2O emission suggests that the compact (about 3'', corresponding to about 700 AU) component is associated with a hot (T ~ 1000 K) gas with densities nH2 ~ (1-4) × 105 cm-3, whereas the extended (10''-17'', corresponding to 2400-4000 AU) one traces a warm (T ~ 300

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN IRAS 16293–2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, Josep M.; Palau, Aina; Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present CO 3-2, SiO 8-7, C{sup 34}S 7-6, and 878 μm dust continuum subarcsecond angular resolution observations with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the IRAS 16293–2422 (I16293) multiple low-mass protostellar system. The C{sup 34}S emission traces the 878 μm dust continuum well, and in addition clearly shows a smooth velocity gradient along the major axis of component I16293A. CO shows emission at moderate high velocities arising from two bipolar outflows, which appear to be perpendicular with respect to each other. The high sensitivity and higher angular resolution of these observations allows us to pinpoint well the origin of these two outflows at the center of component I16293A. Interestingly, the most compact outflow appears to point toward I16293B. Our data show that the previously reported monopolar blueshifted CO outflow associated with component I16293B seems to be part of the compact outflow arising from component I16293A. In addition, the SiO emission is also tracing this compact outflow: on the one hand, the SiO emission appears to have a jet-like morphology along the southern redshifted lobe; on the other hand, the SiO emission associated with the blueshifted northern lobe traces a well-defined arc on the border of component I16293B facing I16293A. The blueshifted CO lobe of the compact outflow splits into two lobes around the position of this SiO arc. All these results lead us to propose that the compact outflow from component I16293A is impacting on the circumstellar gas around component I16293B, possibly being diverged as a consequence of the interaction.

  19. Preconcentration determination of arsenic species by sorption of As(V) on Amberlite IRA-410 coupled with fluorescence quenching of L-cysteine capped CdS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Nazemi, Sahar

    2013-10-07

    A simple and accurate method for arsenic speciation analysis in natural and drinking water samples is described in which preconcentration of arsenic as As(V) was coupled with spectrofluorometric determination. The extracted As(V) species with a column containing Amberlite IRA-410 were subjected to L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) and the fluorescence quenching of the QDs due to reduction of As(V) by L-cysteine was considered as a signal relevant to As(V) concentration. The As(III) species were also determined after oxidation of As(III) ions to As(V) with H2O2 and measurement of the total arsenic content. In treatment with 400 mL portions of water samples containing 30 μg L(-1) As(V), the relative standard deviation was 2.8%. The detection limit of arsenic was also found to be 0.75 μg L(-1) (1 × 10(-8) M). The reliability of proposed method was confirmed using certified reference materials. The trace amounts of arsenic species were then determined in different water samples, satisfactorily.

  20. Exploring differences in adiposity in two U.S. Hispanic populations of Mexican origin using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic markers: the IRAS Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendra A; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Langefeld, Carl D; Lorenzo, Carlos; Haffner, Steven M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Norris, Jill M

    2012-01-01

    The census classification of Hispanic origin is used in epidemiological studies to group individuals, even though there is geographical, cultural, and genetic diversity within Hispanic Americans of purportedly similar backgrounds. We observed differences in our measures of adiposity between our two Mexican American populations, and examined whether these differences were attributed to social, behavioral, physiologic or genetic differences between the two populations. In the IRAS Family Study, we examined 478 Hispanics from San Antonio, Texas and 447 Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Associations with body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic variables were examined. Hispanics of Mexican origin in our clinic population in San Antonio had significantly higher mean BMI (31.09 vs. 28.35 kg/m2), VAT (126.3 vs. 105.5 cm2), and SAT (391.6 vs. 336.9 cm2), than Hispanics of Mexican origin in the San Luis Valley. The amount of variation in adiposity explained by clinic population was 4.5% for BMI, 2.8% for VAT, and 2.7% for SAT. After adjustment, clinic population was no longer associated with VAT and SAT, but remained associated with BMI, although the amount of variation explained by population was substantially less (1.0% for BMI). Adiposity differences within this population of Mexican origin can be largely explained by social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic differences.

  1. MILLIMETRIC AND SUBMILLIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 05327+3404 ''HOLOEA'' IN M36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morata, O.; Ho, P. T. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Zhao-Geisler, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Section 4, Ting Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Magnier, E. A., E-mail: omorata@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The transition between the protostar, Class I, and the pre-main-sequence star, Class II, phases is still one of the most uncertain, and important, stages in the knowledge of the process of formation of an individual star because it is the stage that determines the final mass of the star. We observed the young stellar object ''Holoea'', associated with IRAS 05327+3404, which was classified as an object in the transition between the Class I and Class II phases with several unusual properties, and appears to be surrounded by large amounts of circumstellar material. We used the SMA and BIMA telescopes at millimeter and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths to observe the dust continuum emission and the CO (1-0) and (2-1), HCO{sup +} (1-0) and (3-2), and HCN (1-0) transitions in the region around IRAS 05327+3404. We detected two continuum emission peaks at 1.1 mm: SMM 1, the submm counterpart of IRAS 05327+3404, and SMM 2, {approx}6 arcsec to the west. The emissions of the three molecules show marked differences. The CO emission near the systemic velocity is filtered out by the telescopes, and CO mostly traces the high-velocity gas. The HCO{sup +} and HCN emissions are more concentrated around the central parts of the region, and show several intensity peaks coincident with the submm continuum peaks. We identify two main molecular outflows: a bipolar outflow in an E-W direction that would be powered by SMM 1 and the other in a NE direction, which we associate with SMM 2. We propose that the SMM sources are probably Class I objects, with SMM 1 in an earlier evolutionary stage.

  2. A laboratory analog for the carrier of the 3 micron emission of the protoplanetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L W; Wdowiak, T J; Arnoult, K M

    1997-09-10

    A mixture of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, when subjected to the energetic environment of a hydrogen plasma, is transformed into a material that exhibits an infrared absorption profile in the 3 micron region that is an excellent match of the protoplanetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852 emission profile in the same wavelength region. Acenaphthylene and acenaphthene were chosen as precursors in the experiment because these molecules have a structure that can be described as a keystone in a process in which carbon atoms in a stellar wind condense into PAH species. The spectral match between experiment and observations appears to validate that scenario.

  3. Organic Chemistry of Southern Sources: Microwave Spectroscopy of Cha-MMS1 and IRAS 15194-5115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectra of molecule-rich sources in the southern hemisphere obtained using the 22-meter Mopra telescope. Spectra and maps are presented of organic molecules detected between 30 and 50 GHz in the young Class 0 protostar Chamaeleon MMS-1. The large abundances of polyynes, cyanopolyynes and methanol may be indicative of a warm carbon chemistry in the dense gas surrounding this protostar. Spectra are also presented from a 78-96 GHz scan of the carbon-rich AGB star IRAS 15194-5115, including new detections of HC5N, CCS and C13CH.

  4. EL CADÁVER DE LA IRA COMO EFECTO MARIPOSA: LA REALIZACIÓN DE UN RELATO DE FICCIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    VALERO MARCO, DANIEL

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El presente proyecto trata sobre la realización de un cortometraje de ficción con el tema de la ira y el efecto mariposa. En primer lugar se realiza un proceso de documentación teórica en el que se estudia el comportamiento de la ira y se relaciona con el efecto mariposa de la teoría del caos. Tras esto, se plantea la creación de un cortometraje de ficción que refleje las principales conclusiones de la investigación realizada. ...

  5. Probing the water and CO snow lines in the young protostar NGC 1333-IRAS4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Sibylle; Maret, Sébastien; André, Philippe; Maury, Anaëlle; Belloche, Arnaud; Cabrit, Sylvie; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand

    2015-08-01

    Today, we believe that the onset of life requires free energy, water, and complex, probably carbon-based chemistry. In the interstellar medium, complex organic molecules seem to mostly form in reactions happening on the icy surface of dust grains, such that they are released into the gas phase when the dust is heated. The resulting “snow lines”, marking regions where ices start to sublimate, play an important role for planet growth and bulk composition in protoplanetary disks. However, they can already be observed in the envelopes of the much younger, low-mass Class 0 protostars that are still in their early phase of heavy accretion. The information on the sublimation regions of different kinds of ices can be used to understand the chemistry of the envelope, its temperature and density structure, and may even hint at the history of the accretion process. Accordingly, it is a crucial piece of information in order to get the full picture of how organic chemistry evolves already at the earliest stages of the formation of sun-like stars. As part of the CALYPSO Large Program (http://irfu.cea.fr/Projets/Calypso/), we have obtained observations of C18O, N2H+ and CH3OH towards the Class 0 protostar NGC 1333-IRAS4B with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer at sub-arcsecond resolution. Of these we use the methanol observations as a proxy for the water snow line, assuming methanol is trapped in water ice. The observed anti-correlation of C18O and N2H+, with N2H+ forming a ring around the centrally peaked C18O emission, reveals for the first time the CO snow line in this protostellar envelope, with a radius of ~300 AU. The methanol emission is much more compact than that of C18O, and traces the water snow line with a radius of ~40 AU. We have modeled the emission using a chemical model coupled with a radiative transfer module. We find that the CO snow line appears further inwards than expected from the binding energy of pure CO ices. This may hint at CO being frozen out

  6. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Qin; Yin, Hong-Xu; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Dong, Chun-Wang; Deng, Yu-Liang

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP) values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA) allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  7. Characterization of the volatile components in green tea by IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Yang

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (IRAE-HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was developed for rapid determination of the volatile components in green tea. The extraction parameters such as fiber type, sample amount, infrared power, extraction time, and infrared lamp distance were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. Under optimum conditions, a total of 82 volatile compounds in 21 green tea samples from different geographical origins were identified. Compared with classical water-bath heating, the proposed technique has remarkable advantages of considerably reducing the analytical time and high efficiency. In addition, an effective classification of green teas based on their volatile profiles was achieved by partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP values of the PLS-DA models and on the category from one-way univariate analysis (ANOVA allowed the identification of 12 potential volatile markers, which were considered to make the most important contribution to the discrimination of the samples. The results suggest that IRAE-HS-SPME/GC-MS technique combined with multivariate analysis offers a valuable tool to assess geographical traceability of different tea varieties.

  8. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V.

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C 17 O, H 13 CO + , CH 3 OH, C 34 S and C 2 H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H 13 CO + is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO + is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH 3 OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars

  9. Poblacion estelar joven embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ricardo Retes

    2008-06-01

    En esta tesis presento una metodología de seleccion y estudio de la población estelar embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205. La fuente IRAS posee colores de region Ultra Compacta HII (UCHII) y tiene deteccióon en monosulfuro de carbono (CS), trazador molecular de alta densidad, lo cual da la posibilidad de definir la nube molecular asociada hacia esta region. Lo anterior muestra que esta es buena candidata a región de formación estelar masiva. La metodología de seleccion de la población embebida, est à basada por una parte, en la distribución del gas molecular monoxido de carbono (13CO) asociado a la fuente IRAS, nube molecular seleccionada del mapeo Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) realizado en 13CO. Otros pasos de la seleccion, se basan en los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud con datos del cercano infrarrrojo de 2MASS. Para el estudio de la componente estelar se usaron los catalogos de fuentes puntuales en el cercano, medio y lejano infrarrojo de 2MASS, SPITZER e IRAS, respectivamente. De los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud, usando datos de 2MASS, se construyo un criterio fotométrico para identificar los objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos en la region molecular. Aplicando modelos a la distribución espectral de energía (SED) de algunos ellos, se encontraron parametros estelares de objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos de masa intermedia y alta. Adicionalmente, se encontro un objeto de masa ´ intermedia no identifiado por el catalogo de 2MASS y su efecto sobre el medio interestelar, emision en la banda de [4.5] μm de IRAC-Spitzer asociado a un outflow. Dos de los objetos seleccionados por el criterio fotometrico resultaron ser objetos estelares jovenes de alta e intermedia masa (B1V/B2V y B8V/A0V respectivamente), los cuales deben estar asociados a la emision radiativa responsable de los colores de región UC HII. Otro objeto estelar joven de baja masa (F0V/F5V) fue encontrado en la region de estudio

  10. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column dens...

  11. Observações espectroscópicas da candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Martins, S.; Pereira, C. B.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho apresentamos a análise fotosférica da estrela candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155. Com os dados obtidos no espectrógrafo FEROS foram determinados os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias fotosféricas utilizando o código MOOG. A análise do espectro mostrou que IRAS 19386+0155 possui os seguintes parâmetros atmosféricos : Teff = 6800K, log g = 1.4, [M/H] = -1.5 e Vt = 8.4 km/s. O padrão de abundância obtido para os elementos mais leves (Carbono, Nitrogênio e Oxigênio) e elementos a (Magnésio, Silício e Cálcio) foi inferior ao solar (log C = 7.74, log N = 7.28, Log O = 8.43, log Mg = 7.14, log Si = 7.54 e log Ca = 5.91). Uma inspeção visual do espectro ISO deste objeto revela a presença de poeira fria na forma de silicatos cristalinos. Embora as bandas mais marcantes de silicatos amorfos (em 10 mm e 18mm) não sejam observadas, a emissão em 21 mm, presente em algumas pós-AGBs também não está presente. O espectro ISO parece revelar um meio rico em oxigênio, mas a forma da distribuição de energia no infravermelho não obedece ao padrão apresentado por outras pós-AGBs. Nossos resultados nos levam a sugerir que IRAS 19386+0155 talvez faça parte de um sistema binário, uma vez que outras pós-AGBs que são membros de sistemas binários apresentam padrão de abundância semelhante.

  12. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  13. A ROTATING MOLECULAR DISK TOWARD IRAS 18162-2048, THE EXCITING SOURCE OF HH 80-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Curiel, S.; Girart, J. M.; Gomez, Y.; Ho, P. T. P.; Patel, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present several molecular line emission arcsecond and subarcsecond observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array in the direction of the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048, the exciting source of HH 80-81. The data clearly indicate the presence of a compact (radius ∼425-850 AU) SO 2 structure, enveloping the more compact (radius ∼ sun . The SO 2 spectral line data also allow us to constrain the structure temperature between 120 and 160 K and the volume density ∼> 2 x 10 9 cm -3 . We also find that such a rotating flattened system could be unstable due to gravitational disturbances. The data from C 17 O line emission show a dense core within this star-forming region. Additionally, the H 2 CO and SO emissions appear clumpy and trace the disk-like structure, a possible interaction between a molecular core and the outflows, and in part, the cavity walls excavated by the thermal radio jet.

  14. Tianma 65-m telescope detection of new OH maser features towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Yang, Kai; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bin; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Wang, Jin-Qing; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Yung, Bosco H. K.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of the OH maser observation towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 using the newly built Shanghai Tianma 65-m Radio Telescope. We observed the three OH ground state transition lines at frequencies of 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. Comparing with the spectra of previous observations, we find new maser spectral components at velocity channels largely shifted from the systemic velocity: the velocity offsets of the newly found components lie in the range 20-40 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity. Besides maser variability, another possible interpretation for the newly detected maser features is that part of the molecular gas in the circumstellar envelope is accelerated. The acceleration is probably caused by the passage of a high-velocity molecular jet, which has been detected in previous Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations in the H2O maser line.

  15. Chandra X-ray observations of the hyper-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F15307+3252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Gandhi, P.; Hogan, M. T.; Gendron-Marsolais, M.-L.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Iwasawa, K.; Mezcua, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs) lie at the extreme luminosity end of the IR galaxy population with LIR > 1013 L⊙. They are thought to be closer counterparts of the more distant sub-millimeter galaxies, and should therefore be optimal targets to study the most massive systems in formation. We present deep Chandra observations of IRAS F15307+3252 (100 ks), a classical HyLIRG located at z = 0.93 and hosting a radio-loud AGN (L1.4 GHz ˜ 3.5 × 1025 W Hz-1). The Chandra images reveal the presence of extended (r = 160 kpc), asymmetric X-ray emission in the soft 0.3-2.0 keV band that has no radio counterpart. We therefore argue that the emission is of thermal origin originating from a hot intragroup or intracluster medium virializing in the potential. We find that the temperature (˜2 keV) and bolometric X-ray luminosity (˜3 × 1043 erg s-1) of the gas follow the expected LX-ray-T correlation for groups and clusters, and that the gas has a remarkably short cooling time of 1.2 Gyr. In addition, VLA radio observations reveal that the galaxy hosts an unresolved compact steep-spectrum (CSS) source, most likely indicating the presence of a young radio source similar to 3C186. We also confirm that the nucleus is dominated by a redshifted 6.4 keV Fe Kα line, strongly suggesting that the AGN is Compton-thick. Finally, Hubble images reveal an overdensity of galaxies and sub-structure in the galaxy that correlates with soft X-ray emission. This could be a snapshot view of on-going groupings expected in a growing cluster environment. IRAS F15307+3252 might therefore be a rare example of a group in the process of transforming into a cluster.

  16. The ALMA-PILS survey: the sulphur connection between protostars and comets: IRAS 16293-2422 B and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Calmonte, Ursina; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Coutens, Audrey; Calcutt, Hannah; Müller, Holger S. P.; Bjerkeli, Per; Persson, Magnus V.; Wampfler, Susanne F.; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2018-06-01

    The evolutionary past of our Solar system can be pieced together by comparing analogous low-mass protostars with remnants of our Protosolar Nebula - comets. Sulphur-bearing molecules may be unique tracers of the joint evolution of the volatile and refractory components. ALMA Band 7 data from the large unbiased Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey are used to search for S-bearing molecules in the outer disc-like structure, ˜60 au from IRAS 16293-2422 B, and are compared with data on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) stemming from the ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) instrument aboard Rosetta. Species such as SO2, SO, OCS, CS, H2CS, H2S, and CH3SH are detected via at least one of their isotopologues towards IRAS 16293-2422 B. The search reveals a first-time detection of OC33S towards this source and a tentative first-time detection of C36S towards a low-mass protostar. The data show that IRAS 16293-2422 B contains much more OCS than H2S in comparison to 67P/C-G; meanwhile, the SO/SO2 ratio is in close agreement between the two targets. IRAS 16293-2422 B has a CH3SH/H2CS ratio in range of that of our Solar system (differences by a factor of 0.7-5.3). It is suggested that the levels of UV radiation during the initial collapse of the systems may have varied and have potentially been higher for IRAS 16293-2422 B due to its binary nature; thereby, converting more H2S into OCS. It remains to be conclusively tested if this also promotes the formation of S-bearing complex organics. Elevated UV levels of IRAS 16293-2422 B and a warmer birth cloud of our Solar system may jointly explain the variations between the two low-mass systems.

  17. The Small Magellanic Cloud in the far infrared. I. ISO's 170 mu m map and revisit of the IRAS 12-100 mu m data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, K.; Stickel, M.; Haas, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Klaas, U.; Lemke, D.

    2003-04-01

    The ISOPHOT experiment onboard the ISO satellite generated a complete view of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 170 mu m with 1.5 arcmin resolution. The map is analysed using an automated photometry program enabling accurate photometric characterization of the far infrared (FIR) emitting regions. An integrated FIR luminosity of 8.5x 107 Lsun is obtained, leading to a star formation rate of SFRFIR=0.015 Msun/yr. With an average dust temperature of TD, 170/100}=20.5 K>, the total dust mass follows to MD=3.7x105 Msun. In this paper, the sources detected at 170 mu m are compared with those obtainable from the IRAS satellite data. For this purpose, the 12 mu m, 25 mu m, 60 mu m, and 100 mu m IRAS high resolution (HiRes) maps of the SMC are re-examined using the same method. In contrast to former studies, this provides an all-band ISO/IRAS source catalog which is no longer based on eyeball classification, but relies on an algorithm which is capable of automated, repeatable photometry, even for irregular sources. In the mid infrared IRAS bands numerous bright FIR emitting regions in the SMC are detected and classified: 73 sources are found at 12 mu m, 135 at 25 mu m (most of them with Fnu =2.0 Jy. Comparable numbers are found for the two FIR IRAS maps at 60 mu m (384) and 100 mu m (338) with fluxes up to 450 Jy. 70 of the 243 170 mu m sources are assigned a general SED type (``cold'', ``warm'', i.e., 30 K) for the first time. A comparison with earlier IRAS results suggests that many source flux densities in those studies have been under- or overestimated because of non-standardized fitting methods. Many sources with flux densities up to 40 Jy listed in former catalogs cannot be identified in our data. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. The tables in Appendices A to E are only available in

  18. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto-and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power...

  19. IRAS observations of the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects. II. The Reipurth and Graham sample and low-resolution spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using IRAS COADDed images, candidates are suggested for the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects from the Reipurth and Graham sample. The IRAS low-resolution spectrometer provides spectra for 20 of the 46 candidate stars so far identified as exciting young, unevolved H-H systems. These reveal 10-micron silicate absorption features, or are too red to show detectable flux near 10 microns. The histogram of bolometric luminosities for 46 young Herbig-Haro exciting stars has a median of 13 solar luminosities and a mode between 16 and 32 solar luminosities. Although the enlarged sample of known exciting stars has more of the higher luminosity objects than an earlier sample, the histogram still represents a generally low-luminosity distribution. 27 refs

  20. Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (VIS + wIRA Alters In Situ Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Al-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Recently, growing attention has been paid to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT in dentistry. Changing the microbial composition of initial and mature oral biofilm by aPDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A wavelengths (VIS + wIRA has not yet been investigated. Moreover, most aPDT studies have been conducted on planktonic bacterial cultures. Therefore, in the present clinical study we cultivated initial and mature oral biofilms in six healthy volunteers for 2 hours or 3 days, respectively. The biofilms were treated with aPDT using VIS+wIRA (200 mW cm(-2, toluidine blue (TB and chlorine e6 (Ce6 for 5 minutes. Chlorhexidine treated biofilm samples served as positive controls, while untreated biofilms served as negative controls. After aPDT treatment the colony forming units (CFU of the biofilm samples were quantified, and the surviving bacteria were isolated in pure cultures and identified using MALDI-TOF, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA-sequencing. aPDT killed more than 99.9% of the initial viable bacterial count and 95% of the mature oral biofilm in situ, independent of the photosensitizer. The number of surviving bacterial species was highly reduced to 6 (TB and 4 (Ce6 in the treated initial oral biofilm compared to the 20 different species of the untreated biofilm. The proportions of surviving bacterial species were also changed after TB- and Ce6-mediated aPDT of the mature oral biofilm, resulting in a shift in the microbial composition of the treated biofilm compared to that of the control biofilm. In conclusion, aPDT using VIS + wIRA showed a remarkable potential to eradicate both initial and mature oral biofilms, and also to markedly alter the remaining biofilm. This encourages the clinical use of aPDT with VIS + wIRA for the treatment of periimplantitis and periodontitis.

  1. A Biomarker to Differentiate between Primary and Cocaine-Induced Major Depression in Cocaine Use Disorder: The Role of Platelet IRAS/Nischarin (I1-Imidazoline Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of cocaine use disorder (CUD and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD; CUD/MDD is characterized by high prevalence and poor treatment outcomes. CUD/MDD may be primary (primary MDD or cocaine-induced (CUD-induced MDD. Specific biomarkers are needed to improve diagnoses and therapeutic approaches in this dual pathology. Platelet biomarkers [5-HT2A receptor and imidazoline receptor antisera selected (IRAS/nischarin] were assessed by Western blot in subjects with CUD and primary MDD (n = 16 or CUD-induced MDD (n = 9; antidepressant free, AD−; antidepressant treated, AD+ and controls (n = 10 at basal level and/or after acute tryptophan depletion (ATD. Basal platelet 5-HT2A receptor (monomer was reduced in comorbid CUD/MDD subjects (all patients: 43% compared to healthy controls, and this down-regulation was independent of AD medication (decreases in AD−: 47%, and in AD+: 40%. No basal differences were found for IRAS/nischarin contents in AD+ and AD− comorbid CUD/MDD subjects. The comparison of IRAS/nischarin in the different subject groups during/after ATD showed opposite modulations (i.e., increases and decreases in response to low plasma tryptophan levels with significant differences discriminating between the subgroups of CUD with primary MDD and CUD-induced MDD. These specific alterations suggested that platelet IRAS/nischarin might be useful as a biomarker to discriminate between primary and CUD-induced MDD in this dual pathology.

  2. The ALMA-PILS survey: 3D modeling of the envelope, disks and dust filament of IRAS 16293-2422

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, S. K.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Calcutt, H.; Bourke, T. L.; Brinch, C.; Coutens, A.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Müller, H. S. P.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 is an interesting target for (sub)millimeter observations due to, both, the rich chemistry toward the two main components of the binary and its complex morphology. Its proximity to Earth allows the study of its physical and chemical structure on solar system scales using high angular resolution observations. Such data reveal a complex morphology that cannot be accounted for in traditional, spherical 1D models of the envelope. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to study the environment of the two components of the binary through 3D radiative transfer modeling and to compare with data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Such comparisons can be used to constrain the protoplanetary disk structures, the luminosities of the two components of the binary and the chemistry of simple species. Methods: We present 13CO, C17O and C18O J = 3-2 observations from the ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), together with a qualitative study of the dust and gas density distribution of IRAS 16293-2422. A 3D dust and gas model including disks and a dust filament between the two protostars is constructed which qualitatively reproduces the dust continuum and gas line emission. Results: Radiative transfer modeling in our sampled parameter space suggests that, while the disk around source A could not be constrained, the disk around source B has to be vertically extended. This puffed-up structure can be obtained with both a protoplanetary disk model with an unexpectedly high scale-height and with the density solution from an infalling, rotating collapse. Combined constraints on our 3D model, from observed dust continuum and CO isotopologue emission between the sources, corroborate that source A should be at least six times more luminous than source B. We also demonstrate that the volume of high-temperature regions where complex organic molecules arise is sensitive to whether or not the total

  3. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT VERSUS IRAS TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE-SEQUENCE OF OXYGEN-RICH LATE-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Capen, Stephanie M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) two-color diagrams that can be used to characterize circumstellar environments of sources with good quality MSX colors in terms of IRAS color regions for oxygen-rich stars. With these diagrams, we aim to provide a new tool that can be used to study circumstellar environments and to improve detection rates for targeted surveys for circumstellar maser emission similar to the IRAS two-color diagram. This new tool is especially useful for regions in the sky where IRAS was confused, in particular in the Galactic plane and bulge region. Unfortunately, using MSX colors alone does not allow one to distinguish between carbon-rich and oxygen-rich objects. An application of this tool on 86 GHz SiO masers shows that for this type of masers an instantaneous detection rate of 60% to 80% can be achieved if target sources are selected according to MSX color (region). Our investigations may have revealed an error in the MSX point source catalog version 2.3. That is, the photometry of the 21.3 μm (MSX E filter) band for most weak 8.28 μm (or MSX A filter) band sources seems off by about a factor 2 (0.5-1 mag too bright).

  4. IRAS 18153-1651: an H II region with a possible wind bubble blown by a young main-sequence B star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mackey, J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Chené, A.-N.; Castro, N.; Haworth, T. J.; Grebel, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic observations and numerical modelling of the H II region IRAS 18153-1651. Our study was motivated by the discovery of an optical arc and two main-sequence stars of spectral type B1 and B3 near the centre of IRAS 18153-1651. We interpret the arc as the edge of the wind bubble (blown by the B1 star), whose brightness is enhanced by the interaction with a photoevaporation flow from a nearby molecular cloud. This interpretation implies that we deal with a unique case of a young massive star (the most massive member of a recently formed low-mass star cluster) caught just tens of thousands of years after its stellar wind has begun to blow a bubble into the surrounding dense medium. Our 2D, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the wind bubble and the H II region around the B1 star provide a reasonable match to observations, both in terms of morphology and absolute brightness of the optical and mid-infrared emission, and verify the young age of IRAS 18153-1651. Taken together our results strongly suggest that we have revealed the first example of a wind bubble blown by a main-sequence B star.

  5. Gemini IFU, VLA, and HST observations of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS F23199+0123: the hidden monster and its outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekatelyne, C.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Sales, Dinalva; Robinson, Andrew; Gallimore, Jack; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Kharb, Preeti; O'Dea, Christopher; Baum, Stefi

    2018-03-01

    We present Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral field Unit (IFU), Very Large Array (VLA), and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the OH megamaser (OHM) galaxy IRAS F23199+0123. Our observations show that this system is an interacting pair, with two OHM sources associated with the eastern (IRAS 23199E) member. The two members of the pair present somewhat extended radio emission at 3 and 20 cm, with flux peaks at each nucleus. The GMOS-IFU observations cover the inner ˜6 kpc of IRAS 23199E at a spatial resolution of 2.3 kpc. The GMOS-IFU flux distributions in Hα and [N II] λ6583 are similar to that of an HST [N II]+Hα narrow-band image, being more extended along the north-east-south-west direction, as also observed in the continuum HST F814W image. The GMOS-IFU Hα flux map of IRAS 23199E shows three extranuclear knots attributed to star-forming complexes. We have discovered a Seyfert 1 nucleus in this galaxy, as its nuclear spectrum shows an unresolved broad (full width at half-maximum ≈2170 km s-1) double-peaked Hα component, from which we derive a black hole mass of M_{BH} = 3.8^{+0.3}_{-0.2}× 106 M⊙. The gas kinematics shows low velocity dispersions (σ) and low [N II]/Hα ratios for the star-forming complexes and higher σ and [N II]/Hα surrounding the radio emission region, supporting interaction between the radio plasma and ambient gas. The two OH masers detected in IRAS F23199E are observed in the vicinity of these enhanced σ regions, supporting their association with the active nucleus and its interaction with the surrounding gas. The gas velocity field can be partially reproduced by rotation in a disc, with residuals along the north-south direction being tentatively attributed to emission from the front walls of a bipolar outflow.

  6. Hot water in the Inner 100 AU of the Class 0 protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Ruud; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Kristensen, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    -303 lines of H_2^{16}O and H_2^{18}O (1097 GHz, E u/k = 249 K) in the low-mass Class 0 protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A. A spherical radiative transfer model with a power-law density profile is unable to reproduce both the HIFI data and existing interferometric data on the H_2^{18}O 313-220 line (203 GHz, E u....../k = 204 K). Instead, the HIFI spectra likely show optically thick emission from a hot core with a radius of about 100 AU. The mass of the hot core is estimated from the C18O J = 9-8 and 10-9 lines. We derive a lower limit to the hot water abundance of 2 × 10-5, consistent with the theoretical predictions...... of ~10-4. The revised HDO/H2O abundance ratio is 1 × 10-3, an order of magnitude lower than previously estimated. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA....

  7. SUBARCSECOND ANALYSIS OF THE INFALLING–ROTATING ENVELOPE AROUND THE CLASS I PROTOSTAR IRAS 04365+2535

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Kahane, Claudine [Universite de Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2016-04-01

    Subarcsecond images of the rotational line emission of CS and SO have been obtained toward the Class I protostar IRAS 04365+2535 in TMC-1A with ALMA. A compact component around the protostar is clearly detected in the CS and SO emission. The velocity structure of the compact component of CS reveals infalling–rotating motion conserving the angular momentum. It is well explained by a ballistic model of an infalling–rotating envelope with the radius of the centrifugal barrier (one-half of the centrifugal radius) of 50 au, although the distribution of the infalling gas is asymmetric around the protostar. The distribution of SO is mostly concentrated around the radius of the centrifugal barrier of the simple model. Thus, a drastic change in chemical composition of the gas infalling onto the protostar is found to occur at a 50 au scale probably due to accretion shocks, demonstrating that the infalling material is significantly processed before being delivered into the disk.

  8. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  9. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE B[e] PHENOMENON. III. PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART OF IRAS 00470+6429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Chentsov, E. L.; Klochkova, V. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Grankin, K. N.; Kusakin, A. V.; Gandet, T. L.; Klingenberg, G.; Kildahl, S.; Rudy, R. J.; Lynch, D. K.; Venturini, C. C.; Mazuk, S.; Puetter, R. C.; Perry, R. B.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Gray, R. O.; Bernabei, S.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2009-01-01

    FS CMa type stars are a group of Galactic objects with the B[e] phenomenon. They exhibit strong emission-line spectra and infrared excesses, which are most likely due to recently formed circumstellar dust. The group content and identification criteria were described in the first two papers of the series. In this paper we report our spectroscopic and photometric observations of the optical counterpart of IRAS 00470+6429 obtained in 2003-2008. The optical spectrum is dominated by emission lines, most of which have P Cyg type profiles. We detected significant brightness variations, which may include a regular component, and variable spectral line profiles in both shape and position. The presence of a weak Li I 6708 A line in the spectrum suggests that the object is most likely a binary system with a B2-B3 spectral-type primary companion of a luminosity log L/L sun = 3.9 ± 0.3 and a late-type secondary companion. We estimate a distance toward the object to be 2.0 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun.

  10. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  11. Chemical and Physical Picture of IRAS 16293–2422 Source B at a Sub-arcsecond Scale Studied with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yoko; Moriwaki, Kana; Onishi, Shusuke; Sakai, Nami; López–Sepulcre, Ana; Favre, Cécile; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the OCS, H2CS, CH3OH, and HCOOCH3 data observed toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293–2422 Source B at a sub-arcsecond resolution with ALMA. A clear chemical differentiation is seen in their distributions; OCS and H2CS are extended with a slight rotation signature, while CH3OH and HCOOCH3 are concentrated near the protostar. Such a chemical change in the vicinity of the protostar is similar to the companion (Source A) case. The extended component is interpreted by the infalling-rotating envelope model with a nearly face-on configuration. The radius of the centrifugal barrier of the infalling-rotating envelope is roughly evaluated to be (30–50) au. The observed lines show the inverse P-Cygni profile, indicating the infall motion within a few 10 au from the protostar. The nearly pole-on geometry of the outflow lobes is inferred from the SiO distribution, and thus, the infalling and outflowing motions should coexist along the line of sight to the protostar. This implies that the infalling gas is localized near the protostar and the current launching points of the outflow have an offset from the protostar. A possible mechanism for this configuration is discussed.

  12. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  13. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  14. The 1.5 Ms Observing Campaign on IRAS 13224-3809: X-ray Spectral Analysis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Alston, W. N.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Cackett, E. M.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Dauser, T.; Gallo, L. C.; García, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A. M.; De Marco, B.; Kara, E.; Miller, J. M.; Miniutti, G.; Pinto, C.; Walton, D. J.; Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the recent 1.5 Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809, taken simultaneously with 500 ks of NuSTAR data. The X-ray lightcurve shows three flux peaks, registering at about 100 times the minimum flux seen during the campaign, and rapid variability with a time scale of kiloseconds. The spectra are well fit with a primary powerlaw continuum, two relativistic-blurred reflection components from the inner accretion disk with very high iron abundance, and a simple blackbody-shaped model for the remaining soft excess. The spectral variability is dominated by the power law continuum from a corona region within a few gravitational radii from the black hole. Additionally, blueshifted Ne X, Mg XII, Si XIV and S XVI absorption lines are identified in the stacked low-flux spectrum, confirming the presence of a highly ionized outflow with velocity up to v = 0.263 and 0.229 c. We fit the absorption features with xstar models and find a relatively constant velocity outflow through the whole observation. Finally, we replace the bbody and supersolar abundance reflection models by fitting the soft excess successfully with the extended reflection model relxillD, which allows for higher densities than the standard relxill model. This returns a disk electron density ne > 1018.7 cm-3 and lowers the iron abundance from Z_Fe=24^{+3}_{-4}Z_⊙ with ne ≡ 1015 cm-3 to Z_Fe=6.6^{+0.8}_{-2.1}Z_⊙.

  15. Recuperación de oro desde un medio amoniaco-tiosulfato con resina de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, P.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and elution of gold in thiosulfate-ammonia media were studied at laboratory level using the Amberlite IRA-410 ionic exchange resin. Tests were carried out in a stirred reactor, maintaining constant temperature (25 ºC, with a volume of solution/mass of resin ratio of 833,3 ml/g and during 3 h. The variables tested were the following: pH (9-11, thiosulfate concentration (0-0,5 M, ammonia concentration (0-0,5 M and selectivity in the presence of cupric ion. The obtained results indicate that gold adsorption was quick; the presence of thiosulfate decreased strongly the adsorption; and the presence of ammonia did not affect the adsorption mostly. The copper was in a certain measure a competitor of the gold, but its biggest negative effect was that acted as catalyst of the oxidizing reaction of thiosulfate (S2O3 2– to tetrathionate (S4O6 2– and trithionate (S3O6 2–, which can cause a partial elution of gold during the load stage. Also, the behavior of ClO– 4, SO3 2– and ClO– as eluents was studied in both gold and copper elution. These tests were also carried out in a stirred reactor, to constant temperature (25 ºC, with a volume of aqueous solution/mass of resin ratio of 200 ml/g and for 3 h. Results demonstrated that the copper was eluted more quickly that the gold in all the cases.

    Se estudió, a nivel de laboratorio, la adsorción y desorción de oro utilizando la resina de intercambio iónico Amberlite IRA-410 en medio tiosulfato-amoniaco. Los ensayos se realizaron en un reactor agitado, manteniendo constante la temperatura en 25 ºC y con una razón volumen de disolución/masa de resina de 833,3 ml/g durante 3 h. Las variables evaluadas fueron las siguientes: pH de 9 a 11, concentración de tiosulfato de 0 a 0,5 M, concentración de amoniaco de 0 a 0,5 M y selectividad frente al i

  16. Estudio clínico-epidemiológico y molecular de Metapneumovirus Humano en pacientes con Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar H, Cerraf E; Moncho S, Alessandra; Fernandez S, David; Aguilar M, Marwan S; Morón, Dulce

    2014-01-01

    El Metapneumovirus Humano (MPVh) ha sido asociado con Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA) en pacientes de todas las edades. Estudios epidemiológicos indican la prevalencia del MPVh alrededor del mundo, sin embargo, en Venezuela poco se conoce sobre su comportamiento en la población. Este estudio pretende describir el comportamiento epidemiológico de la infección por MPVh en pacientes venezolanos. Se evaluaron por RT-PCR multiplex 1812 hisopados nasales (HN) provenientes de pacientes con di...

  17. La Evoluci?n de la percepci?n del rol del IRA Provisional a partir de est?mulos generados por el Sistema Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Cort?s Rojas, Mar?a Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Esta investigaci?n tiene como objetivo explicar los cambios en la forma de lucha, tanto armada como pol?tica, del IRA Provisional a partir del surgimiento de movimientos por los derechos civiles en Estados Unidos, el fin de la Guerra Fr?a y la deslegitimaci?n de los movimientos anti-imperialistas, el auge econ?mico irland?s y la expansi?n de los valores de la Uni?n Europea. Estos cambios pueden verse explicados por la forma en la que el grupo cambia su percepci?n del rol que desarrolla dentro...

  18. Niveles de ira en deportistas: diferencias en función del grado de contacto y el género. [Anger intensity in sportspeople: differences based on contact and gender].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Menéndez-Santurio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron tres: (1 analizar los niveles de ira de las personas en función del grado de contacto en el deporte practicado, (2 examinar los niveles de ira en función del género, y (3 determinar posibles correlaciones entre la ira y la edad, los años, los días y las horas semanales de práctica. 398 personas (188 hombres y 210 mujeres entre 16 y 35 años accedieron a participar: 148 competidores de deportes de contacto, 138 de deportes sin contacto y 112 no practicantes. Se llevó a cabo una investigación cuantitativa de tipo comparativa transversal. Se utilizó el Inventario de la Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05 en el sentimiento de ira entre no practicantes y practicantes de deportes sin contacto, en la expresión verbal de la ira entre practicantes de deportes de contacto y sin contacto y en la reacción a la ira entre no-practicantes y practicantes de deportes de contacto. Asimismo, se hallaron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05 en las variables rasgo de ira, control interno de ira y expresión física de la ira en función del género. También se encontraron correlaciones negativas significativas (p < 0,05 entre la edad, días y años de práctica y la ira. Estos hallazgos señalan que los niveles de ira se ven afectados por la cantidad, intensidad y grado de contacto de su práctica deportiva, así como por el género. Abstract The aims of this study were three: (1 to assess individuals’ anger levels based on the contact in the sport, (2 to examine anger levels based on gender, and (3 to determine possible correlations between anger and age, years, days, and hours of practice. 398 individuals (188 males and 210 females between 16 and 35 years agreed to participate: 148 contact-sport competitors, 138 contactless sport and 112 individuals who did not practice any sport. A comparative, transversal quantitative research design was carried out

  19. Discriminación en el trabajo y el vecindario hacia las mujeres que viven con VIH y su relación con la depresión y la ira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el nivel de discriminación percibida en el trabajo y el vecindario, y se estudia la relación que tiene con la depresión y la ira. La escala de Discriminación Temida y Percibida, el Inventario de Depresión de Beck y el Inventario de Rasgo- Estado-Expresión de Ira se aplicaron a una muestra no probabilística de 200 mujeres con VIH. Se percibe discriminación en el trabajo y el vecindario con mayor frecuencia que en la familia. La discriminación se relacionó más con depresión, no teniendo la ira un papel mediador. Se concluye que prevenir la discriminación podría ser un factor protector de depresión en mujeres que viven con VIH.

  20. Influencia de las Emociones Negativas (Ansiedad, Depresión e Ira sobre la Eficacia de un Programa de Tratamiento Cognitivo Conductual de Deshabituación al Tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Pérez-Pareja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de la ansiedad, la ira y la depresión, como emociones negativas, sobre el éxito en la aplicación de un tratamiento psicológico de carácter cognitivo-conductual para dejar de fumar. Estas tres respuestas emocionales fueron evaluadas en una muestra final de 180 personas antes de iniciar el tratamiento. Los resultados muestran que la depresión y la ira ejercen una importante influencia sobre el éxito terapéutico; es decir, habiendo dejado de fumar, mientras que la ansiedad no muestra efectos significativos. Sujetos con elevadas puntuaciones en depresión presentan importantes dificultades para finalizar el programa de manera exitosa, mientras que sujetos con puntuaciones elevadas en ira muestran una buena adherencia y un importante porcentaje de éxito en el tratamiento.

  1. Gold atoms and clusters on MgO(100) films; an EPR and IRAS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulikov, M.; Sterrer, M.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

    2009-06-01

    Single gold atoms deposited on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) films grown on Mo(1 0 0) are characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as IR spectroscopy using CO as probe molecules. In this article we describe the first angular dependent measurements to determine the principal hyperfine components of a secondary hyperfine interaction, namely, with 17O of the MgO. The values determined here are in perfect agreement with theoretical expectations and corroborate the previously reported binding mechanism of Au atoms on the oxygen anions of the MgO terrace. The temperature dependent EPR data reveal an onset of Au atom mobility at about 80 K while the formation of Au particles occurs only above 125 K. By an analysis of the EPR line width in combination with STM measurements it is possible to deduce an increase of the interatomic distance above 80 K. The Au/CO complexes show a somewhat smaller temperature stability as compared to the Au atoms. The observed thermal stability is in perfect agreement with theoretical predictions for CO desorption.

  2. Influencia de las Emociones Negativas (Ansiedad, Depresión e Ira) sobre la Eficacia de un Programa de Tratamiento Cognitivo Conductual de Deshabituación al Tabaco

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Pérez-Pareja; Albert Sesé; Ana Filomena Romo; Alfonso Palmer; Manuel Tomás

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de la ansiedad, la ira y la depresión, como emociones negativas, sobre el éxito en la aplicación de un tratamiento psicológico de carácter cognitivo-conductual para dejar de fumar. Estas tres respuestas emocionales fueron evaluadas en una muestra final de 180 personas antes de iniciar el tratamiento. Los resultados muestran que la depresión y la ira ejercen una importante influencia sobre el éxito terapéutico; es decir, habiendo deja...

  3. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - hidden quasar or protogalaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan-Robinson, M; Broadhurst, T [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Lawrence, A [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics; McMahon, R G [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Lonsdale, C J [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Oliver, S J; Taylor, A N [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Hacking, P B; Conrow, T [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Saunders, W [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Ellis, R S [Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Efstathiou, G P [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Condon, J J [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (USA)

    1991-06-27

    During a survey intended to measure redshifts for 1,400 galaxies identified with faint sources detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite, we found an emission-line galaxy at a redshift of 2.286, and with the enormous far-infrared luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 14} times that of the sun (L{sub sun}) The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-{alpha} emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the infrared energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the infrared emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. In either case, this is a remarkable object, and the presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch. (author).

  4. NuSTAR View of the Black Hole Wind in the Galaxy Merger IRAS F11119+3257

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Lohfink, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Piconcelli, E.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.

    2017-12-01

    Galactic winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been invoked to play a fundamental role in the co-evolution between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Finding observational evidence of such feedback mechanisms is of crucial importance and it requires a multi-wavelength approach in order to compare winds at different scales and phases. In Tombesi et al., we reported the detection of a powerful ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F11119+3257. The comparison with a galaxy-scale OH molecular outflow observed with Herschel in the same source supported the energy-conserving scenario for AGN feedback. The main objective of this work is to perform an independent check of the Suzaku results using the higher sensitivity and wider X-ray continuum coverage of NuSTAR. We clearly detect a highly ionized Fe K UFO in the 100 ks NuSTAR spectrum with parameters N H = (3.2 ± 1.5) × 1024 cm-2, log ξ = {4.0}-0.3+1.2 erg s-1 cm, and {v}{out}={0.253}-0.118+0.061c. The launching radius is likely at a distance of r ≥ 16r s from the black hole. The mass outflow rate is in the range of {\\dot{M}}{out} ≃ 0.5-2 M ⊙ yr-1. The UFO momentum rate and power are {\\dot{P}}{out} ≃ 0.5-2 L AGN/c and {\\dot{E}}{out} ≃ 7%-27% L AGN, respectively. The UFO parameters are consistent between the 2013 Suzaku and the 2015 NuSTAR observations. Only the column density is found to be variable, possibly suggesting a clumpy wind. The comparison with the energetics of molecular outflows estimated in infrared and millimeter wavelengths support a connection between the nuclear and galaxy-scale winds in luminous AGNs.

  5. WITNESSING THE KEY EARLY PHASE OF QUASAR EVOLUTION: AN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIR IN THE INTERACTING GALAXY IRAS 20210+1121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair in the interacting galaxy system IRAS 20210+1121 at z = 0.056. An XMM-Newton observation reveals the presence of an obscured (N H ∼ 5 x 10 23 cm -2 ), Seyfert-like (L 2-10keV = 4.7 x 10 42 erg s -1 ) nucleus in the northern galaxy, which lacks unambiguous optical AGN signatures. Our spectral analysis also provides strong evidence that the IR-luminous southern galaxy hosts a Type 2 quasar embedded in a bright starburst emission. In particular, the X-ray primary continuum from the nucleus appears totally depressed in the XMM-Newton band as expected in the case of a Compton-thick absorber, and only the emission produced by Compton scattering ('reflection') of the continuum from circumnuclear matter is seen. As such, IRAS 20210+1121 seems to provide an excellent opportunity to witness a key, early phase in the quasar evolution predicted by the theoretical models of quasar activation by galaxy collisions.

  6. HIGHLY VARIABLE EXTINCTION AND ACCRETION IN THE JET-DRIVING CLASS I-TYPE YOUNG STAR PTF 10nvg (V2492 Cyg, IRAS 20496+4354)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, Adam A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We report extensive new photometry and spectroscopy of the highly variable young stellar object PTF 10nvg (also known as IRAS 20496+4354 and V2492 Cyg), including optical and near-infrared time-series data as well as mid-infrared and millimeter data. Following the previously reported 2010 rise to R{sub PTF} {approx}<13.{sup m}5 and subsequent fade, during 2011 and 2012 the source underwent additional episodes of brightening, followed by several magnitude dimming events including prolonged faint states at R{sub PTF} {approx}> 20{sup m}. The observed high-amplitude variations are largely consistent with extinction changes ({Delta}A{sub V} up to 30 mag) having a {approx}220 day quasi-periodic signal. However, photometry measured when the source was near maximum brightness in mid-2010 as well as in late-2012 does not phase well to this period. Spectral evolution includes not only changes in the spectral slope but also correlated variation in the prominence of TiO/VO/CO bands and atomic line emission, as well as anti-correlated variation in forbidden line emission which, along with H{sub 2}, dominates optical and infrared spectra at faint epochs. Notably, night-to-night variations in several forbidden doublet strengths and ratios are observed. High-dispersion spectra were obtained in a variety of photometric states and reveal time-variable line profiles. Neutral and singly ionized atomic species are likely formed in an accretion flow and/or impact while the origin of zero-velocity atomic Li I {lambda}6707 in emission is unknown. Forbidden lines, including several rare species, exhibit blueshifted emission profiles and likely arise from an outflow/jet. Several of these lines are also seen spatially offset from the continuum source position, presumably in a shocked region of an extended jet. Blueshifted absorption components of the Na I D doublet, K I {lambda}{lambda}7665, 7669 doublet, and the O I 7774 triplet, as well as blueshifted absorption components seen against

  7. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA and Chlorine e6 (Ce6 eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6 against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 µg/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU. Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Atopopium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43 - 8.34 and 3.91 - 4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45 % of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as

  8. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  9. Estrés percibido, ansiedad, depresión e ira en el proceso de reproducción asistida : un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ortega, Melania; Barraca Mairal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    En el artículo se presenta un caso donde se analiza la presencia del estrés, la tristeza, la ansiedad, la ira y el desajuste emocional a lo largo de la aplicación de una técnica de reproducción asistida (Microinyección Espermática-ICSI). Se evaluó a una pareja, ambos de 34 años, antes de comenzar ICSI, durante las fases del proceso y posteriormente. Para la evaluación de sintomatología a lo largo de la intervención médica se utilizaron el BDI-II, el STAI, el STAXI-2...

  10. IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin; McKee, Christopher F.; Suh, Kyung-Won; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi; Burton, Michael G.; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Bessell, Michael S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended (∼4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at ≥10 μm. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 μm, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

  11. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  12. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  13. Provocaciones del alumnado y emoción de ira en el profesorado de Educación Física: El caso de los centros de atención educativa preferente de la ciudad de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Ayme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este artículo son: a identificar los diferentes tipos de provocaciones del alumnado en las clases de Educación Física y b relacionarlos con las reacciones de ira (y sus grados de intensidad de cinco profesores de esta materia que ejercen en centros de atención educativa preferente (CAEP en Barcelona. Los resultados del análisis de cincuenta sesiones muestran que: a cuatro de los cinco profesores sintieron intensidades “bajas” de ira en la mayoría de ocasiones; b lo que les produce una mayor intensidad de ira es la no participación del alumnado, aunque las intensidades emocionales varían según el tipo de provocación, y c la percepción del “nivel de perjuicio” y “carácter voluntario” de las provocaciones explican hasta un 51 % de la variación del nivel de intensidad de las respuestas emocionales de estos profesores.

  14. ALMA Compact Array observations of the Fried Egg nebula: Evidence for large-scale asymmetric mass-loss from the yellow hypergiant IRAS 17163-3907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, S H J; Lagadec, E; Muller, S; Black, J H; Cox, N L J; Galván-Madrid, R; Justtanont, K; Longmore, S; Olofsson, H; Oudmaijer, R D; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Szczerba, R; Vlemmings, W; van Winckel, H; Zijlstra, A

    2017-01-10

    Yellow hypergiants are rare and represent a fast evolutionary stage of massive evolved stars. That evolutionary phase is characterised by a very intense mass loss, the understanding of which is still very limited. Here we report ALMA Compact Array observations of a 50″-mosaic toward the Fried Egg nebula, around one of the few Galactic yellow hypergiants IRAS 17163-3907. The emission from the 12 CO J=2-1 line, H30 α recombination line, and continuum is imaged at a resolution of ~8″, revealing the morphology of the molecular environment around the star. The continuum emission is unresolved and peaks at the position of the star. The radio recombination line H30 α shows unresolved emission at the star, with an approximately gaussian spectrum centered on a velocity of 21±3 km s -1 with a width of 57±6 km s -1 . In contrast, the CO 2-1 emission is complex and decomposes into several components beyond the contamination from interstellar gas in the line of sight. The CO spectrum toward the star is a broad plateau, centered at the systemic velocity of +18 km s -1 and with an expansion velocity of 100±10 km s -1 . Assuming isotropic and constant mass-loss, we estimate a mass-loss rate of 8±1.5 ×10 -5 M ⊙ yr -1 . At a radius of 25″ from the star, we detect CO emission associated with the dust ring previously imaged by Herschel . The kinematics of this ring, however, is not consistent with an expanding shell, but show a velocity gradient of v sys ±20 km s -1 . In addition, we find a puzzling bright feature radially connecting the star to the CO ring, at a velocity of +40 km s -1 relative to the star. This spur feature may trace a unidirectional ejection event from the star. Our ACA observations reveal the complex morphology around IRAS 17163 and illustrate the breakthroughs that ALMA will bring to the field of massive stellar evolution.

  15. High-resolution observations of IRAS 08544-4431. Detection of a disk orbiting a post-AGB star and of a slow disk wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Winckel, H. Van; Alcolea, J.; Contreras, C. Sánchez; Santander-García, M.; Hillen, M.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Aims: In order to study the effects of rotating disks in the post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) evolution, we observe a class of binary post-AGB stars that seem to be systematically surrounded by equatorial disks and slow outflows. Although the rotating dynamics had only been well identified in three cases, the study of such structures is thought to be fundamental to the understanding of the formation of disks in various phases of the late evolution of binary stars and the ejection of planetary nebulae from evolved stars. Methods: We present ALMA maps of 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 lines in the source IRAS 08544-4431, which belongs to the above mentioned class of objects. We analyzed the data by means of nebula models, which account for the expectedly composite source and can reproduce the data. From our modeling, we estimated the main nebula parameters, including the structure and dynamics and the density and temperature distributions. We discuss the uncertainties of the derived values and, in particular, their dependence on the distance. Results: Our observations reveal the presence of an equatorial disk in rotation; a low-velocity outflow is also found, probably formed of gas expelled from the disk. The main characteristics of our observations and modeling of IRAS 08544-4431 are similar to those of better studied objects, confirming our interpretation. The disk rotation indicates a total central mass of about 1.8 M⊙, for a distance of 1100 pc. The disk is found to be relatively extended and has a typical diameter of 4 × 1016 cm. The total nebular mass is 2 × 10-2 M⊙, of which 90% corresponds to the disk. Assuming that the outflow is due to mass loss from the disk, we derive a disk lifetime of 10 000 yr. The disk angular momentum is found to be comparable to that of the binary system at present. Assuming that the disk angular momentum was transferred from the binary system, as expected, the high values of the disk angular momentum in this and other

  16. Spatially resolved chemistry in nearby galaxies. III. Dense molecular gas in the inner disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Beck, Sara C., E-mail: dmeier@nmt.edu, E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sara@wise.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Ramat Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-10

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at ≲ 4'' resolution include C{sup 18}O, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CN, CH{sub 3}OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, {sup 13}CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate ≳10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (∼40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/{sup 13}CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (≲ 3). {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C{sup 18}O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. {sup 13}CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH{sub 3}OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L {sub IR}, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  17. A substellar-mass protostar and its outflow of IRAS 15398–3359 revealed by subarcsecond-resolution observations of H{sub 2}CO and CCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K. [Center for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Østeer Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F., E-mail: nami@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden, The Netherland (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    Subarcsecond (0.''5) images of H{sub 2}CO and CCH line emission have been obtained in the 0.8 mm band toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398–3359 in the Lupus 1 cloud as one of the Cycle 0 projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. We have detected a compact component concentrated in the vicinity of the protostar and a well-collimated outflow cavity extending along the northeast-southwest axis. The inclination angle of the outflow is found to be about 20°, or almost edge-on, based on the kinematic structure of the outflow cavity. This is in contrast to previous suggestions of a more pole-on geometry. The centrally concentrated component is interpreted by use of a model of the infalling rotating envelope with the estimated inclination angle and the mass of the protostar is estimated to be less than 0.09 M {sub ☉}. Higher spatial resolution data are needed to infer the presence of a rotationally supported disk for this source, hinted at by a weak high-velocity H{sub 2}CO emission associated with the protostar.

  18. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  19. Handling of Astyanax sp. for biomonitoring in Cangüiri Farm within a fountainhead (Iraí River Environment Preservation Area) through the use of genetic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdorf, Wanessa Algarte; Vicari, Taynah; de Almeida, Marina I M; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2012-10-01

    Aquatic environmental pollution may cause biodiversity loss. Thus, monitoring studies are very important because fish health reflects both quality and sustainability of the environment, as well as of the individuals that live there. In the present report, genetic biomarkers (piscine micronucleus test; comet assay with blood, liver, and kidney cells) were used in specimens of Astyanax sp. to analyze the contamination level of the Cangüiri Farm through biomonitoring. The Cangüiri Farm, the old school farm of the Federal University of Paraná, is inside the Iraí River Environment Preservation Area, created in 1996 to preserve the sources of public water supply in Curitiba and metropolitan area. We verified that the fishes collected within the Cangüiri Farm area presented high damage levels, showing more environment contamination when compared to the specimens collected in the Costa Ecologic Park, used as reference in the present report. The results indicate that the Cangüiri Farm, which is inside an environment protection area, created especially for the protection of the fountainhead for water supply, may be contaminated. These toxic residues, which were remarkably persistent in the environment, are possibly derived from agricultural activities in the wider area. Thus, we suggest the analysis of the area with other biomarkers and for a longer time period.

  20. Local work-function changes of Pt(111) studied by STM and IRAS: coadsorption of Cl - with H 3O +, NO, and CO molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takashi; Song, Moon-Bong; Ito, Masatoki

    2000-10-01

    The coadsorption of chloride anion (Cl -) with hydronium cation (H 3O +), nitrogen monoxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) on Pt(111) was studied in an ultra-high-vacuum system using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). HCl molecules adsorbed on Pt(111) at 100 K form a (3×3) structure ( θCl -=0.44). Water adsorption on the 3×3 structure produces c(4×2)-(Cl -+H 3O +) coadsorption structures. The hydronium cation adsorbs through oxygen lone pair, and hydrogen bonding (OH…Cl) extends on the surface with these structures. Stretching absorption bands of NO (or CO) adsorbed on the 3×3-Cl - and c(4×2)-(Cl -+H 3O +) adlayers on Pt(111) show remarkably higher and lower frequency shifts, respectively. The frequency shifts can be explained by the local charge density states of platinum atoms derived from electron withdrawal or supply from the coadsorbates (Cl - or H 3O +) to platinum atoms.

  1. A substellar-mass protostar and its outflow of IRAS 15398–3359 revealed by subarcsecond-resolution observations of H2CO and CCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-01-01

    Subarcsecond (0.''5) images of H 2 CO and CCH line emission have been obtained in the 0.8 mm band toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398–3359 in the Lupus 1 cloud as one of the Cycle 0 projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. We have detected a compact component concentrated in the vicinity of the protostar and a well-collimated outflow cavity extending along the northeast-southwest axis. The inclination angle of the outflow is found to be about 20°, or almost edge-on, based on the kinematic structure of the outflow cavity. This is in contrast to previous suggestions of a more pole-on geometry. The centrally concentrated component is interpreted by use of a model of the infalling rotating envelope with the estimated inclination angle and the mass of the protostar is estimated to be less than 0.09 M ☉ . Higher spatial resolution data are needed to infer the presence of a rotationally supported disk for this source, hinted at by a weak high-velocity H 2 CO emission associated with the protostar.

  2. GALACTIC-SCALE ABSORPTION OUTFLOW IN THE LOW-LUMINOSITY QUASAR IRAS F04250-5718: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, Doug; Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay P.; Penton, Steve; Kriss, Gerard A.; Korista, Kirk; Bautista, Manuel; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Steenbrugge, Katrien; Ignacio Gonzalez-Serrano, J.; Benn, Chris; Aoki, Kentaro; Behar, Ehud; Micheal Crenshaw, D.; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Moe, Maxwell; Scott, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present absorption line analysis of the outflow in the quasar IRAS F04250-5718. Far-ultraviolet data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal intrinsic narrow absorption lines from high ionization ions (e.g., C IV, N V, and O VI) as well as low ionization ions (e.g., C II and Si III). We identify three kinematic components with central velocities ranging from ∼-50 to ∼-230 km s -1 . Velocity-dependent, non-black saturation is evident from the line profiles of the high ionization ions. From the non-detection of absorption from a metastable level of C II, we are able to determine that the electron number density in the main component of the outflow is ∼ -3 . Photoionization analysis yields an ionization parameter log U H ∼ -1.6 ± 0.2, which accounts for changes in the metallicity of the outflow and the shape of the incident spectrum. We also consider solutions with two ionization parameters. If the ionization structure of the outflow is due to photoionization by the active galactic nucleus, we determine that the distance to this component from the central source is ∼>3 kpc. Due to the large distance determined for the main kinematic component, we discuss the possibility that this outflow is part of a galactic wind.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION 8 mm AND 1 cm POLARIZATION OF IRAS 4A FROM THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Erin G.; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Tobin, John [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2000-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Tychoniec, Łukasz [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Słoneczna 36, PL-60-268 Poznań (Poland); Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kratter, Kaitlin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Sadavoy, Sarah I., E-mail: egcox2@illinois.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fields can regulate disk formation, accretion, and jet launching. Until recently, it has been difficult to obtain high-resolution observations of the magnetic fields of the youngest protostars in the critical region near the protostar. The VANDAM survey is observing all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Here we present the polarization data of IRAS 4A. We find that with ∼0.″2 (50 AU) resolution at λ = 8.1 and 10.3 mm, the inferred magnetic field is consistent with a circular morphology, in marked contrast with the hourglass morphology seen on larger scales. This morphology is consistent with frozen-in field lines that were dragged in by rotating material entering the infall region. The field morphology is reminiscent of rotating circumstellar material near the protostar. This is the first polarization detection of a protostar at these wavelengths. We conclude from our observations that the dust emission is optically thin with β ∼ 1.3, suggesting that millimeter-/centimeter-sized grains have grown and survived in the short lifetime of the protostar.

  4. A STRING OF RADIO EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH IRAS 16562-3959: A COLLIMATED JET EMANATING FROM A LUMINOUS MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Andres E.; Garay, Guido; Brooks, Kate J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery, made using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, of a remarkable string of radio emission toward IRAS 16562-3959, a luminous infrared source with a bolometric luminosity of 7.0 x 10 4 L sun . The radio emission arises from a compact, bright central component, two inner lobes which are separated by about 7'' and symmetrically offset from the central source, and two outer lobes which are separated by about 45''. The emission from the central object has a spectral index between 1.4 and 8.6 GHz of 0.85 ± 0.15, consistent with free-free emission from a thermal jet. The radio emission from the lobes has spectral indices in the range characteristic of thermal emission. We suggest that the emission from the lobes arises in shocks resulting from the interaction of a collimated wind with the surrounding medium. The radio string is located within a massive dense molecular core, and is associated with extended green emission (Spitzer three-color), Herbig-Haro-type emission (2MASS K s band), and OH maser sites-all phenomena readily observed toward sites of massive star formation. We conclude that the massive core hosts a high-mass star in an early stage of evolution in which it is undergoing the ejection of a powerful collimated stellar wind, showing that jets found in the formation of low-mass stars are also produced in high-mass stars.

  5. INFALLING–ROTATING MOTION AND ASSOCIATED CHEMICAL CHANGE IN THE ENVELOPE OF IRAS 16293–2422 SOURCE A STUDIED WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Favre, Cécile, E-mail: oya@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-06-20

    We have analyzed rotational spectral line emission of OCS, CH{sub 3}OH, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}CS observed toward the low-mass Class 0 protostellar source IRAS 16293–2422 Source A at a sub-arcsecond resolution (∼0.″6 × 0.″5) with ALMA. Significant chemical differentiation is found on a scale of 50 au. The OCS line is found to trace well the infalling–rotating envelope in this source. On the other hand, the distributions of CH{sub 3}OH and HCOOCH{sub 3} are found to be concentrated around the inner part of the infalling–rotating envelope. With a simple ballistic model of the infalling–rotating envelope, the radius of the centrifugal barrier (a half of the centrifugal radius) and the protostellar mass are evaluated from the OCS data to be from 40 to 60 au and from 0.5 to 1.0 M {sub ⊙}, respectively, assuming the inclination angle of the envelope/disk structure to be 60° (90° for the edge-on configuration). Although the protostellar mass is correlated with the inclination angle, the radius of the centrifugal barrier is not. This is the first indication of the centrifugal barrier of the infalling–rotating envelope in a hot corino source. CH{sub 3}OH and HCOOCH{sub 3} may be liberated from ice mantles by weak accretion shocks around the centrifugal barrier and/or by protostellar heating. The H{sub 2}CS emission seems to come from the disk component inside the centrifugal barrier in addition to the envelope component. The centrifugal barrier plays a central role not only in the formation of a rotationally supported disk but also in the chemical evolution from the envelope to the protoplanetary disk.

  6. Shutting down or powering up a (U)LIRG? Merger components in distinctly different evolutionary states in IRAS 19115-2124 (the Bird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Cañizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2017-10-01

    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). The NIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.

  7. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.

  8. Diatomáceas perifíticas em um sistema eutrófico brasileiro (Reservatório do Iraí, estado do Paraná Periphytic diatoms in a Brazilian eutrophic system (Iraí reservoir, Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo sobre a diversidade das diatomáceas do reservatório do Iraí ampliou o conhecimento da flora diatomológica perifítica de ambientes eutróficos do estado do Paraná e contribuiu para subsidiar futuros trabalhos que utilizem diatomáceas como bioindicadoras das condições tróficas da água. Coletas trimestrais foram realizadas no reservatório durante um ano. As amostras perifíticas foram obtidas pela remoção do biofilme aderido a caules da macrófita Polygonum sp. e a lâminas de vidro. Estas foram colocadas em complexos de madeira e deixadas submersas durante 30 dias para colonização. O estudo taxonômico resultou na identificação de 11 citações pioneiras para o estado do Paraná entre as 96 espécies de diatomáceas determinadas. Maior diversidade de espécies foi registrada para o substrato macrófita. Achnanthidium minutissimum foi dominante na maior parte das amostras analisadas, sendo considerada tolerante às condições eutróficas do reservatório do Iraí. Fragilaria rumpens, Fragilaria vaucheriae var. capitellata e Gomphonema gracile foram abundantes. Informações ecológicas sobre as espécies foram obtidas em literatura, sendo 35% características de sistemas aquáticos em processo avançado de eutrofização, 18% de ambientes mesotróficos e 19% classificadas como tolerantes e indiferentes ao estado trófico dos ambientes.This floristic survey contributed to our knowledge of periphytic diatoms in a eutrophic reservoir in Paraná state, and provided a basis for future works using diatoms as bioindicators of trophic water conditions. Samples were collected quarterly, over a year, by removing the biofilm attached to Polygonum sp. stems and to glass slides. The slides were placed in wooden frames and remained submersed for 30 days to colonize. The taxonomic study resulted in 11 new taxonomic records for Paraná state among the 96 identified diatoms. The highest species diversity was found in the macrophyte

  9. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gao

    Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  10. STAR-FORMING ACTIVITY IN THE H ii REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE IRAS 17160–3707 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A. [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (Bombay) 400 005 (India)

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ⊙}. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M {sub ⊙} and luminosity: 9–317 × 10{sup 2} L {sub ⊙} using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μ m. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  11. A utilização da solução natural de eucalipto nas nebulizações, como auxiliar nos tratamentos das infecções respiratórias agudas: (IRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tania Lopes Sampaio Alves

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um total de 4.625 consultas médicas à criança menor de 5 anos, durante um período de 7 meses, foram diagnosticados 936 casos de infecções respiratórias agudas (20,2%. Estudou-se algumas características clínicas e fatores de risco mais comumente encontradas em cada tipo catalogado de IRA. O mais freqüente sintoma foi o desconforto respiratório moderado. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo relatar a experiência vivenciada em Macaíba/RN (F.SESP, relacionada à adaptação do uso da solução natural de eucalipto manipulada pela equipe de enfermagem em substituição às convenientemente utilizadas, ou seja, as soluções farmacológicas, em Inalações de crianças com IRA.

  12. El efecto del rumor en el cambio del voto: la ira, el miedo y la incertidumbre generados por el rumor en procesos electorales y sus contribuciones en las decisiones del votante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El rumor es un componente reiterado en las campañas electorales, sin embargo, poco se ha estudiado sobre los efectos directos en las emociones y cómo estas inciden en el votante. Esta investigación presenta, con datos empíricos, evidencias de los efectos reales del rumor en emociones, como la ira, el miedo y la incertidumbre, a través de un estudio de las elecciones intermedias en Ecuador de febrero de 2014. La metodología es de tipo cuantitativo a través de encuestas aplicadas a los hogares objeto de este estudio. Los resultados fueron sometidos a análisis estadísticos de correlación de rho de Spearman y regresión logística que permiten explicar el cambio en el voto de acuerdo con las variables que evalúan la incidencia del rumor en emociones negativas, como la ira, la incertidumbre y el miedo. A efectos de este estudio, fue analizado el caso Tranvía Cuatro Ríos en la ciudad de Cuenca (500 000 habitantes.

  13. Measurements of the millimeter-wave spectrum of interstellar dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Lange, A. E.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    We report measurements of the differential brightness of interstellar dust emission near the Galactic plane and at high Galactic latitudes. The data were obtained as part of a program to measure anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The measurements were made with a 0.5 deg beam size and a 1.3 deg sinusoidal chop, in broad bands (Delta nu/nu approximately 0.3) centered near frequencies of 6, 9, and 12 cm(exp -1). A measurement made toward the Galactic plane, at longitude 1 = 23.7 deg, is compared with the contrast observed in the 100 micrometers IRAS data. Assuming the dust emission has a brightness I(sub nu) proportional to nu(sup n)B(sub nu)(T(sub d)), where B(sub nu) is the Planck function, a best fit yields n = 1.6 +/- 0.4, T(sub d) = 24 +/- 5 K. In a region near the star mu Pegasi (mu PEG l = 91 deg, b = -31 deg), the comparison of our data with the 100 micrometers IRAS data yields n = 1.4 +/- 0.4, and T(sub d) = 18 +/- 3 K. In a second region near the star gamma Ursa Minoris (GUM l = 108 deg, b = 41 deg), an upper limit is placed on contrast in dust emission. This upper limit is consistent with spectrum measured at mu PEG and the IRAS 100 micrometer emission contrast at GUM, which is approximately 8 times lower than mu PEG.

  14. Interazioni Ira atmosfera ed idrosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CALOI

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Fra i legami clie vincolano i movimenti di parti dell'idrosfera
    (mari, laghi a quelli dell'atmosfera, si prendono in esame l'azione
    del vento e il transito di perturbazioni della pressione atmosferica, con particolare
    riguardo ai moti di masse liquide non stratificate (indefinite o limitate,
    considerando o trascurando l'effetto della viscosità e della rotazione della
    Terra.
    Viene sottolineata l'importanza che rivestono la velocità e il verso di
    propagazione dei disturbi microbarici, nel provocare ampii spostamenti dell'acqua
    ili mare aperto o alla base di baie, di golfi e di insenature in genere.
    Nel discutere il problema delle onde interne (in mare aperto o in bacini
    chiusi, si constata, fra l'altro, che le teorie finora sviluppate sono insufficienti
    a chiarire l'ampiezza e la persistenza di dette onde in casi particolari
    (lago di Garda, lago di Bracciano. . . , nei quali intervengono indubbi fenomeni
    di risonanza con perturbazioni coperiodali dell'atmosfera.
    Si delineano quindi le modalità di formazione della zona del salto termico
    nei laghi e nei mari, e si accenna infine all'arduo problema della previsione
    delle mareggiate (« Storni Surges », conseguenti a cospicue perturbazioni
    atmosferiche.

  15. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Fig. 27 which is more severe for faint asteroids. The influence of this aliasing propagates through IMPS processing into the final products. The...aliasing propagates through IMPS processing (e.g., into Fig. 32a). The distribution of input magnitudes peaks near H = 13 and the distribution of...1 ... 111..1 ..... 1........ 967 Helionape 12.10 0.1782 0.034 11.97 1.0 0.10 2 2 0.29 .11... 1 .. 1.1...1 ..... 1........ 968 Petunia 10.01 0.2242

  16. On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

  17. Evaluation of a program to prevent political violence in the Basque conflict: effects on the capacity of empathy, anger management and the definition of peace Evaluación de un programa para la prevención de la violencia política en el conflicto vasco: efectos en la capacidad de empatía, el control de la ira y la definición de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a program for the prevention of political violence on empathy, expression of feelings of anger, and the capacity to define peace-violence. Method: This study used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest repeated measures and a control group. The sample comprised 276 adolescents aged between 15 and 17 years (191 in the experimental group, 85 in the control group; 127 boys and 149 girls. A battery of three assessment instruments was administered before and after the intervention. The aim of the program was to increase sensitivity to the victims of political violence, promote respect for human rights, and prevent violence. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions over 3 months. Results: MANOVA analyses revealed that the program increased participants' capacity of empathy (perspective-taking, anger control in annoying situations, and capacity to define peace-violence. Conclusions: This study has practical educational implications and provides an intervention tool that enhances the development of personality during adolescence and may have a preventive effect on violent behavior.Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de un programa para prevenir la violencia política en la capacidad de empatía, la expresión de sentimientos de ira y la definición de paz-violencia. Método: El estudio utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental de medidas repetidas pretest-intervención-postest con grupo de control. La muestra está configurada con 276 adolescentes de 15 a 17 años de edad; de ellos, 191 son experimentales y 85 controles, 127 hombres y 149 mujeres. Se administró una batería de tres instrumentos de evaluación antes y después de aplicar el programa de intervención. El objetivo del programa fue incrementar la sensibilidad hacia las víctimas de la violencia política, promover el respeto por los derechos humanos y prevenir la violencia. La intervención consistió en 10 sesiones realizadas durante 3 meses

  18. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of this IM/IRA Plan contains OU 2 surface water, sediment, ground water and soil chemistry data, as well as the South Walnut Creek Basin Surface Water IM/IRA schedule and a tabulation of ARARs. (FL)

  19. El así, la ira y la indigencia: la recuperación filosófica del símbolo religioso en el pensamiento de Rodolfo Kusch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián J. Burgardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodolfo Kusch pertenece a esa generación de pensadores argentinos —y latinoamericanos— que se atrevió a abordar filosóficamente el problema de lo humano desde el pensamiento popular de nuestro subcontinente. Estas páginas proponen una breve presentación de su recuperación filosófica del saber contenido en los símbolos religiosos populares y del modo en que estos operan, centrándose en el análisis de dos obras tempranas: América profunda y El pensamiento indígena y popular en América . En estos escritos, Kusch elabora una primera aproximación al símbolo religioso popular como puesta en juego de una determinada configuración de la totalidad, es decir, de un horizonte de ultimidad en que se despliegan y reúnen las posibilidades de la existencia: el mundo, el dios y el hombre aparecen —en el mutuo darse de su “mero estar”— como el así , la ira y la indigencia.

  20. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  1. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  2. Antenna Characterization for the JOLT Impulsive Radiator via Low-Voltage Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, J. S.; Schoenberg, J. S. H.; Baum, C. E.; Prather, W. D.; Hackett, R.; Burger, J. W.; Farr, E. G.; Giri, D. V.; McLemore, D. P.

    The JOLT system is a highly directive, impulse-like radiator. The antenna for JOLT is a 10-ft-diameter half-impulse radiating antenna (HIRA). JOLT was one of the first impulse radiating systems to employ a half IRA. For that reason, extensive measurements were made with a prototype, scale model HIRA in order to understand the performance of this class of antenna. In addition, a series of low-voltage antenna subsystem tests were performed with the full JOLT antenna before it was couple to the pulsed power and run at high voltage. The low-voltage measurements proved to be quite valuable, as an important manufacturing defect—a failure to mount the dish perpendicular to the ground plane—was identified and mitigated.

  3. H I, CO, and Planck/IRAS dust properties in the high latitude cloud complex, MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35. Possible evidence for an optically thick H I envelope around the CO clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Okamoto, Ryuji; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Torii, Kazufumi; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Okuda, Takeshi; Ohama, Akio; Kuroda, Yutaka; Kuwahara, Toshihisa [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dickey, John M., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We present an analysis of the H I and CO gas in conjunction with the Planck/IRAS submillimeter/far-infrared dust properties toward the most outstanding high latitude clouds MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35 at b = –30° to – 45°. The CO emission, dust opacity at 353 GHz (τ{sub 353}), and dust temperature (T {sub d}) show generally good spatial correspondence. On the other hand, the correspondence between the H I emission and the dust properties is less clear than in CO. The integrated H I intensity W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show a large scatter with a correlation coefficient of ∼0.6 for a T {sub d} range from 16 K to 22 K. We find, however, that W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show better correlation for smaller ranges of T {sub d} every 0.5 K, generally with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.9. We set up a hypothesis that the H I gas associated with the highest T {sub d} ≥ 21.5 K is optically thin, whereas the H I emission is generally optically thick for T {sub d} lower than 21.5 K. We have determined a relationship for the optically thin H I gas between atomic hydrogen column density and τ{sub 353}, N{sub H} {sub I} (cm{sup −2})=(1.5×10{sup 26})⋅τ{sub 353}, under the assumption that the dust properties are uniform and we have applied this to estimate N{sub H} {sub I} from τ{sub 353} for the whole cloud. N{sub H} {sub I} was then used to solve for T {sub s} and τ{sub H} {sub I} over the region. The result shows that the H I is dominated by optically thick gas having a low spin temperature of 20-40 K and a density of 40-160 cm{sup –3}. The H I envelope has a total mass of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, an order of magnitude larger than that of the CO clouds. The H I envelope properties derived by this method do not rule out a mixture of H I and H{sub 2} in the dark gas, but we present indirect evidence that most of the gas mass is in the atomic state.

  4. Laços entre animais e humanos em As Vinhas da Ira de John E. Steinbeck, Vidas secas de Graciliano Ramos e Porteira Fechada de Cyro Martins = Bounds between animals and humans in The Grapes of Wrath by John E. Steinbeck, Vidas Secas by Graciliano Ramos and Porteira Fechada by Cyro Martins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devincenzi, Isabel Speggiorin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre animais e seres humanos foi analisada em três romances – Vidas Secas (1938 de Graciliano Ramos, As Vinhas da Ira (1939 de John E. Steinbeck e Porteira Fechada (1944 de Cyro Martins – como possíveis reflexos de transformações sociais e econômicas no meio rural durante as décadas de 30 e 40. As Vinhas da Ira retrata o período da Grande Depressão nos Estados Unidos, e Vidas Secas e Porteira Fechada, o período do Estado Novo (1937-1945 no Brasil. Primeiramente, foi analisada a caracterização animal dos personagens dos romances; segundamente, como os animais estão presentes na ordem de trabalho no campo; terceiramente, a relação entre os personagens e os animais nos romances. Este estudo pode indicar que a relação entre os personagens e os animais nos romances analisados é marcada pela ruptura, assim como determinados grupos da sociedade brasileira e americana experimentavam uma ruptura de valores naquele período

  5. IRAS observations of chromospherically active dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikoudi, Vassiliki

    1989-01-01

    Far-infrared observations of chromospherically active, spotted, and plage stars in the dF7-dk7 spectral range are examined. Most (75 percent) of the stars have detectable 12-micron fluxes, and 50 percent of them have 25-micron emission. The 12-micron luminosity, L(12), is found to be in the range of 1.5-13 x 10 to the 30th ergs/s and to comprise only 0.2-0.5 percent of the star's total luminosity, L(bol). The present work extends to earlier spectral types and higher stellar luminosities the L(12) vs L(bol) relationship noted previously for late-type active dwarfs (K5-M5).

  6. IRAS observations of chromospherically active dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsikoudi, V. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece))

    1989-07-01

    Far-infrared observations of chromospherically active, spotted, and plage stars in the dF7-dk7 spectral range are examined. Most (75 percent) of the stars have detectable 12-micron fluxes, and 50 percent of them have 25-micron emission. The 12-micron luminosity, L(12), is found to be in the range of 1.5-13 x 10 to the 30th ergs/s and to comprise only 0.2-0.5 percent of the star's total luminosity, L(bol). The present work extends to earlier spectral types and higher stellar luminosities the L(12) vs L(bol) relationship noted previously for late-type active dwarfs (K5-M5). 17 refs.

  7. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  8. Recherche jusqu'ou ira le

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacob, F R

    2003-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, la puissance d'une nation s'evalue a son potentiel scientifique. C'est leur predominance en sciences qui a donne aux Etats-Unis leur superiorite dans de nombreux domaines: industriel, agricole, militaire, etc. Cette superiorite a debute a la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale" (2 pages).

  9. Sydney ja selle maaliline naabrus / Anneli Ira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ira, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Sydney ümbrusesse jäävatest looduslikest vaatamisväärsustest: Royal National Park, Grand Pacific Drive, Sinimäed, Jenola koopad; austraalia köögist, majutuse ning transpordi alaseid nõuandeid jne

  10. Quaternary Ammonium Polyethyleneimine: Antibacterial Activity Ira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Y.; Domb, A.G.; Golenser, J.; Beyth, N.; Weiss, E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine- (QA-PEI-) based nanoparticles were synthesized using two synthetic methods, reductive amination and N-alkylation. According to the first method, QA-PEI nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by reductive amination with octanal and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. The second method is based on crosslinking with dialkyl halide followed by N-alkylation with octyl halide and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. QA-PEI nanoparticles completely inhibited bacterial growth (>106 bacteria), including both Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus at 80 μ/mL, and Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli at 320 μ/mL. Activity analysis revealed that the degree of alkylation and N-methylation of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl alkylated QA-PEI alkylated at 1 : 1 mole ratio (primary amine of PEI monomer units/alkylating agent). Also, cytotoxicity studies on MAT-LyLu and MBT cell lines were performed with QA-PEI nanoparticles. These findings confirm previous reports that poly cations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and have a potential use as additives in medical devices which need antibacterial properties.

  11. Modelling the IRAS colors of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, G.

    1987-01-01

    A physical interpretation is proposed for the color-color diagram of galaxies which are powered only by star formation. The colors of each galaxy result from the combination of two components: cirrus-like emission from the neutral disk, and warmer emission from regions directly involved in on-going star formation. This approach to modelling the emission is based on dust properties, but independent evidence for it is found in the relation between the color sequence and the luminosity sequence. Implications of data and interpretations are discussed and possible tests mentioned for the model

  12. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  13. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H2 EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 μm PAH ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ∼1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H 2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 μm PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 μm imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ∼1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H 2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 x 10 -5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 x 10 -5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ∼ 1000 K) H 2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 x 10 -7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 x 10 -7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10 -3 , of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H 2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H 2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10 4 cm -3 ≤ n H ≤ 10 5 cm -3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H ≤ 10 3 cm -3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s -1 ≤ v s ≤ 10 km s -1 for the redshifted gas and v s = 10 km s -1 for the blueshifted gas

  14. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THREE METHODS FOR MEASURING PEPSIN ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, Merle K.; Terrill, Kathleen D.; Marvin, James F.; Mosser, Donn G.

    1958-01-01

    Comparison has been made of a simple method originated by Absolon and modified in our laboratories for assay of proteolytic activity using RISA (radioactive iodinated serum albumin—Abbott Laboratories), with the commonly used photometric methods of Anson and Kunitz. In this method, pepsin was incubated with an albumin substrate containing RISA, followed by precipitation of the undigested substrate with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of radioactive digestion products in the supernatant fluid. The I131—albumin bond was shown in the present studies to be altered only by the proteolytic activity, and not by the incubation procedures at various values of pH. Any free iodine present originally in the RISA was removed by a single passage through a resin column (amberlite IRA-400-C1). Pepsin was shown to be most stable in solution at a pH of 5.5. Activity of pepsin was shown to be maximal when it was incubated with albumin at a pH of 2.5. Pepsin activity was shown to be altered in the presence of various electrolytes. Pepsin activity measured by the RISA and Anson methods as a function of concentration or of time of incubation indicated that these two methods are in good agreement and are equally sensitive. Consistently smaller standard errors were obtained by the RISA method of pepsin assay than were obtained with either of the other methods. PMID:13587910

  16. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bethermin, M; Bielewicz, P; Blagrave, K; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kalberla, P; Keihänen, E; Kerp, J; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lacasa, F; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Serra, P; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Welikala, N; White, M; White, S D M; Winkel, B; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present new measurements of CIB anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg^2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants, and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ell~150 to 2500, and ell~130 to 1100, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter halos hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxie...

  17. Developing an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Alcázar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un inventario válido y confiable para medir la ira en niños mexicanos, basado en el modelo estadorasgo (Spielberger, 1988, 1999. Los resultados de análisis factoriales exploratorios de las respuestas de 592 niños, 302 niños y 290 niñas, (M = 10.35 años y DE = 1.14, revelaron cuatro factores que sugieren validez de constructo: 6 reactivos de ira estado (e. g. "Estoy molesto", 5 reactivos de temperamento-rasgo (e. g. "Me enojo fácilmente", 7 reactivos de ira-externa (e. g. "Me peleo con quien me hizo enojar" y 12 reactivos de control de la ira (e. g. "Intento relajarme". Las confiabilidades alfa fueron .76, .76, .73 y .88, respectivamente. El inventario tuvo validez concurrente con un instrumento que midió agresión física.

  18. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  19. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  20. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  1. A measurement of the medium-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Inman, C. A.; Kowitt, M. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations from the first flight of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM) are analyzed to place limits on Gaussian fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This instrument chops a 30 min beam in a three-position pattern with a throw of +/- 40 min; the resulting data is analyzed in statistically independent single- and double-difference sets. We observe in four spectral channels at 5.6, 9.0, 16.5, and 22.5/cm, allowing the separation of interstellar dust emission from CMBR fluctuations. The dust component is correlated with the IRAS 100 micron map. The CMBR component has two regions where the signature of an unresolved source is seen. Rejecting these two source regions, we obtain a detection of fluctuations which match CMBR in our spectral bands of 0.6 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta (T)/T is less than 2.2 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) for total rms Gaussian fluctuations with correlation angle 0.5 deg, using the single-difference demodulation. Fore the double difference demodulation, the result is 1.1 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta(T)/T is less than 3.1 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) at a correlation angle of 0.3 deg.

  2. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  3. Te Ira Tangata: A Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in Maori who present to hospital after self harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikiriwhi Karen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial

  4. Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  5. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  6. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  7. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  8. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  9. MEASURING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J.R.

    1963-01-29

    A measuring and balancing arrangement for mass spectrometers permits the ready determination of isotopic ratios and mole and weight percentages by employing a selection of amplifier input resistors to vary sensitivity in a bridge arrangement. (AEC)

  10. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  11. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  12. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  13. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  14. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  15. Measurements of

    CERN Document Server

    Angerami, Aaron; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement is presented of $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ in Pb+Pb collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$. The angular and transverse momentum correlations between the muons are measured as a function of collision centrality. The lepton pairs are produced from $\\gamma \\gamma$ through the interaction of the large electromagnetic fields of the nuclei. The contribution from background sources of muon pairs is removed using a template fit method. In peripheral collisions, the muons exhibit a strong back-to-back correlation consistent with previous measurements of muon pair production in ultra-peripheral collisions. The angular correlations are observed to broaden significantly in central collisions. The modifications are qualitatively consistent with rescattering of the muons while passing through the hot matter produced in the collision.

  16. SOLAR SYSTEM ANALOGS AROUND IRAS-DISCOVERED DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Christine H.; Sheehan, Patrick; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Najita, Joan R.

    2009-01-01

    We have rereduced Spitzer IRS spectra and reanalyzed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby debris disks: λ Boo, HD 139664, and HR 8799. We find that the thermal emission from these objects is well modeled using two single temperature black body components. For HR 8799 - with no silicate emission features despite a relatively hot inner dust component (T gr = 150 K) - we infer the presence of an asteroid belt interior to and a Kuiper Belt exterior to the recently discovered orbiting planets. For HD 139664, which has been imaged in scattered light, we infer the presence of strongly forward scattering grains, consistent with porous grains, if the cold, outer disk component generates both the observed scattered light and thermal emission. Finally, careful analysis of the λ Boo SED suggests that this system possesses a central clearing, indicating that selective accretion of solids onto the central star does not occur from a dusty disk.

  17. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  18. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  19. Measuring anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self......-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders...

  20. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  1. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  2. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  3. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  4. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  5. Exposure to iodine 131 during the supply of capsules used for ira-therapy: comparative study of three measurement systems; Exposition a l'iode 131 lors de la dispensation des gelules utilisees pour l'iratherapie: etude comparative de trois systemes de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moubarik, C.; Giraud, F.; Bourrelly, M.; Guillet, B.; Pisano, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, Marseille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective was to study the efficiency in the field of radiation protection of the new handle elaborated by the Covidien laboratories. In conclusions, this new handle seems to be the most efficient system in term of radiation protection of hands extremities. Indeed, it allows to reduce of 70% the exposure to extremities during the distribution of iodine 131 capsules. This supplementary protection comes from a better ergonomics and from the presence of a lead shield on the new prehension handle of Covidien laboratories. (N.C.)

  6. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New...

  7. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  8. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  9. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  10. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions

  11. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  12. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ℓ ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ℓ ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M⊙) = 12

  13. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  14. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  15. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  16. An Overview of Interrater Agreement on Likert Scales for Researchers and Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. O'Neill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Applications of interrater agreement (IRA statistics for Likert scales are plentiful in research and practice. IRA may be implicated in job analysis, performance appraisal, panel interviews, and any other approach to gathering systematic observations. Any rating system involving subject-matter experts can also benefit from IRA as a measure of consensus. Further, IRA is fundamental to aggregation in multilevel research, which is becoming increasingly common in order to address nesting. Although, several technical descriptions of a few specific IRA statistics exist, this paper aims to provide a tractable orientation to common IRA indices to support application. The introductory overview is written with the intent of facilitating contrasts among IRA statistics by critically reviewing equations, interpretations, strengths, and weaknesses. Statistics considered include rwg, rwg*, r′wg, rwg(p, average deviation (AD, awg, standard deviation (Swg, and the coefficient of variation (CVwg. Equations support quick calculation and contrasting of different agreement indices. The article also includes a “quick reference” table and three figures in order to help readers identify how IRA statistics differ and how interpretations of IRA will depend strongly on the statistic employed. A brief consideration of recommended practices involving statistical and practical cutoff standards is presented, and conclusions are offered in light of the current literature.

  17. CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-01-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset. PMID:24708417

  18. CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-03-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Measure and dimension functions: measurability and densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pertti; Mauldin, R. Daniel

    1997-01-01

    During the past several years, new types of geometric measure and dimension have been introduced; the packing measure and dimension, see [Su], [Tr] and [TT1]. These notions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in various aspects of dynamics and measure theory. Packing measure is a sort of dual of Hausdorff measure in that it is defined in terms of packings rather than coverings. However, in contrast to Hausdorff measure, the usual definition of packing measure requires two limiting procedures, first the construction of a premeasure and then a second standard limiting process to obtain the measure. This makes packing measure somewhat delicate to deal with. The question arises as to whether there is some simpler method for defining packing measure and dimension. In this paper, we find a basic limitation on this possibility. We do this by determining the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the packing functions. Whereas the Hausdorff dimension function on the space of compact sets is Borel measurable, the packing dimension function is not. On the other hand, we show that the packing dimension functions are measurable with respect to the [sigma]-algebra generated by the analytic sets. Thus, the usual sorts of measurability properties used in connection with Hausdorff measure, for example measures of sections and projections, remain true for packing measure.

  20. Measuring probe for measurement of local velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Arnold, G.; Kirchner, R.; Kussmaul, H.; Miller, H.

    1988-03-01

    The report describes a method for measurement of local velocities. It bases on the detection of the propagation of a temperature pulse induced into the fluid. The method can also be applied in flowing liquid metals with superimposed magnetic field; in this case common measuring principles fail application. The measuring system discussed consists of, a measuring head, a heating system, amplifiers and a PC. The latter performs process operation, data sampling, and evaluation of velocity. The measuring head itself includes a miniaturized heater (as a pulse marker) heated by the heating system in a short pulse, and a number of thermocouples (sensors) for detection of signals. The design, construction, and examination of a developed measuring device is described. (orig.) [de

  1. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  2. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  3. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  4. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  5. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  6. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  7. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives on Measurement Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airasian, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify ways of making measurement more relevant to classroom teachers, and making classroom realities more apparent to measurement specialists. Measurement elements of teacher education textbooks and courses, nontraditional assessment topics, informal classroom measurement techniques, terminological issues, and three types of…

  9. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  10. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  11. Measuring thermal neutron characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for providing a background-compensated measurement of the level of inducted radiation within an earth formation is claimed. The formation is irradiated with a discrete burst of neutrons and the level of radiation in the formation measured. The level of background radiation is then measured. An average level of both measurements is obtained

  12. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  13. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  14. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  15. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  16. A novel NMR-based assay to measure circulating concentrations of branched-chain amino acids: Elevation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and association with carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Gruppen, Eke G; Shalaurova, Irina; Matyus, Steven P; Grant, Russell P; Gegen, Ray; Bakker, Stephan J L; Otvos, James D; Connelly, Margery A; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2018-04-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, measured on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics research platforms or by mass spectrometry, have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a new test for quantification of BCAA on a clinical NMR analyzer and used this test to determine the clinical correlates of BCAA in 2 independent cohorts. The performance of the NMR-based BCAA assay was evaluated. A method comparison study was performed with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma BCAA were measured in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, n = 1209; 376 T2DM subjects) and in a Groningen cohort (n = 123; 67 T2DM subjects). In addition, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured successfully in 119 subjects from the Groningen cohort. NMR-based BCAA assay results were linear over a range of concentrations. Coefficients of variation for inter- and intra-assay precision ranged from 1.8-6.0, 1.7-5.4, 4.4-9.1, and 8.8-21.3%, for total BCAA, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively. BCAA quantified from the same samples using NMR and LC-MS/MS were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for valine, leucine and isoleucine). In both cohorts total and individual BCAA were elevated in T2DM (P = 0.01 to ≤0.001). Moreover, cIMT was associated with BCAA independent of age, sex, T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS) categorization or alternatively of individual MetS components. BCAA levels, measured by NMR in the clinical laboratory, are elevated in T2DM and may be associated with cIMT, a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  18. First-Light Galaxies or Intrahalo Stars: Multi-Wavelength Measurements of the Infrared Background Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    The research program described in this proposal can be broadly described as data analysis, measurement, and interpretation of the spatial fluctuations of the unresolved cosmic IR background. We will focus primarily on the background at optical and near-IR wavelengths as probed by Hubble and Spitzer. As absolute background intensity measurements are challenging, the focus is on the spatial fluctuations similar to the anisotropiesof the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Measurements of the unresolved Spitzer fluctuations by two independent teams on multiple fields agree within the measurement errors. However, there are now two interpretations on the origin of the unresolved IRAC fluctuations. One involves a population of faint sources at very high redshifts (z > 6) during the epoch of reionization. The second interpretation involves the integrated emission from intrahalo light associated with diffuse stars in the outskirts of z of 1 to 3 dark matter halos of galaxies. We now propose to further test these two interpretations with a new set of measurements at shorter IR and optical wavelengths with HST/ACS and WFC3 overlapping with deep IRAC surveys. A multi-wavelength study from 0.5 to 4.5 micron will allow us to independently determine the relative contribution of intrahalo light and z > 8 faint galaxies to the unresolved IR fluctuations. We will also place strong limits on the surface density of faint sources at z > 8. Such a limit will be useful for planning deep surveys with JWST. Moving to the recent wide IRAC fields with the warm mission, we propose to study fluctuations at tens of degree angular scales. At such large angular scales IRAC fluctuations should trace diffuse Galactic light (DGL), ISM dust-scattered starlight in our Galaxy. We will measure the amplitude and slope of the DGL power spectrum and compare them to measurements of the Galactic dust power spectrum from IRAS and Planck and study if the large degree-scale fluctuations seen in CIBER can be

  19. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  20. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  1. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  2. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  3. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  5. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  6. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  7. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Is it PTSD? » How is PTSD Measured? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here How is PTSD Measured? Public This section is for Veterans, General ...

  8. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  9. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the structural measures they report. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients, for example, whether...

  10. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  11. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  12. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  13. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  14. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  15. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  16. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  17. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  18. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  19. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  20. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  2. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  3. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  4. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  5. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  6. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the previous two sessions, it was assumed that the measurement error variances were known quantities when the variances of the safeguards indices were calculated. These known quantities are actually estimates based on historical data and on data generated by the measurement program. Session 34 discusses how measurement error parameters are estimated for different situations. The various error types are considered. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) estimate systematic error variances from standard data; (2) estimate random error variances from data as replicate measurement data; (3) perform a simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure when biases vary over time

  7. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  8. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  9. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  10. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  11. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  12. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  13. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  14. An approach to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to measurement theory is presented. The definition of measurement is motivated by direct laboratory procedures as they are carried out in practice. The theory is developed within the quantum logic framework. The work clarifies an important problem in the quantum logic approach; namely, where the Hilbert space comes from. The relationship between measurements and observables is considered, and a Hilbert space embedding theorem is presented. Charge systems are also discussed. (author)

  15. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  16. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  17. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  18. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  19. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  1. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  2. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  3. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  4. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  5. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  6. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  7. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  8. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  9. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  10. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  11. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  12. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  13. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  14. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  15. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  16. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  17. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  18. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  19. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  20. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  1. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  2. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  3. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  4. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  5. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  6. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  7. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  8. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  9. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  10. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  11. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  12. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  13. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  14. Measurement environments and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, A. C.

    1991-06-01

    The various methods used to assess both the emission (interference generation) performance of electronic equipment and the immunity of electronic equipment to external electromagnetic interference are described. The measurement methods attempt to simulate realistic operating conditions for the equipment being tested, yet at the same time they must be repeatable and practical to operate. This has led to the development of a variety of test methods, each of which has its limitations. Concentration is on the most common measurement methods such as open-field test sites, screened enclosures and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells. The physical justification for the methods, their limitations, and measurement precision are described. Ways of relating similar measurements made by different methods are discussed, and some thoughts on future measurement improvements are presented.

  15. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  17. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  18. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  19. DOAS urban pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Vossler, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc., was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 and path 2, ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (HNO 2 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRM) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for O 3 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRM's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o-xylene

  20. Mathematics and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, R F; Donahue, M J; Lozier, D W; McMichael, R; Rust, B W

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST's current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years.

  1. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  2. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  3. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  4. Measurement of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  5. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  6. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  7. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  8. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  9. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs......) of these objects from 60 to 850μm. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs...

  10. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  11. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  13. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  14. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  15. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  16. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  17. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  18. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  19. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  20. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  1. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  2. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  3. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  4. Acceleration measurements in JEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshitami; Murakami, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Since summer in 1996, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has continued a concept study for a microgravity measurement apparatus (MMA) to be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The concept study was finished in 1998, and then we have been proceeding for a basic design. For experiments conducted with some of NASDA payloads in JEM-PM (Pressurized Module), measuring detailed microgravity environment was required. In addition, experiments to be performed with payload equipment attached on the JEM-EF (Exposed Facility) are requiring for obtaining the microgravity measurement data. Thus, we are adding some modification to the concept design of MMA in order to make the common hardware available for measurement of both environment in the JEM-PM and that of the JEM-EF. In this paper, the current development status of Japanese payloads and the modified concept of the MMA are introduced

  5. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  6. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  8. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  10. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  12. Measuring what's missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2016-01-01

    mass. Using the UNDP's Human Development Index, the empirical performance of such coverage metrics are compared to alternative measures of convergence. The former are advantageous -- they provide probabilistic estimates of simulation coverage and permit calculation of strict bounds on estimates...

  13. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  15. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  17. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  18. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  19. Improvement by GQM measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Trienekens, J.; Veenendaal, van E.

    1997-01-01

    Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collectionfor software development is termed ‘Software Measurement’. Software measurement is a poweiful aid to quality

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  3. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  5. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  6. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  7. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  8. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  9. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  10. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  11. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  12. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  13. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  14. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  15. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  16. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  17. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  18. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  19. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  20. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  1. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  2. 4. Measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is noted that in nuclear medicine a most widely the scintillation detectors are applying. Action of these detectors is based on registration of light flares in visible and ultraviolet field arising in scintillator under ionizing radiation action. In the chapter following subchapters are included: gamma-spectrometer and gamma radiation detectors; counter of whole body; measuring of accumulated activity (uptake measurements); scanner; scintillation chamber; single-photon emission computed tomography; positron emission computed tomography; magnet resonance tomography; computer technique, images making

  3. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  4. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  5. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  6. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  7. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  8. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Measure problem in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Turok, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of general relativity provides a natural canonical measure on the space of all classical universes, i.e., the multiverse. We review this construction and show how one can visualize the measure in terms of a 'magnetic flux' of solutions through phase space. Previous studies identified a divergence in the measure, which we observe to be due to the dilatation invariance of flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes. We show that the divergence is removed if we identify universes which are so flat they cannot be observationally distinguished. The resulting measure is independent of time and of the choice of coordinates on the space of fields. We further show that, for some quantities of interest, the measure is very insensitive to the details of how the identification is made. One such quantity is the probability of inflation in simple scalar field models. We find that, according to our implementation of the canonical measure, the probability for N e-folds of inflation in single-field, slow-roll models is suppressed by of order exp(-3N) and we discuss the implications of this result.

  10. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  11. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  12. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  13. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  14. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  15. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  16. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  17. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  18. Neutron fluence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    For research reactor work dealing with such subjects as radiation effects on solids and such disciplines as radiochemistry and radiobiology, the radiation dose or neutron fluence is an essential parameter in evaluating results. Unfortunately it is very difficult to determine. Even when the measurements have been accurate, it is difficult to compare results obtained in different experiments because present methods do not always reflect the dependence of spectra or of different types of radiation on the induced processes. After considering the recommendations of three IAEA Panels, on 'In-pile dosimetry' held in July 1964, on 'Neutron fluence measurements' in October 1965, and on 'In-pile dosimetry' in November 1966, the Agency established a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements. This group consisted of eleven experts from ten different Member States and two staff members of the Agency. In the measurement of energy absorbed by materials from neutrons and gamma rays, there are various reports and reviews scattered throughout the literature. The group, however, considered that the time was ripe for all relevant information to be evaluated and gathered together in the form of a practical guide, with the aim of promoting consistency in the measurement and reporting of reactor radiation. The group arranged for the material to be divided into two manuals, which are expected to be useful both for experienced workers and for beginners

  19. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  20. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...